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Hazrat Abu Bakr First Khalifah Of Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi Wa Aalihi Was'sallam).


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#1 MuhammedAli

MuhammedAli

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Posted 12 March 2015 - 07:32 PM

Intorduction:

The Aqeedah of Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jammah is that Hazrat Abu Bakr As Sadeeq {radiallah tallah anh} was apointed 1st Khalifah by the will of Allah {subhana wa tallah}, and Allah {subhana wa tallah} willed the circumstances to be as such which lead to Abu Bakr Sadeeq being nominated the 1st Khalifah. And Messenger of Allah {sallalahu alayhi was'salam} had desired that Hazrat Abu Bakr Sadeeq {radiallah tallah anh} be his successor.

Allah Appoints Khulafah & Promise To Nominate Khalifah From Sahabah:

Allah {subhana wa tallah} apointed the first Khalifah Adam alayhis salam:

* Surah Al Baqarah {2} Verse 30: “Behold, thy Lord said to the angels: "I will create a Khalifah on earth." They said: "Wilt Thou place therein one who will make mischief therein and shed blood?- whilst we do celebrate Thy praises and glorify Thy holy (name)?" He said: "I know what ye know not."

The Dawood {alayhis salam} was apointed Khalifah by Allah {subhana wa tallah}, succeding Sulayman {alayhis salam}:

* Surah Saad {38} Verse 26: O David! We did indeed make thee a Khalifah on earth: so judge thou between men in truth (and justice): Nor follow thou the desires (of thy heart), for they will mislead thee from the Path of Allah. Without doubt those who wander astray from the Path of Allah, for them a Penalty Grievous, for that they forget the Day of Account.”

From this we gather that Allah {subhana wa tallah} apointed the Khalifah's in previous Ummats of Prophets, and indeed Allah {subhana wa tallah} does promise to the Ummah of RasoolAllah {sallalahu alayhi was'salam}:

* Surah Noor {24} Verse 55: Allah has promised to those among you who believe and work righteous deeds, that He will, of a surety, grant them in the land, inheritance (of power), as He granted it to those before them; that He will establish in authority their religion - the one which He has chosen for them; and that He will change (their state), after the fear in which they (lived), to one of security and peace: 'They will worship Me (alone) and not associate aught with Me. 'If any do reject Faith after this, they are rebellious and wicked.”

Allah {subhana wa tallah} states: “... He will, of a surety, grant them in the land, inheritance (of power), as He granted it to those before them; ...”. We have many examples in Quran where Allah {subhana wa tallah} replaced the rebellious nations with nations which were obedeint, god fearing and Allah {subhana wa tallah} apointed leaders from among the beleiving nations i.e. Sulayman, Dawood {peace be on them} to ruler over them. In the same way Allah {subhana wa tallah} had promised the Muslims, that Allah {subhana wa tallah} will replace the Mushrikeen with Muslims, as the new master's of lands of Arabian Peninsula, and Allah {subhana wa tallah} will appoint from those who believe and act righeously Khalifahs as He apointed Khalifah's in the previous Ummah's, and both interpretations are confirmed by Tafsir Ibn Abbas radiallah tallah anh:

* Tafsir Ibn Abbas: “(Allah hath promised such of you) O Companions of Muhammad (pbuh) (as believe and do good works) between themselves and their Lord (that He will surely make them to succeed [the present rulers] in the earth [to succeed others]) some of them in succession to others (even as He caused those who were before them) among the Children of Israel: Joshua ben Nun, Caleb ben Jephunneh; it is also said that this means: We shall make them dwell in the land of Mecca as We made those before them, among the Children of Israel, dwell in their land after the destruction of their enemy; (and that He will surely establish for them) He will make triumph (their religion which He hath approved for them) and has chosen for them, (and will give them in exchange) of Mecca (safety) following the destruction of their enemy (after their fear) of the enemy. (They serve Me) in order that they worship Me in Mecca. (They ascribe no thing)
no idol (as partner unto Me. Those who disbelieve henceforth) after victory and change of fortune, (they are the miscreants) the disobedient.”

Allah {subhana wa tallah} states in Quran Al Kareem; Allah {subhana wa tallah} promised to the Momineen, that He will grant them authority over the land like he did before, and He will establish Islam on earth firmly. And Allah {subhana wa tallah} changed the situation of fear in which the Sahabah {Allah be pleased with them all} lived, sleeping with their weapons, into peace and security, Islam dominated the Mushrikeen {polytheists} and Ahle Kitab {people of book}, Sahabah {Allah be pleased with them} practiced their religion in peace and comfort having no fear of persecution, and period of peace lasted from Prophet {sallalahu alayhi was'salam} till the Khawarij revolt against Usman {radiallah tallah anh} resulting his matyrdom at their hands.

Conclusion:

Allah {subhana wa tallah} did apoint Khalifah's in the past, and Allah {subhana wa tallah} promised to the Muslims that Allah {subhana wa tallah} will grant the Muslims Victory over the Kuffar, and give the Muslims as whole control over the land of of Arabian Peninsula as well as appoint the righteous beleivers as the Khalifa of Muslims.

 

 

Prophet Muhammed Did Not Apoint A Khalif

Commonly amongst the Sunnis it is believed that Prophet of Allah appointed Abu Bakr Sadeeq radiallah tallah anh as his 1st Khalifah. And Shia Rawafiz are of beleife that Ali radiallah tallah anh was apointed as the 1st Khaleef, but the evidence points contrary to both believes.

Narrated by Al Aswad, who stated that Um Ul Momineen Aysha Sadeeqah radiallah tallah anha, had negated Ali radiallah tallah anh being apointed as the 1st Khalifah of RasoolAllah:

* Sahih Bukhari, Book 59, Number 736: “Narrated Al-Aswad: It was mentioned in the presence of 'Aisha that the Prophet had appointed 'Ali as successor by will. Thereupon she said, "Who said so? I saw the Prophet, while I was supporting him against my chest. He asked for a tray, and then fell on one side and expired, and I did not feel it. So how (do the people say) he appointed 'Ali as his successor?"

* Sahih Bukhari, Book 51, Number 4: “Narrated Al-Aswad: In the presence of 'Aisha some people mentioned that the Prophet had appointed 'Ali by will as his successor. 'Aisha said, "When did he appoint him by will? Verily when he died he was resting against my chest (or said: in my lap) and he asked for a wash-basin and then collapsed while in that state, and I could not even perceive that he had died, so when did he appoint him by will?"

* Sahih Muslim, Book 13, Hadith 4013: “Aswad b. Yazid reported: It was mentioned before A'isha that will had been made (by the Holy Prophet) in favour of 'Ali (as the Prophet's first caliph), whereupon she said: When did he make will in his favour? I had been providing support to him (to the Holy Prophet) with my chest (or with my lap). He asked for a tray, when he fell in my lap (relaxing his body), and I did not realise that he had breathed his last. When did he make any will in his ('Ali's) favour?”

This also indicates that if Ali radiallah tallah anh was apointed as the1st Khalifah on any another ocasion then she would have known it, and the Sahabah as whole would have known this.

Infact Prophet of Allah did not make a will in which he nominated a Khalifah or a will in which he passed mentioned distribution of inheritance:

* Sahih Bukhari, Book 61, Number 540: “Narrated Talha: I asked 'Abdullah bin Abi 'Aufa, "Did the Prophet make a will (to appoint his successor or bequeath wealth)?" He replied, "No." I said, "How is it prescribed then for the people to make wills, and they are ordered to do so while the Prophet did not make any will?" He said, "He made a will wherein he recommended Allah's Book."

Umar radiallah tallah was stabbed, on his death bed, he was asked whom he would apoint his Khalifah; he stated that he has two precedents to fallow, Prophet Muhammed's {sallalahu alayhi was'salam} and Abu Bakr Sadeeq's {radiallah tallah anh}, and he states that Messenger of Allah did not appoint a Khalifah:

* Sahih Muslim, Book 020, Number 4486: “It has been reported on the authority of Ibn 'Umar who said: I entered the apartment of (my sister) Hafsa. She said: Do yoa know that your father is not going to nominate his successor? I said: He won't do that (i. e. he would nominate). She said: He is going to do that. The narrator said: I took an oath that I will talk to him about the matter. I kept quiet until the next morning, still I did not talk to him, and I felt as if I were carrying, a mountain on my right hand. At last I came to him and entered his apartment. He began to ask me about the condition of the people, and I informed him. Then I said to him: I heard something from the people and took an oath that I will communicate it to you. They presume that you are not going to nominate a successor. If a grazer of camels and sheep that you had appointed comes back to you leaving the cattle, you will (certainly) think that the cattle are lost. To look after the people is more serious and grave. (The dying Caliph) was moved at my words. He bent his head in a thoughtful mood for some time and raised it to me and said: God will doubtlessly protect His religion. If I do not nominate a successor; for the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) did not nominate his successor. And if I nominate one, for Abu Bakr did nominate. The narrator (Ibn Umar) said: By God. when he mentioned the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) and Abu Bakr, I (at once) understood that he would not place anyone at a par with the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) and would not nominate anyone.”

* Sahih Bukhari, Book 89, Number 325: “Narrated 'Abdullah bin 'Umar: It was said to 'Umar, "Will you appoint your successor?" Umar said, "If I appoint a Caliph (as my successor) it is true that somebody who was better than I (i.e., Abu Bakr) did so, and if I leave the matter undecided, it is true that somebody who was better than I (i.e., Allah's Apostle) did so." On this, the people praised him. 'Umar said, "People are of two kinds: Either one who is keen to take over the Caliphate or one who is afraid of assuming such a responsibility. I wish I could be free from its responsibility in that I would receive neither reward nor retribution I won't bear the burden of the caliphate in my death as I do in my life."

* Sahih Muslim, Book 020, Number 4485: “It has been narrated on the authority of 'Abdullah b. 'Umar who said: I was present with my father when he was wounded. People praised him and said: May God give you a noble recompense! He said: I am hopeful (of God's mercy) as well as afraid (of His wrath) People said: Appoint anyone as your successor. He said: Should I carry the burden of conducting your affairs in my life as well as in my death? (So far as Caliphate is concerned) I wish I could acquit myself (before the Almighty) in a way that there is neither anything to my credit nor anything to my discredit. If I would appoint my successor, (I would because) one better than me did so. (He meant Abu Bakr.) If I would leave You alone, (I would do so because) one better than me, i. e. the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him), did so. 'Abdullah says: When he mentioned the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) I understood that he would not appoint anyone as Caliph.”

* Sahih Muslim, Book 20, Hadith 4486: “... (The dying caliph) was moved at my words. He bent his head in a thoughtful mood for some time and raised it to me and said: God will doubtlessly protect His religion. If I do not nominate a successor (I have a precedent before me), for the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) did not nominate his successor. And if I nominate one (I have a precedent), for Abu Bakr did nominate. The narrator (Ibn Umar) said: By God. when he mentioned the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) and Abu Bakr, I (at once) understood that he would not place anyone at a par with the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) and would not nominate anyone.”

It is clear that Prophet of Allah did not appoint anyone as the Khalifah explicitly, but Prophet Muhammed {sallalahu alayhi was'salam} did have a candidate for this position, and this candidate was none other then Abu Bakr Sadeeq {radiallah tallah anh}.

Prophet {sallalahu alayhi was'salam} Wanted Abu Bakr To Be Khalifah

We have two narrations in which Prophet Muhammed sallalahu alayhi was'salam stated his intention to call Abu Bakr Sadeeq radiallah tallah anh to apoint him as the 1st Khalifah:

* Sahih Bukhari, Book 70, Number 570: “Narrated Al-Qasim bin Muhammad: 'Aisha, (complaining of headache) said, "Oh, my head"! Allah's Apostle said, "I wish that had happened while I was still living, for then I would ask Allah's Forgiveness for you and invoke Allah for you." Aisha said, "Wa thuklayah! By Allah, I think you want me to die; and If this should happen, you would spend the last part of the day sleeping with one of your wives!" The Prophet said, "Nay, I should say, 'Oh my head!' I felt like sending for Abu Bakr and his son, and appoint him as my successor lest some people claimed something or some others wished something, but then I said (to myself), 'Allah would not allow it to be otherwise, and the Muslims would prevent it to be otherwise".

* Sahih Bukhari, Book 89, Number 324: “Narrated Al-Qasim bin Muhammad: 'Aisha said, "O my head!" Allah's Apostle said, "If that (i.e., your death) should happen while I am still alive, I would ask Allah to forgive you and would invoke Allah for you." 'Aisha said, "O my life which is going to be lost! By Allah, I think that you wish for my death, and if that should happen then you would be busy enjoying the company of one of your wives in the last part of that day." The Prophet said, "But I should say, 'O my head!' I feel like calling Abu Bakr and his son and appoint (the former} as my successors lest people should say something or wish for something. Allah will insist (on Abu Bakr becoming a Caliph) and the believers will prevent (anyone else from claiming the Caliphate)," or "..Allah will prevent (anyone else from claiming the Caliphate) and the believers will insist (on Abu Bakr becoming the Caliph)."

Ibn Abu Mulaika {radiallah tallah anh} reported from Um ul Momineen Aysha Sadeeqah {radiallah tallah anha}, note she was pressent when Prophet of Allah made his intentions clear, hence she narrates:

* Sahih Muslim, Book 031, Number 5877: “Ibn Abu Mulaika reported: I heard A'isha as saying and she was asked as to whom Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) would have nominated his successor if he had to nominate one at all.She said:Abu Bakr. It was said to her: Then whom after Abu Bakr? She said: Umar. It was said to her. Then whom after 'Umar? She said: Abu Ubaida b. Jarrab, and then she kept quiet at this.”

Prophet Muhammed {sallalahu alayhi was'salam} in his life time gave hints which indicated that Abu Bakr Sadeeq {radiallah tallah anh} be the first Khalifah of RasoolAllah {sallalahu alayhi was'salam.

A woman came to Prophet of Allah asking for something Prophet of Allah did not yet posses, so Prophet of Allah instructed him to return to him at later date, she questioned, if you wasnt alive then what she was to do, Prophet of Allah instructed her to go to Abu Bakr Sadeeq {radiallah tallah anh}, three are narrated in regards to this incident:

* Sahih Bukhari, Book 57, Number 11: “Narrated Jubair bin Mutim: A woman came to the Prophet who ordered her to return to him again. She said, "What if I came and did not find you?" as if she wanted to say, "If I found you dead?" The Prophet said, "If you should not find me, go to Abu Bakr."

* Sahih Bukhari, Book 92, Number 459: “Narrated Jubair bin Mutim: A lady came to Allah's Apostle and she talked to him about something, and he gave her some order. She said, "O Allah's Apostle! If I should not find you?" He said, "If you should not find me, then go to Abu Bakr." Ibrahim bin Sa'd said, "As if she meant the death (of the Prophet)."

* Sahih Bukhari, Book 89, Number 327: “Narrated Jubair bin Mut'im: A woman came to the Prophet and spoke to him about something and he told her to return to him. She said, "O Allah's Apostle! If I come and do not find you?" (As if she meant, "...if you die?") The Prophet said, "If you should not find me, then go to Abu Bakr."

Responsibility of the public affairs is in the hands of the ruler, therefore Prophet instructed the woman go to Abu Bakr Sadeeq {radiallah tallah anh} if she did not find him, indicating to her, that Abu Bakr Sadeeq {radiallah tallah anh} would be his 1st Khalifah.

Prophet Instructed Abu Bakr To Lead Prayers – Symbolically Apointing Him As Khalif.

To ensure Abu Bakr Sadeeq {radillah tallah anh} is the Khalifah Bila Fasl after him, he {sallalahu alayhi was'salam} apointed him as the Imam in Masjid An'Nabvi, insturcting him to lead the Muslims in prayers, note the significance of leading prayers in Prophets Masjid will become apparent later on.

Ummahat Ul Momineen Hafsa, Aysha {radiallah tallah anhuma} did understand the importance of Abu Bakr Sadeeq {radiallah tallah anh} leading the prayers, therefore Aysha {radiallah tallah anh} asked Prophet of Allah to apoint someone else for the task, but Prophet of Allah rebuked them and insisted Abu Bakr Sadeeq {radiallah tallah anh} leading the prayers:

* Sahih Bukhari, Book 11, Number 684: “Narrated 'Aisha: the mother of
the faithful believers: Allah's Apostle in his last illness said, "Tell Abu Bakr to lead the people in the prayer." I said, "If Abu Bakr stood in your place, he would not be able to make the people hear him owing to his weeping. So please order 'Umar to lead the prayer." He said, "Tell Abu Bakr to lead the people in the prayer." I said to Hafsa, "Say to him, 'Abu Bakr is a softhearted man and if he stood in your place he would not be able to make the people hear him owing to his weeping. So order 'Umar to lead the people in the prayer.' " Hafsa did so but Allah's Apostle said, "Keep quiet. Verily you are the companions of (Prophet) Joseph. Tell Abu Bakr to lead the people in the prayer." Hafsa said to me, "I never got any good from you."

* Sahih Bukhari, Book 92 Number 406: “Narrated 'Aisha: (the mother of believers) Allah's Apostle during his fatal ailment said, "Order Abu Bakr to lead the people in prayer." I said, "If Abu Bakr stood at your place (in prayers, the people will not be able to hear him because of his weeping, so order 'Umar to lead the people in prayer." He again said, "Order Abu Bakr to lead the people in prayer " Then I said to Hafsa, "Will you say (to the Prophet), 'If Abu Bakr stood at your place, the people will not be able to hear him be cause of his weeping, so order 'Umar to lead the people in prayer?" Hafsa did so, whereupon Allah's Apostle said, "You are like the companions of Joseph. Order Abu Bakr to lead the people in prayer." Hafsa then said to me, "I have never received any good from you!"

* Sahih Bukhari, Book 11, Number 646:“Narrated Abu Musa: "The Prophet became sick and when his disease became aggravated, he said, "Tell Abu Bakr to lead the prayer." 'Aisha said, "He is a soft-hearted man and would not be able to lead the prayer in your place." The Prophet said again, "Tell Abu Bakr to lead the people in prayer." She repeated the same reply but he said, "Tell Abu Bakr to lead the people in prayer. You are the companions of Joseph." So the messenger went to Abu Bakr (with that order) and he led the people in prayer in the lifetime of the Prophet.”

* Sahih Bukhari, Book 11, Number 647: “Narrated 'Aisha: The mother of the believers: Allah's Apostle in his illness said, "Tell Abu Bakr to lead the people in prayer." I said to him, "If Abu Bakr stands in your place, the people would not hear him owing to his (excessive) weeping. So please order 'Umar to lead the prayer." 'Aisha added I said to Hafsa, "Say to him: If Abu Bakr should lead the people in the prayer in your place, the people would not be able to hear him owing to his weeping; so please, order 'Umar to lead the prayer." Hafsa did so but Allah's Apostle said, "Keep quiet! You are verily the Companions of Joseph. Tell Abu Bakr to lead the people in the prayer." Hafsa said to 'Aisha, "I never got anything good from you."

* Sahih Bukhari, Book 11, Number 650: “Narrated Hamza bin 'Abdullah: My father said, "When Allah's Apostle became seriously ill, he was told about the prayer. He said, 'Tell Abu Bakr to lead the people in the prayer.''Aisha said, 'Abu Bakr is a soft-hearted man and he would be over-powered by his weeping if he recited the Qur'an.' He said to them, 'Tell him (Abu Bakr) to lead the prayer. The same reply was given to him. He said again, 'Tell him to lead the prayer. You (women) are the companions of Joseph."

 

Despite their best efforts Prophet of Allah reffused to heed their advice, and insisted upon Abu Bakr Sadeeq {radiallah tallah anh} being the Imam leading the prayers. Note if it was just for the sake of prayers anyone could have lead the prayers, but Prophets insistance indicates that he saw leading of prayers in Masjid An'Nabi in his fatal illness more then just leading of prayers.

In another narration in which Prophet {sallalahu alayhi was'salam} was delayed due to tensions among Muslims, Abu Bakr Sadeeq radiallah tallah anh lead the prayers in his absence on the request of Bilal {radiallah tallah anh}, and while prayers were being led, Prophet {sallalahu alayhi was'salam} came, instructed Abu Bakr {radiallah tallah anh} to complete the prayers, but he reffused to do so in his presence, so Messenger of Allah led the people in prayers :

* Sahih Bukhari, Book 22, Number 326: “... : The news about the differences amongst the people of Bani'Amr bin 'Auf reached Allah's Apostle and so he went to them along with some of his companions to affect a reconciliation between them. Allah's Apostle was delayed there, and the time of the prayer was due. Bilal went to Abu Bakr and said to him, "Allah's Apostle has been delayed (there) and the time of prayer is due. So will you lead the people in prayer?" Abu Bakr said, "Yes, if you wish."Bilal pronounced the Iqama and Abu Bakr, went forward and said Takbir for the people. In the mean-time Allah's Apostle came crossing the rows (of the praying people) and stood in the (first) row and the people started clapping. Abu Bakr, would never glance side-ways in his prayer but when the people clapped much he looked back and (saw) Allah's Apostle . Allah's Apostle beckoned him to carry on the prayer. Abu Bakr raised his hands and thanked Allah, and retreated till he reached the (first) row. Allah's Apostle went forward and led the people in the prayer. When he completed the prayer he faced the people and said, ...”

* Sahih Bukhari, Book 22, Number 309: “... Bilal came to Abu Bakr! and said, "O Abu Bakr! Allah's Apostle is detained (there) and the time for the prayer is due. Will you lead the people in prayer?" Abu Bakr replied, "Yes, if you wish." So Bilal pronounced the Iqama and Abu Bakr went forward and the people said Takbir. In the meantime, Allah's Apostle came piercing through the rows till he stood in the (first) row and the people started clapping. Abu Bakr, would never look hither and thither during the prayer but when the people clapped much he looked back and saw Allah's Apostle. The Prophet beckoned him to carry on. Abu Bakr raised both his hands, praised Allah and retreated till he stood in the row and Allah's Apostle went forward and led the people in the prayer. When he had finished the prayer, he addressed the people and said, ...”

* Sahih Bukhari, Book 89, Number 300: “Narrated Sahl bin Sa'd As-Saidi: There was some quarrel (sighting) among Bani 'Amr, and when this news reached the Prophet, he offered the Zuhr prayer and went to establish peace among them. In the meantime the time of 'Asr prayer was due, Bilal pronounced the Adhan and then the Iqama for the prayer and requested Abu Bakr (to lead the prayer) and Abu Bakr went forward. The Prophet arrived while Abu Bakr was still praying. He entered the rows of praying people till he stood behind Abu Bakr in the (first) row. The people started clapping, and it was the habit of Abu Bakr that whenever he stood for prayer, he never glanced side-ways till he had finished it, but when Abu Bakr observed that the clapping was not coming to an end, he looked and saw the Prophet standing behind him. The Prophet beckoned him to carry on by waving his hand. Abu Bakr stood there for a while, thanking Allah for the saying of the Prophet and then he retreated, taking his steps backwards. When the Prophet saw that, he went ahead and led the people in prayer. When he finished the prayer, he said, ...”

* Sahih Bukhari, Book 22, Number 293: “Narrated Sahl bin Sad: The Prophet went out to affect a reconciliation between the tribes of Bani 'Amr bin 'Auf and the time of the prayer became due; Bilal went to Abu Bakr and said, "The Prophet is detained. Will you lead the people in the prayer?" Abu Bakr replied, "Yes, if you wish." So Bilal pronounced the Iqama and Abu Bakr led the prayer. In the meantime the Prophet came crossing the rows (of the praying people) till he stood in the first row and the people started clapping. Abu Bakr never looked hither and thither during the prayer but when the people clapped too much, he looked back and saw the Prophet in the (first) row. The Prophet waved him to remain at his place, but Abu Bakr raised both his hands and sent praises to Allah and then retreated and the Prophet went forward and led the prayer.

* Sahih Bukhari, Book 11, Number 652: “Narrated Sahl bin Sa'd As-Sa'idi: Allah's Apostle went to establish peace among Bani 'Amr bin 'Auf. In the meantime the time of prayer was due and the Mu'adh-dhin went to Abu Bakr and said, "Will you lead the prayer, so that I may pronounce the Iqama?" Abu Bakr replied in the affirmative and led the prayer. Allah's Apostle came while the people were still praying and he entered the rows of the praying people till he stood in the (first row). The people clapped their hands. Abu Bakr never glanced sideways in his prayer but when the people continued clapping, Abu Bakr looked and saw Allah's Apostle. Allah's Apostle beckoned him to stay at his place. Abu Bakr raised his hands and thanked Allah for that order of Allah's Apostle and then he retreated till he reached the first row. Allah's Apostle went forward and led the prayer. When Allah's Apostle finished the prayer, he said, "O Abu Bakr! What prevented you from staying when I ordered you to do so?" Abu Bakr replied, ...”

Prophet {sallalahu alayhi was'salam} exhorted Abu Bakr Sadeeq {radiallah tallah anh} to continue leading the prayers, but due to imense love, and respect he had for Messenger of Allah he could not, upon being asked why he did not complete the prayers, he replied: "How can Ibn Abi Quhafa (Abu Bakr) dare to lead the prayer in the presence of Allah's Apostle? … It does not befit the son of Abi Quhafa to lead the Prophet in prayer." So his reffusal to lead the prayers was not an act of rebellion against Prophet of Allah, but an act which showed veneration, and love, an act which highlighted how the Prophet is to be honoured.

When Messenger of Allah led the Sahabah in prayers replacing Abu Bakr Sadeeq {radiallah tallah anh} as Imam, its note worthy that Abu Bakr Sadeeq {radillah tallah anh} was Imam behind Prophet Muhammed {sallalahu alayhi was'salam}:

* Sahih Bukhari, Book 11, Number 651: “Narrated 'Urwa's father: 'Aisha said, "Allah's Apostle ordered Abu Bakr to lead the people in the prayer during his illness and so he led them in prayer." 'Urwa, a sub narrator, added, "Allah's Apostle felt a bit relieved and came out and Abu Bakr was leading the people. When Abu Bakr saw the Prophet he retreated but the Prophet beckoned him to remain there. Allah's Apostle sat beside Abu Bakr. Abu Bakr was following the prayer of Allah's Apostle and the people were following the prayer of Abu Bakr."

* Sahih Bukhari, Book 11, Number 633:... out to lead the prayer. In the meantime the condition of the Prophet improved a bit and he came out with the help of two men one on each side. As if I was observing his legs dragging on the ground owing to the disease. Abu Bakr wanted to retreat but the Prophet beckoned him to remain at his place and the Prophet was brought till he sat beside Abu Bakr." Al-A'mash was asked, "Was the Prophet praying and Abu Bakr following him, and were the people following Abu Bakr in that prayer?" Al-A'mash replied in the affirmative with a nod of his head. Abu Muawiya said, "The Prophet was sitting on the left side of Abu Bakr who was praying while standing."

* Sahih Bukhari, Book 11, Number 680: ... companions of Joseph. Tell Abu Bakr to lead the prayer." So Abu Bakr led the prayer and meanwhile the Prophet felt better and came out with the help of two men; as if I see him just now dragging his feet on the ground. When Abu Bakr saw him, he tried to retreat but the Prophet beckoned him to carry on. Abu Bakr retreated a bit and the Prophet sat on his (left) side. Abu Bakr was repeating the Takbir (Allahu Akbar) of Allah's Apostle for the people to hear.”

* Sahih Bukhari, Book 11, Number 681:... the people in the prayer." So Abu- Bakr stood for the prayer. In the meantime Allah's Apostle felt better and came out with the help of two persons and both of his legs were dragging on the ground till he entered the mosque. When Abu Bakr heard him coming, he tried to retreat but Allah's Apostle beckoned him to carry on. The Prophet sat on his left side. Abu Bakr was praying while standing and Allah's Apostle was leading the prayer while sitting. Abu Bakr was following the Prophet and the people were following Abu Bakr (in the prayer).”

* Sahih Bukhari, Book 11, Number 655: “... When the Prophet felt a bit better, he came out for the Zuhr prayer with the help of two persons one of whom was Al-'Abbas. while Abu Bakr was leading the people in the prayer. When Abu Bakr saw him he wanted to retreat but the Prophet beckoned him not to do so and asked them to make him sit beside Abu Bakr and they did so. Abu Bakr was following the Prophet (in the prayer) and the people were following Abu Bakr. The Prophet (prayed) sitting." 'Ubaid-Ullah added "I went to 'Abdullah bin 'Abbas and asked him, Shall I tell you what Aisha has told me about the fatal illness of the Prophet?' Ibn 'Abbas said, 'Go ahead. I told him her narration and he did not deny anything of it but asked whether 'Aisha told me the name of the second person (who helped the Prophet ) along with Al-Abbas. I said. 'No.' He said, 'He was 'Ali (Ibn Abi Talib).”

In on another occasion Messenger of Allah {sallalahu alayhi was'salam} removed the curtain which was between his house, and the Masjid Nabvi to see that it was Abu Bakr Sadeeq {radiallah tallah anh} leading the prayers:

Sahih Bukhari, Book 11, Number 648: “Narrated Az-Zuhn: Anas bin Malik Al-Ansari, told me, "Abu Bakr used to lead the people in prayer during the fatal illness of the Prophet till it was Monday. When the people aligned (in rows) for the prayer the Prophet lifted the curtain of his house and started looking at us and was standing at that time. His face was (glittering) like a page of the Qur'an and he smiled cheerfully. We were about to be put to trial for the pleasure of seeing the Prophet, Abu Bakr retreated to join the row as he thought that the Prophet would lead the prayer. The Prophet beckoned us to complete the prayer and he let the curtain fall. On the same day he died."

Sahih Bukhari, Book 11, Number 649: Narrated Anas: “The Prophet did not come out for three days. The people stood for the prayer and Abu Bakr went ahead to lead the prayer. (In the meantime) the Prophet caught hold of the curtain and lifted it. When the face of the Prophet appeared we had never seen a scene more pleasing than the face of the Prophet as it appeared then. The Prophet beckoned to Abu Bakr to lead the people in the prayer and then let the curtain fall. We did not see him (again) till he died.

Sahih Bukhari, Book 22, Number 297: “Narrated Anas bin Malik: While Abu Bakr was leading the people in the morning prayer on a Monday, the Prophet came towards them suddenly having lifted the curtain of 'Aisha's house, and looked at them as they were standing in rows and smiled. Abu Bakr tried to come back thinking that Allah's Apostle wanted to come out for the prayer. The attention of the Muslims was diverted from the prayer because they were delighted to see the Prophet. The Prophet waved his hand to them to complete their prayer, then he went back into the room and let down the curtain. The Prophet expired on that very day.

In the absence of Abu Bakr Sadeeq {radiallah tallah anh}, Umar {radiallah tallah anh} led people in prayers, and Prophet of Allah {salalahu alayhi was'salam} disapproved of it:

* Sunan Abu Dawood, Book 40, Number 4643: “Narrated Abdullah ibn Zam'ah: When the illness of the Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him) became serious while I was with him among a group of people, Bilal called him for prayer. He said: Ask someone to lead the people in prayer. So Abdullah ibn Zam'ah went out and found that Umar was present among the people and AbuBakr was not there. I said: Umar, get up and lead the people in prayer. So he came forward and uttered "Allah is Most Great". When the Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him) heard his voice, as Umar had a loud voice, he said: Where is AbuBakr? Allah does not allow that, and the Muslims too; Allah does not allow that, and the Muslims too. So he sent for AbuBakr. He came after Umar had led the people in that prayer. He then led the people in prayer.”

This strictness of RasoolAllah of ensuring that Abu Bakr Sadeeq {radiallah tallah anh} leads the people in prayers is not ordinary. If it was an issue of prayers, Umar's {radiallah tallah anh} leading of prayers would have been sufficient enough, but Prophet's {sallalahu alayhi was'salam} sending for Abu Bakr Sadeeq {radiallah tallah anh}, and him leading the prayers again hints that it was not just about prayers but it is more then just what meets the eye.

In fact Umar did lead the prayers, and Muslims had asked him to lead it, hence this statement does not mean what's apparent from context but has to be understood in light of another Hadith.RasoolAllah {sallalahu alayhi was'salam}wanting to apoint Abu Bakr Sadeeq {radiallah tallah anh} as the Khilafah stated:Allah would not allow it to be otherwise, and the Muslims would prevent it to be otherwise."And note in the Hadith of Sunnan Abu Dawood, Prophet {sallalahu alayhi was'salam} states with similar words: Allah does not allow that, and the Muslims too.” hence what Prophet stated in Hadith of Sunan Abu Dawood was about Allah not allowing Umar {radiallah tallah anh} be the first Khalif, and Muslims will prevent him from becoming the first Khalif.

This indicates that there is connection between leading the prayers in Masjid Nabvi, and Khilafat, and when Umar radiallah tallah anh led the prayers in Masjid Nabvi Prophet {sallalahu alayhi was'salam} saw this as threat to Abu Bakr Sadeeq's {radiallah tallah anh} Khilafat, hence he sent for him and made him lead the prayers again. This was the reason, he reffused to adhere to the advice of his wife Aysha {radiallah tallah anha}, and rebuked her and Hafsa {radiallah tallah anha} strongly; when they insisted that make Umar {radiallah tallah} lead the prayers, sighting the tender heart of Abu Bakr Sadeeq {radiallah tallah anh} would make him weep while reciting the Quran and people will not be able to comprehend him, as an excuse. And Prophet of Allah ensures, inspects on his last day on this earth, lifts the curtain and sees Abu Bakr Sadeeq {radiallah tallah anh} leading the prayers, and smiles, which shows his satisfaction, knowing that his desired person as taken his rightful position among his fallowers as the future Khalif.

And RasoolAllah was to leave this world for paradise, hence he was not merely apointing a Imam to lead the prayers but symbolicaly apointing his Khalifah. And this is strenthened by the evidence presented in the beginning of the article which proves that RasoolAllah {sallalahu alayhi was'salam} wished to appoint Abu Bakr Sadeeq {radiallah tallah anh} as the Khalifah. But changed his mind saying: "The Prophet said, "Nay, I should say, 'Oh my head!' I felt like sending for Abu Bakr and his son, and appoint him as my successor lest some people claimed something or some others wished something, but then I said (to myself), 'Allah would not allow it to be otherwise, and the Muslims would prevent it to be otherwise."

Later Um ul Momineen Aysha {radiallah tallah anha} revealed the intention behind her atemtp to disuade Messenger of Allah from apointing Abu Bakr as the Imam, because she understood that, this would lead Abu Bakr {radiallah tallah anh} to being the Khalifah:

* Sahih Muslim, Book 4, Hadith 835:"'A'isha, the wife of the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him), said: I tried to dissuade the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) from it and my insistence upon it was due to the fact that I entertained apprehension in my mind that the people would not love the man who would occupy his (Prophet's) place (as Caliph) and I feared that the people would be superstitious about one who would occupy his place {as Caliph}. I, therefore, desired that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) should leave Abu Bakr aside in this matter."

Um Ul Momineen Aysha Sadeeqa {radiallah tallah anha} knew that his father is being apointed not just the Imam of prayers, but in reality he is being apointed the Imam as in meaning Khalifah, and she wished that he is not made the Khalifah, for the reasons which she states.

Allah Apointed & Sahabah Chose Abu Bakr As The Khaleefah On His Merits:

Allah {subhana wa tallah} stated in Quran that Allah will make the righeous and the beleiving men as Khalifah's: “Allah has promised to those among you who believe and work righteous deeds, that He will, of a surety, grant them in the land, inheritance (of power), as He granted it to those before them; that He will establish in authority their religion ...” {24:55} and Messenger of Allah had stated in authentically reported narrations; that he wished to apoint Abu Bakr Sadeeq {radiallah tallah anh} to be Khalifah:"Nay, I should say, 'Oh my head!' I felt like sending for Abu Bakr and his son, and appoint him as my successor ...” this indicates that Prophet {Sallalahu alayhi was'salam} saw Abu Bakr {radiallah tallah anh} as fullfilment of the criteria of the verse quoted.

But the fact that he did not apoint Abu Bakr Sadeeq {radiallah tallah anh} as his 1st Khalifah is clear, because he had knowledge what Allah wills in this regard, and he had trust in judgement of Sahabah: “… but then I said (to myself), 'Allah would not allow it to be otherwise, and the Muslims would prevent it to be otherwise". And this is the reason why RasoolAllah did not publically, and openly, explicitly anounce that he wishes Abu Bakr Sadeeq {radiallah tallah anh} to be his Khalifah.

Umar {radiallah tallah anh} fearing that apointing of Khalifah might become a fitna which might devide the Sahabah, fearing that undeserving person be apointed as the Khalifah, he told Abu Bakr Sadeeq {radiallah tallah anh} to hold out his hand, and Umar {radiallah tallah anh} pledge allegiance to him considering him to be worthy of this position:

* Sahih Bukhari, Book 82, Hadith 817: “… I will give the pledge of allegiance to such-and-such person.' One should not deceive oneself by saying that the pledge of allegiance given to Abu Bakr was given suddenly and it was successful. No doubt, it was like that, but Allah saved (the people) from its evil,and there is none among you who has the qualities of Abu Bakr.Remember that whoever gives the pledge of allegiance to anybody among you without consulting the other Muslims, neither that person, ... so I said, 'O Abu Bakr! Hold your hand out.' He held his hand out and I pledged allegiance to him, and then all the emigrants gave the Pledge of allegiance and so did the Ansar afterwards. And so we became victorious over Sa'd bin Ubada (whom Al-Ansar wanted to make a ruler). ...”

Prophet {sallalahu alayhi was'salam} considered Abu Bakr Sadeeq {radiallah tallah anh} to be worthy of being his Khalifah to manage the affairs of Muslims, and Umar {radiallah tallah anh} stated that Abu Bakr Sadeeq {radiallah tallah anh}: is the most entitled person among the Muslims to manage your affairs.”

Later that day, after people gave pledge of allegiance to Abu Bakr Sadeeq {radiallah tallah anh} in the shed, people gathered in Masjid Nabvi:

* Sahih Bukhari, Book 89, Number 326:“Narrated Anas bin Malik: That he heard 'Umar's second speech he delivered when he sat on the pulpit on the day following the death of the Prophet 'Umar recited the Tashahhud while Abu Bakr was silent. 'Umar said, "I wish that Allah's Apostle had outlived all of us, i.e., had been the last (to die). But if Muhammad is dead, Allah nevertheless has kept the light amongst you from which you can receive the same guidance as Allah guided Muhammad with that. And Abu Bakr is the companion of Allah's Apostle He is the second of the two in the cave.He is the most entitled person among the Muslims to manage your affairs.Therefore get up and swear allegiance to him." Some people had already taken the oath of allegiance to him in the shed of Bani Sa'ida but the oath of allegiance taken by the public was taken at the pulpit. I heard 'Umar saying to Abu Bakr on that day. "Please ascend the pulpit," and kept on urging him till he ascended the pulpit whereupon, all the people swore allegiance to him. “

* Surah Tawbah {9} Verse 40: “If ye help not (your leader), (it is no matter): for Allah did indeed help him, when the Unbelievers drove him out: he had no more than one companion; they two were in the cave, and he said to his companion, "Have no fear, for Allah is with us": then Allah sent down His peace upon him, and strengthened him with forces which ye saw not, and humbled to the depths the word of the Unbelievers. But the word of Allah is exalted to the heights: for Allah is Exalted in might, Wise.”

Umar {radiallah tallah anh} mentions Abu Bakr Sadeeq {radiallah tallah anh} being the second person with Prophet {sallalahu alayhi was'salam} in the cave, and Prophet comforted Sahib Abu Bakr {radiallah tallah anh} with: "Have no fear, for Allah is with us", Umar {radiallah tallah anh} is reminding the people; Allah is with Abu Bakr Sadeeq {radiallah tallah anh}. And remember Allah said, Allah does not change how he deals with people until the people change, and Abu Bakr Sadeeq {radiallah tallah anh} stayed truthful to Prophet Muhammed {sallalahu alayhi was'salam} in his life, and after he departed for paradise, and Allah {subhana wa tallah} was with Abu Bakr Sadeeq {radiallh tallah anh}till he breathed his last.
Umar's {radiallah tallah anh} exhortion reminded the Sahabah of status of Abu Bakr Sadeeq {radiallah tallah anh}, and once he climbed the pulpit, the people pledged their allaience to Abu Bakr Sadeeq {radiallah tallah anh}.

Sahabah did not allow anyone else becoming the Khalifah other then Abu Bakr Sadeeq {radiallah tallah anh} as Prophet {sallalahu alayhi was'salam} foretold, neither did Allah allow it, and the Sahabah attributed apointing of Abu Bakr Sadeeq {radiallah tallah anh} as the Khalifah to Allah {subhana wa tallah}:

* Sahih Bukhari, Book 82, Hadith 817: “ … One of the Ansar said, 'You have killed Sa'd bin Ubada.' I replied, 'Allah has killed Sa'd bin Ubada.' Umar added, "By Allah, apart from the great tragedy that had happened to us (i.e. the death of the Prophet), there was no greater problem than the allegiance pledged to Abu Bakr because we were afraid that if we left the people, they might give the Pledge of allegiance after us to one of their men, in which case we would have given them our consent for something against our real wish, or would have opposed them and caused great trouble.”

* Sahih Bukhari, Book 58, Hadith 212: “Narrated 'Ubaidullah bin 'Adi bin Al-Khiyar: … 'No doubt, Allah has sent Muhammad with the Truth and has revealed to him His Holy Book (i.e. Quran) and I was amongst those who responded to the call of Allah and His Apostle and I had faith in Muhammad's Mission, and I had performed the first two migrations as you have said, and I enjoyed the company of Allah's Apostle and gave the pledge of allegiance to him. By Allah, I never disobeyed him and never cheated him till Allah caused him to die. Then Allah made Abu Bakr caliph, and by Allah, I was never disobedient to him, nor did I cheat him. Then 'Umar became caliph, and by Allah, I was never disobedient to him, nor did I cheat him. Then I became caliph. Have I not then the same rights over you as they had over me?' I ..."

* Sahih Bukhari, Book 59, Hadith 546: “Narrated 'Aisha: Fatima the daughter of the Prophet sent someone to abu Bakr (when he was a caliph), asking for her inheritance of what Allah's Apostle had left of the property bestowed on him by Allah from the Fai (i.e. booty gained without fighting) in Medina, and Fadak, and what remained of the Khumus of the Khaibar booty. On that, abu Bakr said, "Allah's Apostle said, "Our property is not … Then 'Ali (got up) and praying (to Allah) for forgiveness, he uttered Tashah-hud, praised abu Bakr's right, and said, that he had not done what he had done because of jealousy of abu Bakr or as a protest of that Allah had favored him with.

* Sahih Muslim, Book 19, Hadith 4352: “So he sought to make peace with Abu Bakr and offer his allegiance to him. He had not yet owed allegiance to him as caliph during these months. He sent a person to Abu Bakr requesting him to visit him unaccompanied by anyone (disapproving the presence of Umar)... 'Ali recited Tashahhud (as it is done in the beginning of a religious sermon) ; then said: We recognise your moral excellence and what Allah has bestowed upon you. We do not envy the favour (i. e. the Catiphate) which Allah nas conferred upon you; but you have done it (assumed the position of caliph) alone (without consulting us), and we thought we had a right (to be consulted) on account of our kinship with the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him). He continued to talk to Abu Bakr (in this vein) until the latter's eyes welled up with tears.”

Umar, Usman, Ali {Allah be pleased with them all} are of opinion that Allah had favoured Abu Bakr Sadeeq {radiallah tallah anh} to become the Khalifah of RasoolAllah {sallalahu alayhi was'salam}.

Ali Ibn Abi Talib Pledges Allegiance To Abu Bakr Sadeeq

After RasoolAllah {sallalahu alayhi was'salam} departed this world, Fatimah {radiallah tallah anha} was devasted by the death of her father Prophet {sallalahu alayhi was'salam}, and her health was badly effected by this. Ali {radiallah tallah anh} was too occupied with his wife whom he was looking after, caring for, comforting her in time of distress. It had merely been six months after the death of Prophet Muhammed {sallalahu alayhi was'salam} when Fatimah {radiallah tallah anha} also departed to her abode in paradise, and it was after this that Ali {radiallah tallah anh} realised the mood of the people in Madinah, and noticed the distancing of Sahabah from him, and upon this realisation he wished to reconcile with Abu Bakr Sadeeq {radiallah tallah anh} over the difference which arose due to issue of Fidak, and invited to meet him:

* Sahih Bukhari, Book 59, Hadith 546: “... So Ali sought reconciliation with abu Bakr and gave him an oath of allegiance. 'Ali had not given the oath of allegiance during those months (i.e. the period between the Prophet's death and Fatima's death). 'Ali sent someone to abu Bakr saying, "Come to us, but let nobody come with you," as he disliked that 'umar should come, ... Thereupon abu Bakr's eyes flowed with tears. And when abu Bakr spoke, he said, "By Him in Whose Hand my soul is to keep good relations with the relatives of Allah's Apostle is dearer to me than to keep good relations with my own relatives ... On that 'Ali said to abu Bakr, "I promise to give you the oath of allegiance in this after noon." So when abu Bakr had offered the Zuhr prayer, he ascended the pulpit and uttered the Tashah-hud and ... Then 'Ali (got up) and praying (to Allah) for forgiveness, he uttered Tashah-hud, praised abu Bakr's right, and said, that he had not done what he had done because of jealousy of abu Bakr or as a protest of that Allah had favored him with. 'Ali added, "But we used to consider that we too had some right in this affair (of rulership) and that he (i.e. abu Bakr) did not consult us in this matter, and therefore caused us to feel sorry." On that all the Muslims became happy and said, "You have done the right thing." The Muslims then became friendly with 'Ali as he returned to what the people had done {i.e. pledged alliance to Abu Bakr}.”

* Sahih Muslim, Book 19 Verse 4352: “So he sought to make peace with Abu Bakr and offer his allegiance to him. He had not yet owed allegiance to him as caliph during these months. He sent a person to Abu Bakr requesting him to visit him unaccompanied by anyone (disapproving the presence of Umar). ...'Ali recited Tashahhud (as it is done in the beginning of a religious sermon) ; then said: We recognise your moral excellence and what Allah has bestowed upon you. We do not envy the favour (i. e. the Catiphate) which Allah nas conferred upon you; but you have done it (assumed the position of caliph) alone (without consulting us), and we thought we had a right (to be consulted) on account of our kinship with the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him)... So when Abu Bakr had finished his Zuhr prayer, he ascended the pulpit and recited Tashahhud, and described the status of 'Ali, his delay in swearing allegiance and the excuse which he had offered to him (for this delay). (After this) he asked for God's forgiveness. Then 'Ali b. Abu Talib recited the Tashahhud. extolled the merits of Abu Bakr and (said that) his action was not prompted by any jealousy of Abu Bakr on his part or his refusal to accept the high position which Allah had conferred upon him, (adding: ) But we were of the opinion that we should have a share in the government, but the matter had been decided without taking us into confidence, and this displeased us. (Hence the delay in offering allegiance. The Muslims were pleased with this (explanation) and they said: You have done the right thing. The Muslims were (again) favourably inclined to 'Ali since he adopted the proper course of action {i.e. pledged alliance to Abu Bakr}.”

Ali {radiallah tallah anh} Abu Bakr Sadeeq {radiallah tallah anh} patched up their differences, and Ali radiallah tallah anh, gave the pledge of allegiance to Abu Bakr Sadeeq {radiallah tallah anh}, thus accepting him to be the Khalifah bila fasl apointed by Allah, as the first Khalifah of RasoolAllah {sallalahu alayhi was'salam}, and as RasoolAllah {sallalahu alayhi was'salam} stated truely that none other then Abu Bakr Sadeeq {radiallah tallah anh} will be Khalif, neither will Muslims nor would Allah {subhana wa tallah} allow anyone else to be Khalifah, and Messenger of Allah does not lie.

Wama Alayna Ilal Balagh Ul Mubeen.

Muhammed Ali Razvi


Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) has blessed me with a son, on Eid day, so I will be off for little while, but in sha Allah I will be back online, within few weeks, please make dua for his good health.






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