Bhai mje bs ye janna hai k injeel or toraat main kin kin mukamat pr tahreef ki gae hai . quran pak main jaisy Allah ne frmaya h " Ye log Allah ki kitab ko chupaty hain "
Jsy toraat m Ap S.A.W.W ki tshreef awri ki khushkhbri di gae thi k .. Or us main Ap S.A.W.W k osaaf mubarik byan kiye gay thy . Mje tafeer main se to ni mila main ne sari ayat ki tafseer prh k dekhi hai pr uss m detail ni hai .
Is liye ap ko agr ksis asi book ka pta ho jis main ye sari details mil jay to please
mje bta den mje zrurt h iski ..... shukriya
میرے پاس وقت نہیں تھا کہ اس ساری پوسٹ کو پڑھوں، آپ اسے پڑھ لیں۔۔ یہ میں نے نہیں لکھی بلکہ کاپی پیسٹ کی ہے۔،۔، اگر کوئی قابل گرفت بات ہو تو بھی کوئی بھائی بتا دے
Corruptions in the Sacred Books Of Jews and Christians
Corruptions in the Sacred Books Of Jews and Christians (A Study in the Light of Qur'an and the Bible)
Allah Almighty, after creating human beings, did not leave them without any special process of guidance. He chose a number of men of highly special qualities who not only declared themselves as His Prophets or Messengers but also proved that they were sent to mankind with His Books and purpose. The Torah, the Injeel, the Zaboor and the Qur’an are the most famous of the Revealed Books. The teachings of these revealed Books were the code of life for the believing peoples. To benefit from the injunctions given in them, it was extremely necessary to keep their texts preserved in its original form. The Qur'an, however, declares that the followers of those Messengers and Prophets particularly the Jews and Christians made Tahreef in the texts of the Divine Books. The Tahreef though literally means interpolation or corruption of the Divine Revelation, what is its real sense and meaning? If this thing has kinds, ways and forms, what are those? Are these kinds and forms found in the today's Torah, Zaboor and Injeel that are included in the Bible? The Qur’an and the Ahadith give a brief account of this issue, how do Muslim scholars of Comparative Religions understand it? These are the major areas of the issue to which this paper undertakes to explore.
Allah Almighty, after creating human beings, did not leave them without any special process of guidance. He chose a number of men of highly special qualities who not only declared themselves as His Prophets or Messengers but also proved that they were sent to mankind with His Books and purpose. The Torah, the Injeel, the Zaboor and the Qur’an are the most famous of the Revealed Books. The teachings of these revealed Books were the code of life for the believing peoples. To benefit from the injunctions given in them, it was extremely necessary to keep their texts preserved in its original form. The Qur'an, however, declares that the followers of those Messengers and Prophets particularly the Jews and Christians made Tahreef in the texts of the Divine Books. The Tahreef though literally means interpolation or corruption of the Divine Revelation, what is its real sense and meaning? If this thing has kinds, ways and forms, what are those? Are these kinds and forms found in the today's Torah, Zaboor and Injeel that are included in the Bible? The Qur’an and the Ahadith give a brief account of this issue, how do Muslim scholars of Comparative Religions understand it? These are the major areas of the issue to which this paper undertakes to explore. We find many Qur'anic ayat directly related to Tahreef of Divine Books. For example the Qur’an tells us: اشتروا بآيات الله ثمنا قليلا فصدوا عن سبيله إنهم ساء ما كانوا يعملون The main point in this ayet to highlight is the sale of God's signs.
The same point has also been discussed in the Qur'an at other places. To explain the sense of the issue Abdullah Yusuf Ali says, “Truth—God’s Message—comes to any man or nation as a matter of sacred trust. It should be broadcast and published and taught and made clear to all within reach. Privileged priesthood at once erects a barrier. But worse, when such priesthood tempers with the truth, taking what suits it and ignoring the rest, it has sold God’s gift for a miserable ephemeral profit; how miserable, it will learn when Nemesis comes.” It is clear that sale of God's signs present in the inspired Books can not be done without a change in its text. But more serious than that will be the case if books are written by human hands but stated that they have come from God. In this regard the Qur’an says: فويل للذين يكتبون الكتاب بأيديهم ثم يقولون هذا من عند الله ليشتروا به ثمنا قليلا فويل لهم مما كتبت أيديهم وويل لهم مما يكسبون Here it has been very clearly stated that the religious leaders and the guardians of Divine Books were not only writing books by themselves but making a business of them also. The controversy of the Jews and Christians; and also of the various Christian sects among themselves over the collection of the books named Apocrypha is an outstanding example for the point raised in this ayet. Change in the Divine Books can, again, occur if a good part of the Divine Message is forgotten. On this aspect of the character of the Jews and Christians, Allah Almighty says: ومن الذين قالوا إنا نصارى أخذنا ميثاقهم فنسوا حظا مما ذكروا به فأغرينا بينهم العداوة والبغضاء إلى يوم القيامة وسوف ينبئهم الله بما كانوا يصنعون The translators of the modern Bibles confess the fact pointed out here. It can be verified by having a single look at the footnotes of the modern bibles—like the New International Version, Good News Bible etc.—where the translators state quite frequently that meanings of some words or sentences are uncertain or obscure. Another form of tempering with the Divine Books comes into being if they are concealed and the access of the people is denied. According the Qur'an the Ahl al-Kitab had the habit of concealing some of the Divine Message. In this regard, the Allah says: يا أهل الكتاب قد جاءكم رسولنا يبين لكم كثيرا مما كنتم تخفون من الكتاب ويعفو عن كثير قد جاءكم من الله نور و كتاب مبين The same aspect of Tahreef has also been explained in another ayet as: وما قدروا الله حق قدره إذ قالوا ما أنزل الله على بشر من شيء قل من أنزل الكتاب الذي جاء به موسى نورا وهدى للناس تجعلونه قراطيس تبدونها وتخفون كثيرا وعلمتم ما لم تعلموا أنتم ولا آباؤكم قل الله ثم ذرهم في خوضهم يلعبون Commenting on the words “تجعلونه قراطيس تبدونها وتخفون كثيرا”, Rasheed Rida writes that the Jewish priests and religious leaders played an insincere role whenever a person inquired about God commandments, concerning some particular matter, revealed in the Book. If there was any benefit for the priests they copied God’s word on a paper from the Book and handed it over to the person but if they did not like to tell they simply concealed it because the copies of God’s Book were not available to common people. About the same aspect of the behaviour of the Ahl al-Kitab, Yusuf Ali says, “The Message to Moses had unity: it was one Book. The present Old Testament is a collection of odd books (“sheets”) of various kinds:” In this way you can make a show, but there is no unity, and much of the spirit of the original is lost or concealed or overlaid. The same applies to the New Testament”. Near to the aspect of concealing the Divine Books is hiding it. This subject has been discussed in a number of ayat of the Qur’an. They are: • الذين آتينهم الكتب يعرفونه كما يعرفون أبناءهم وإن فريقا منهم ليكتمون الحق وهم يعلمون • وإذ أخذ الله ميثاق الذين أوتوا الكتاب لتبيننه للناس ولا تكتمونه فنبذوه وراء ظهورهم واشتروا به ثمنا قليلا فبئس ما يشترون Other than that the concealment of the text and hiding it is mixing the Truth with Falsehood. We find, on this subject, the Qur’an says: • يا أهل الكتاب لم تلبسون الحق بالباطل وتكتمون الحق وأنتم تعلمون Imam Razi, quite minutely, differentiates between the two major kinds of Tahreef mentioned in these two ayat. He says that the teachers of the Jews and the Christians had two tactics to keep the people away from the truth. First they used to create suspicions and doubts about the Truth and the words “تلبسون الحق” point to this behaviour. Secondly, if they failed to perform the first tactic, they just concealed the evidences and proofs. This proves the Truth described in the words of “تكتمون الحق”. Yusuf Ali on this subjects comments in these words: “There are many ways of preventing the access of the people to the truth. One is to tamper with it, or trick it out in colours of falsehood: half-truths are more dangerous than obvious falsehoods.” Changing and Substituting the Divine words and verses with human thoughts is another way of Tahreef. Changing the structure of the sentences and substituting other words in the desired contexts not only was in the past but is even now very common in the Ahle al-Kitab. In this regard we see the Qur’an says: سل بني إسرائيل كم آتيناهم من آية بينة ومن يبدل نعمة الله من بعد ما جاءته فإن الله شديد العقاب Sometime interpolation is done by distorting the Book with tongues. In the following ayet, the Qur’an points out such a very strange behaviour of the Ahle al-Kitab with the Divine Revelation: وإن منهم لفريقا يلوون ألسنتهم بالكتاب لتحسبوه من الكتاب وما هو من الكتاب ويقولون هو من عند الله وما هو من عند الله ويقولون على الله الكذب وهم يعلمون Abdullah Yusuf Ali says in this connection, “A trick of the Jews was to twist words and expressions, so as to ridicule the most solemn teachings of Faith.” This way not only ridicules the most solemn teachings of the Faith but also causes confusion for others. Another way to change a text can be perversion or corruption.
We see the Qur’an points to this gravest method adopted by the Ahl al-Kitab with the Divine Revelation. • أفتطمعون أن يؤمنوا لكم وقد كان فريق منهم يسمعون كلام الله ثم يحرفونه من بعد ما عقلوه وهم يعلمون • من الذين هادوا يحرفون الكلم عن مواضعه ويقولون سمعنا وعصينا واسمع غير مسمع وراعنا ليا بألسنتهم وطعنا في الدين ولو أنهم قالوا سمعنا وأطعنا واسمع وانظرنا لكان خيرا لهم وأقوم ولكن لعنهم الله بكفرهم فلا يؤمنون إلا قليلا • فبما نقضهم ميثاقهم لعناهم وجعلنا قلوبهم قاسية يحرفون الكلم عن مواضعه ونسوا حظا مما ذكروا به ولا تزال تطلع على خائنة منهم إلا قليلا منهم فاعف عنهم واصفح إن الله يحب المحسنين • يا أيها الرسول لا يحزنك الذين يسارعون في الكفر من الذين قالوا آمنا بأفواههم ولم تؤمن قلوبهم ومن الذين هادوا سماعون للكذب سماعون لقوم آخرين لم يأتوك يحرفون الكلم من بعد مواضعه يقولون إن أوتيتم هذا فخذوه وإن لم تؤتوه فاحذروا ومن يرد الله فتنته فلن تملك له من الله شيئا أولئك الذين لم يرد الله أن يطهر قلوبهم لهم في الدنيا خزي ولهم في الآخرة عذاب عظيم The central point and major theme of these four ayat is the Tahreef of Divine Revelation prior to the Qur’an. Imam Razi explains that Tahreef means ‘alterations in the form’ and ‘changes in the structure’ of the revealed Word of God. These alterations and changes can be either in the interpretation of the Revelation or in its statements and words. According to him Tahreef also means the alterations in the commands of God i.e. to replace the prohibitions with allowed things or vice versa. Aasi, a contemporary scholar, summarizes, in a brief but conclusive way, the concept of interpolation mentioned in these ayat in these words, “The word tahrif occurs in the Qur’an four times in its verbal form. In these verses the Jews have been charged with distorting the revealed words (yuharrifuna al-kalima), and taking them out of their context knowingly (án mawadiíhi or min ba‘di mawadiíhi and min ba‘di ma áqaluhu). Such a distortion, it further maintains, is committed sometimes by forgetting a part of the original message sent by God (nasu hazzan mimma dhukkiru bihi), or by treating the Divine writ as mere leaves of paper, or by concealing most of verities of the revealed scriptures. Some other terms used by the Qurán for the distortion of the revealed scriptures are: tabdil (substituting the revealed words with human words—exchanging it with what was not spoken—qawlan ghayra alladhi qila lahum), lawa (distorting the words of scriptures with their twisting tongues), labs (overlaying the truth with falsehood), and kitman (suppressing and hiding the truth).” In spite of the fact that Tahreef was made in the Divine Books as has been explained in the above Qur’anic ayat, these ayat never exclusively specify when and which part of the Divine Revelation was interpolated. One thing, however, is very clear that in these ayat, the Qur’an mostly uses the verb in present tense or in its mudari‘ form which, in Arabic language, points to an act done both in the present and in the future. So, we can conclude that the job of interpolation that started before the revelation of the Qur’an has not come to an end; rather it is continue in the present times and will continue in future also. Probably that may is the reason why the Qur’an has not specified what was/is interpolated. After having a look at various ways of Tahreef with the help of Qur'anic ayat, if we look for the subject into the collections of Ahadith, we see a number of Ahadith but they do not add much information to what we have observed above in the light of Qur'anic ayat. In such Ahadith, again, it is not specified which part or passage of the Revealed text was interpolated, though the occurrences of interpolation of the Revealed text at the hands of Rabbis and priests is confirmed. The concept of interpolation has also been elaborated by the scholars in the field of Comparative Religions. In the commentaries of the Qur'an we see the commentators trying to find out the answers to such questions as: Who did interpolate the Divine Revelation? When did the interpolation occur? What was interpolated—whether it was the Torah, the Zaboor, the Injeel or the other Scrolls (Sahaef) sent to various Prophets or it was the Qur’an and sayings of the Prophet? And so on. However, the Muslim scholars in the field of Comparative Religions do discuss these questions and much more. Let us start with Ibn Hazm. He firmly believes that infidels of the Israelites changed the text of Torah and the Zaboor. The Christians also did the same with the Injeel. Both of them added what they wished to add in the original text and omitted from it what was against their desires but there remains part of the Divine Revelation to be used against them. According to Himayah—a contemporary Muslim scholar of Comparative Religions—the false statements, contradictions, inconsistencies, discrepancies and historically wrong statements present in the Jewish and Christian Scriptures led Ibn Hazm to arrive at this conclusion. Ibn Taymiyah is clearer than Ibn Hazm in explaining the tahrif (interpolation). He divides the forms of corruption of the Divine Revelation into two major kinds—at-tahrif al-lafzi and at-tahrif al-ma’nawi. Discussing the textual additions and omissions that can come under these two kinds, he concludes that the Jews and Christians corrupted the text of their Scriptures before its reproduction and circulation among the public on a large scale. Shaikh Rahmatullah, another distinguished Muslim scholar of Comparative Religions, also divides the tahrif into two kinds. The first according to him is al-lafzi (that which is done in the word/s and passage/s) and the second is al-mánawi (that which is done in the meanings and interpretation of the text). Then he divides at-tahrif al-lafzi further into three kinds: (1) Changes, (2) Additions and (3) Omissions. Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah goes forward and describes the textual corruption in the Divine Revelation as being of five kinds: (1) Mixing the falsehood with the Truth (labs al-Haqq bi al-Batil) in this way that one cannot differentiate between the two, (2) Concealing the Truth (kitman al-Haqq), (3) Hiding the statements of the Book (ikhfa min al-Kitab), (4) Distorting the statements of the divine revelation (tahrif al-kalim), and (5) Twisting the tongue during the recitation of divine revelation (layy al-lisan) to achieve the required results to make the listeners unable to differentiate between right and wrong. Now, it is clear from the above illustrations that interpolation is a change, which is done in meaning, interpretation and in the words or/and in the passages of the text. Sometimes it is only in interpretation of the text; sometimes only in the words; and some other times both in the meaning and words. The alteration in contents of the text can be done by changing the structure of the sentence, by substitution of different word/s, by adding and omitting some parts of the original text. All of these kinds of corruption or interpolation are proved in its various shades, as we shall see with explicit examples in the following pages. But before that we should know what the concept of interpolation in Christianity is. To explain the concept of interpolation according to Christianity, we can take help of these three sources: (1) Dictionaries written by the western scholars of English language, (2) the Bible, and (3) the scholars of the Bible. According to the Webster Dictionary the meanings of the word ‘interpolate’ are as follows: "to give a new appearance to, alter; to alter or corrupt (as a text) by inserting new or foreign matter; esp: to change by inserting matter that is new or foreign to the purpose of the author; To insert (words) into a text." So the meaning of the word ‘interpolation’ will be as follows: introduction or insertion of something spurious or foreign; something that is introduced or inserted; insertion. Similarly, the Oxford English Dictionary renders the meaning of ‘interpolate’: interrupted, intermitted; added surreptitiously; inserted; To alter or enlarge (a book or writing) by insertion of new matter; esp. to tamper with by making insertions which create false impressions at to the date or character of the work in question; To introduce (words or passages) into a pre-existing writing; esp. to insert (spurious matter) in a genuine work without note or warning. Now, this meaning of the interpolation is clearly supported and exemplified by the Bible also. There are at least seven passages in Old and New Testaments that affirm the occurrence of corruption in the Divine Revelation as clear as that of the ayat of the Qur’an. The passages that prove the interpolation of Divine Revelation, however, are not clear in some Bibles. These seven passages are as follows. 1. “All day long they distort my words; All their thoughts are against me for evil.” The same verse is more clearly rendered in Arabic Bibles in words: نهارا وليلا يحرفون كلامي، و جميع أفكارهم علي للشر 2. “The earth also is defiled under the inhabitants thereof; because they have transgressed the laws, changed the ordinance, broken the everlasting covenant.” 3. “" 'How can you say, "We are wise, for we have the law of the Lord," when actually the lying pen of the scribes has handled it falsely?  The wise will be put to shame; they will be dismayed and trapped. Since they have rejected the word of the Lord, what kind of wisdom do they have?” 4. “But you must not mention 'the oracle of the Lord' again, because every man's own word becomes his oracle and so you distort the words of the living God, the Lord Almighty, our God.” This verse is more clearly rendered in an Arabic Bible as follows: أما ادعاء وحي الرب فلا تذكروه من بعد، فإن كلمة المرء تغدو وحي قضائه، إذ قد حرفتم كلام الإله الحي الرب القدير، إلهنا. 5. “And she hath changed my judgments into wickedness more than the nations, and my statutes more than the countries that are round about her: for they have refused my judgments and my statutes, they have not walked in them.” 6. “But ye are departed out of the way; ye have caused many to stumble at the law; ye have corrupted the covenant of Levi, saith the Lord of hosts.” 7. “as also in all his letters, speaking in them of these things, in which are some things hard to understand, which the untaught and unstable distort, as they do also the rest of the Scriptures, to their own destruction.” If one examines all these seven passages taken from different places of five books of the Old Testament and one of the New Testament in light of the definition mentioned above, it becomes explicit that the text of the Bible has been interpolated and tampered seriously. What and when was it interpolated? To answer this question, these references are silent quite in the same manner as the Qur’anic passages are. After noting the explanation of the concept of interpolation linguistically and biblically, let us turn to the writings of theologians and textual critics of the Bible to shed more light on this concept as found in Christianity. “It is sometime advisable,” writes a Christian scholar, “for the writers to insert in a quotation a word or more of explanation, or clarification, or correction. All such insertions (interpolations) must be enclosed in square: .” (Parenthesis his) If the insertion of a word or more in the original text is an interpolation, it is found in the New Testament (NT) also. In the same regard writes a textual critic, “Variants came into the N.T. at a very early stage, at which time scribes felt free to change the text, especially the Gospels, in accordance with other traditions which were in circulation or to agree with a parallel account, or to substitute synonyms, paraphrase a sentence, and to make other variations.” But in which century all these changes occurred that resulted in the form of various interpolated types of text? “Thus by the end of the second century”, answers the author, “the “Western” text had arisen, characterized by extensive variation from the original text. Although this text is very early in origin, the principles of intrinsic probability weight against it in general. It is generally longer than the preferred text. In a number of notable instances, however, it has a shorter reading, in which the Western text alone may have preserved the original while all others have incorporated additions or “interpolations” (hence, according to W-H, “Western non-interpolations”).” (Parenthesis his) Another textual critic attempts to identify the age in which the Biblical text was interpolated. In the words of a well-known and fundamentalist Christian scholar like Burgon ‘there can be no question that there was a certain school of Critics who considered themselves competent to improve the style of the HOLY GHOST throughout. [And before the members of the Church had gained a familiar acquaintance with the words of the New Testament, blunders continually crept in the text of more or less heinous importance.] All this, which was chiefly done during the second and third centuries, introduces an element of difficulty in the handling of ancient evidence which can never be safely neglected…’ (square brackets his) According to Dean Burgon, a well known defender of the King James Version, all ‘the Corruption in the Sacred Text may be classed under four heads, viz. Omission, Transposition, Substitution, and Addition.’ But which of these four headings has greater number of instances under it? He answered this question in these words: “Whilst it is but too easy for scribes or those who have a love of criticism to omit words and passages under all circumstances, or even to vary the order, or to use another word or form instead of the right one, to insert anything into the sacred Text which does not proclaim too glaringly its own unfitness—in a word, to invent happily—is plainly a matter of much greater difficulty. Therefore to increase the Class of Insertions or Additions or Interpolations, so that it should exceed the Class of Omissions, is to go counter to the natural action of human forces.” Burgon is not alone in this connection. Another critic very clearly joins with him, “The New Testament abounds in more glosses, additions, and interpolations purposely introduced than any other book.” In the above illustrations we noted the concept of interpolation according to Islam as found in the Qur’an, the Ahadith and in the writings of Muslim scholars of Comparative Religions. Similarly, we studied the concept of interpolation according to Christianity as found in dictionaries, the Bible and in the writings of the critics of the Bible. In this way we consulted three kinds of sources each of Islam and Christianity. The Qur’an says that they destroyed the unity of the Divine Revelation and this announcement is proved by the various and conflicting manuscripts both of the Hebrew and Greek texts. The Qur’an says that the Ahle Kitab used to conceal and hide the Divine revelation from the people. Joyner, an active opponent of the King James Bible (1611), writes, “Remember, for centuries the KJV was the only Bible most people had. If God was going to bless, it had to be through the KJV. The reason for the blessings was because the Bible was put into the hands of the common people for the first time.” It means that the Christian scholars openly confess that the Bible, as a whole, was given to the people after 1611. Before this date their teachers and scribes were secretly interpolating the Divine Revelation. The Qur’an uses the term ‘Tahrif’ four times, which means adding, omitting and changing. It also uses the term ‘Tabdil’ that means ‘changing’ or ‘substituting’. We saw all these Qur’anic terms not only used in the very same meaning but most of the times with the same words also in Ps 56:5; Isa 24:5; Jer 8:8-9; 23:36; Eze 5:6; Mal 2:8; 2Pe 3:16 The comparative examination of the concepts of interpolation as found in Islam and Christianity shows that both agree on them almost hundred percent, though there are apparent differences in the terms used by both religions. Additions, omissions and substitutions bear quite the same meaning of Tabdeel, Ikhfa, Kitman, and Tahrif. Interpolation is not but the tahrif bi az-Ziyada. Like the Qur’an, the Bible also has sufficient statements to illustrate this concept. The following pages will prove the interpolation more profoundly and extensively. The following part of this paper mainly consists of the existing examples for the above mentioned forms of Tahreef. In this part the reader will come across the verses of Old Testament first and then of the New Testament. These examples have been explained with the help of verses taken from the King James Version (1611) and the New International Version (1973-78) of the Bible. These two Bibles are used mostly by Protestant Christians. Let us start with the examples that are related to God’s names, attributes, etc. 1. Genesis 3:5 For God doth know that in the day ye eat thereof, then your eyes shall be opened, and ye shall be as gods, knowing good and evil. (KJV) "For God knows that when you eat of it your eyes will be opened, and you will be like God, knowing good and evil." (NIV) The NIV substitutes ‘you will be like God’ for ‘ye shall be as gods’ i.e. a singular proper noun ‘God’ for a plural common noun ‘gods’ of the KJV. Adam Clarke says that the Hebrew word that has been translated ‘gods’ should be translated ‘God’, ‘for what idea could our first parents have of gods before idolatry could have had any being, because sin had not yet entered into the world? The Syriac has the word in the singular number, and is the only one of all the versions which has hit on the true meaning.’ This explanation of the verse raises a serious question that if only one version hits the true meaning, where has gone the Hebrew original text? Is this an obvious example of interpolation? 2. Job 12:6 The tabernacles of robbers prosper, and they that provoke God are secure; into whose hand God bringeth abundantly. (KJV) The tents of marauders are undisturbed, and those who provoke God are secure--those who carry their god in their hands. (NIV) The NIV substitutes ‘those who carry their god in their hands’ for ‘into whose hand God bringeth abundantly’. The reason for this difference is that the ‘Hebrew meaning of this line [is] uncertain.’ And this leads to conclude that the message of their books is now out of date. 3. Amos 8:14 They that swear by the sin of Samaria, and say, Thy god, O Dan, liveth; and, The manner of Beer-sheba liveth; even they shall fall, and never rise up again. (KJV) They who swear by the shame of Samaria, or say, 'As surely as your god lives, O Dan,' or, 'As surely as the god of Beersheba lives'--they will fall, never to rise again." (NIV) The NIV replaces ‘The manner of Beer-sheba liveth’ with ‘'As surely as the god of Beersheba lives'’. The scholars write that ‘it is probable that the text should be altered slightly to read ‘your honour, Beer-Sheba’ or ‘your god, Beer-Sheba’ (a reading preserved in LXX).” (Parenthesis his) The dispute among scholars over the text also points to the interpolation. 4. Jeremiah 46:25 The Lord of hosts, the God of Israel, saith; Behold, I will punish the multitude of No, and Pharaoh, and Egypt, with their gods, and their kings; even Pharaoh, and all them that trust in him: (KJV) The Lord Almighty, the God of Israel, says: "I am about to bring punishment on Amon god of Thebes, on Pharaoh, on Egypt and her gods and her kings, and on those who rely on Pharaoh. (NIV) The NIV substitutes a sentence “I am about to bring punishment on Amon god of Thebes” for the sentence “I will punish the multitude of No”. The Christian Scholars say that the KJV follows the Vulgate—Jerome's Latin Bible, 390-405 A.D. and the Hebrew text. If the original text was safely transmitted, why is it needed to follow a translation? 5. Exodus 17:16 For he said, Because the Lord hath sworn that the Lord will have war with Amalek from generation to generation. (KJV) He said, "For hands were lifted up to the throne of the Lord. The Lord will be at war against the Amalekites from generation to generation." (NIV) The NIV substitutes ‘For hands were lifted up to the throne of the LORD’ for ‘Because the LORD hath sworn’. Adam Clarke says the translation of the KJV is not according to Hebrew text. This phrase ‘have been variously rendered by different translators and critics; the most rational version of which is the following: Because the hand of Amalek is against the throne of God’. This gives a tolerably consistent sense, yet still there is considerable obscurity in the passage.” 6. Psalm 24:6 This is the generation of them that seek him, that seek thy face, O Jacob. Selah. (KJV) Such is the generation of those who seek him, who seek your face, O God of Jacob. Selah (NIV) The NIV substitutes ‘O God of Jacob’ for ‘O Jacob’. Adam Clarke points to the corruption of this verse and the resulting differences among the Hebrew text and versions that it is most certain that ‘O God, has been lost out of the Hebrew text in most MSS., but it is preserved in two of Kennicott's MSS., and also in the Syriac, Vulgate, Septuagint, AEthiopic, Arabic, and Anglo-Saxon.” After looking at interpolation in the verses related to God, we will move to the verses that describe the alterations made in the statements regarding human beings, which include prophetical statements also. The NIV altered the verses that fore tell the coming of the Holy Prophet (صلي الله عليه وسلم). A few of these are in the following. 7. Deuteronomy 33:2 And he said, The Lord came from Sinai, and rose up from Seir unto them; he shined forth from mount Paran, and he came with ten thousands of saints: from his right hand went a fiery law for them. (KJV) He said: "The Lord came from Sinai and dawned over them from Seir; he shone forth from Mount Paran. He came with myriads of holy ones from the south, from his mountain slopes. (NIV) The NIV substitutes ‘myriads of holy ones from the south, from his mountain slopes’ for ‘ten thousands of saints: from his right hand went a fiery law for them’ in the passages of a very famous prophesy about the Prophet of Islam. A majority of the Christian translators say that the ‘meaning of the Hebrew for this phrase is uncertain.’ Another commentator writes, “The LXX substitutes ‘angels’ for ‘saints’, and this is probably the true reading.” Still another claims, “‘ten thousands of holy ones’ in 2 is corrupt for Meribah-Kadesh as a geographical parallel to the previous clause.” 8. Genesis 49:10 The sceptre shall not depart from Judah, nor a lawgiver from between his feet, until Shiloh come; and unto him shall the gathering of the people be. (KJV) The scepter will not depart from Judah, nor the ruler's staff from between his feet, until he comes to whom it belongs and the obedience of the nations is his. (NIV) The NIV substitutes ‘the ruler's staff’ for ‘a lawgiver’; and ‘until Shiloh come’ for ‘until he comes to whom it belongs’. A commentator writes about the corruption, “The reading and the meaning of the text phrase are still an unsolved riddle. The Revised Version renders the phrase ‘until Shiloh come’; the RSV has ‘until he comes to whom it belongs’; the LXX reads ‘until the things that are his shall come’, with variants; the Hebrew has also been rendered ‘until he come to Shiloh’.” The Jews and Christian scholars show a very conflicting attitude towards concerning these verses. Sometimes they say that the meaning of such verses is uncertain. Sometimes they declared that these verses are ‘unsolved riddle’. All this is because they do not want to admit the truth about the advent of Islam. 9. Genesis 16:12 And he will be a wild man; his hand will be against every man, and every man's hand against him; and he shall dwell in the presence of all his brethren. (KJV) He will be a wild donkey of a man; his hand will be against everyone and everyone's hand against him, and he will live in hostility toward all his brothers." (NIV) The NIV substitutes ‘He will be a wild donkey of a man’ for ‘he will be a wild man’ and ‘he will live in hostility toward all his brothers’ for ‘he shall dwell in the presence of all his brethren’. For this difference between the two Bibles, some translators say, “Hebrew meaning uncertain.” These are just a few verses that prove the interpolation about human beings, their deeds, their mutual relations, now we turn to discuss the interpolation made in the verses about places, countries, cities, towns and so on. 10. Nahum 1:8 But with an overrunning flood he will make an utter end of the place thereof, and darkness shall pursue his enemies. (KJV) but with an overwhelming flood he will make an end of Nineveh; he will pursue his foes into darkness. (NIV) The NIV substitutes ‘end of Nineveh; he will pursue his foes into darkness’ for ‘end of the place thereof, and darkness shall pursue his enemies’. About this interpolation a commentator writes, “The text of this verse may be incomplete. The first phrase, But with an overflowing flood, may be completed by supplying some such sentence as ‘He delivers them.’ It is better to read his adversaries, or ‘those that rise up against him’, with the RSV, following the Greek text. To read ‘her place’, or ‘the place thereof’ with the AV. following the Hebrew text, is to employ an expression for which there has been no preparation. The last line may equally well be translated ‘darkness shall pursue his enemies’ or he will pursue his enemies into darkness. The latter translation is preferable, because it does not involve a change of subject from the previous line.” 11. Genesis 33:18 And Jacob came to Shalem, a city of Shechem, which is in the land of Canaan, when he came from Padan-aram; and pitched his tent before the city. (KJV) After Jacob came from Paddan Aram, he arrived safely at the city of Shechem in Canaan and camped within sight of the city. (NIV) The NIV also replaces ‘Jacob came to Shalem’ with ‘he arrived safely’. For this corruption Adam Clarke writes, “The word shalem, in the Samaritan shalom, should be translated here in peace, or in safety. ... Coverdale and Matthews translate this word as above, and with them agree the Chaldee and the Arabic: it is not likely to have been the name of a city, as it is nowhere else to be found.” 12. Deuteronomy 1:1 These be the words which Moses spake unto all Israel on this side Jordan in the wilderness, in the plain over against the Red sea, between Paran, and Tophel, and Laban, and Hazeroth, and Dizahab. (KJV) These are the words Moses spoke to all Israel in the desert east of the Jordan--that is, in the Arabah--opposite Suph, between Paran and Tophel, Laban, Hazeroth and Dizahab. (NIV) The NIV likewise substitutes ‘in the Arabah--opposite Suph’ for ‘in the plain over against the Red sea’. Adam Clarke proves that ‘the word sea is not in the text, and the word suph, which we render red, does not signify the Red Sea, unless joined with sea; here it must necessarily signify a place in or adjoining to the plains of Moab.’ 13. 2 Kings 19:24 I have digged and drunk strange waters, and with the sole of my feet have I dried up all the rivers of besieged places. (KJV) I have dug wells in foreign lands and drunk the water there. With the soles of my feet I have dried up all the streams of Egypt." (NIV) The NIV substitutes ‘all the streams of Egypt’ for ‘all the rivers of besieged places’. Pointing to ignorance of the translators of the KJV, a commentator writes, that the word translated ‘rivers’ is the Heb. ‘Yeor’ and is a proper name of the Nile. It is translated ‘Nile’ in R.V. Is xix. 7, three times over. Also the word rendered ‘besieged places’ is the Hebrew ‘Mazor’ another form for ‘Mizraim’ the common word for ‘Egypt’, ‘Mazor’ is translated ‘Egypt’ in R.V. both here and in Is xix. 6, and Micah vii. 12.’ It means they used to acknowledge mistake and then correct it. After these few example out of a large number of interpolated verse, now let us turn to numerous changes in numbers and statistics. For this the study presents a selected portion of such verses of the Bible. 14. 1 Samuel 1:24 And when she had weaned him, she took him up with her, with three bullocks, and one ephah of flour, and a bottle of wine, and brought him unto the house of the Lord in Shiloh: and the child was young. (KJV) After he was weaned, she took the boy with her, young as he was, along with a three-year-old bull, an ephah of flour and a skin of wine, and brought him to the house of the Lord at Shiloh. (NIV) The NIV, following Dead Sea Scrolls, Septuagint and Syriac, substitutes ‘a three-year-old bull’ for ‘with three bullocks’. Adam Clarke sheds more light, “The Septuagint, the Syriac, and the Arabic, read, a bullock of three years old; and this is probably correct’ . 15. 2 Chronicles 22:2 Forty and two years old was Ahaziah when he began to reign, and he reigned one year in Jerusalem. His mother's name also was Athaliah the daughter of Omri. (KJV) Ahaziah was twenty-two years old when he became king, and he reigned in Jerusalem one year. His mother's name was Athaliah, a granddaughter of Omri. (NIV) The NIV substitutes ‘twenty-two years’ and ‘Athaliah, a granddaughter of Omri’ for ‘Forty and two years’ and ‘Athaliah the daughter of Omri’. Adam Clarke, commenting on the text of the KJV, writes, “Ahaziah might have been twenty-two years old, according to 2 Kings viii. 26, but he could not have been forty-two, as stated here, without being two years older than his own father!” To point out the differences among various versions, he adds, “The Syriac and Arabic have twenty-two, and the Septuagint, in some copies, twenty. And it is very probable that the Hebrew text read so originally; for when numbers were expressed by single letters, it was easy to mistake mem, FORTY, for caph, TWENTY. And if this book was written by a scribe who used the ancient Hebrew letters, now called the Samaritan, the mistake was still more easy and probable, as the difference between [Samaritan] caph and [Samaritan] mem is very small, and can in many instances be discerned only by an accustomed eye.” (Square brackets his) 16. Psalm 68:17 The chariots of God are twenty thousand, even thousands of angels: the Lord is among them, as in Sinai, in the holy place. (KJV) The chariots of God are tens of thousands and thousands of thousands; the Lord has come from Sinai into his sanctuary. (NIV) The NIV substitutes ‘tens of thousands and thousands of thousands’ for ‘twenty thousand, even thousands of angels’. About this confusion a commentator writes, “The Hebrew is, thousands repeated, or multiplied. There is in the Hebrew no mention of angels. The Septuagint and Vulgate render it, “thousands of rejoicing;” that is, thousands of the happy attendants.” 17. 1 Samuel 6:19 And he smote the men of Beth-shemesh, because they had looked into the ark of the Lord, even he smote of the people fifty thousand and threescore and ten men: and the people lamented, because the Lord had smitten many of the people with a great slaughter. (KJV) But God struck down some of the men of Beth Shemesh, putting seventy of them to death because they had looked into the ark of the Lord. The people mourned because of the heavy blow the Lord had dealt them, (NIV) The NIV substitutes ‘seventy of them’ for ‘fifty thousand and threescore and ten men’. For this big corruption, a commentator writes that the ‘the additional 50,000 (cf. AV, RSV mg.) of most Hebrew MSS is difficult to account for, and a totally impossible figure.’ Another writer remarks, “It is generally agreed that there is some mistake in the text here. (a) The anomalous order of the conjunction and marks corruption. … It seems best with Josephus and some Heb. MSS. to omit 50,000 altogether.” After the observation of these interpolated verses that are about the measurements and statistics in the Old Testament. Now in the last part of this paper we will examine the alterations and interpolations of the statements concerning some other subjects of New Testament. 18. Acts 6:8 And Stephen, full of faith and power, did great wonders and miracles among the people. (KJV) Now Stephen, a man full of God's grace and power, did great wonders and miraculous signs among the people. (NIV) The NIV substitutes ‘full of God's grace’ for ‘full of faith’. About the interpolation in this verse Adam Clarke points out that ‘Instead of, faith, grace, is the reading of ABD , several others, the Syriac of Erpen, the Coptic, Armenian, Vulgate, and some of the fathers. This reading Griesbach has admitted into the text. Some MSS. join both readings.’ 19. Philip. 2:6 Who, being in the form of God, thought it not robbery to be equal with God: (KJV) Who, being in very nature God, did not consider equality with God something to be grasped, (NIV) The NIV substitutes ‘being in very nature God’ for ‘being in the form of God’. There have been an unceasing argumentations and disputes among Christian scholars over this statement. Some hold that Jesus was a being in the very nature of God. Others believe that he was only in the form of God. Both of the sects are wrong in their respective beliefs. That is why the Qur’an forbids them from this belief in surah al-Maida: 17 and 72. In the following section of the discussion the study collects the passages, which clearly show the alterations and changes of various kinds concerning Jesus Christ (عليه السلام). 20. John 1:18 No man hath seen God at any time; the only begotten Son, which is in the bosom of the Father, he hath declared him. (KJV) No one has ever seen God, but God the One and Only, who is at the Father's side, has made him known. (NIV) The NIV substitutes ‘God the One and Only, who is at the Father's side’ for ‘the only begotten Son, which is in the bosom of the Father’. The texts of both the KJV and the NIV are different from one another. Thus the NIV, though more intelligible than that of the KJV, is removing the dispute that rises on the ‘begottenship’ of Jesus as a God. 21. Col. 2:2 That their hearts might be comforted, being knit together in love, and unto all riches of the full assurance of understanding, to the acknowledgement of the mystery of God, and of the Father, and of Christ; (KJV) My purpose is that they may be encouraged in heart and united in love, so that they may have the full riches of complete understanding, in order that they may know the mystery of God, namely, Christ, (NIV) The NIV substitutes ‘mystery of God, namely, Christ’ for ‘mystery of God, and of the Father, and of Christ’. With reference to the interpolation in this statement Adam Clarke writes that these ‘words are variously written in different MSS., versions, and fathers’, he adds that a ‘great variety of versions leaves the strongest presumption that the words in question are glosses which have crept into the text, and are of no authority. Griesbach has left them out of the text.’ 22. Mark 1:2 As it is written in the prophets, Behold, I send my messenger before thy face, which shall prepare thy way before thee. (KJV) It is written in Isaiah the prophet: "I will send my messenger ahead of you, who will prepare your way"-- (NIV) The NIV substitutes ‘Isaiah the prophet’ for ‘the prophets’. On the topic of distortion in this statement Adam Clarke writes, “Rather, as it is written by Isaiah the prophet. I think this reading should be adopted, instead of that in the common text. 23. Acts 13:42 And when the Jews were gone out of the synagogue, the Gentiles besought that these words might be preached to them the next sabbath. (KJV) As Paul and Barnabas were leaving the synagogue, the people invited them to speak further about these things on the next Sabbath. (NIV) The NIV substitutes ‘As Paul and Barnabas were leaving the synagogue’ for ‘when the Jews were gone out of the synagogue’. About the interpolation in this Adam Clarke points out that on ‘this verse there is a great number of various readings: instead of, when the Jews were going out of the synagogue, several others of great repute, read, 'As they were going out’ . All these examples show that they have no decided text of the Divine Revelation. So every body is free to render according to his personal judgment and estimate. 24. Rev. 13:1 And I stood upon the sand of the sea, and saw a beast rise up out of the sea, having seven heads and ten horns, and upon his horns ten crowns, and upon his heads the name of blasphemy. (KJV) And the dragon stood on the shore of the sea. And I saw a beast coming out of the sea. He had ten horns and seven heads, with ten crowns on his horns, and on each head a blasphemous name. (NIV) The NIV substitutes ‘the dragon stood on the shore of the sea’ for ‘I stood upon the sand of the sea’. First phrase of the Textus Receptus is not found the Greek text of UBS 3rd edition. This corruption probably may be the basis of difference in this verse. In short, all of these differences show that they are not even sure of what was the real Revelation of Word of God sent to them through Jesus. From the above discussion about various subjects this study leads to conclude that the Divine Message has been distorted to the extant that it is impossible to restore it. 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