MuhammedAli

Members
  • Content count

    1,277
  • Joined

  • Last visited

  • Days Won

    77

Everything posted by MuhammedAli

  1. Bas abhi taq yahi hen, inshallah tawaqoh heh kay baee aur be upload keren gay.
  2. As salam alayqum wr wb Meray baee hadith us amal kee hoti heh joh amal sahabah ka ho ya RasoolAllah ka ya tabiyeen ka. Geeyarweenh ki haqiqat isaal e sawab heh yehni dua meh amaal e saleha ka sawab Ambiyah Sahabah, awliyah, bilkhasoos seikh abdul qadir ko isaal e sawab keeya jata heh. Aur keun kay yeh amal har chand ki 11 tareekh ko keeya jata heh is leyeh is ko Geeryarween kehtay hen. 11 tareekh ko is ka kerna nah Sunnat heh, na farz, is ka na krnay wala kaffir nahin balkay fasiq o fajir be nahin keh saktay, sirf sawab ka kaam heh keren gay toh sawab heh aur nah keren gay toh geeyarween kay mutalliq sawal nahin hoga kay keun nahin keeh. Han geeyarween majmoa e heh Sunnatoon ka aur agar is majmua e sunnatoon kee nazr say dekha jahay toh, geeyarweenh meh ibadat hoti heh, Quran kee talawat,zikr, naat, dua, aur khana taqseem hota heh, yeh sab sunnateh hen jin ka kohi munkir nahin ho sakta. Magar naam geeyarweenh aap ko hadith ya Quran meh nahin millay ga, magar joh kuch keeya jata heh geeyarweenh meh woh zeroor millay ga.
  3. Salam alayqum wr wb, Kohi baat nahin, in do hissoon ko sun lenh jawab in meh heh. Kohi baat nahin meray baee, mafi ki kia baat heh. Koshish keeya keren kay baee ka adat dalen kay aap ka knowledge first hand ho. Joh refference ho khud check keeya keren aur tehqeeq keeya keren. Meh nay kaheen bar ek reffrence kee talash meh puri puri kitab perh daali heh. Esa kernay say ilm waseeh be hota heh aur apna mowaqif per confidence be peda hota heh aur shaytaan shakook o shubat peda nahin ker sakta joh aur kissi kay batanay say kerta heh. Aur is kay sath tehqeeq o tasdeeq kee adat bi perti heh.
  4. Baee aap ko kia kaha ja sakta heh. Ghaliban aap ko abhi interest deen ka peda huwa heh aur tableegh kay josh meh jhoot gar rahay hen. Esa nah keren aap sirf apna nuqsaan ker rahay hen. Joh baat keren aap daleel say keren, ya kam say kam woh baat keren joh Sunniyoon ka amal ho ya nazriya ho, jis ko ham be kahen jee hamara yahi amal be heh aur yeh nazriya rakhtay hen. Toh phir ham aap ki kissi baat kee tasdeeq be ker saktay hen aur Quran o hadith kee roshini meh wazahat be ker saktay hen. Magar joh tareeka aap nay ikhtiyar keeya heh, fatawah razaviyya meh likha heh kay Allah panch hen, chalo meh jhoota hee sahih joh kitab pakistan meh publish huwi us meh likha heh, woh kon si kitab, kahan say shaya huwi, musannaf kon, chalo meh jootha hee sahih dawate islami waloon kee video joh sirf Jamaica meh open hoti heh us meh dekhaya gaya heh kay Allah panch hen. Yeh tareeka aap chor denh aur agar aap kuch seekhna chahtay hen toh batahen ham aap kee rehnumahi keren gay aur Urdu ki kitabeh pesh keren gay joh perh ker aap masail ko samjen gay. Yeh idhar udhar kee bateh apna time be waste ker rahay hen aur hamara be.
  5. KHuda kay banday jhoot woh bola keren joh kohi maan leh. Sayyidi Ala Hazrat kissi ko is maslay meh kaffir nahin keh saktay. Aap ko shahid maloom nahin is forum per Sunni hazrat ahle ilm heh woh bangi, charsi type sunni nahin jinneh aap jhoot bol ker bad zan ker denh gay maslak e ala hazrat say. Khuda ka dil me khauf peda keren aur sach bol deeya keren. Wesay be buzurg ulamah e ahle sunnat aap deobandiyoon aur wahhabiyoon kay mutaliq qawl kertay hen kay wahhabi aur jhoot behan baee hen.
  6. Syed Muhammad Mohsin ya Muhammad Syed Mohsin, yeh aap ka email adress toh nahin nah? [email protected]
  7. As- Salam alaqyqum wr wb, Yeh janab Syed Muhammad sahib ko ghaliban meh janta hoon. In'neeh jesay naam kay saath ek banday nay RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) kay leyeh qull ilm e ghayb e illahi sabat kerna chaha apni oot'patang shirk e akbar ko sufiat kay lebaday meh gussa kay mujjay hazam kerwanay kee koshish meh laga thah. Aur us banday ko Ala Hazrat Imam e Ahle Sunnat, qutb ul ulama o awliyah Ahmad Raza Khan rahimullah alayhi ta'ala say is maslay kee waja say kafi chir ho gaee thee. Aur un janab ka kehna thah kay Ala Hazrat, mujadid e millat e islamiyah nay wahhabiyoon kay khauf say haqiqat ko chupa deeya. Aur us Muhammad Syed kee ibaraat per khadam nay be takfir kee aur Sayyidi Taajush Shariah Mufti Akhtar Raza Khan al Azhari nay fatwah e shirk deeya tha. In per nazr rakhyeh ga agar yeh janab wohi huway toh ham sab ko Shirk kee goli istilahat e sufia meh gol gol ker pilahen gay. Aur in janab ka andaaz wohi thah joh us Mushrik ka thah. Aur yaqeenan in ko ala Hazrat kee ata'hat ka dard masla e ilm e ghayb kee waja say hoga. Thora intizar keren janab phoot peren gay. Muhammed Ali Razavi
  8. Explaining The Principles Of 'Praiseworthy Innovation'. Introduction: Definition of bidd'a was explained as: - Praiseworthy Innovation: Any new Action/Practice with ASAL (i.e. origin,genesis)from the Qur'an/Sunnah then it is Biddah Hasanah. The principles outlined to allow the readers to properly understand the definition were not explained. In this article inshallah all the principles will be explained with examples and supplemented with evidence. Praiseworthy Innovation: - Some praiseworthy innovations have been made by making additions into what Prophet of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) taught[1]. Others have been totally striped from their original context and practiced in a new context[2], and some are completely new and have no evidence from Quran or Sunnah of beloved Messenger (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) yet their praiseworthiness can not be denied[3]. Then there are those praiseworthy innovations which are a compilation of many Sunnahs of beloved Messenger (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) and practiced as one[4]. All have one thing common, that they were not practiced by our beloved Messenger (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) nor taught by him in the way which later they became, but all of these praiseworthy innovations can be supported from direct evidence of either Quran or Sunnah of beloved Messenger (sallalahu alayhi was'salam). Insha'allah in this part you will see example of some of them and the remaining will are covered in similar articles in the forum. - Praiseworthy innovation is a act which is not commanded by Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) explicitly nor it was practiced by RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) nor he instructed it, but it was a innovation of either a Sahabi or a scholar. And the nature of this practice is that it does not contradict the explicit teachings of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) in the Quran or explicit teaching of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam), but it supplements the teachings of Quran, Hadith, encourages good, promotes righteousness, and assists spreading of message of Islam. Bidd'a Hasanah is a undeniable fact in Islam which is established from clear proofs of Sunnah, therefore there must be some guidance in Sunnah direct or indirect. It is unthinkable that our beloved Messenger (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) said: “He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.”[5] yet left his Ummah with no guidance to determine what would be good innovation. Therefore the opinion of servant is that those guidelines exist and were only waiting to be discovered. Alhamdulillah with Allah's (subhana wa ta'ala) guidance the matter was made plain to me and the principles to judge Bidd'a Hasanah became apparent. The derived principles explained in this part are derived from the Ahadith which provide guideline to understand Bidd'a Sai'yah because the opposite of these naturally would be supporting Bidd'a Hasanah (i.e. Lughvi Bidd'a). *Principle One: Innovation for which there is valid reason, it is accepted. In the above principle the important words 'valid reason' is in meaning of valid explicit, implicit evidence from Quran, Sunnah, also 'valid reason' is in meaning of valid need of innovation. Valid Reason & Valid Evidence: - In the time of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) there was only one Adhaan (i.e. call to prayer) for the Jumma prayers (and second Adhaan is Iqama) which was proclaimed when the Imam had taken his position on the pulpit, but in time Hadhrat Uthman (radiallah tallah anh) third Adhan was added: Sahih Bukhari, Book 13, Hadith 36: “Narrated As-Saib bin Yazid: The person who increased the number of Adhans for the Jumua prayers to three was Uthman bin Affan and it was when the number of the (Muslim) people of Medina had increased. In the life-time of the Prophet there was only one Muadh-dhin and the Adhan used to be pronounced only after the Imam had taken his seat (i.e. on the pulpit).” Sahih Bukhari, Book 13, Hadith 35: Narrated As-Saib bin Yazid: In the life-time of the Prophet, Abu Bakr and Umar, the adhan for the Jumua prayer used to be pronounced when the Imam sat on the pulpit. But during the Caliphate of 'Uthman when the Muslims increased in number, a third adhan at Az-Zaura' was added. Abu 'Abdullah said, "Az-Zaura' is a place in the market of Medina." The hadith makes it clear that reason for the increase of Adhan from two to three was that number of Muslims had increased. From this we can deduce that due to the increase of Muslims, not all heard the Adhan when it was proclaimed by Mua'adin, so it was decided to increase the Adhan to three given at different places so everyone can hear it. The third Adhaan in the market was a later innovation and was not in practice in the time of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'salam), nor Abu Bakr (radiallah tallah anh) neither Umar (radiallah tallah anh) but Uthman (radiallah tallah anh) introduced it during his Khilafah. The basis on which third Adhan was proclaimed in the market on Jumma because Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) stated: Surah Al Jumma (62) Verse 9: “O ye who believe! When the call is proclaimed to prayer on Friday (the Day of Assembly), hasten earnestly to the Remembrance of Allah, and leave off business (and traffic): That is best for you if ye but knew!” Keeping this ayah of Quran in mind Uthman (radiallah ta'ala anh) introduced the third Adhan because it will help to spread the message of deen, reminds people of the time of prayer and them of special instruction of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) gave to the traders in Quran. Another reason for Adhaan's legitimacy is Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) quotes the Ambiyah (alayhis salam) said to their nations: "And our duty is only to PROCLAIM the clear Message." [36:17] by proclaiming Adhan in the market we are proclaiming the clear message of Islam, and this is our duty as an Ummati of beloved Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'salam). * Principle Two: Innovation which is in harmony with the principles of Islam that is to be accepted. Innovation in harmony with principles of Islam implying that innovation has to be in line with teaching of Quran and Sunnah. It has to be in line with teaching of worship, innovation should assist in fulfilling a deeni objective, etc. Harmonious Praiseworthy Innovations: The ahadith record two Talbiyas (i.e. a prayer recited during tawaf) of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) : Sahih Muslim, Book 7, Hadith 2667: “'Abdullah b. 'Umar (Allah be pleased with them) reported that the Talbiya of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) was this: Here I am at Thy service. O Allah, here I am at Thy service, here I am at Thy service. There is no associate with Thee; here I am at Thy service. Verily all praise and grace is due to Thee, and the sovereignty (too). There is no associate with Thee. He ...” Sahih Muslim, Book 7, Hadith 2670: “... And 'Abdullah b. 'Umar (Allah be pleased'with them) said that 'Umar b. Khattab (Allah be pleased with him) pronounced, the Talbiya of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) in these words of his (Prophet's words) and said: Here I am at Thy service, O Lord; here I am at Thy service, ready to obey Thee, and good is in Thy Hand, Here I am at Thy service. Unto Thee is the petition and deed (is also for Thee).” - Hadhrat Abdullah Ibn Umar (radiallah tallah anh) pointed out the Sunnah Talbiyahs to ensure that people do not interpret his Ijtihadi unification of Talbiyahs has Sunnah of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) and unified these two Talbiyah's as one to Talbiyah:: Sahih Muslim, Book 7, Hadith 2668: “... by it and he said: “Here I am at Thy service, O Lord; here I am at Thy service: here I am at Thy service. There is no associate with Thee. Here I am at Thy service. All praise and grace is due to Thee and the sovereignty (too). There is no associate with Thee.”They (the people) said that 'Abdullah b. 'Umar said that that was the Talbiya of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him). Nafi' said: 'Abdullah (Allah be pleased with him) made this addition to it: ...” Sahih Muslim, Book 7, Hadith 2667: “'Abdullah b. 'Umar (Allah be pleased with them) reported that the Talbiya of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) was this: ... He (the narrator) further said that 'Abdullah b. 'Umar (Allah be pleased with them) made this addition to it: Here I am at Thy service; here I am at Thy service; ready to obey Thee, and good is in Thy Hand; here 1 am at Thy service; unto Thee is the petition, and deed (is also for Thee).” This innovation of unification of two Sunnahs is in absolutely with harmony with the principles of deen, its in harmony with Quran, Sunnah, it teaches worship of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala), and assists in understanding the aqeedah of Tawheed better (i.e. good is in control of Allah), affirming that aid we seek is from Allah (subhana wa ta'ala), and our deeds are done to please Allah (subhana wa ta'ala). Note the both Talbiya's have proof from Quran, but here I will establish one of them. The words: “... and good is in Thy Hand; ...” is proven from the verse of Quran where Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) declares the good is from Allah (subhana wa ta'ala), and evil happens to us because of our selves: “Whatever good happens to you is from Allah; but whatever evil happens to you is from your (own) soul.” [4:79]. The fallowing addition: “... unto Thee is the petition, ...” is supported by: “You we worship and You we ask for help (in dua).” [1:5] and finally the addition “...and deed (is also for Thee).” Was included in response to Allah's (subhana wa ta'ala) command to say: ” Say: Lo! my worship and my sacrifice and my living and my dying are for Allah, Lord of the Worlds.” [6:162] - In the time of Rasoolallah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) and the companions the diacritical marks and vowels were not employed in writings. The copy of Quran ordered by Hadhrat Uthman (radiallah tallah anh) during his Khilafah is without diacritical markings. It is agreed by scholar that these markings were introduced some 150 years after to facilitate the recitation of non-Arab Muslims. Diacritical markings facilitate the recitation of Quran properly, recitation of Quran is form of Ibadah (i.e. worship), and diacritical marks allow non Arabic speakers to pronounce the words of Quran properly in prayers (i.e. recitation of Surah in prayers) therefore its in line with principles of deen, therefore this innovation is praiseworthy. This is type of praiseworthy innovation which has no evidence but its praiseworthiness can not be denied. * Principle Three: Innovation for which there is sanction from Quran/Sunnah, that is to be accepted. A innovative concept which has explicit/implicit confirmation in Quran, or Sunnah of beloved Messenger (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) but was not practiced by RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) nor taught by him in the manner which it was practiced. Sanctioned Praiseworthy Innovation: - Once beloved Messenger (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) was leading prayers when he raised his head from the bowing he uttered: "Sami'a-l-lahu Liman hamida." a Sahabi instead of saying: "Rabbana walaka-l hamd.” replied with: "Rabbana walaka-l hamd hamdan Kathiran taiyiban mubarakan fihi" note addition to the Sunnah. Beloved Messenger (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) approved the addition: Sahih Bukhari Volume 1, Book 12, Number 764: “Narrated Rifa'a bin Rafi AzZuraqi: One day we were praying behind the Prophet. When he raised his head from bowing, he said, "Sami'a-l-lahu Liman hamida." A man behind him said, "Rabbana walaka-l hamd hamdan Kathiran taiyiban mubarakan fihi" (O our Lord! All the praises are for You, many pure and blessed praises). When the Prophet completed the prayer he asked: "Who has said these words?" The man replied, "I." The Prophet said, "I saw over thirty angels competing to write it first." Prophet rose (from bowing) and stood straight till all the vertebrae of his spinal column came to a natural position.” This shows that the Sunnah of beloved Messenger (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) is to approve praiseworthy innovations even if the praiseworthy innovation is actually altering his taught method of prayer. Note that Sahabi (radiallah tallah anh) interpreted the verse: “Al hamdulillahi rabil alameen.” Which means: “All praise is for Allah the Rabb of Alameen.” [1:1] with words: “O our Lord! All the praises are for You, many pure and blessed praises.” and approval of Messenger (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) indicates that interpretation was valid. Please bare in mind that Sahabah (radiallah tallah anhuma ajma'een) were mujtahideen, and the Sahabi who made addition to the Sunnah was a Mujtahid whose Ijtihad was approved by RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam). This approval does not mean that we the Ummati's alter the taught method of prayers at our leisure. Rather we must remember that this approval of Rasoolallah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) was only for that Sahabi, the rest are instructed to hold fast to the Jammah (i.e. group of Sahabah) the great majority (i.e. Sawad Al Azam) in aqeedah and in practice. - Wife of beloved Messenger (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) Hadhrat Um Salama (radiallah ta'ala anha) used to dip the hair of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) in the water for people to cure their illnesses, and to dispel the effects of evil eye: Sahih Bukhari, Book 72, Hadith 784: “Narrated IsraiI: Uthman bin 'Abdullah bin Mauhab said, "My people sent me with a bowl of water to Um Salama." Isra'il approximated three fingers ('indicating the small size of the container') in which there was some hair of the Prophet. 'Uthman added, "If any person suffered from evil eye or some other disease, he would send a vessel (containing water) to Um Salama. I looked into the container (that held the hair of the Prophet) and saw a few red hairs in it.” Even though in life time of Prophet (salallahu alayhi was'salam) there is no evidence that he himself taught the wives or the Sahabah about using his hair to cure illnesses they had arrived at the understanding independently that his hair can benefit the sick and those who have been effected by evil eye. There is no clear explicit teachings in Quran for use of hair, but the general principle is that Tabarrakat (i.e. relics) of Ambiyah (alayhis salam) can be used to gain favor of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala). The Ijtihad of Sahabah (radiallah ta'ala anhuma ajma'een) is without doubt supported by the verse: Surah Yusuf (12) Verse 93: "Go with this my shirt, and cast it over the face of my father: he will come to see (clearly). Then come ye (here) to me together with all your family." The brothers of Hadhrat Yusuf (alayhis salam) take his kamees and place it on the face of their father Hadhrat Yaqoob (alayhis salam), and Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) restores the noor of eyes because of it: Surah Yusuf (12) Verse 96: “Then when the bearer of the good news came, He cast over his face, and he forthwith regained clear sight. He said: "Did I not say to you, 'I know from Allah that which ye know not?'" Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) explains why he repeats the stories of past nations, Prophets, etc: Surah Yusuf (12) Verse 111: “There is, in their stories, instruction for men endued with understanding.” The Mujtahideen Sahabah (radiallah tallah anhuma ajma'een) took instruction from the story of Hadhrat Yusuf (alayhis salam), that the relics of Ambiyah (alayhis salam) can earn mercy, favor from Allah (subhana wa ta'ala), thus they used the hair of beloved Messenger (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) to cure illnesses, and ward off evil eye. Conclusion: Every novelty in harmony with principles of Deen, with a valid reason, and for which there is EXPLICIT / IMPLICIT instruction in deen is Biddah Hasanah, and every Biddah Hasanah is reward-worthy. Muhammed Ali Razvi -------------- FootNotes: - [1a] type one which has evidence (i.e. addition to talbiyah: good is in thine hand,thine aid we seek in dua) - [1b] type two, doesnt have evidence (i.e. prayer is better then sleep/ as salatu khairu minanaw) - [2] Nawafil before execution, and performing Tahajjud in one Jammat about which Hadhrat Umar: “... excellent bidd'a!” - [3] Diacritical markings. - [4] Milaad Un Nabi Peace And Blessings Be Upon Him, Geeyarween, etc. - [5] Sahih Muslim, Book 34, Hadith 6466
  9. Explaining The Hadith Of Praiseworthy & Reprehensible Practices Introduction: The Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jammah are of the belief that there are two type of innovations; praiseworthy innovations for which there is reward, and reprehensible innovations for which there is punishment. The heretical Wahhabiyah, Deobandi and their sub sects are of belief that every innovation is reprehensible no matter how virtuous it may be in practice.[1] And both sides have evidences from Qur’an and Ahadith to prove their definitions. The real issue is whose ijtihad on definition of innovation is firmly established from Qur’an and Ahadith? For that servant holds to opinion that definition of Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jammah is fully upon the Qur’an, as well as Ahadith, and the definition of innovation of heretical Wahhabi's is half truth. One of the key evidences used to establish the definition of praiseworthy innovation and its rewards, and blameworthy innovation and it's punishment is often distorted by the Wahhabi's and vast majority of them will never get to read it. And those who do get to read it are fed on the lies and distortions by their 'scholar' and due to lack of knowledge as well as and trust which the 'scholar' has earned of his followers he is obeyed without question or second thought or further investigation. Aim of this article is to explain the meaning of Hadith so people who sincerely seek the guidance from Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) can light a candle of lightness in darkness of their hearts. Hadith Of Praiseworthy & Blameworthy Innovation: Sahih Muslim, Book 034, Number 6466: "Jarir b. Abdullah reported that some desert Arabs clad in woolen clothes came to Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him). He saw them in sad plight as they had been hard pressed by need. He (the Holy Prophet) exhorted people to give charity, but they showed some reluctance until (signs) of anger could be seen on his face. Then a person from the Ansar came with a purse containing silver. Then came another person and then other persons followed them in succession until signs of happiness could be seen on his (sacred) face. Thereupon Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect. And he who introduced some evil practice in Islam which had been followed subsequently (by others), he would be required to bear the burden like that of one who followed this (evil practice) without theirs being diminished in any respect." Part One – A: A group of Bedouin Arabs visited Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) they were dressed in woolen clothes and from their appearance it seemed to Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) that they were poor. On noting this beloved Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) encouraged the Sahabah (alayhi ridwan) present in the gathering to give sadqa to them, but the Sahaba (alayhi ridwan) showed signs of reluctance as a result he signs of anger were visible on his beautiful face: “... Then a person from the Ansar came with a purse containing silver.” and he gave them sadqa then another Sahabi who was fallowed by few more came forward and gave sadqa to the poor Bedouins: “... until signs of happiness could be seen on his (sacred) face.” After this beloved Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) said to his companions: “He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it,without their rewards being diminished in any respect.” which if understood in the context of hadith means that the Sahabi (radiallah ta'ala anh) who came forward with purse of silver and all those who fallowed in his foot steps by giving sadqa to the poor Bedouins will get reward from Allah (subhana wa ta'ala). Part One – B: Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) exhorted the companions to give sadqa: “He saw them in sad plight as they had been hard pressed by need. He (the Holy Prophet) exhorted people to give charity, ...” in this context the fallowing statement of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam): He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect. Is to be understood in meaning he (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) was the creator of this good Sunnah, and the first companion who came with the purse of silver as the ones who fallowed him will get equal amount of reward from Allah (subhana wa ta'ala), meaning as much as Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam). Part One – C: Prophet's (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam)statement regarding reprehensible Sunnah: “And he who introduced some evil practice in Islam which had been followed subsequently (by others), he would be required to bear the burden like that of one who followed this (evil practice) without theirs being diminished in any respect." is to be understood in the same context to mean that he wanted to assure them that if he was to create a reprehensible Sunnah for him as well as those who fallow him there will be equal amount of sin on the day of judgment. This was said to inform the companions of equality in sight of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) for the sinners, and for the righteous. More importantly to assure them that he would not encourage them to practice evil, nor be source for a evil. This is because every reprehensible Sunnah would be a novelty, and every novelty is sinful innovation, and every such innovation is misguidance. The Messenger of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) does not invite to misguidance but guidance because he fears Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) and knows if he was to create a reprehensible Sunnah in Islam and if it was fallowed after him: “... he would be required to bear the burden like that of one who followed this (evil practice) without theirs being diminished in any respect." Part One – D: Beloved Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) goes on to say: “And he who introduced some evil practice in Islam ...” even though from the context its clear that, no evil, reprehensible, blameworthy practice was introduced in Islam in presence of beloved Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam). The question comes to mind why would beloved Messenger (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) state something which isn’t required according to the context of events? The answer is clear to the people of knowledge that RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) have given two general principles to aid his followers. So when his followers introduce in Islam a praiseworthy practice they know there will be reward for them. And warned them from introducing reprehensible practices into Islam by telling them that their burden of sin would increase with diminishing for the one who introduces it as well as the one who fallows it. Also RasoolAllah (sallalahu alahi was'sallam) made his statement in singular: “He who introduced ... after him ... he would be assured of reward like one who followed it,...” (in the second part) “And he who introduced evil … he would be required to bear the burden like that of one who followed this ..." had his statements been only for the event he would have made the statements in plural as well as used word/words to restrict the meaning to the event only for example: 'Those who today introduced ... after them ... they would be assured of reward like one who followed it, …' Part One – E: And Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) said: “... he who introduced some evil practice in Islam which had been followed subsequently (by others), he would be required to bear the burden like that of one who followed this (evil practice) without theirs being diminished ..” it means that he who introduces a reprehensible practice in Islam from him and from who fallows the reprehensible practice ,Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) will not accept the excuse of ignorance[2] and excuse of good intention[3]. Instead Allah(subhana wa ta'ala) will add to their other sins the burden of sin of following reprehensible practice, and the sins of acting on the reprehensible practice without deducting any sin. Conclusion: There are three[4] interpretation of the hadith; one, that RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) wanted to inform the companion of reward who initiated the act of giving sadqa to the poor and those who fallowed him in doing so. Two, that RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) gave two guiding principles for Muslims on the basis which we can make ijtihadi innovations as part of Islam and expect reward from Allah (subhana wa ta'ala). Also to let his followers know that no excuse on the day of judgment will be accepted by Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) if his followers were to fallow evil innovations and Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) will most certainly add to sins of his followers the sins of fallowing a reprehensible practice. Three, to inform them his companions will get equal reward from Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) if they fallow his Sunnahs which are praiseworthy by their nature. Wama alayna ilal balaghul mubeen. Muhammed Ali Razavi ================= Foot Notes: - [1] The difference of definitions is not very important, because if both of these definitions are learns properly, and then used to understand innovative practices the result will be same. Wahhabi's will label it '[shara'ee] Innovation' and the Sunni's will label is 'Reprehensible Innovation' or Wahhabi's may label a innovative practice to be 'Linguistical Innovation' and Sunni's will label it 'Praiseworthy Innovation'. - [2] Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) will not accept the excuse of ignorance: 'O Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) I didn't know it was innovation.' because Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) has made it clear in the Qur’an: "And Allah is not one to misguide a people after He has guided them, until He explains to them that which they should avoid." [ref: 9:115] in another verse: "And whoever contends with the Messenger after the guidance has been made clear to him, and he follows a path other than the path of the believers, We shall leave him in the path he has chosen and land him in Jahannam, an evil refuge" [ref: 4:115] - [3] Even though Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) had stated: “The reward of deeds depends upon the intentions, ...” [ref: Bukhari, B86, H85] Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) will not accept excuse of good-intention: 'O Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) I did not fallowed him into reprehensible practice with good intention of pleasing You.' therefore Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) made it clear to Ummah that your practicing reprehensible practices will be judged as the reprehensible. Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) will not accept you good intentions as a valid excuse therefore he will add your to your sins the sins of fallowing a reprehensible practice. - [4] Three are mentioned only in this thats why I have concluded with specific three, in my other articles on same hadith more interpretations [I think two more] are given of the same phrase. And it would be best to accept all of them without rejecting any of them due to jawami al kalim (i.e. shortest expression bearing widest meaning) nature of Prophet's (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) speech.
  10. Understanding Hadith Of Good & Evil Sunnah In Light Of Ahadith Of Reprehensible Innovation. Introduction: Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) has defined what a [reprehensible/shar'aee] innovation. He also gave clear guiding principles on which we can judge the novelties to determine if they are [reprehensible/shar'aee] innovations or not. These principles validate many novelty practices in the time of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) which the companions practiced without direct instruction from Messenger (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam). And serve as measuring tools of right and wrong for the rest of Ummah for the practices which originated after his departure from this world. And when these guiding principles are understood properly in light of ahadith of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) they aid the ahlul ilm in determining what is evil and what is good of matters which are not mentioned clearly in Qur’an or hadith. Guiding Principles For Reprehensible Innovations: Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) is reported to have said; that most evil affairs are innovations because they are misguidance, error: Sahih Muslim, Book 4, Hadith 1885: “... and he would join his forefinger and middle finger; and would further say: "The best of the speech is embodied in the Book of Allah, and the beet of the guidance is the guidance given by Muhammad. And the most evil affairs are their innovations; and every innovation is error." He would further say:, I am more dear to a Muslim even than his self; ...” And he has explained what a innovation is by saying every novelty is an innovation: Abu Dawood, Book 40, Hadith 4590: “... You must then follow my sunnah and that of the rightly-guided caliphs. Hold to it and stick fast to it. Avoid novelties, for every novelty is an innovation, and every innovation is an error.” A novelty is something new, unusual, and unnecessary. Implications of novelty on the definition of innovation are clear. Innovations which are unusual, unnecessary are [reprehensible/shar'aee] innovations and this understanding is supported the statement that a innovation which has no valid basis to exist as part of deen is to be rejected: Sahih Muslim, Book 18, Number 4266: “'A'isha reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: He who innovates things in our affairs for which there is no valid (reason) (commits sin) and these are to be rejected.”[1] Hadhrat Aysha (radiallah ta'ala anha) narrates that Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) has stated that if anyone performed a innovated act for which there is no sanction from Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) or His beloved Messenger (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) it is to be rejected: Sahih Muslim, Book 18, Number 4267: “Sa'd b. Ibrahim reported: I asked Qasim b. Muhammad about a person who had three dwelling houses and he willed away the third part of every one of these houses; he (Qasim b. Muhammad) said: All of them could be combined in one house; and then said: 'A'isha informed me that Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: He who did any act for which there is no sanction from our behalf, that is to be rejected.” In another hadith it is stated that if a person introduces a novelty which does not conform the the spirit of Qur’an as well as Sunnah it is to be rejected because it is then a innovation: Sahih Bukhari, Book 49, Hadith 861: “Narrated Aisha: Allah's Apostle said, "If somebody innovates something which is not in harmony with the principles of our religion, that thing is rejected." Ahadith Of Good & Evil Sunnah In Right Perspective: These rules of judging novelty practices/beliefs inform the believer that the innovations should be rejected because they are errors. The specific reason for errors to be rejected is mentioned in another hadith recorded in Sunan Nisa'ee: “... and every error is misguidance; ...” and why should misguidance be avoided is answered: ”... and every misguidance will lead to the hell fire.”[2] and why does every misguidance leads to hellfire, because they are sin, and one who calls to misguidance calls to sin, one who acts on misguidance acts on sin. Allah's beloved Messenger (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) defined [reprehensible/shar'aee] innovation, gave principles to judge novelties, he told that innovations are errors, he told they are misguidance, and he also told they take to hellfire. What he had not informed the believers was of how will Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) judge them. Would Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) accept a excuse? Would Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) hold the creator of innovation more responsible then the one who fallowed it? Would Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) excuse the one who in ignorance called people to innovation? And in the ahadith of good & evil Sunnah beloved Messenger (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) answers these questions so no doubt remains in the heart of believers and innovators: Sahih Muslim, Book 34, Hadith 6468: “Jarir b. 'Abdullah reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: The servant does not introduce good practice which is followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.” Sahih Muslim, Book 34, Number 6466: “... Thereupon Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect. And He who introduced some evil practice in Islam which had been followed subsequently (by others), he would be required to bear the burden like that of one who followed this (evil practice) without theirs being diminished in any respect.” Sahih Muslim, Book 34, Number 6470: "Abu Huraira reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: He who called (people) to righteous, there would be reward (assured) for him like the rewards of those who adhered to it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect. And he who called (people) to error, he shall have to carry (the burden) of its sin, like those who committed it, without their sins being diminished in any respect." He informs the believers that one who creates a innovation, and one who fallows the innovation will get equal amount of sin written in their book of deeds without diminishing a single sin. And goes on to inform the companions that one who calls people to error (i.e. innovation - “... every innovation is error.”) for him is the equal amount of sins. Conclusion: Every novelty which does not conform to teaching of Qur’an and Sunnah, is not sanctioned by Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) or RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam), it does not have valid reason is innovation, and every such innovation is error, a misguidance, a sin, which leads to fire of hell: “Nay, those who seek gain in evil, and are girt round by their sins,- they are companions of the Fire: Therein shall they abide (For ever).” [ref: Surah 2:81] One who innovates something which leads to hellfire and one who fallows which leads to hellfire, about them Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) said: “He who introduced some evil practice in Islam which had been followed subsequently (by others), he would be required to bear the burden like that of one who followed this (evil practice) without theirs being diminished in any respect.” The one who invites to sinful, evil, innovation, and one who responds to the one calling to hellfire, about them Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) said: “And he who called (people) to error, he shall have to carry (the burden) of its sin, like those who committed it, without their sins being diminished in any respect." From this we can safely conclude that the ahadith of praiseworthy & blameworthy innovation are connected with ahadith of [reprehensible/shar'aee] innovations because they fill the gaps of information as well as their unambiguous reference to reprehensible innovation. Wama alayna ilal balaghul mubeen. Muhammed Ali Razavi ================== Footnotes: ========= - [1] Every novelty is innovation and if a innovator innovates in our affairs for which there is no valid (reason) (commits sin) and these are to be rejected. - [2] I have not read this hadith in Sunan Nisa'ee, I am only quoting it because its widely circulated among the knowledgeable Muslims, and I have heard it from numerous individuals belonging to different sects. So on this I based my assumption that it has some basis and its authenticity is agreed upon by all groups. Judging according to Qur’an the content of hadith it is in agreement with its teachings the chain of narrators may have weakness or may not. =========
  11. Reprehensible Innovations & Primordial Islam Introduction: In this brief article servant will discuss how the primordial religion of Islam was altered and what are the essential lessons we learn from Quran and Sunnah regarding reprehensible innovations. Primordial Religion Of Islam Is Only Accepted Religion: The primordial religion sanctioned by Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) for all the Prophets is same: Surah As'Shura (42) Verse 13: The same religion has He established for you as that which He enjoined on Noah - the which We have sent by inspiration to thee - and that which We enjoined on Abraham, Moses, and Jesus: Namely, that ye should remain steadfast in religion, and make no divisions therein: to those who worship other things than Allah, hard is the (way) to which thou callest them. Allah chooses to Himself those whom He pleases, and guides to Himself those who turn (to Him). The religion which Allah approved for Ummah of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) is Islam: Surha Al Imran (3) Verse 19: The religion before Allah is Islam: Nor did the People of the Book dissent therefrom except through envy of each other, after knowledge had come to them. But if any deny the Signs of Allah, Allah is swift in calling to account. This ayah also establishes that religion of all the Ambiyah (alayhis salam) mentioned in 42:13 is Islam. And Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) states that if anyone desires a religion other then Islam, Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) will not accept is on the day of judgment: Surha Al Imran (3) Verse 85: If anyone desires a religion other than Islam never will it be accepted of him; and in the Hereafter He will be in the ranks of those who have lost (All spiritual good). The people of book did not abandon the religion of Islam except via jealousy of each other. The people of book divided the religion of Islam, and broke into sects (i.e. Christianity, Judaism): Surah Al An'a, (6) Verse 159: As for those who divide their religion and break up into sects, thou hast no part in them in the least: their affair is with Allah. He will in the end tell them the truth of all that they did. Corruption Of Primordial Islam & Killing Of Children. Coming to the Mushrikeen Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) states that the partners which they had attributed with Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) – Jinns/devils; made fair to them the killing of their children so they are lead to their own destruction, and to cause confusion, to obscure their religion: Surah Al An'am (6) Verse 137: Even so, in the eyes of most of the pagans, their "partners" made alluring the slaughter of their children, in order to lead them to their own destruction, and cause confusion in their religion. If Allah had willed, they would not have done so: But leave alone them and their inventions. In this verse the religion refered is not polytheism, but the religion of Prophets, the religion of Islam, the religion of Ibrahim (alayhis salam), the religion of Adam (alayhis salam), the primordial religion of Islam. The Mufassireen have hinted toward this interpretation: Tafsir Al Jalalayn: “... and shurakā’ihim in the genitive as an annexation to qatlu, so that the object in this case intervenes between the two elements of the annexation [qatlu awlādahum shurakā’ihim, ‘their associates killing the children’] — this is acceptable [syntactically] — and the annexation of qatlu to shurakā’ihim [in this latter reading] is on account of them [the associates] commanding [the idolaters to do] this), that they may destroy them and to confuse, to make obscure, their religion for them. Had God willed, they would not have done so; so leave them and that which they fabricate.” Hazrat Ibn Abbas (radiallah ta'ala anh) in his Tafsir makes it clear here that the religion referred here is the religion of Islam: Tafsir Ibn Abbas: “(Thus) just as We have made their words and works seem fair to them (have their (so called) partners) among the devil (made the killing of their children) their daughters (to seem fair unto many of the idolaters, that they may ruin them) destroy them (and make their faith) the religion of Abraham and Ishmael (obscure for them. Had Allah willed (it otherwise), they had not done so) i.e. killing their daughters and making it seem fair to them. (So leave them alone with their devices) with their lies when they claim that Allah commanded them to bury their daughters alive.” The shayateen wanted to obscure the primordial religion of Islam hence they commanded them the burry their daughters alive, and under take various practices: Surah Al An'am (6) Verse 138: “And they say, "These animals and crops are forbidden; no one may eat from them except whom we will," by their claim. And there are those [camels] whose backs are forbidden [by them] and those upon which the name of Allah is not mentioned - [all of this] an invention of untruth about Him. He will punish them for what they were inventing.” The prohibitions were made by shayateen, not by Mushrikeen, they only fallowed the instruction of shayateen: Tafsir Ibn Kathir: “(“They say that such and such cattle and crops are Hijr, ...”) "It is a prohibition that the Shayatin appointed for their wealth, and a type of exaggeration and extremism that did not come from Allah.'' [`Abdur-Rahman] Ibn Zayd bin Aslam said that, [حِجْرٍ] (Hijr,) refers to what the idolaters designated for their deities. As-Suddi said that the Ayah,” From this we derive the conclusion that religion of Ambiyah (alayhis salam) was Islam, and the Mushrikeen, Yahood, Nasara were originally Muslims who fallowed the shayateens instructions and altered the primordial religion of Islam with reprehensible innovations until it became a different religion which they were fallowing. They made innovations into primordial Islam which were not in harmony with its teachings: Sahih Bukhari Book 49, Hadith 861: Narrated Aisha: Allah's Apostle said, "If somebody innovates something which is not in harmony with the principles of our religion, that thing is rejected." Here our religion would mean our religion of Islam, or religion of Islam of Prophets (i.e. principles of prophets of religion Islam, that thing is rejected), which should have been rejected but instead they were adopted and practiced. Conclusion: We learn two fundamental facts, one that religions of all the Prophets, the religions accepted by Allah (subhana wa ta'ala), the religion sanctioned by Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) is religion of Islam. Two, a action which is reprehensible in Sharia of Islam when it becomes a custom/practice then it is judged to be part of religion of Islam.[1] Therefore regardless of what the world religions have become at present, and what the religion of polytheists of Makkah had become in the past, the fact is that Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) judges their actions as corruptions of Islam, considers them to be reprehensible innovations which they made part of Islam, judges it to be confusion of the religion given to them. Therefore at present any action which is reprehensible in nature according to Sharia of Prophet Muhammed (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) and it is being practiced widely as a custom or festival or as an ordinary act by believers or disbelievers they are guilty of practicing blameworthy innovation in Islam, in Islam of the finale Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) who was sent to all mankind. Wama alayna ilal balaghul mubeen. Muhammed Ali Razavi ================= Footnotes: - [1] Note this is supported by the fact that Mushrikeen started the practice of killing their children and Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) states this is corruption of religion of Islam: “Even so, in the eyes of most of the pagans, their "partners" made alluring the slaughter of their children, in order to lead them to their own destruction, and cause confusion in their religion. If Allah had willed, they would not have done so: But leave alone them and their inventions.” [Ref: Surah 6:137] =================
  12. Literalism Of: “... Every Innovation Is Evil ..." And Its Adverse Effects. Intorduction: Sunnan Abu Dawood, Book 40, Number 4590: “… for those of you who live after me will see great disagreement. You must then follow my sunnah and that of the rightly-guided caliphs. Hold to it and stick fast to it. Avoid novelties, for every novelty is an innovation, and every innovation is an error." Sahih Muslim, Book 4, Hadith 1885: “... would further say: "The best of the speech is embodied in the Book of Allah, and the best of the guidance is the guidance given by Muhammad. And the most evil affairs are the innovations; and everyinnovation is error." He would further say: I am more dear to a Muslim even than his self …" The literal application of these ahadith and equally literal application of the principles which have been handed down from the classical Ulamah, as well as the lack of knowledge of common man have allowed the heretics to get away with mutilation of deen. It is the belief of heretics, every newly invented practice is innovation (i.e. Bidd'a), and one of the principle of heretics to declare a newly invented practice as innovation is: 'Every Innovation Replaces A Sunnah'. Or they say: 'Every Act/Belief Which Did Not Exist In Time Of RasoolAllah/Sahabah Is Innovation.' or they say: 'Every Act of Worship Not Explicitly Supported Is Innovation.' On the basis of these principles and literalism of hadith they have declared praiseworthy innovations as reprehensible innovations. Demonized scores of Muslims, in fact the majority of Muslims of being Innovators (i.e. Bidd'ati, Mubtadi). The aim is to analyze the literalism of the hadith, as well as literalism of the principles used by the heretics. This analysis will allow us to put in perspective the correct understanding of the ahadith, as well as correct application of the principle which is misused by the heretics. Part One A - Siwaak A Sunnah: General hygiene as well as oral hygiene is very important in Islam. To maintain good oral hygiene RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) himself and also instructed his Sahabah (radiallah ta'ala anhuma ajma'een) to use Siwak. Just to substantiate the use of Siwak by RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam), and Sahabah (radiallah ta'ala anhuma ajma'een) some Ahadith: Sahih Bukhari, Book 4, Number 246: Narrated Hudhaifa: Whenever the Prophet got up at night, he used to clean his mouth with Siwak. Sahih Bukhari, Book 21, Number 237: Narrated Hudhaifa: Whenever the Prophet got up for Tahajjud prayer he used to clean his mouth (and teeth) with Siwak. Sahih Bukhari, Book 13, Number 15: Narrated 'Aisha: Abdur Rahman bin Abi Bakr came holding a Siwak with which he was cleaning his teeth. Allah's Apostle looked at him. I requested Abdur-Rahman to give the Siwak to me and after he gave it to me I divided it, chewed it and gave it to Allah's Apostle. Then he cleaned his teeth with it and (at that time) he was resting against my chest. Sahih Bukhari, Book 4, Number 245: Narrated Abu Burda: My father said, "I came to the Prophet and saw him carrying a Siwak in his hand and cleansing his teeth, saying, 'U' U'," as if he was retching while the Siwak was in his mouth." In fact RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) has reported to have said: Sahih Bukhari, Book 13, Number 12: Narrated Abu Huraira: Allah's Apostle said, "If I had not found it hard for my followers or the people, I would have ordered them to clean their teeth with Siwak for every prayer." This points out how important the use of Miswak was in sight of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam). The use of Siwak before the prayers as well as use of siwaak to maintain oral hygiene in general is both established from authentic Sunnah of beloved Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'salam). Part One B – Modern Means Of Oral Hygiene: In our modern times the equipment used to maintain a good oral hygiene has changed dramatically. We have in our possession manual tooth brushes, tooth pastes of every kind, oral mouth washes, dental scaler, tooth picks, electrical tooth brushes and the list can go on. All these equipments have pretty much replaced Siwaak, even the religious Muslims who practice deen are using these to maintain good oral hygiene and if someone is really feeling religious then Siwaak is used on Friday. Part One C – The Bad Toothbrush & Toothpaste: If replacing of a Sunnah by innovative practice, as well as principle of; act which did not exist in time of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam), the Sahabah (radiallah ta'ala anhuma ajma'een) were the criteria to declare a new practice as an innovation, then without doubt use of all the modern equipment for oral hygiene would amount to innovations, and their users be guilty of abandoning the use of Siwaak for oral hygiene, which is Sunnah of beloved Messenger (sallalahu alayhi was'salam). This would then qualify user of modern oral hygiene equipment as a Bidd'ati, Mubtadi (i.e. innovator), follower of heresy. Part On D – The Good Understanding Sunnah: The modern oral hygiene equipment such as tooth brushes, tooth pastes, mouth washes are not Sunnah of RasoolAllah (salallahu alayhi was'salam). If they are used with the belief that these are not the Sunnah means for oral hygiene especially if their user firmly believes that Siwak was/is Sunnah of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) as well as the practice of Sahabah (radiallah tallah anhuma ajma'een), then use of this equipment would in no way be reprehensible nor its user would be guilty of practicing reprehensible innovation. Even though these have replaced Sunnah (i.e. use of Siwak) to the great extent for maintaining oral hygiene, and didn't exist in the time of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alay was'salam) nor during the period of three protected generations. They can not be deemed as reprehensible, because their user only uses them to achieve the Sunnah of maintaining oral hygiene, and does not believe that the modern equipment used is Sunnah of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam), nor he considers the use of these as part of deen, his aqeedah is firm in Siwak being Sunnah of beloved Messenger (sallalahu alayhi was'salam). Part Two A: Sunnah Way Of Fighting Jihad: Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) instructs beloved Prophet Muhammed (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) struggle against the kuffar and the Munafiqeen: Surah At'Tawbah (9) Verse 73: “O Prophet! strive hard against the unbelievers and the Hypocrites, and be firm against them. Their abode is Hell,- an evil refuge indeed.” Surah At'Tahreem (66) Verse 9: “O Prophet! Strive hard against the Unbelievers and the Hypocrites, and be firm against them. Their abode is Hell,- an evil refuge (indeed).” In the ayaat the struggle mentioned is of two types. One, military struggle against the non-Muslims who attack Muslims, and two, struggle with tongue. Meaning exposing the evil plans of hypocrites, and military struggle RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) against the Munafiqeen was disapproved, the cited reason for this was that kufar, would assume we are fighting each other. Here only military struggle against the kuffar is being considered, and the equipment used by beloved Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'salam), and his companions to wage war on the disbelievers: Sahih Bukhari, Book 59, Hadith 568: “... and when we took him over, he said, "La ilaha illal-Lah." On hearing that, the Ansari man stopped, but I killed him by stabbing him with my spear. When we returned, the Prophet came to know about that and he said, "O Usama! Did you kill him after he had said "La ilaha ilal-Lah?" I said, "But he said so only to save himself." The Prophet kept on repeating that so often that I wished I had not embraced Islam before that day.” Sahih Bukhari, Book 15, Hadith 70:“… and they left. It was the day of 'Id, and the Black people were playing with shields and spears; so either I requested the Prophet (p.b.u.h) or he asked me whether I would like to see the display. I replied in the affirmative. Then the Prophet (p.b.u.h) made me stand behind him and my cheek was touching his cheek and he was saying, "Carry on! O Bani Arfida," till I got tired. The Prophet (p.b.u.h) asked me, "Are you satisfied (Is that sufficient for you)?" I replied in the affirmative and he told me to leave. Sahih Bukhari, Book 49, Hadith 864: “… Allah's Apostle set out for the 'Umra but the pagans of Quraish prevented him from reaching the Ka'ba. So, he slaughtered his sacrifice and got his head shaved at Al-Hudaibiya, and agreed with them that he would perform 'Umra the following year and would not carry weapons except swords and would not stay in Mecca except for the period they al lowed. So, the ...” Sahih Bukhari, Book 10, Hadith 534: “Narrated Rafi' bin Khadij: We used to offer the Maghrib prayer with the Prophet and after finishing the prayer one of us may go away and could still see as Par as the spots where one's arrow might reach when shot by a bow.” Sahih Bukhari, Book 60, Hadith 407: Narrated Umar: The properties of Bam An-Nadir were among the booty that Allah gave to His Apostle such Booty were not obtained by any expedition on the part of Muslims, neither with cavalry, nor with camelry. So those properties were for Allah's Apostle only, and he used to provide thereof the yearly expenditure for his wives, and dedicate the rest of its revenues for purchasing arms and horses as war material to be used in Allah's Cause. The quoted ahadith would give some idea of the weaponry available to the companions of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'salam). Just to surmise, short spears, shields, swords, bow & arrows, cavalry and camelry were used by companions of Prophet Muhammed (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) in their military struggles against the enemies of deen. Part Two B: Modern Weaponry Of War. In the modern world the weapons of war have nothing common with what RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) used in his battles against the polytheists of Makkah and Jews of Madinah, Khayber. The weaponry used to wage Jihad against the Soviet Russia in Afghanistan and against the oppressive polytheistic Hindu army of India in Kashmir have nothing common with the Sunnah weaponry used in Jihad by RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) and his companions. Today’s standard Mujahideen weaponry compromises of AK47, RPG, Hand Grenades, Artillery, Anti Tank Mine, Anti Personnel Mines, and Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) knows what else was used. Part Two C – The Bad Bidd'a Weaponry: The principle: 'Every Innovation Replaces A Sunnah.' and the principle: 'Every Act/Belief Which Did Not Exist In Time Of RasoolAllah/Sahabah Is Innovation.' if the literal application of these principles is valid then every Mujahid who fought in the way of Allah subhana wa ta'ala with a weapon which is not Sunnah of beloved Messenger (sallalahu alayhi was'salam), and not used by the companions is a bidd'ati. The reason should be obvious why they should be denounced as bidd'ati because they have used weaponry which is not Sunnah weaponry of Jihad, nor did these weapons exist in the time of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam). Part Two D – The Correct Understanding: As long as the user of these modern weapons does not consider them Sunnah weaponry, nor considers these weapons as abrogating replacement of Sunnah weaponry, their use in modern battle field to fight the enemy of deen is permissible. It can be safely argued that purpose of Jihad is to protect the deen, lives of Muslims their property, spread deen in lands of infidel and the weapons used to achieve this does not really matter. The use of Sunnah weaponry by RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) was result of what was available in his time, and there is no evidence of him prohibiting use of innovative weaponry. RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) prohibited the killing of non-combatants, destruction of water sources, live stock, crops, religious places, therefore any modern weapon which result in large scale death (i.e. Nuclear Bomb), destruction of civilian infrastructure, contamination of water sources, are prohibited in Sharia because their nature is as such that they result violation of explicit instructions of beloved Messenger (sallalahu alayhi was'salam). On other hand if the modern weapons can be utilized in a manner which does not result in violation of clear, explicit, emphatic teachings of beloved Messenger (salallahu alayhi was'salam) then any modern weapon is permissible, as long as it does not kill by fire. Conclusion: The conclusion arrived is clear that the literal reading of these ahadith nor the literal application of the principles is valid. Primarily because the literalism eliminates the Sunnah of Ijtihad, and it eliminates the good innovations. Which RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) said will earn the innovator and its practitioner reward from Allah (subhana wa ta'ala). The use of modern oral hygiene equipment, modern weaponry, are permissible because there is valid reason for their use, and use of these equipment is in absolute harmony with the principles of deen. In the context it means that oral hygiene is essential and modern equipment are a mean to achieve good oral hygiene. Same rule applies to weaponry, weapons which are in harmony with principles of deen, and help achieve the goals against enemies of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) are permissible, excluding which are not. The principle: 'Every Innovation Replaces A Sunnah.'can be valid if interpreted with in context of deen: 'Every Innovation Replaces A Sunnah As Part Of Deen', also the principle: Every Act/Belief Which Did Not Exist In Time Of RasoolAllah/Sahabah Is Innovation.' if interpreted to mean: 'Every Act/Belief Which Did Not Exist In Time Of RasoolAllah/Sahabah As Part Of Deen And Later is Made Part Of Deen Is Innovation.'then these understandings are absolutely valid in light of many ahadith, and the beloved Messenger of Allah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) said about such innovations: “And the most evil affairs are the innovations; and every innovation is error." Wama Alayna Ilal Balaghul Mubeen. Muhammed Ali Razvi
  13. Praiseworthy-Reprehensible Sunnah- Refuting Claim Sunnah Does Not Mean Innovation. Introduction: Definition of innovation as well as legitimacy of praiseworthy innovations and the practicing of praiseworthy innovations is disputed. As a result of this dispute there is great deal of tribulation in Ummah of beloved Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) in form of Wahhabi edicts brandishing the Ahle Sunnat as innovators and ahlul jahanum (i.e. people of hellfire). This fitna can not be eliminated until the fundamental cause of tribulation isn't solved and that is the definition of innovation But if two academics attempt to explain their position of definition innovation from Qur’an/Sunnah then the evidences used by both parties become subject of dispute due to both sides having their own interpretations. In such circumstances it has become very difficult to reconcile two definitions of innovations with one another but it is not impossible.[1] Even though a reconciliation is possible between the two definitions of innovations it is not required to reconcile them rather the definition which accords the teaching of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) should be taught.[2] The Wahhabi definition of innovation[3] is based on those ahadith which point to evilness of innovations and on other hand the definition of Ahle Sunnat is based on all the ahadith on subject of innovations; ahadith which point to reprehensible innovations and ahadith informing of reward for praiseworthy innovations. Therefore we have two categories of innovation (i.e. Praiseworthy & Reprehensible) and it is the category of praiseworthy innovation as well as its evidences which Wahhabis object to. Hadith Of Reprehensible Innovation: Khadim presented the following hadith as evidence to prove to a Wahhabi that in Islam the notion of praiseworthy innovations is not repugnant and there is reward for praiseworthy innovations: Sahih Muslim, Book 034, Number 6466: "… them in succession until signs of happiness could be seen on his (sacred) face. Thereupon Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: He who introduced some good practice (i.e. Sunnah) in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect. And he who introduced some evil practice (i.e. Sunnah) in Islam which had been followed subsequently (by others), he would be required to bear the burden like that of one who followed this (evil practice) without theirs being diminished in any respect." The Hadith clearly states: “He who introduced some good Sunnah in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, ...” and “And he who introduced some evil practice Sunnah in Islam which had been followed subsequently (by others), ...” yet his counter argument was: “This hadith does not mention new biddah. Also its about reviving a Sunnah which people forgotten and neglected.”[4] His second point; the hadith is referring to forgotten/neglected Sunnahs has been already addressed in separate article and his first point in which he states that this hadith is not about innovations[5] will be discussed in this article. Innovation & Sunnah Of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam): Ahadith use many words to imply innovations: “... Wa iyyaqum wa muhdasatil ummuri fa innaha dhalalatun … bi Sunnati wa sunnati wa sunnati khulafa ar'rashideenal mahdiy'yeen”[6] here the word Sunnah as well as Muhdasa is used. In another hadith words Sunnah, muhdasa, and bidda are used to mean innovations: "bi sunnati wa sunnati khulafa ar'rashideenal mahdi'yeen … qullu muhdasa'tin bida´h, wa qullu bida´tin dalala."[7] therefore the word bidda does not have to be used to imply innovation. Rather any of the words muhdasa, haddasa, bidda, Sunnah, or even if none of these words are used but the sentence indicates bidda it will be understood as bidda as is in the case of: “... and monasticism, which they innovated (i.e. ibtada); We did not prescribe it for them ...”[8] Another version of Sahih Muslims hadith states: “... 'If anyone revives a Sunnah of my Sunnahs and dies afterward then for him is a reward like (that of) those who ... if anyone innovates a bidda of misguidance (i.e. ibtada'a bid'ata dhalalata) with which Allah and His Messenger are not pleased then he gets a sin like ...”[9] here the word Sunnah has been replaced with bidda indicating that the in Arabic language word bidda can be a substitute for Sunnah in this Hadith. Even though the text of the hadith is tempered with but it still is evidence for substitution of words. Conclusion: The words, Sunnah, Muhdasa, Bidda, Ibtida, are used to denote innovations in context of ahadith verse of Quran. And the interpretation of Wahhabis itself supports Ahle Sunnat's position that word Sunnah is in meaning of innovation (i.e. bidda) in hadith of Sahih Muslim. Wama alayna ilal balaghul mubeen. Muhammed Ali Razavi ----------------------------- Footnotes: -------------- - [1] Sufi definition consists of two categories praiseworthy & reprehensible innovations, the Wahhabi consists of 'Shar'aee Innovation' (i.e. Legislative Innovation), 'Ghair Shar'aee Innovation' (i.e. Non-Legislative Innovation). What ever Wahhabi's term as Innovation in sense of deen is 'Reprehensible Innovation' in jargon of Sufis, and whatever the Wahhabi's term 'Ghair-Shar'aee Innovation' in techincal jargon of Sufis its 'Praiseworthy Innovation'. This was just the brief harmonization (insha'allah ta'ala ul aziz) in near future khadim will write a comprehensive article on how the two definitions can be harmonized. - [2] This is because the fahdeelat (i.e. superiority), the barakah (i.e. blessing) is in definition of innovation which is in full accordance with teaching of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) and which is supported by the praiseworthy innovations of companion of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam). - [3] Readers should note that the definition which the Wahhabi's adhere to predates their sect which emerged in the 17th century from Najd. Seikh Ahmad Sarhindi al Farooqi (alayhi rehma) popularly known has Mujadid Alif Saani, Imam e Rabbani used the definition of innovation which Wahhabis used some 100 year after him. The blame upon Wahhabi's is that they did not apply this definition of innovation has it was applied by the scholars of Ahle Sunnat likes of Seikh Ahmad Sarhindi (alayhi rehma). Instead they distorted it, invented their own Wahhabi rules and interpreted the definition of innovation according to them. - [4] Note his comment: “Also its about reviving a Sunnah which people forgotten and neglected.” is referring to this part of hadith: “He who introduced some good Sunnah in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, ...” if it is accepted that in the hadith new innovations are not being discussed but only reviving of Sunnahs which have been dead then the second part: “And he who introduced some evil Sunnah in Islam which had been followed subsequently (by others), ...” would imply that anyone who revives evil Sunnahs of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) for him as well as for Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) there would be punishment. And we all know anyone who considers any Sunnah of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) evil or believes that there is punishment for Messenger (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) such a person is kaffir. The only acceptable understanding of the hadith is that it generally refers to innovations in both parts of the hadith. 1) If one was to argue for some “x” reasons the Sunnah in: “He who introduced some good Sunnah ...” refers to Sunnah of beloved Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) and then argues that his position of hadith: “He who introduced some good Sunnah ...” referring to reviving of Sunnahs is therefore correct. 2) Also he states that second Sunnah in: “And he who introduced some evil Sunnah ...” refers to reprehensible innovation and not Sunnah of Rasoolallah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) therefore he is free of possible charge of apostasy. Response to such a person would be as fallowing: If the meaning of reviving the Sunnah of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) is derived from hadith of Sahih Muslim without mutilating it then the implications are that the very concept of reviving Sunnah of beloved Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) is praiseworthy innovation in Islam and this does not harm the position of Ahle Sunnat rather supports it, therefore it is accepted by Ahle Sunnat. If the interpretation is derived after mutilating the hadith then there is no need to respond to such heretical rejection and mutilation of Prophets words. On the second part of hadith if Sunnah is understood to mean evil innovation then the person has to accept that in the first part of the hadith of Sahih Muslim the the word Sunnah can mean praiseworthy innovation. The possibility of multiple interpretations is accordance with jawami al kalim (i.e. shortest expression bearing widest meanings) nature of ahadith. To summarize; in first part of hadith of Sahih Muslim if it is interpreted with aid of hadith of Tirmadhi then the interpretation of reviving Sunnah of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) is praiseworthy innovation in Islam, and in second part innovating anything which does not accord with teaching of Quran and Sunnah, not sanctioned by Quran and Sunnah, not in harmony with teachings of Islam is evil innovation. Regardless of how a Wahhabi interprets this Hadith the position of Ahle Sunnat is not refuted rather supported with their own interpretations. - [5] His saying that this hadith isn't about innovations was probally just a reflex response or not knowing how to deal with this difficulty in typical Wahhabi way. I am only responding to this point because I feel that brother who wrote above was reasonably knowledgeable about deen and if he can commit such a blunder many other less fortunate will also fall into same pit. - [6] i.e. “... beware of innovations in our affairs for that are misguidance … my Sunnah (i.e. practices) and Sunnah (i.e. innovations/practices) of rightly guided Khulafah.” [Ref: Tirmadhi, B44, Chap15, H2685] - [7] i.e. “... my Sunnah and Sunnah (i.e. innovation, practice) of the rightly-guided caliphs. … Avoid novelties, for every novelty is an innovation, and every innovation is an error.” [Ref: Dawood, B40, H4590] - [8] i.e. “... wa rahbaniy'yata nibtada'uha makatab'naha alayhim ...” [Ref: Surah 57:27] - [9] “... 'If anyone revives a Sunnah of my Sunnahs and dies afterward then for him is a reward like (that of) those who conduct themselves on it without deducting anything from their rewards. And if anyone innovates a bidda of misguidance (i.e. ibtada'a bid'ata dhalalata) with which Allah and His Messenger are not pleased then he gets a sin like the sins of those who observe it and nothing is deducted from the sins of the people.” [Ref: Tirmadhi, B44, Chap15, H2686] -----------------------------
  14. Praiseworthy & Reprehensible Sunnah Understood According To Sunnah Of RasoolAllah Peace And Blessings Be Upon Him Introduction: Hadith narrated by Hadhrat Abu Huraira (radiallah ta'ala anh) records a guiding principle given by Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'salam): “... "Isn't He who raises his head before the Imam afraid that Allah may transform his head into that of a donkey or his figure (face) into that of a donkey?" [ref: Bukhari, Book 11, Hadith 660] Many such guiding principles are recorded in ahadith of beloved Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) which can be taken out of the context completely and they will still be source of legislation because the nature of language used is as such. And as a result of this numerous such statements can be found in the books of ahadith which are stripped from their original context.[1] In their context these guiding principles may have some contextual relevance, or absolute relevance to context, or have absolutely no relevance to its context. And their partial or absolute contextual relevance does not restrict the implications of these guiding principles to a particular person or era or meaning, rather these guiding principles remain universal and serve as rules for Ummah of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) can judge. Hadith of Praiseworthy & Reprehensible Sunnah: Sahih Muslim, Book 034, Number 6466: "Jarir b. Abdullah reported that some desert Arabs clad in woolen clothes came to Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him). He saw them in sad plight as they had been hard pressed by need. He (the Holy Prophet) exhorted people to give charity, but they showed some reluctance until (signs) of anger could be seen on his face. Then a person from the Ansar came with a purse containing silver. Then came another person and then other persons followed them in succession until signs of happiness could be seen on his (sacred) face. Thereupon Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect. And he who introduced some evil practice in Islam which had been followed subsequently (by others), he would be required to bear the burden like that of one who followed this (evil practice) without theirs being diminished in any respect." The Dispute Between Ahle Sunnat & Wahhabi's: The Wahhabis hold to the belief that this hadith is in specific meaning of; companion in the gathering who initiated giving of Sadqa to the poor Bedouins and those who fallowed him, for all of them there will be equal reward, therefore it can not be used to substantiate category of 'Praiseworthy Innovation' as well as the innovations. The Sunnis hold to the belief that this statement of beloved Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) can be stripped completely independent of it's context and still serve as a source of guidance. Therefore this hadith is evidence for category of 'Praiseworthy Innovation' and a justification for praiseworthy innovations. The aim of this article is to explain the hadith of praiseworthy and blameworthy Sunnah in light of Sunnah of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam).[2] Also to validate the contention of Ahle Sunnat Wal Jammat that it is Sunnah of beloved Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) to give guiding principles to his followers on which we can judge the right, wrong, permissible and prohibited. And the belief of Wahhabis that this hadith is only restricted to its context is heretical and blameworthy innovation. Analysis Of Hadith Sunnah Sai'yah & Hasanah: The complete statement does not fit the context of event because a blameworthy Sunnah in Islam was practiced presence of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam). Therefore the beloved Prophet's (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) saying: “And he who introduced some evil practice in Islam which had been followed subsequently (by others), he would be required to bear the burden like that of one who followed this (evil practice) without theirs being diminished in any respect." is not according to the context. And due to fact that there is no mention of blameworthy Sunnah[3] being made part of Islam by companions. It would be safe to conclude that this entire statement of beloved Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam), from: “He who introduced some good practice ...” to end of: “And he who introduced some evil practice ...” was given as guiding principles to encourage good and forbid the evil by him. So the companions can act on the verse of “... amr bil maroof wan'nahuna a'nil munkir ...”[4] and by extension of us being Ummatis the verse refers to us the Muslims. So we also use these guiding principles to encourage good which is part of deen as Fard and Sunnah as well as invite to good which is determined by Ijtihad. Forbid the evil which was declared by Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) as evil and his beloved Messenger (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) in Quran and Sunnah. As well as discourage the Muslims from taking part in modern evil practices which were not explicitly declared to be evil yet due to Ijtihadi evidence it can be established that these are against the spirit of Islam therefore evil. Hadith Of Intentions: Sahih Bukhari, Book 1, Hadith 1: “Narrated 'Umar bin Al-Khattab: I heard Allah's Apostle saying: "The reward of deeds depends upon the intentions and every person will get the reward according to what he has intended.” So whoever emigrated for worldly benefits or for a woman to marry, his emigration was for what he emigrated for." Sahih Bukhari, Book 86, Hadith 85: “Narrated 'Umar bin Al-Khattab: The Prophet said: “O people! The reward of deeds depends upon the intentions, and every person will get the reward according to what he has intended.” So, whoever emigrated for Allah and His Apostle, then his emigration was for Allah and His Apostle, and whoever emigrated to take worldly benefit or for a woman to marry, then his emigration was for what he emigrated for." Point One: Beloved Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) said: "The reward of deeds depends upon the intentions and every person will get the reward according to what he has intended.” and then he went to give examples to explain his rule/principle with words: “So whoever emigrated for worldly benefits or for a woman to marry, his emigration was for what he emigrated for." In another hadith it is reported Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) gave the same rule/principle but explained it slightly differently: “So, whoever emigrated for Allah and His Apostle, then his emigration was for Allah and His Apostle, and whoever emigrated to take worldly benefit or for a woman to marry, then his emigration was for what he emigrated for." Based on this one can not argue that since the rule/principle is given in a specific context marriage and migration[5] the meaning of it is restricted to that context only. And based on this conclude that a believer does not have to intend to do everything for sake of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) to be rewarded by Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) because the context was of marriage and emigration. Point Two: The aim of the statement: "The reward of deeds depends upon the intentions and every person will get the reward according to what he has intended.” is to let people know that if action is done with intention of worldly gain it will be judged as that and it will not earn reward, and reward of deeds done for worldly gain and show off, is punishment. This principle is in general meaning explained in a specific context to educate that any act done for worldly intentions will be judged and rewarded as such. To teach if you intend to worship Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) your actions of worship will earn you reward. If you give Zakat, and Sadqa with intention of pleasing Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) then the reward of this is with Allah (subhana wa ta'ala). If you was to marry for sake of protecting your self from adultery out of fear of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) or to marry with intention to have children who would fight for the cause of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) then the good intention will earn reward. And to teach that if a action is done for worldly intentions and without the intention of pleasing Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) then on the day of judgment it will be judged as that and will earn its doer no reward. Fighting In Allah's Cause: Sahih Muslim, Book 53, Hadith 355: “Narrated Abu Musa Al-Ashari: A Bedouin asked the Prophet, "A man may fight for the sake of booty, and another may fight so that he may be mentioned by the people, and a third may fight to show his position (i.e. bravery); which of these regarded as fighting in Allah's Cause?" The Prophet said: "He who fights so that Allah's Word (i.e. Islam) should be superior, fights for Allah's Cause." Sahih Bukhari, Book 3, Hadith 125: “Narrated Abu Musa: A man came to the Prophet and asked, "O Allah's Apostle! What kind of fighting is in Allah's cause? (I ask this), for some of us fight because of being enraged and angry and some for the sake of his pride and haughtiness." The Prophet raised his head (as the questioner was standing) and said: "He who fights so that Allah's Word (Islam) should be superior, then he fights in Allah's cause." Point One: A Bedouin came to Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) and said: "A man may fight for the sake of booty, and another may fight so that he may be mentioned by the people, and a third may fight to show his position (i.e. bravery); which of these regarded as fighting in Allah's Cause?" in another hadith which is also narrated by Abu Musa Al-Ashari (rahimullah alayhi ta'ala): "O Allah's Apostle! What kind of fighting is in Allah's cause?” The answer given by beloved Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) is: "He who fights so that Allah's Word (i.e. Islam) should be superior, fights for Allah's Cause.” Point Two: The context reveals questioner pacifically mentioned fighting in rage, fighting for pride, fight for haughtiness, fight for spoils of war, and then asked the question: “O Allah's Apostle! What kind of fighting is in Allah's cause?” The answer given was that one who fights so Allah's (subhana wa ta'ala) word should be superior he fights for the cause of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala). From this context can we correctly conclude that one who fights for pride, spoils of war, haughtiness, so deen of Allah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) is superior is fighting in cause of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala)? Or is he fighting for Allah's (subhana wa ta'ala) cause one who fights so Word of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) is superior over its enemies? One who fights so Allah's (subhana wa ta'ala) word is superior over its enemies is fighting in the cause of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala).[6] This demonstrates that a guiding principle can be in a particular context yet its meaning can absolutely be absolutely independent from it's context. Paying Debt Handsomely: Sahih Bukhari, Book 38, Hadith 502: “Narrated Abu Huraira: A man came to the Prophet demanding his debts and behaved rudely. The companions of the Prophet intended to harm him, but Allah's Apostle said (to them), "Leave him, for the creditor (i.e. owner of a right) has the right to speak." Allah's Apostle then said, "Give him a camel of the same age as that of his." The people said, "O Allah's Apostle! There is only a camel that is older than his." Allah's Apostle said, "Give (it to) him, for the best amongst you is he who pays the rights of others handsomely." Sahih Bukhari, Book 41, Hadith 578: Narrated Abu Huraira: The Prophet owed a camel of a certain age to a man who came to demand it back. The Prophet ordered his companions to give him. They looked for a camel of the same age but found nothing but a camel one year older. The Prophet told them to give it to him. The man said, "You have paid me in full, and may Allah pay you in full." The Prophet said, "The best amongst you is he who pays his debts in the most handsome manner." Point One: Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) owed debt to a man who was rude to Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) when he came to demand from Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) his debt. The companions of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) did not tolerate disrespect of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam), not even slight disrespect. So they wanted to harmed him (i.e. kill him)[7] but Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) prevented them. By saying: "Leave him, for the creditor (i.e. owner of a right) has the right to speak." Based on the context: “A man came to the Prophet demanding his debts and behaved rudely.” will one argue that Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) granted him permission to speak therefore Prophet of Allah (Sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) gave him permission to be rude to him![8] Of course not, the permission to speak was to demand the debt back from one who owes the debt to creditor and not to be rude to him. Point Two: RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) ordered that a camel be given to creditor: "Give him a camel of the same age as that of his." so the companions of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) searched for a same age camel to give to the creditor: “... but found nothing but a camel one year older.” So they informed Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) of the situation: “The Prophet told them to give it to him.” and then said: "The best amongst you is he who pays his debts in the most handsome manner." From the context it can be said that Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) is saying that he is the best amongst the Sahabah (alayhi ridwan). And clearly from hadith the lesson we learn, the guiding principle for us is to judge anyone who pays his debts handsomely as having characteristic of best of Muslims. It would be foolish to assume that this hadith was specific for Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) and it can not be used for guidance for Ummah of beloved Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam). This exercise demonstrates that a guiding principle may have partial relevance to the context but ultimately its purpose is to be source of guidance for all Muslims belonging to any era. Reprehensible Deeds In Jahilliyah: Sahih Muslim, Book 1, Hadith 217: “It is narrated on the authority of Abdullah b. Mas'ud that some people said to the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him): Messenger of Allah, would we be held responsible for our deeds committed in the state of ignorance (before embracing Islam)?[9] Upon his he (the Holy Prophet) remarked: He who amongst you performed good deeds in Islam, He would not be held responsible for them. And he who committed evil (even after embracing Islam) would be held responsible or his misdeeds that he committed in the state of ignorance as well as in that of Islam.” Sahih Muslim, Book 1, Hadith 218: “It is narrated on the authority of Abdullah b. Mas'ud: We once said: Messenger of Allah, would we be held responsible for our deeds committed in the state of ignorance? He (the Holy Prophet) observed: He who did good deeds in Islam would not be held responsible for what he did in the state of ignorance, but he who committed evil (after having come within the fold of Islam) would be held responsible for his previous and later deeds.” Point One: Some people said to Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) that would they be held responsible on the day of judgment for the sinful deed they committed before coming to Islam. Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) replied: “He who amongst you performed good deeds in Islam He would not be held responsible for them.” And about munafiqeen (i.e. hypocrites): “And he who committed evil (even after embracing Islam) would be held responsible or his misdeeds that he committed in the state of ignorance as well as in that of Islam.” Based on the context of question, and the answer is it possible to safely conclude that those who asked beloved Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) about the deeds of pre-jahiliyah period were pious and sinful! Of course not only a ignominious illiterate would come to such conclusion because there is indication in this hadith that only Sahabah (alayhi ridwan) asked.[10] Point Two: Sahih Muslim, Book 1, Hadith 222: “Hakim b. Hizam reported to 'Urwa b. Zubair that he said to the Messenger of Allah: Do you think that there is any thing for me (of he reward with the Lord) for the deed of religious purification that I did in the state of ignorance? Upon this he (the Apostle of Allah) said to him: You accepted Islam with all the previous virtues that you practiced.” Sahih Muslim, Book 1, Hadith 218: “It is narrated on the authority of Abdullah b. Mas'ud, We once said: Messenger of Allah, would we be held responsible for our deeds committed in the state of ignorance? He (the Holy Prophet) observed: He who did good deeds in Islam would not be held responsible for what he did in the state of ignorance, but he who committed evil (after having come within the fold of Islam) would be held responsible for his previous and later deeds.” Devils may deceive people and the people may deceive themselves and conclude that the Munafiqeen as well as Sahabah (alayhi ridwan) asked beloved (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) about their deeds of pre-conversion era. But it is clear from the ahadith that Hadhrat Hakim bin Hizam (radiallah ta'ala anh), Hadhrat Abdullah bin Mas'ud (radiallah ta'ala anh) as well as the other Sahabah had asked the question about deeds of pre-conversion era. Point Three: Importantly these ahadith are hope to anyone who converts to Islam, news to them that if they act piously adhere to deen of Islam, practice the deen as it is supposed to, then for them there will be reward for the good deeds done prior to being Muslim and while being part of Ummah. This hadith also serves as warning to new converts that if you convert but continue to sin without restrain and repentance then you will be punished with your sins done while being Muslim as well as in period prior to Islam. It would be illogical, irrational, to assume that this guiding principle news was limited to the persons involved, or restricted to companions only. This leads to the conclusion that guiding principles can have partial relevance to it's context but not absolute relevance and if a senseless shaytaan argues that this Hadith has absolute relevance to the people involved then there is defect in his aqeedah regarding beloved Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) and about Sahabah (alayhi ridwan).[11] Usurping Land Wrongfully: Sahih Muslim, Book 1, Hadith 256: “Ibn Mas'ud says: I heard the Messenger of Allah observing: He who took an oath on the property of a Muslim without legitimate right would meet Allah and He would be angry, with him. Then the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) in support of his contention recited the verse: "Verily those who barter Allah's covenant and their oaths at a small price.” Sahih Muslim, Book 1, Hadith 258: “Wa'il reported it on the authority of his father Hujr: I was with the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) that two men came there disputing over a piece of land. One of them said: Messenger of Allah, this man appropriated my land without justification in the days of ignorance. The (claimant) was Imru'l-Qais b. 'Abis al-Kindi and his opponent was Rabi'a b. 'Iban He (the Holy Prophet) said (to the claimant): Have you evidence (to substantiate your claim)? He replied: I have no evidence. Upon this he (the Messenger of Allah) remarked: Then his (that is of the defendant) is the oath. He (the claimant) said: In this case he (the defendant) would appropriate this (the property). He (the Holy Prophet) said: There is than no other way left for you but this. He (the narrator) said: When he (the defendant) stood up to take oath, the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: He who appropriated the land wrongfully would meet Allah in a state that He would be angry with him. Ishaq in his narration mentions Rabi'a b. 'Aidan (instead of Rabi'a b. 'Ibdan).” Point One: Imrul Qais bin Abis Al Khindi (radia'allah ta'ala anh) as well as Rabi'a bin Iban (radia'allah ta'ala anh) came to Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) regarding a dispute about land. It was said to him: “Messenger of Allah, this man appropriated my land without justification in the days of ignorance.” Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) said to Imrul Qais (radia'allah ta'ala anh): “Have you evidence (to substantiate your claim)?” To which he said no he doesn’t then Prophet instructed the defendant to take a oath and said: “He who appropriated the land wrongfully would meet Allah in a state that He would be angry with him.” as well as recited the verse: “Verily those who barter Allah's covenant and their oaths at a small price.” From the statement of Imrul Qais's statement: “In this case he (the defendant) would appropriate this (the property).” and the verse of Quran can we conclude that Rabi'a bin Iban (radia'allah ta'ala anh) was being revealed as one who sold his iman for sake of land? Or can we conclude that the verse of the Quran due to the context of the dispute regarding land in fact was revealed about land? Answer for both is no, and no; because this recitation of the verse of Quran: “Behold, those who barter away their bond with God and their own pledges for a trifling gain – they shall not partake in the blessings of the life to come; and God will neither speak unto them nor look upon them on the Day of Resurrection, nor will He cleanse them of their sins; and grievous suffering awaits them.” [ref: Surah 3:77] was to remind the companion that Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) does not approve of those who sell their iman, piety for worldly gains: “Nor sell the covenant of Allah for a miserable price: for with Allah is (a prize) far better for you, if ye only knew.” [ref: Surah 16:95] And in no way the quotation of verse can be righteously be used to attack the any of the two pious companions.[12] And no the verse is not about land but its about Allah's (subhana wa ta'ala) covenant which he made the with people of the books and their selling covenant and oaths for small price means they alter the books, conceal, distort what was revealed in the earlier books for worldly gains.[13] Point Two: Three essential lessons to be learned from this, one, the guiding principle: “He who appropriated the land wrongfully would meet Allah in a state that He would be angry with him.” does have some relevance to the dispute of land but not absolute. Therefore there is no blame upon any of the companions of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam). Two, even though the verse does not indicate anything about land Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) quoted it to warn the believers of danger of usurping ones land unjustly. This establishes the principle that verse of Quran can be used out of its context if the language permits, such usage is permissible especially if it's about characteristics of man or about mankind generally. Lastly Allah's (subhana wa ta'ala) states that in the stories of past nations there are lessons, instructions of guidance: “There is, in their stories, instruction for men endued with understanding.” [ref: Surah 12:111] and we the Muslims have to be men of understanding to learn lessons and take instructions from the stories of companions which are recorded as ahadith. And the guiding principle is warning of what to stay away from, therefore it is according to Allah's (subhana wa ta'ala) statement: “Verily in this is an instructive warning for whosoever feareth (i.e. Allah).” [ref: Surah 79:26] Conclusion: In the light of discussion questions needs to be asked, should these guiding principles only be understood in the light of context of Hadith or can they be stripped from their context and applied generally? Answer, Sunnah of beloved RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) is to give guiding principles in context of a event or to give a guiding principle in historical context and then explain that guiding principle with examples. Therefore the guiding principles can be stripped from their historical context and be applied to life of Muslims where ever they maybe and who ever they maybe. Also note that these guiding principles were given in historical context because Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) sent revelation (which became hadith) on basis of the necessity and RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) guided the Muslims with rules/principles so Muslims judge according to what Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) has revealed and know the limits which His beloved Messengers (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) had set. The Quran was revealed in specific context of Arabia, its religions, customs, but we do not restrict the understanding of it to only what what Quran and Sunnah explicitly establish. Rather we use Quran and Ahadith to meet the challenges of modern tribulations, and refute associating of partners with Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) may it be the Greek mythology or Chinese or Indian. And this can only be done if the verses of Quran are stripped from their historical context and used as guiding principles against these polytheistic creeds. The language of the Quran as well as statements of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) allow a broader interpretation. Therefore to restrict the meaning of a verse/statement (i.e. guiding principle) of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) to a specific context is dangerous. In fact so dangerous that it will eliminate the very basis of Ijtihad because the tribulations in modern times as well as religions which were not mentioned nor their beliefs discussed in Qur’an, their refutation depends on Ijtihadi evidence.[14] On the basis of analysis of Sunnah of Messenger (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) we can conclude that he gave rules/guiding-principles in context of events which happened around him and this indeed is also Sunnah of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala).[15] Therefore Prophet's (sallalahu alyhi was'sallam) saying: “He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.” and his saying: “And he who introduced some evil practice in Islam which had been followed subsequently (by others), he would be required to bear the burden like that of one who followed this (evil practice) without theirs being diminished in any respect." are to be understood as guiding principles given in specific context which have relevance to the historical event, as well as a guiding principles for Muslims in his time and those who come after the him and after the three generations. Our deduction is also based on the fact that Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) has stated; stories in revelation are narrated so the ulil albab (i.e. men of understanding) learn lessons from them. Therefore the guiding principle: “He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.” is valid source to perform ijtihad on to support the existence, the creation, of praiseworthy innovations in deen of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam). With certainty that one who innovates a ijtihadi praiseworthy innovation for him there is reward as well as equal reward for those who fallow his praise worthy innovation. Wama alayna ilal balaghul mubeen. Muhammed Ali Razavi Footnotes: ========= - [1] Reports like these are too numerous to list all: “... Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: He who died knowing (fully well) that there is no god but Allah entered Paradise.” [ref: Muslim, B1, H39] and “... the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) observed: he who as in his heart the weight of a mustard seed of pride shall not enter Paradise.” [ref: Muslim, B1, H166] Existence of such reports is also proof that Sahabah (alayhi ridwan) stripped such ahadith from their historical context to educate people. - [2] We have been commanded to obey Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) and Messenger (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) and prohibited from falling into disputes: “And obey Allah and His Messenger, and do not dispute and [thus] lose courage and [then] your strength would depart; and ...” [ref: Surah 8:46] the reality is that we have fallen into disputes on all sorts of issues including religion and considering the nature of man Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) instructed the best course of action if we do fall into dispute: “O ye who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those charged with authority among you. If ye differ in anything among yourselves, refer it to Allah and His Messenger, if ye do believe in Allah and the Last Day: ...” [ref: Surah 4:59] Note in disputes we are only instructed to refer to Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) and RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam). We have to probe why did Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) not say refer to ulil amr (i.e. ones with authority)! Reason, It is entirely possible for the ulil amr to fall into dispute on a matter of deen, and we have plenty of evidence in ahadith to substantiate this. We are instructed to obey the ulil amr on matters which there is no dispute, and we are instructed to obey Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) as well as Messenger (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) in all matters disputed or in agreement. As a matter of principle we first seek guidance in Quran (i.e. Allah subhana wa ta'ala) if we fail to find evidence for a matter in Quran then we seek guidance from Sunnah (i.e. Prophet sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) because: “He who obeys the Messenger has obeyed Allah ; but those who turn away ...” [ref: Surah 4:80] Even then if we do not find guidance on a matter then we are permitted to practice Ijtihad (i.e. striving to achieve a objective independently) in light of Quran and Ahadith. - [3] Wahhabis may be tempted by the shaytaan to say that reprehensible Sunnah of companions in the context of hadith was that they were reluctant to give sadqa. Explanation of their reluctance has to be understood in light of Prophet's (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) saying: “... Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) having said this: The most excellent Sadaqa or the best of Sadaqa is that after giving which the (giver) remains rich and the upper hand is better than the lower hand, and begin from the members of your household.” [ref: Bukhari, B5, H2254] Their reluctance was due to desire to practice sadqa in secret but when they saw signs of displeasure after Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) they realized that exhortation to give sadqa was for the poor Bedouins then they came forward until he was pleased. Therefore a cursed apostate Wahhabi would dare to accuse the companions of beloved Messenger (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) of introducing reprehensible Sunnah into religion of Islam. - [4] “[such believers are] the repentant, the worshipers, the praisers [of Allah ], the travelers [for His cause], those who bow and prostrate [in prayer], those who enjoin what is right and forbid what is wrong, and those who observe the limits [set by] Allah. And give good tidings to the believers.” [ref: Surah 9:112] - [5] Context of marriage and migration: 'The reward of deeds of migration as well as marriage depends upon the intentions, and every person will get the reward according to what he has intended.' - [6] The cause of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala), the aim, objective of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) is to make Islam dominant over its adversaries: “It is He Who hath sent His Messenger with guidance and the Religion of Truth, to over-come it over all religion, even though the Pagans may detest (it).” [ref: Surah 9:33, Surah 48:28, Surah 61:9] and therefore who fights Jihad in the way of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) with right intention he fights for cause of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala). - [7] The companions of beloved Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) would have killed him because this is the Sunnah of Sahabah for those who disrespect Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) and this is proven from: “... While we were with Allah's Apostle who was distributing (i.e. some property), there came Dhu-l-Khuwaisira, a man from the tribe of Bani Tamim and said, "O Allah's Apostle! Do Justice." The Prophet said, "Woe to you! Who could do justice if I did not? I would be a desperate loser if I did not do justice." 'Umar said, "O Allah's Apostle! Allow me to chop his head off." ...” [ref: Bukhari, B56, H807] in another hadith its reported: “Somebody who, I think was Khalid bin Al-Walid, requested the Prophet to let him chop that man's head off, but he prevented him.” [ref: Bukhari, B55, H558] - [8] Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) has prohibited it raising of voice over the voice of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) and talking to him in a manner in which we talk among our selves: “O ye who believe! Raise not your voices above the voice of the Prophet, nor speak aloud to him in talk, as ye may speak aloud to one another, lest your deeds become vain and ye perceive not.” [ref: Surah 49:2] Raising voice over the voice of another is disrespectful and one we talk freely to are often the ones we have no respect for. And also when people converse with each other they use derogatory nicknames or use words which show lack of respect, therefore common manners are prohibited for RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam). In another verse Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) has prohibited the believers: “O you who believe! do not say “Raina” and say “Unzurna” and listen, and for the unbelievers there is a painful chastisement.” [ref: Surah 2:104] 'Ra'ina' literally means 'listen to us' in Arabic, this word was used by companions to imply repeat what Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) said if they missed something. The Jews taking advantage of similarity of Hebrew and Arabic languages used to pronounce 'ra'ina' with twist of tonge: “Among the Jews are those who distort words from their [proper] usages and say … "Ra'ina," twisting their tongues and defaming the religion.” [ref: Surah 4:46] to make it sound like the Hebrew word which had derogatory meaning. On the basis of the Jews having malicious intentions Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) forbade the believers from using this word and instructed that companions use 'unzurna' (i.e. look at us). Beloved Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) was embodiment of Quran it could not be expected him to encourage evil (i.e. being rude to him) because Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) had prohibited it. - [9] Period of ignorance technically implies 'period of ignorance of Islam and lived in kuffr/shirk', and in this hadith the term is used to mean period of kuffr/shirk before converting to Islam. - [10] It is factually possible that among the Muslims in the time of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) there were people (i.e. munafiqeen) who practiced evil deeds even after converting to Islam and they will be punished for their sinful deeds of pre-conversion era and post conversion era. But it is impossible due to the nature of question because it reveals that one who has inquired is concerned about his deeds of pre-islamic era and a munafiq was/is never concerned about what he has done in past or is doing at the moment. And if a munafiq shows concern its only for sake of pride, salvaging prestige honor, and for fear of retribution. The Sahabah intended good for deen, and practiced good in deen and prohibited evil, abstained from evil, and were concerned about the evil deeds regardless of when they committed them due to fear of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala). The Munafiqeen had no interest in deen, their practice of deen (i.e. prayers etc ..) was simply a show and Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) said about them: “To the Hypocrites give the glad tidings that there is for them (but) a grievous penalty.” [ref: Surah 4:138] The penalty is explained in another verse: “The Hypocrites will be in the lowest depths of the Fire: no helper wilt thou find for them.” [ref: Surah 4:145] Therefore if the Munafiqeen were asking about what the good/evil deeds Prophet of Allah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) would have quoted the verses and answered their question. - [11] Defect in aqeeda regarding Sahabah (alayhi ridwan) because Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) has promised in the Quran to not to punish them but to grant then paradise: “The vanguard (of Islam) - the first of those who migrated (i.e. Muhajireen) and of those who gave them aid (i.e. Ansar), and (also) those who follow them in (all) good deeds,- well pleased is Allah with them, as are they with Him: for them hath He prepared gardens under which rivers flow, to dwell therein for ever: that is the supreme felicity.” [ref: Surah 9:100] To say that the guiding principle mentioned has absolute relevance to Sahabah is to argue that Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) frightened the Sahabah (radiallah ta'ala) about a matter which Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) had already decided and informed the Sahabah (radia'allah ta'ala anh) of paradise. - [12] The reason anyone of these two companions can not be said to be under wrath of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) is simple because Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) has forgiven their mistakes, sins of all companions: “To those who believe and do deeds of righteousness hath Allah promised forgiveness and a great reward.” [ref: Surah 5:9] forgiveness for their sins and reward unconditionally which has Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) promised in this verse to Sahabah (alayhi ridwan): “... to all has Allah promised a goodly (reward). And Allah is well acquainted with all that ye do.” [ref: Surah 57:10] The promise of reward, and forgiveness of their sins/mistakes itself is proof that Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) did not give this principle for the two companions. One who ignorant of Quran and Sunnah may argue this was given in time when RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) did not know about what Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) will do with the companions so he could have intended it for them. Response, revelation received by Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) was of two types one which became Quran, and one which was Hadith. Allah (subhana a ta'ala) does not forget what He has instructed nor does he contradict Himself. Hence the understanding that this principle, in fact any principle which is given in context of where it points negatively to a companion has to be understood for the rest of Ummah which isn’t protected from misguidance. With this the harmony between wahi of Quran and wahi of Hadith is remains intact, and Allah's (subhana wa ta'ala) challenge of no contradiction in his guidance remains legitimately uncontested. - [13] Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) has stated: “And, behold, there are indeed some among them who distort the Book with their tongues, so as to make you think that [what they say] is from the Book, the while it is not from the Book; and who say, "This is from God," the while it is not from God: and thus do they tell a lie about God, being well aware [that it is a lie]” [ref: Surah 3:78] about such people Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) says: “Behold, those who barter away their bond with God and their own pledges for a trifling gain – they shall not partake in the blessings of the life to come; and God will neither speak unto them nor look upon them on the Day of Resurrection, nor will He cleanse them of their sins; and grievous suffering awaits them.” [ref: Surah 3:77] in another verse Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) states about people of book: “Then woe to those who write the Book with their own hands, and then say:"This is from Allah," to traffic with it for miserable price!- Woe to them for what their hands do write, and for the gain they make thereby.” [ref: Surah 2:79] - [14] Evidence which is not explicit but is implicit and based on analogy. - [15] Allah's (subhana wa ta'ala) Sunnah is to send revelation when there is a justified cause for revelation. And that cause can be anything; someone attributing sons to Allah (subhana wa ta'ala), or attributing daughters to Allah (subhana wa ta'ala). ==========
  15. Hadith Of Praiseworthy/Reprehensible Innovation: Critical Analysis Of A Interpretation. Introduction. Hadith of praiseworthy and blameworthy innovation can be explained in many different ways without contradicting the established facts from Qur’an or Sunnah of beloved Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam). The first part of the article will explain why the hadith in discussion belongs to a specific genre of ahadith which does not necessitate direct link between the hadith of Sahih Muslim and others. In the second part this article will focus on one specific interpretation which is presented by the Wahhabiya and their like minded individuals to refute the legitimacy of praiseworthy innovations in Islam. In the last and finale part of the article khadim will explain the meaning of the hadith of Sahih Muslim in the context of ahadith of reprehensible innovation. Hadith Of Reprehensible Innovation. Sahih Muslim, Book 034, Number 6466: "… them in succession until signs of happiness could be seen on his (sacred) face. Thereupon Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: He who introduced some good practice (i.e. Sunnah) in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect. And he who introduced some evil practice (i.e. Sunnah) in Islam which had been followed subsequently (by others), he would be required to bear the burden like that of one who followed this (evil practice) without theirs being diminished in any respect." Part One: A Genre Of Hadith. It is narrated: “The servant does not introduce good practice which is followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.”[1] another hadith with similar theme states: “No one calls to guidance without having the same reward as those who follow him, without diminishing their rewards at all. And no one calls to error without having the same burdens as they do, without diminishing their burdens at all.”[2] One version of hadith states: “If anyone revives a Sunnah of my Sunnahs and dies afterward s then for him is a reward like (that of) those who conduct themselves on it without deducting anything from their rewards. And if anyone innovates a bidda of misguidance with which Allah and His Messenger are not pleased then he gets a sin like the sins of those who observe it and nothing is deducted from the sins of the people.”[Ref: Tirmadhi, B44, Chap15, H2686] yet another version states: “O son, that is from my Sunnah, and he who revives my Sunnah has indeed revived me and he who revives me will be with me in paradise.”[3] and finally another hadith states: “Whoever teaches some knowledge will have the reward of the one who acts upon it, without that detracting from his reward in the slightest.”[4] Importantly the hadith of praiseworthy, blameworthy innovation belongs to a category of ahadith which inform the believers of reward from Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) for either innovating a practice, propagating Islam, reviving a Sunnah, and inform of equale reward for those who fallow their footsteps. One set of ahadith makes mention of hadith praiseworthy, blameworthy innovations, the second set of ahadith mentions reviving of forgotten Sunnah of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam), the third type of hadith discusses teaching of knowledge, the fourth type of hadith talks about inviting to amr bil maroof. Therefore it would be absolutely ludicrous to use of one set of ahadith to distort the apparent meaning of another set of ahadith beyond recognition. Yes, it is possible to interpret all these ahadith harmoniously with one another but those interpretations do not impact negatively on the position of Ahle Sunnat (i.e. praiseworthy innovations can legitimately be part of Islam). There is no requirement for interpretation of any of these ahadith, and if they were to be interpreted no valid interpretation can exclude another valid interpretation. The nature of RasoolAllah's (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) speech is such that it can be interpreted to mean many thing. As a believer we should accept all valid interpretations without practicing selectivism because this is demonstration of firmly believing in Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) and in His beloved Messenger (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam). Part Two: Harmonizing Ahadith. Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) has stated: “He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.” The Wahhabi's interpret this hadith exclusively to mean: “He who [revived forgotten, neglected Sunnah] which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it..” in order to deny/reject the other possible interpretations. Even though this Wahhabi interpretation is acceptable[5] in light of: “If anyone revives[6] a Sunnah out of my Sunnahs and dies afterwards then for him is a reward like (that of) those who conduct themselves on it without deducting anything from their rewards.”[7] but in the context of hadith of Sahih Muslim the exclusivity of their interpretation is extremely heretical. The reason why this explanation is heretical is obvious that it can only derived after completely mutilating the hadith of Sahih Muslim. A interpretation which does not omit the contents of hadith of Sahih Muslim but rather incorporate them as well is safer then the mutilation of Hadith. One such interpretation is if the concept of reviving Sunnah/Practice of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) is itself considered a good Sunnah (i.e. practice, innovation) introduced in Islam then the meaning of hadith of Muslim would be: “He who introduced some good Sunnah in Islam [i.e. reviving of neglected, forgotten Sunnahs] which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.” With this interpretation the literal meaning of Sahih Muslim's hadith remains intact and hadith of Tirmadhi is incorporated into it's text to give a interpretation which does not refute the literal implications on which position of Ahle Sunnat is based but it refutes the exclusiveness of Wahhabi interpretation.[8] With this interpretation the reviving of Sunnahs of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) becomes a praiseworthy innovation and this interpretation does not contradict the position of Ahle Sunnat Wal Jammat but rather this interpretation is a valid interpretation due to hadith being shortest of expressions bearing widest of meanings. Part Three: Explanation of Reprehensible Innovations. It is clear that the hadith of praiseworthy/blameworthy innovations can be interpreted in a manner to include the meaning of reviving the forgotten or neglected Sunnahs of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam). And it is also clear that this is a interpretation, a valid interpretation at that, but the literal text of the hadith of Sahih Muslim is definitive which can be subject of further interpretations. It has been established that according to the interpretation in part two the very concept of reviving Sunnahs of beloved Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) is a praiseworthy innovation in Islam. Therefore the only excuse source of disharmony in Ahle Sunnats position is the hadith of: "… qullu muhdasa'tin bida´h, wa qullu bida´tin dalala ..." once this hadith is explained then alhamdulillah the position of Ahle Sunnat is haq which no batal can knock down with their heretical ways. Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) has reported to have said: “And the most evil affairs are the innovations; and every innovation is error."[9] on the basis of this the heretical Wahhabiya argue that 'every' innovation is evil misguidance. Yet in Arabic qullu (i.e. every) isn’t used always to mean all, every, but it is used to mean all or every in a specific category. That category of innovations is of type which: “... is not in harmony with the principles of our religion, ...”[10] or “... any act for which there is no sanction from our behalf, ...”[11] or “... for which there is no valid (reason) (commits sin) and these are to be rejected.”[12] Those innovations which; are in harmony with principles of our deen, are compromised of various Sunnahs that are sanctioned by Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) and for them there is valid justification then they should not be rejected. They are not the evil type of innovations which we are instructed to reject, but rather they are praiseworthy innovations, good innovations about which Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) stated: “He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.” Conclusion: The position of Ahle Sunnat is that in deen praiseworthy innovations can be made part of Islam with Ijtihad as Sahih Bukhari, Tafsir Ibn Kathir is part of Islam. And if the hadith of Sahih Muslim is not mutilated but the content of it are kept as it is. Then the text of hadith of Tirmadhi is incorporated into the text of hadith of Sahih Muslim. According to to this interpretation the very concept of reviving Sunnahs of beloved Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) is a praiseworthy innovation in Islam. Instead of refuting the position of Ahle Sunnat the Wahhabi interpretation substantiates it. Wama alayna ilal balaghul mubeen. Muhammed Ali Razavi ----------------------------- Footnotes: ======== - [1] “Jarir b. 'Abdullah reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: The servant does not introduce good practice which is followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6468] In Urdu translation book of Zakat, chapter of sadaqah another hadith is recorded: ”… Let a man give charity from his dinars, his dirhams, his clothing, his wheat or his dates – even if it is only half a date.’ A man from the Ansaar brought a package which he could hardly carry in his hand, then another and another came, until there were two piles, of food and clothing, and I saw the face of the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) beaming with joy. The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: ‘Whoever starts a good Sunnah (i.e. practice) in Islam will have his own reward and a reward equal to that of those who follow him, without it detracting in the least from their reward, and whoever starts a bad Sunnah in Islam will have to bear the burden of his own sin and a burden equal to that of those who followed him, without it detracting in the least from their burden.” [an'Nisaa’i, V2, H465] - [2] “Yahya related to me from Malik that he had heard that the Messenger of Allah said: “No one calls to guidance without having the same reward as those who follow him, without diminishing their rewards at all. And no one calls to error without having the same burdens as they do, without diminishing their burdens at all.” [Ref: Ibn Majah, B15, Chap9, H41] "Abu Huraira reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: He who called (people) to righteous, there would be reward (assured) for him like the rewards of those who adhered to it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect. And he who called (people) to error, he shall have to carry (the burden) of its sin, like those who committed it, without their sins being diminished in any respect." [Ref: Muslim, B34, N6470] - [3] “Sayyidina Anas Ibn Malik reported that Allah's Messenger said to him: “Son, if you can begin the morning and the evening without the hatred towards anyone then do it.” He then said to me: “O son, that is from my Sunnah, and he who revives my Sunnah has indeed revived me and he who revives me will be with me in paradise.” [Ref: Tirmadhi, B44, Chap15, H2687] - [4] Note classified Hasan by anthropomorphist Albani: “Sabl bin Mu’ddh bin Anas narrated from his father that the Prophet i said: “Whoever teaches some knowledge will have the reward of the one who acts upon it, without that detracting from his reward in the slightest.” [Ref: Ibn Majah, Book of Sunnah, Hadith 247] - [5] The meaning is acceptable because takhseesi (i.e. specific) meaning can be given to a hadith/verse on the basis of hadith/verse but that interpretation can not supersede the literal reading of hadith/verse. And the interpretations derived from hadith/verse can be valid/invalid but these interpretations do not close the door for other interpretations from same hadith/verse because the nature of Qur’an/Hadith is jawami al kalim (i.e. shortest expression bearing widest meanings). - [6] The matan (i.e. text) of the hadith has been tempered with. I assume a narrators knowingly/unknowingly took the explanation of the hadith and narrated it as Prophet's (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) statement. - [7] “Kathir Ibn Abdullah (who was Ibn Amr Ibn Awf Al Muzani) reported from his father on the authority of his grandfather that the Prophet said to Bilal Ibn Harith : “Know!” He said: “I will learn, O Messenger of Allah . He said: 'If anyone revives a Sunnah of my Sunnahs and dies afterwards then for him is a reward like (that of) those who conduct themselves on it without deducting anything from their rewards. And if anyone innovates a bidda of misguidance with which Allah and His Messenger are not pleased then he gets a sin like the sins of those who observe it and nothing is deducted from the sins of the people.” [Ref: Tirmadhi, B44, Chap15, H2686] - [8] The Wahhabi position of exclusiveness (i.e. this hadith refers to reviving the forgotten, neglected Sunnahs only) is refuted because the act, the concept, the philosophy of reviving forgotten, neglected Sunnahs of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) itself has is a praiseworthy innovation in Islam. Therefore one who revives neglected, forgotten Sunnahs of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) and those who fallow in his footsteps by making it his mission to revive the forgotten Sunnahs of beloved Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) will equally be rewarded then the ones whose example he fallowed. And those who act on revived Sunnahs of beloved RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) this too will earn the reviver and the enactor equale reward from Allah (subhana wa ta'ala). - [9] Sahih Muslim, Book 4, Hadith 1885: “... further say: "The best of the speech is embodied in the Book of Allah, and the beet of the guidance is the guidance given by Muhammad. And the most evil affairs are the innovations; and every innovation is error." He would further say: I am more dear to a Muslim even than his self …" - [10] Sahih Bukhari, Book 49, Hadith 861: “Narrated Aisha: Allah's Apostle said, "If somebody innovates something which is not in harmony with the principles of our religion, that thing is rejected." - [11] Sahih Muslim, Book 18, Number 4267: “Sa'd b. Ibrahim reported: I asked Qasim b. Muhammad about a person who had three dwelling houses and he willed away the third part of every one of these houses; he (Qasim b. Muhammad) said: All of them could be combined in one house; and then said: 'A'isha informed me that Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: He who did any act for which there is no sanction from our behalf, that is to be rejected.” - [12] Sahih Muslim, Book 18, Number 4266: “'A'isha reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: He who innovates things in our affairs for which there is no valid (reason) (commits sin) and these are to be rejected.” -----------------------------
  16. Hadith Of Praiseworthy & Blameworthy Innovation: Few Sentences, Vast In Meaning. Introduction: Sahih Muslim, Book 034, Number 6466: "Jarir b. Abdullah reported that some desert Arabs clad in woolen clothes came to Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him). He saw them in sad plight as they had been hard pressed by need. He (the Holy Prophet) exhorted people to give charity, but they showed some reluctance until (signs) of anger could be seen on his face. Then a person from the Ansar came with a purse containing silver. Then came another person and then other persons followed them in succession until signs of happiness could be seen on his (sacred) face. Thereupon Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect. And he who introduced some evil practice in Islam which had been followed subsequently (by others), he would be required to bear the burden like that of one who followed this (evil practice) without theirs being diminished in any respect." Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) has stated that he who introduces a praiseworthy Sunnah (i.e. Praiseworthy Innovation) into deen of Islam for him and those who fallow him their will be reward but also warned that anyone who introduces a blameworthy Sunnah (i.e. Blameworthy Innovation) into Islam and those who fallow that blameworthy Sunnah there will no reduction of sins. Note that word Sunnah has been used to mean innovation by Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam): Sunan Abu Dawood, Book 40, Hadith 4590: “... One day the Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him) led us in prayer, then faced us and gave us a lengthy exhortation at which the eyes shed tears and the hearts were afraid. A man said: Apostle of Allah! It seems as if it were a farewell exhortation, so what injunction do you give us? He then said: I enjoin you to fear Allah, and to hear and obey even if it be an Abyssinian slave, for those of you who live after me will see great disagreement. You must then follow my sunnah and that of the rightly-guided caliphs. Hold to it and stick fast to it. Avoid novelties, for every novelty is an innovation, and every innovation is an error.” And there are numerous innovations which the Khulafa of beloved Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) innovated after he had departed from this world. Just for the sake of record honorable Uthman (radiallah ta'ala anh) innovated the third Adhan (i.e. call to prayer) which was given in the market. In opposition to Ahle Sunnat the Wahhabi's are of the opinions that this hadith is not about praiseworthy or blameworthy innovations rather it is about neglected/forgotten Sunnah of giving Sadqa for pleasure of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala).[1] Therefore the hadith of praiseworthy and blame worthy Sunnahs will be examined in the light of beloved Prophet's (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) statement that he has been sent by Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) with 'jawami al kalim' (i.e. short expression with comprehensive meanings). Jawami Al Kalim: Sahih Al Bukhari, Book 87, Number 141: ”Narrated Abu Huraira: "I heard Allah's Apostle saying, "I have been sent with Jawami al-Kalim, and I was made victorious with awe (caste into the hearts of the enemy), and while I was sleeping, the keys of the treasures of the earth were brought to me and were put in my hand." Muhammad said, Jawami'-al-Kalim means that Allah expresses in one or two statements or thereabouts the numerous matters that used to be written in the books revealed before (the coming of) the Prophet." Sahih Bukhari, Book 52, Number 220: "Narrated Abu Huraira: Allah's Apostle said, "I have been sent with the shortest expressions bearing the widest meanings, and I have been made victorious with terror (cast in the hearts of the enemy), and while I was sleeping, the keys of the treasures of the world were ... " RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) has been recorded to have said in many ahadith that Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) has sent him with jawami al kalim: "I have been sent with Jawami al-Kalim, and ...” and it means: “I have been sent with [revelation whose nature is] Jawami al-Kalim, and ... ” and he was asked about what it means, he explained: “Allah expresses in one or two statements or thereabouts the numerous matters that used to be written in the books revealed before (the coming of) the Prophet." in another the statement has been summarized to: “... shortest expressions bearing the widest meanings, ...” One obvious meaning of this is that Quran's nature is jawami al kalim, that Quran has in it shortest of expressions to express widest of meanings, and it is so. Another meaning is that here Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) has been sent with ability to express widest meanings in few sentences, and it is so. Neither of the two meanings have explicitly been stated nor does the language negated the one or the other, and this itself is the proof that Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) has been granted the ability of jawami al kalim.[2] Wahi Qur’an & Wahi Hadithsi: Wahi (i.e. Revelation) sent to Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) was of two types; Wahi Qur’an (i.e. Qur'anic Revelation) and Wahi Hadithsi (i.e. Hadith Revelation). And proof of Hadith being part of revelation from Allah (subhana wa ta'ala): Sahih Bukhari, Book 59, Hadith 618: “Narrated Safwan bin Ya'la bin Umaiya: Ya'la used to say, "I wish I could see Allah's Apostle at the time when he is being inspired divinely." Ya'la added "While the Prophet was at Al-Ja'rana, shaded with a cloth sheet (in the form of a tent) and there were staying with him, some of his companions under it, suddenly there came to him a Bedouin wearing a cloak and perfumed extravagantly. He said, "O Allah's Apostle ! What is your opinion regarding a man who assumes the state of Ihram for 'umra wearing a cloak after applying perfume to his body?" 'Umar signaled with his hand to Ya'la to come (near). Ya'la came and put his head (underneath that cloth sheet) and saw the Prophet red-faced and when that state (of the Prophet ) was over, he said, "Where is he who as already asked me about the 'umra?" The man was looked for and brought to the Prophet The Prophet said (to him), "As for the perfume you have applied to your body, wash it off your body) thrice, and take off your cloak, and then do in your 'umra the rites you do in your Hajj." Note that the underlined part of the hadith is not part of the Quran yet its considered revelation by companions. This indicates that Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) received revelation which became hadith. And this leads to the conclusion that Prophet's (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) those ahadith which are part of deen (i.e. on which issues of deen are discussed) are part of revelation which Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) sent him.[3] Therefore the statement of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) which are connected with deen even if they are part of hadith are part of revelation hence such hadith are shortest expressions bearing widest of possible meanings, and to put it in the words of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam): “Allah expresses in one or two statements or thereabouts the numerous matters that used to be written in the books revealed before (the coming of) the Prophet." Therefore what Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) utters about deen with his truthful, purified, blessed tonge is in nature of jawami al kalim. And to put the above in the context of the subject being disucssed the nature of Prophets saying: "He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect." as well as his saying: "And he who introduced some evil practice in Islam which had been followed subsequently (by others), he would be required to bear the burden like that of one who followed this (evil practice) without theirs being diminished in any respect." are according to nature of jawami al kalim, meaning these statements are expressed in shortest form yet have vast meanings. Conclusion: The guiding principle given in the hadith of praiseworthy and blame worthy innovation is part of deen, part of revelation therefore its nature is that its few sentences but suffices for multitude of issues. It tells of equal reward for one who creates praiseworthy innovation and one who follows it: “He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.” and informs of equal sins for one who practices blameworthy innovation and one who creates it: “And he who introduced some evil practice in Islam which had been followed subsequently (by others), he would be required to bear the burden like that of one who followed this (evil practice) without there’s being diminished in any respect." And the nature of this hadith is that it encourages creation of good, and encourage fallowing of good because there is reward for it one who fallows it, and who creates it. Warns about creating of blameworthy innovations, and discourages fallowing of blameworthy innovations because Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) informed of equal sins of one who fallows innovation and one who creates it. In a nutshell this hadith is upon the verse of: “Those that turn (to Allah. in repentance; that serve Him, and praise Him; that wander in devotion to the cause of Allah,: that bow down and prostrate themselves in prayer; that enjoin good and forbid evil; and observe the limit set by Allah.- (These do rejoice). So proclaim the glad tidings to the Believers.” [ref: Surah 9:112] Enjoining good because it encourages fallowing the good innovations, and forbids evil by telling that creator and follower are equal in sight of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) in their sins. Job of a Prophet Muhammed (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) was to educate his Ummat about good, encourage them to practice good, and empower them to preach good. To inform them of the evil, to discourage them from being evil by practicing evil, and to tell them how far they can go to prevent evil; to physical stop a evil, to speak out against it, to believe it in heart that it is evil. And our beloved Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) just did that in his life time. Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) had destined for him a short life in earth and in this short life he was to convey to people the religion of Islam. Teach them the Islam, the Kuffr, the Shirk, the Halal, the Haram, and he did so. He explained many things, made clear what was fundamental and laid the foundations of Ijtihad for issues which were not to take place in his life time. He gave rules, principles which are recorded in Hadith so the later generations of Muslims who face new challenges, tribulations, face new creeds, and practices which are alien to Quran, Sunnah can deduce from these two sources the answers for their queries. It is beyond the shadow of doubt that Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) gave the guiding principle regarding good innovation to encourage good innovations and their fallowing. And those who oppose praiseworthy innovations do so due to their ignorance of Quran as well as Sunnah. May Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) guide all of us to the straight path. Ameen! Wama alayna ilal balaghul mubeen. Muhammed Ali Razavi Footnotes: ========= - [1] A separate article will be dedicated to the objections of Wahhabi's in which these points, objections, assumptions, as well as unintended dangerous disasters which their own positions inflict upon them will be laid bare. And for now you can try to understand the Hadith from a different angle. - [2] I expect Wahhabis to be foaming; 'Shirk! Mushrik! Kaffir! Bidda!' or choose to disbelieve in haq with their typical way of dismissing the truth: 'See the sufi's interpretation! This interpretation that Prophet is sent with ability of jawami al kalmiis Shirk because he is grave worshiper. Allah Wakbar, we are fallowing salaf as saliheen.' Considering the intellectual level of people who oppose Ahle Sunnat I have no choice but to substantiate my position. - [3] Sahih Muslim, Book 30, Hadith 5830: “Musa b. Talha reported: I and Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) happened to pass by people near the date-palm trees. He (the Holy Prophet) said: What are these people doing? They said: They are grafting, i. e. they combine the male with the female (tree) and thus they yield more fruit. Thereupon Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: I do not find it to be of any use. The people were informed about it and they abandoned this practice. Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) (was later) on informed (that the yield had dwindled), whereupon he said: If there is any use of it, then they should do it, for it was just a personal opinion of mine, and do not go after my personal opinion; but when I say to you anything on behalf of Allah, then do accept it, for I do not attribute lie to Allah, the Exalted and Glorious.” =========
  17. Good & Misguiding Bidda: Explaination Of Evidences. Intorduction: Servent will atempt to explain the evidences for Bidda Hasanah (i.e. praiseworthy Innovation) and Bidda Zalalah (i.e. Misguiding Innovation). Bare in mind that I might have used different labels for Bidda categorisation in my other articles. Use the corresponding labels: - Bidda Hasanah (Praiseworthy Innovation, Good Innovation, Excellent Innovation,) - Bidda Sai'ya (Bidda Zalalah, Evil Innovation, Reprehensiable Innovation, Blameworthy Innovation) Ahadith On Innovations (Bidda):Messenger of Allah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) stated: - Sunnan Abu Dawood, Book 40, Number 4590: "Narrated Irbad ibn Sariyah: Abdur Rahman ibn Amr as-Sulami and Hujr ibn Hujr said: ... He then said: I enjoin you to fear Allah, and to hear and obey even if it be an Abyssinian slave, for those of you who live after me will see great disagreement. You must then follow my sunnah and that of the rightly-guided caliphs. Hold to it and stick fast to it. Avoid novelties, for every novelty is an innovation, and every innovation is an error." - Sahih Muslim, Book 4, Hadith 1885:Jabir b. Abdullah said: ... He would also say:" The last Hour and I have been sent like these two." and he would join his forefinger and middle finger; and would further say: "The best of the speech is embodied in the Book of Allah, and the beet of the guidance is the guidance given by Muhammad.And the most evil affairs are their innovations; and every innovation is error." He would further say:, I am more dear to a Muslim even than his self; …" The word qullu (i.e. every) in Arabic is not always used to mean all, every, it can also mean most, majority, or all in a specific category, area, not all universally. The meaning of majority, most, or all, every in specific category can only be accepted if there is proof for it, otherwise it will be understood literally every, meaning, all, every. Examples of qullu, being used to mean some, all in specific area, category, 18:79, 2:260, 9:5, 26:128, 23:27, and 2:185. I wont go into details. Please use the above explaination to see which verse fits which category (i.e. most, some, all in specific category/area). Good Innovations: - Prophet of Allah (salllahu alayhi was'salam) gave us a rule: - Sahih Muslim, Book 034, Number 6466: "Jarir b. Abdullah reported that some desert Arabs clad in woollen clothes came to Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him). He saw them in sad plight as they had been hard pressed by need. He (the Holy Prophet) exhorted people to give charity, but they showed some reluctance until (signs) of anger could be seen on his face. Then a person from the Ansar came with a purse containing silver. Then came another person and then other persons followed them in succession until signs of happiness could be seen on his (sacred) face. Thereupon Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said:He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect. And he who introduced some evil practice in Islam which had been followed subsequently (by others), he would be required to bear the burden." Who so ever invents something good (i.e. Sahih Bukhari), which was fallowed by him, and fallowed after him, both the fallower, as well as the inventer, innovator will get the reward from Allah. Allah subhana wa tallah narrates the story of fallowers of Jesus: - Surah Al Hadid {57} Verse 27: Then, in their wake, We followed them up with (others of) Our apostles: We sent after them Jesus the son of Mary, and bestowed on him the Gospel; and We ordained in the hearts of those who followed him Compassion and Mercy. But the Monasticism which they invented for themselves, We did not prescribe for them: (We commanded) only the seeking for the Good Pleasure of Allah. but that they did not foster as they should have done.Yet We bestowed, on those among them who believed, their (due) reward, but many of them are rebellious transgressors. Allah tells why the stories are: - Surah Yusuf {12} Ayaat 111: "Laqana fi'qisasi'him ibratulli u'lil albab ..." (“There is, in their stories, instruction for men endued with understanding.”) Allah (subhana wa tallah) tells us that fallowers of Isa alayhis salam invented the Monasticism them selves with the intention of pleasing Allah even though Allah did not command them to do so, but those who did adhere to it, Allah rewarded them. The conclusion which the ulil albab (i.e. men of understanding) derive from 57:27 is best explained by what Prophet of Allah sallahu alayhi was'salam stated: “He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.” - Hazrat Umar radiallah tallah said: “What an excellent Bid'a (i.e. innovation in religion) this is; but the prayer which they do not perform, but sleep at its time is better than the one they are offering.” in a Sahih Hadith: Sahih Bukhari, Book 32, Hadith 227: Narrated Abu Huraira: Allah's Apostle said, "Whoever prayed at night the whole month of Ramadan out of sincere Faith and hoping for a reward from Allah, then all his previous sins will be forgiven." Ibn Shihab (a sub-narrator) said, "Allah's Apostle died and the people continued observing that (i.e. Nawafil offered individually, not in congregation), and it remained as it was during the Caliphate of Abu Bakr and in the early days of 'Umar's Caliphate." 'Abdur Rahman bin 'Abdul Qari said, "I went out in the company of 'Umar bin Al-Khattab one night in Ramadan to the mosque and found the people praying in different groups. A man praying alone or a man praying with a little group behind him. So, 'Umar said, 'In my opinion I would better collect these (people) under the leadership of one Qari (Reciter) (i.e. let them pray in congregation!)'. So, he made up his mind to congregate them behind Ubai bin Ka'b. Then on another night I went again in his company and the people were praying behind their reciter. On that, 'Umar remarked, 'What an excellent Bid'a (i.e. innovation in religion) this is; but the prayer which they do not perform, but sleep at its time is better than the one they are offering.' He meant the prayer in the last part of the night. (In those days) people used to pray in the early part of the night." This conclusively proves that in deen of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) there is room for good innovations. Had there been no room for good innovation Messenger of Allah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) would not have given us a criteria to judge on, and Hazrat Umar (radiallah tallah anh) would not have remarked excellent innovation. Meaning Of Innovation Ahadith: The conclusion above brings us back to the two ahadith and their correct interpretation: Sunnan Abu Dawood, Book 40, Number 4590: Hold to it and stick fast to it. Avoid novelties, for every novelty is an innovation, and every innovation is an error." Sahih Muslim, Book 4, Hadith 1885: ..."The best of the speech is embodied in the Book of Allah, and the beet of the guidance is the guidance given by Muhammad.And the most evil affairs are their innovations; and every innovation is error." …" In the context of 'all, every in specific category' the Ahadith mean: “Avoid (i.e. misguiding/evil) novelties, for every (i.e. misguiding/evil) novelty is an innovation, and every innovation is an error." In the context of other Sahih Ahadith: Sahih Bukhari Book 49, Hadith 861: Narrated Aisha: Allah's Apostle said, "If somebody innovates something which is not in harmony with the principles of our religion, that thing is rejected." Sahih Muslim, Book 18, Number 4266:'A'isha reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: He who innovates things in our affairs for which there is no valid (reason) (commits sin) and these are to be rejected. Sahih Muslim, Book 18, Number 4267: “Sa'd b. Ibrahim reported: I asked Qasim b. Muhammad about a person who had three dwelling houses and he willed away the third part of every one of these houses; he (Qasim b. Muhammad) said: All of them could be combined in one house; and then said: 'A'isha informed me that Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: He who did any act for which there is no (explicit or implicit) sanction from our behalf, that is to be rejected.” The two ahadith can also mean: “Avoid novelties [which are not in harmony with principles of deen, do not have a valid reason, and have no sanction from Sahabah, RasoolAllah,] for every [such] novelty is an (i.e. misguiding/evil) innovation, and every (i.e. misguiding/evil) innovation is an error." Explicitly Sanctioned & Implicitly Sanctioned: Heretical opponents of Ahle Sunnat Wal Jammat quote the fallowing Hadith: Sahih Muslim, Book 18, Number 4267: “Sa'd b. Ibrahim reported: I asked Qasim b. Muhammad about a person who had three dwelling houses and he willed away the third part of every one of these houses; he (Qasim b. Muhammad) said: All of them could be combined in one house; and then said: 'A'isha informed me that Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: He who did any act for which there is no sanction from our behalf, that is to be rejected.” They argue that for practices which Ahle Sunnat Wal Jammats pious scholars deffend can not be valid because there is no explicit sanction for these practices from Allah (subhana wa tallah), RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) hence they are rejected. Primarily this Hadith if taken literally contradicts the Hadith of Prophet of Allah in which he said the innovater of good practice will get reward, and it goes against the Sahabah's (alayhi ridwan) practice of intorducing good innovations during and after the departure of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam). Therefore the meaning of the Hadith can not be taken literally, but a understanding which fits the frame work of Quran and Sunnah is essential. Secondly if EXPLICIT sanction was required in all cases for a practice to be valid, then the gates of Ijtihad would be closed, and this Hadith would contradict ahadith which legitamise Ijtihad. One of most recent innovations of the Wahabiyah is Misyar-Halal, a marriage in which the woman give up her rights on husband, lives with her own family (i.e. Mother, Father) due to husbands bad financial situation, and woman's family willingly accepts daughters husband as part of their family, this is valid form of Misyar, a praise worthy innovation for which there is no explicit sanction Quran, Sunnah, but the Ijtihadi (i.e. indirect evidence, implicit sanction) understanding legitamises its practice for those who are in difficult financial situation. Another form of Misyar-Haram is practiced by the people who wish to escape punishement under the Wahabi regime, and secretly get married, without consent of either parent or gurdian, and woman surrenders her rights, lives with her parents, and husband lives seperately, and secretly meet for companionship as well as sexual enjoyment. This slightly differs from Muttah in one detail that no time is fixed for Talaq. This is haram, and another form of Muttah of the Rawafiz, and to bluntly put it, legalised prostitution in Saudi Arabia which is supported by the Wahabi scholars. There is no circumstantial evidence, to substantiate this form of Misyar. Coming back to the subject of correct meaning of Hadith; it means that if there is no EXPLICIT or IMPLICIT evidence, circumstantial evidence, which demonstrates that Prophet of Allah would sanction such a act, if there is no valid reason, and it contradicts with principles of deen then that act, practice, aqeedah, would be rejected. And to concude the disscusion of Misyar, for the second form there is no circumstantial evidence, implicit evidence (i.e. a woman marrying and keeping her marriage secret from her parents and living with her parents, and meeting her husband in secret etc ...). Themetic Commentary In Light Ahadith: Messenger of Allah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) stated: Sahih Muslim, Book 034, Number 6466: “... He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect. ...” Innovations which are good, as well as which do not contradict the principles of deen, (i.e. worship of Allah, calling to Islam etc …), which have been sanctioned by Allah subhana wa tallah well as RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam), and have a valid reason for innovating them (i.e. worship of Allah etc … ) they are accepted. And those who invent the good innovations and those who act on them, and those who call toward the good innovations, Messenger of Allah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) all of them will be rewarded by Allah subhana wa tallah: Sahih Muslim, Book 34, Number 6470:"Abu Huraira reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: He who called (people) to righteousness, there would be reward (assured) for him like the rewards of those who adhered to it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect. And he who called (people) to error, he shall have to carry (the burden) of its sin, like those who committed it, without their sins being diminished in any respect." Some Good Innovations: With the correct understanding of the Ahadith presented, it is would be prudent to present some examples of good innovations which Sahabah (radiallah tallah anhuma) brought forward, in the time of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) or after. - Sahih Bukhari, Book 12, Hadith 764: Narrated Rifa'a bin Rafi AzZuraqi: One day we were praying behind the Prophet. When he raised his head from bowing, he said, "Sami'a-l-lahu Liman hamida."A man behind him said,"Rabbana walaka-l hamd hamdan Kathiran taiyiban mubarakan fihi" (O our Lord! All the praises are for You, many good and blessed praises). When the Prophet completed the prayer, he asked, "Who has said these words?"The man replied, "I." The Prophet said, "I saw over thirty angels competing to write it first." Prophet rose (from bowing) and stood straight till all the vertebrae of his spinal column came to a natural position. - Sahih Bukhari, Book 13, Hadith 35: Narrated As-Saib bin Yazid: In the life-time of the Prophet, Abu Bakr and Umar, the Adhan for the Jumua prayer used to be pronounced when the Imam sat on the pulpit. But during the Caliphate of 'Uthman when the Muslims increased in number, a third Adhan at Az-Zaura' was added. Abu 'Abdullah said, "Az-Zaura' is a place in the market of Medina." - Sahih Bukhari, Book 59, Hadith 325: “… It was food Allah had provided Khubaib with." When they took him to Al-Hil out of Mecca sanctuary to martyr him, Khubaib requested them. "Allow me to offer a two-Rak'at prayer." They allowed him and he prayed two Rakat and then said, "By Allah! Had I not been afraid that you would think I was worried, I would have prayed more." Then he (invoked evil upon them) saying, "O Allah! Count them and kill them one by one, and do not leave anyone of them"' Then he recited: "As I am martyred as a Muslim, I do not care in what way I receive my death for Allah's Sake, for this is for the Cause of Allah. If He wishes, He will bless the cut limbs of my body." Then Abu Sarva, 'Ubqa bin Al-Harith went up to him and killed him. It was Khubaib who set the tradition of praying for any Muslim to be martyred in captivity (before he is executed). The Prophet told his companions of what had happened (to those ten spies) on the same day they were martyred. ...” - Sahih Bukhari, Book 32, Hadith 227: Narrated Abu Huraira: Allah's Apostle said, "Whoever prayed at night the whole month of Ramadan out of sincere Faith and hoping for a reward from Allah, then all his previous sins will be forgiven." Ibn Shihab (a sub-narrator) said, "Allah's Apostle died and the people continued observing that (i.e. Nawafil offered individually, not in congregation), and it remained as it was during the Caliphate of Abu Bakr and in the early days of 'Umar's Caliphate." 'Abdur Rahman bin 'Abdul Qari said, "I went out in the company of 'Umar bin Al-Khattab one night in Ramadan to the mosque and found the people praying in different groups.A man praying alone or a man praying with a little group behind him. So, 'Umar said, 'In my opinion I would better collect these (people) under the leadership of one Qari (Reciter) (i.e. let them pray in congregation!)'. So, he made up his mind to congregate them behind Ubai bin Ka'b. Then on another night I went again in his company and the people were praying behind their reciter. On that, 'Umar remarked, 'What an excellent Bid'a (i.e. innovation in religion) this is; but the prayer which they do not perform, but sleep at its time is better than the one they are offering.' He meant the prayer in the last part of the night. (In those days) people used to pray in the early part of the night." Sahabah (radiallah tallah anhuma) innovated these good practices during and after the life time of Prophet Muhammed (sallalahu alayhi was'salam), some of which he approved while others were after his departure from this world. And the frame work of Ijtihad he taught, the education of Ijtihad he gave to Sahabah (alayhi ridwan) and taught them the principles on which they can judge innovations as good or bad, they were able to derive, and further the understandings after his departure, without these understandings contradicting Quran and established Sunnah, hence they were not rejected but incorporated by Muslims as valid practices. Conclusion: - Defining bidda (i.e. Sai'yah) with the words of our beloved Prophet: “... which is not in harmony with the principles of our religion [i.e. islam], … for which there is no valid (reason) (commits sin) … [and] ... any act for which there is no [explicit or implicit] sanction from our behalf [that practice, aqeedah is a heresy], that is to be rejected.” - Defining Bidda (i.e. Hasana) is a innovation which is in harmony with pricinples of Islam, for which there is a valid reason, acting on it we the Muslims do not become sinful, and for which there is implicit evidence to prove its validity such practice is praiseworthy innovation. Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) told of reward for anyone who intorduces a praiseworthy innovation in Islam: He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.”, and Allah (subhana wa tallah) in the Quran al kareem states: “But the Monasticism which they invented for themselves, We did not prescribe for them: (We commanded) only the seeking for the Good Pleasure of Allah, ... Yet We bestowed, on those among them who believed, their (due) reward, ...” and Hazrat Umar's (radiallah tallah anh) remark about a excellent innovation:“'What an excellent Bid'a (i.e. innovation in religion) this is; but the prayer which they do not perform, but sleep at its time is better than the one they are offering.” The Sahabah (radiallah tallah anhuma ajma'eem) intorduced many praiseworthy innovations in deen after RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam), which did not contradict principles of deen, for which there is valid reason and Sahabah (radiallah tallah anhuma ajmaeen) innovated because it assisted in fullfilling a religious duty. Adhaan (i.e. call to prayers) for which there is explicit permission was increased to three for friday prayers due to increase of people. This increase is proven with implicit sanction from Allah (subhana wa tallah), RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam), because by its nature the Adhaan is worship so increase in its number doesnt make it vile, reprehensiable. Such praiseworthy innovations warrant reward from Allah (subnaha wa tallah) and another example of one such praiseworthy innovation is that Khubaib (radiallah tallah anh) started the practice of peforming two rakat nawafil prayer before his own execution, and since then it became practice among the Sahabah (radiallah tallah anhuma ajmaeen) that they performed two-rakat nawafil prayers before the kuffar, mushrikeen executed them. - Only those innovations which come in the category of heresy are error, misguidance, and take people into hellfire: Sahih Bukhari, Book 92, Hadith 382: "Narrated 'Abdullah: The best talk (i.e. speech) is Allah's Book (i.e. Quran), and the best way is the way of Muhammad, and the Worst matters are the heresies; and whatever you have been promised will surely come to pass, and you cannot escape (it)." “… the worst matters are the heresies, ...”and heresies are recognised, because they contradict the principles of our deen, they have no valid reason, nor have explicit or implicit sanction from Allah (subhana wa tallah) or Messenger (sallalahu alayhi was'salam), and these heretical innovations are to be rejected because they are path of going to hellfire, they lead people astray from sirat al mustaqeem. - It becomes apparent that in Sharia there are two major categories of Bidda (i.e. Praiseworthy & Blameworthy), and the practice of Sahabah (alayhi ridwan) to intorduce praisworthy innovations in Islam in the life time of Prophet of Allah as well as after his departure from this world proves that not all innovations in Islam are evil, misguiding. Wama Alayna Ilal Balaghul Mubeen. Muhammed Ali Razvi
  18. Clarifying: Linguistic Innovations Become ['Shara'ee'] Innovations When Made Part Of Deen. Introduction: - The prevalent understanding among the ahlul bidda, the Wahabiyah and Deobandiyah is that any act or belief which does not have explicit proof from Quran, Sunnah is [reprehensible][1] innovation. And this is the yardstick which is used by these heretics to demonize the praiseworthy innovations which have sprung up after the time of Sahabah, Tabi'un, generation succeeding the Tabi'un, as [reprehensible] innovations. When it is pointed out to them, there are many praiseworthy innovations after the time of first three generations (i.e. Bukhari, Muslim, etc ...) which have no explicit evidence from Quran, and Sunnah[2]they reply: These Are Innovations In Linguistic Sense, They Will Only Be [reprehensible] Innovations In Terms Of Sharia When They Are Made Part Of Deen. Meaning Of 'Part Of Islam': - There are three ways in which actions, beliefs can be part of Islam: * Teaching Found In Quran * Sunnah of RasoolAllah * Ijtihad - The Sunnah of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) found in ahadith is part of Islam because Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) said: Surah An'Najm (53) Verse 3: “Nor does he speak from [his own] inclination. (4) It is not but a revelation revealed.” Apart from the actions of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) which Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) rectified via revelation or Messenger (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) himself declared that they are not based on revelation all the rest are wahi. - About ijtihadi innovations into Islam Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) stated in Sahih Ahadith: Sahih Muslim, Book 034, Number 6466: “... on his (sacred) face. Thereupon Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect. And he who introduced some evil practice in Islam which had been followed subsequently (by others), he would be required to bear the burden." Sahih Muslim Shareef, Book 034, Number 6470:"Abu Huraira reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: He who called (people) to righteous (i.e. innovation), there would be reward (assured) for him like the rewards of those who adhered to it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect. And he who called (people) to error, he shall have to carry (the burden) of its sin, like those who committed it, without their sins being diminished in any respect." Praiseworthy & Reprehensible Innovations In Islam: - The praiseworthy innovations which the Wahabi/Deobandi declare has [reprehensible] innovations are collections of Sunnahs of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) practiced under various names. And these praiseworthy innovations are in part or as whole based on worship of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala), recitation of Quran, preaching of Islam, therefore the practice (i.e. Milad Un Nabi, Fatiha, Chehlam) as whole may not be supported but their individual practices are either Sunnahs, Farahid (i.e. compulsory practices), Wajibaat (i.e. recommended practices) with abundant evidence from Quran and Sunnah. And these ijtihadi innovative practices are not part of Islam in the sense that they have been commanded by Allah subhana wa ta'ala, or they are Sunnahs, but they are considered part of Islam because these are Sunnahs compiled together under a name. - About Ijtihadi innovations into Islam beloved Prophet of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) stated that who ever innovates a praiseworthy custom in Islam there is reward for him, and those who fallow this new innovation: Sahih Muslim, Book 34, Number 6466: “...He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect. Sahih Muslim, Book 34, Hadith 6468: Jarir b. 'Abdullah reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: The servant does not introduce good practice which is followed after him[3] (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect. Sahih Muslim Shareef, Book 34, Number 6470: "Abu Huraira reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: He who called (people) to righteous [i.e. innovation], there would be reward (assured) for him like the rewards of those who adhered to it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect. And those who innovate a evil practice into Islam there is punishment for them, and those who fallow them: Sahih Muslim, Book 34, Number 6466: “...And he who introduced some evil practice in Islam which had been followed subsequently (by others), he would be required to bear the burden." Sahih Muslim, Book 34, Hadith 6468:[3] “... And he who introduced some evil practice in Islam which had been followed subsequently (by others), he would be required to bear the burden like that of one who followed this (evil practice) without theirs being diminished in any respect. Sahih Muslim Shareef, Book 34, Number 6470: “And he who called (people) to error, he shall have to carry (the burden) of its sin, like those who committed it, without their sins being diminished in any respect." Readers should note the fact that Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) stated that praiseworthy innovations in Islam will be rewarded, and only those innovations in Islam which are evil will be punished. This proves that Islam is not a static religion, but innovations in Islam depending on their natures will be rewarded and punished, and this proves that additions in Islam can be made, but these additions have to be according to the rules laid down by Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'salam): Sahih Muslim, Book 18, Number 4267: “... and then said: 'A'isha informed me that Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: He who did any act for which there is no sanction from our behalf, that is to be rejected.” Sahih Bukhari Book 49, Hadith 861: Narrated Aisha: Allah's Apostle said, "If somebody innovates something which is not in harmony with the principles of our religion, that thing is rejected." Sahih Muslim, Book 18, Number 4266: 'A'isha reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: He who innovates things in our affairs for which there is no valid (reason) (commits sin) and these are to be rejected.” If someone innovates something which is in harmony with the principles of Islam, and for which there is valid reason, and there is sanction in Sharia that innovation is to be accepted in Islam, and if a practice violates any of the above mentioned in the ahadith then it will be rejected because it will be deemed as evil innovation in Islam for which there is punishment. - Wahabi's point was that when a linguistic innovation is made part of deen then it automaticaly becomes [reprehensible] innovation of Sharia, which now stands refuted because there is praiseworthy innovation in Islam, and Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) told of reward for those who make praiseworthy innovations in Islam. Also servant established that linguistic innovation does not become [reprehensible] innovation of Sharia until the nature of innovation is evil, until its not in harmony with principles of deen, and until there is no valid reason for the innovation, and it does not automatically become [reprehensible] innovation when its made part of Islam. Ijtihad issues which are neither mentioned in Quran, or part of Sunnah of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) have to be judged according to the rules, regulations of Quran, and Sunnah. Due to modern technological advances its possible to transfer organs of a person to another, but for a Muslim question is also: “Is it permissible in sharia to transfer the organ of a deceased to another?” This is how modern Ijtihadi issues become part of deen, not as Fard (i.e. compulsory), Aqeedah (i.e. belief) or Sunnah of Messenger of Allah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) but simply due to its question of permissibility/impermisibility in deen. The issue is judged according to Quran, Sunnah; therefore the issue and the ijtihadi judgment is part of Islam. Do we take drugs, can we conduct Jihad with modern weapons, which modern weapons we can't use in battle field, etc … all of these are part of Islam, and one does not have to explicitly declare that he considers them part of Islam for them to be considered innovation in Sharia. The judgment about these modern issues and many others in light of Quran, Sunnah, makes them part of Islam, might not be considered part of Islam as explicit teaching of Quran, or Sunnah, but they are part of Islam in sense of Ijtihad. A pious believers every action is done in light of Quran, Sunnah, he abstains from taking drugs, pornography, not because they are innovations into Islam, but there is circumstantial evidence which prohibits indulging in such acts. There are many things which were not sanctioned by Messenger (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) but Sahabah (radiallah ta'ala anhuma ajma'een) innovated them in his life time, and he approved those innovations as part of Islam, and others were innovated after he departed for his heavenly abode but they are considered part of Islam. The point is linguistic innovations are governed by rules of Sharia which determine permissibility/impermissible of actions/customs/objects/ according to the spirit of Islam, and making of a actions/custom/object part of Islam does not make it [reprehensible] innovation. Simple Refutation To Wahabi Point: - Wahabi's have simple form of definition of innovation: * Linguistical Innovation * Shara'ee Innovation [Shara'ee/reprehensible] 'Innovation', in terminology of Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jammah its termed as 'Reprehensible Innovation' and in the context of this article what the Wahabi's/Deobandi's termed as 'Linguistical Innovation' in terminology of Ahlus Sunnah its 'Praiseworthy Innovation'. Therefore the statement: “These (Sahih; Bukhari, Muslim) Are Innovations In Linguistic Sense, They Will Only Be [reprehensible/shara'ee] 'Innovations' In Terms Of Sharia When They Are Made Part Of Deen.” is non-sense because the statement in reality means: “These (Sahih; Bukhari, Muslim) Are praiseworthy Innovations, They Will Only Be [reprehensible/shara'ee] 'Innovations' In Terms Of Sharia When They Are Made Part Of Deen.” Sahih al Bukhari, Sahih al Muslim, and all the other Ahadith collections are part of deen and one who considers these sources to be not part of deen is a fool and supporter of munkireen e hadith, and not a Muslim. The only point worth answering was about when a linguistical innovation is made part of deen it becomes a [reprehensible/Shara'ee] innovation, which from the evidence is clear that it isn’t the case. According X's naming system a eagle is what in my naming system is vulture, we may never agree on the our names, but one thing we both will agree that we are referring, we mean the same bird. In the same manner there are two definitions referring to same objects, one considers them praiseworthy innovations, other linguistical innovations, just different labels. Muhammed Ali Razvi -------------- FootNotes: - [1] Sufi's may read sentence with word 'reprehensible'. - [2] No verse of Quran, or Hadith explicitly directs toward Sahih Bukhari, Sahih Muslim. - [3] Originally written as: “Jarir b. 'Abdullah reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: The servant does not introduce good practice which is followed after him ... The rest of the hadith is the same.”
  19. Biddah {Innovation}: It's Consequence Is HellFire. RasoolAllah {sallalahu alayhi was'salam} informed the Sahabah, that they must adhere to his Sunnah and Sunnah of Khulfa Rashideen, and told them that avoid newly invented matters, because every reprehensiable novelty is reprehensiable Biddah, and every reprehensiable Biddah is error: Sunnan Abu Dawood, Book 40, Number 4590: "Narrated Irbad ibn Sariyah: Abdur Rahman ibn Amr as-Sulami and Hujr ibn Hujr said: ... He then said: I enjoin you to fear Allah, and to hear and obey even if it be an Abyssinian slave, for those of you who live after me will see great disagreement. You must then follow my sunnah and that of the rightly-guided caliphs. Hold to it and stick fast to it. Avoid novelties, for every novelty is an innovation, and every innovation is an error." Sahih Muslim, Book 4, Hadith 1885:Jabir b. Abdullah said: ... He would also say:" The last Hour and I have been sent like these two." and he would join his forefinger and middle finger; and would further say: "The best of the speech is embodied in the Book of Allah, and the beet of the guidance is the guidance given by Muhammad. And the most evil affairs are their innovations; and every innovation is error." He would further say:, I am more dear to a Muslim even than his self; ..." Sahih Bukhari, Book 92, Hadith 382: "Narrated 'Abdullah: The best talk (i.e. speech) is Allah's Book {i.e. Quran}, and the best way is the way of Muhammad, and the Worst matters are the heresies (i.e. those new things which are introduced into the religion); and whatever you have been promised will surely come to pass, and you cannot escape (it)." Prophet {sallalahu alayhi was'salam} warned, that one who intorduces a Biddah {not in harmony with principles of deen, withoud valid reason of Sharia, and without aproval from Prophet, Sahabah} such a person is cursed by Allah as well as one who shelters him: Sunan Abu Dawood, Book 39, Hadith 4515: "Narrated Ali ibn AbuTalib: Qays ibn Abbad and Ashtar went to Ali and said to him: Did the Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him) give you any instruction about anything for which he did not give any instruction to the people in general? He said: No, except what is contained in this document of mine. Musaddad said: He then took out a document. Ahmad said: A document from the sheath of his sword. It contained: The lives of all Muslims are equal; they are one hand against others; the lowliest of them can guarantee their protection. Beware, a Muslim must not be killed for an infidel, nor must one who has been given a covenant be killed while his covenant holds. If anyone introduces an innovation, he will be responsible for it. If anyone introduces an innovation or gives shelter to a man who introduces an innovation (in religion), he is cursed by Allah, by His angels, and by all the people. Musaddad said: Ibn AbuUrubah's version has: He took out a document." Sahih Muslim, Book 7, Hadith 3159: 'Asim reported: I asked Anas b. Malik whether Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) had declared Medina as sacred. He said: Yes. (the area) between so and so. He who made any innovation in it, and further said to me: It is something serious to make any innovation in it (and he who does it) there is upon him the curse of Allah, and that of the angels and of all the people, Allah will not accept from him on the Day of Resurrection either obligatory acts or the surpererogatory acts. Ibn Anas said: Or he accommodates an innovator.” Sahih Muslim, Book 7, Hadith 3166: “Abu Huraira (Allah be pleased with him) reported Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) as saying: Medina is a sacred territory, so he who made any innovation in it. or gave protection to an innovator, there is upon him the curse of Allah, that of the angels and that of all the people. There would not be accepted on the Day of Resurrection either obligatory acts or supererogatory acts from him.” Mubtadi {Innovator's}and one who accommodates him are cursed by Allah his angles, and all the people, Messenger of Allah further revealed that Allah will not accept the obligatory acts of worship etc … nor will He accept supererogatory acts, i.e. nawafil prayers, Taraweeh, etc … on the day of judgement, hence without acceptance of Farahid, and Nawafil, person has no basis to enter paradise, he will be sent to fire of hell. RasoolAllah {sallalahu alayhi was'salam} foretells that on the day of judgement Allah subhana wa tallah will grant him honour on Al Kauthar, and a group of people will come to Messenger of Allah asking for the water, and angles will remind him that they are innovator's and Messenger of Allah will send them away: Sahih Muslim, Book 30, Hadith 5706 : “Anas b. Malik reported Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) as saying: Some persons from amongst my associates would turn to my Reservoir {Al Kauthar}; when I would see them and they would be presented to me, they would be detained in the way while coming to me. I would say: My Lord, they are my companions, they are my companions, and it would be said to me: You don't know what innovations they made after you?” Sahih Muslim, Book 30, Hadith 5690: “'Abdullah reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying; I shall be there at the Reservoir {Al Kauthar} before you, and I shall have to contend for some people, but I shall have to yield. I would be saying: My Lord, they are my friends, they are my friends, and it would be said: You don't know what innovations they made after you?” Sahih Muslim, Book 30, Hadith 5686: “Umm Salama, the wife of Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him), said I used to hear from people making a mention of the Reservoir {Al Kauthar}, but I did not hear about it from Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him). One day while a girl was combing me I heard Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) say:" O people." I said to that girl: Keep away from me. She said: He (the Holy Prophet) has addressed the men only and he has not invited the attention of the women. I said: I am amongst the people also (and have thus every right to listen to the things pertaining to religion). Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: I shall be your harbinger on the Resevoir {Al Kauthar}; therefore, be cautious lest one of you should come (to me) and may be driven away like a stray camel. I would ask the reasons, and it would be said to me: You don't know what innovations they made after you? And I would then also say: Be away.” Imam Nasai rahimullah narrates the above Hadith, but adds another part: * Sunan Nasai: “And the most evil affairs are the innovations. And every innovation is error; and every error is misguidance; and every misguidance will lead to the hell fire.” Wama Alayna Ilal Balaghul Mubeen. Muhammed Ali Razvi
  20. Definition Of Reprehensible Innovation: With Principles & Explaination Of Principles. Reprehensible Innovation: - Any innovated Practice/Beleife without daleel[1] from the Qur'an/Sunnah[2] is Bidah Sai'yah (i.e. reprehensible innovation). Footnotes: - [1] 'Daleel' literally means evidence, and in terminology of innovation it means two type of evidence, explicit evidence, or implicit evidence. Readers have to assume both where the word is used. - [2] Sunnah Qawli - proven from statement of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam). Sunnah Fehli - proven from actions of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam). Taqreeri - proven from acceptance of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam). Sunnah Wasfi - proven from qualities, characteristics, behavior of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam). Principle One: - Any innovated action/belief for which there is no explicit evidence from Qur’an or the Sunnah but it is done with the belief that it is part of deen[3] it is reprehensible innovation. - Any innovated action/belief for which there is no implicit evidence[4] from Qur’an or the Sunnah but it is done with the belief that it is part of deen[5] it is reprehensible innovation. Footnotes: - [3] 'part of deen' in meaning instruction from Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) in Qur’an or Sunnah of beloved Messenger (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) recorded in Hadith. - [4]Implicit evidence is evidence which directly does not refer to a issue in particular but with qiyas it can be turned toward the issue. Reciting bismillah while getting on bus. No direct evidence from Qur’an, Sunnah for it. But with qiyas, bus is like house, has four walls roof, seating area, therefore the hadith of: “Jabir b. 'Abdullah reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: When a person enters his house and mentions the name of Allah at the time of entering it and while eating the food, Satan says (addressing himself: ...” [Ref: Muslim, B23, H5006] can be used to substantiate recitation of bismillah entering bus. [5]'part of deen' in meaning of it being; permissible in Islam (even though it is not part of Sunnah or instruction/statement of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) in Quran.). To explain differently, considering it; permissible on the basis of Ijtihad; which is dependent upon indirect evidence. Principle Two: - Any innovated action/belief that is against[6] Qur’an & Sunnah but it is believed to be part of deen[7] is reprehensible innovation. Footnotes: - [6] Against in meaning of being prohibited (i.e. Haram), against in meaning of it being declared Kuffr (i.e. disbelief) or Shirk (i.e. Polytheism) in Qur’an or Sunnah. - [7] 'part of deen' in meaning of considering it permissible, considering it Sunnah, considering it a Fard (i.e. compulsory act) sanctioned in Qur’an by Allah (subhana wa ta'ala). Principle Three: - Adding, Altering, and/or Omitting anything from the Qur’an, & Sunnah of our beloved Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) is reprehensible innovation. Principle Three: Simplified - Adding anything to teaching of Qur’an, or Sunnah of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) for which there is no 'daleel' of is reprehensible innovation. - Altering anything of the teaching of Qur’an or Sunnah of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) for which there is no 'daleel' is reprehensible innovation. - Deleting anything from teaching of Qur’an or Sunnah of beloved Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) for which there is no 'daleel' is reprehensible innovation. Meaning Of: 'Adding' - words/actions to regulated acts of worship.[8] - a belief/practice into Islam as Sunnah.[9] - by enacting a reprehensible action with belief it is permissible/impermissible[10] in Islam. - by believing a reprehensible belief with conviction it is permissible in Islam.[11] Footnotes: - [8] Example of this would be adding extra prostrations; performing three prostrations instead of two. Or reciting a additional phrase (i.e. Qul huwallahu ahad) to what is recited in prostration (i.e. subhana rabbiyal a'ala). - [9] Considering Yoga as Sunnah, or believing in reincarnation etc. - [10]If the person considered it impermissible but it became a custom/practice and fallowed after him then its reprehensible innovation otherwise its sin. - [11] One such belief is of the anthropomorphists who believe in yaddullah in haqqiqi (i.e. literal) meanings. They believe in Hand of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) yet Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) is without likeness to His creation recorded in Surah 42 Verse 11: “... laysaka misli shai'ee ...” (i.e. “... there is nothing like Him [i.e. Allah] ...”). Meaning Of: 'Altering' - regulated acts of worship by performing something first which was to be practiced after[12] - regulated acts of worship by reciting something first which was to be recited after.[13] Footnotes: - [12] Performing Sajdah (i.e. prostration) before Ruku (i.e. bowing) in prayers. - [13] Reciting Surah Fatiha in Sajdah. Meaning Of: 'Omission' - of actions from regulated acts of worship.[14] - of recitation which is fundamentally part of regulated act of worship.[15] - of anything from Qur’an, Sunnah by rejecting it without just basis.[16] Footnotes: - [14] Not turning right/left to greet in prayers with words:'As'salamu alayqum wa rahmatullah.'but repeating it twice looking toward Qibla. - [15] Omitting of Salawat Ibrahimi (i.e.“Allahumma salli ala Muhammediv wa a'ala a'ali Muhammediv kama sal'laee ta'ala Ibrahima wa a'ala a'ali Ibrahima in'naka hameedum majeed. ...”) - [16] Believing that parts of Quran have been omitted as certain apostates of Shia'ism believe. Or rejecting a sahih hadith which is accepted by the Ummah as whole to be authentic. Principle Four: - Any praiseworthy innovation for which there is implicit evidence from Qur’an or the Sunnah but it is done with the belief that it is part of deen[17] it is reprehensible innovation. Footnotes: - [17] 'part of deen' in meaning of being Sunnah, or explicit instruction of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) in Quran. Wama alayna ilal balaghul mubeen. Muhammed Ali Razai
  21. Definition Of Praiseworthy Innovation: With Principles & Explanation Of Principles. Principle Methodology Of Ahle Sunnat: It is the methodology of Wahhabi's that judge according to labels, in the methodology of Ahle Sunnat we do not judge innovations with labels. We will not judge every innovation to be Haram but we judge a innovation it according to its content. If the innovation has evil in it (i.e. 'Martyrdom' Operation) because it contradicts the foundation of deen then it's deemed evil irrespective of its label. And if the innovation has something praiseworthy (i.e. Sahih Bukhari) about it and it's according to guidance of Qur’an & Sunnah then regardless of its label it will be considered a praiseworthy innovation. Also note that all praiseworthy innovations are substantiated with implicit evidences from Qur’an and Sunnahs of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam). Therefore we the Ahle Sunnat do not demand explicit proof for praiseworthy innovations, instead its the methodology of Wahhabi's who in opposition to Ahle Sunnat on selective issues demand explicit evidence from Qur’an & Sunnah. To illustrate a this point; we the practice performing of salawat before the call to prayer (i.e. Adhan). The Wahhabi's object to it on the ground that its not Sunnah of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) to recite salawat, and on this they demand explicit proof from Hadith or Qur’an to substantiate this practice. Its established that recitation of Salawat before Adhan is not Sunnah of beloved Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) nor part of Adhan. To ensure the listener can distinguish between the two, the Muadhin recites Salawat and then there is pause and then Adhan is pronounced. This being said recitation of Salawat before Adhan is not reprehensible innovation and it can be substantiated with implicit evidence because Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) declares: “Allah and His angels send blessings on the Prophet: ...” and then commands the believers to send Salawat on Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam): ”... O ye that believe! Send ye blessings on him, and salute him with all respect.” [Ref: Surah 33:56] and recitation of Salawat just before the Adhan is obeying Allah (subhana wa ta'ala). Even with such clear evidence the Wahhabi's refuse to believe in what Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) revealed. They consider anyone who recites Salawat before Adhan to be bidd'ati a person destined to hellfire because one can not substantiate this practice from Sunnah. Practices of Ahle Sunnat which depend on Ijtihadi evidence the Wahhabi's refuse to accept implicit evidence which is used to support these practices. Instead they desire explicit proof and during debates rely rhetorical skill to win admirers, converts. When the Wahhabi's are questioned about Sahih of Imam Bukhari:'Quote one hadith, one ayaat, in which Prophet used Sahih Bukhari, or Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) instructed us to use Sahih Al Bukhari for deen.'Soon as you make this demand they throw back the principle of explicit proof for innovations and quote: “Verily in the Messenger of Allah you have a good example for him who looks unto Allah and the last day and remembers Allah much.” [Ref: Surah 33:2] then they argue Sahih Bukhari contains good examples of Sunnahs therefore its proven. Explicitly this is not proof for legitimacy of Sahih Al Bukhari. Instead quoted verse is a explicit proof for Messenger (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) having a good example. When the verse is coupled with: “O ye who believe! ... obey the Messenger and those charged with authority among you.” [Ref: Surah 4:59] then the it means that obey the Messenger (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) in his good example.Sahih Al Bukhari has record of good example of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) therefore in a indirect, implicit way it substantiates the legitimacy of Sahih Al Bukhari. Wahhabi's judge every innovation to be reprehensible innovation and only on selective cases accept implicit evidence (i.e. Sahih Al Bukhari). Where as Ahle Sunnat do not judge a innovation to be blameworthy unless it contradicts Qur’an, Sunnah and Ahle Sunnat also accept implicit evidence on praiseworthy innovations which have not been dealt within Qur’an and Hadith explicitly. Therefore principle of implicit evidence being valid evidence on issues which have not been explicitly addressed by Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) or by RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) is closer to Prophet's (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) teaching regarding Ijtihad and Wahhabi's stubbornness to accept implicit evidence for praiseworthy innovations is error. Praiseworthy Innovation General Guide: A 'praiseworthy' innovation must not consist of Haram activities. Taking part in praiseworthy innovations has to be for pleasure of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala). It has to be in line with principle of encouraging good of deen, forbidding evil according to deen, and serve as a platform for worship of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala), gaining knowledge of deen. Innovated festivity must have it's root in Qur’an/Sunnah and the activities of worship in the festivity should be sanctioned in Qur’an [or/and] Sunnah explicitly. Definition Of Praiseworthy Innovation: - Any innovative Practice/Belief with daleel[1] from the Qur'an/Sunnah then it is Biddah Hasanah (i.e. praiseworthy innovation). Principle One: - Innovating a praiseworthy practice by stripping a Sunnah of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) or recommendation of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) or a verse of Qur’an out of it's original context and placing it in new context[2] or adding[3] something to it. Principle Two: - [4]A Innovated festivity[5] from Qur’an/Hadith by combining various Sunnahs/recommendations of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala)[6] is praiseworthy innovation. Principle Three: - Innovating a valid[7] belief by interpreting Hadith/Qur’an (subhana wa ta'ala) without contradicting the explicit of Qur’an/Hadith deems such interpretation as praiseworthy innovation.[8] Principle Four: - Innovated item[9] which assists with regards to a essential/non-essential aspect of deen is praiseworthy innovation. Wama Alayna Ilal Balaghul Mubeen. Muhammed Ali Razavi ================== Footnotes: - [1] Daleel literally means evidence and there are two types of evidences the explicit, the implicit. - [2a]Stripping Out Of Context & New Context: A group of companions went to a tribe and asked them to treat them as their guests which they refused. Incidentally the chief of that tribe was bitten by a snake so one of the companions made a deal with them. He recited Surah Al Fatiha and spat on the place where he was bitten the chief recovered:“... and his people presented the sheep to them, but they said, "We will not take it unless we ask the Prophet (whether it is lawful)."The companions asked RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) he permitted them to take the sheep: “Take it (flock of sheep) and assign a share for me." but questioned: "How do you know that Surat-al-Fatiha is a ruqya? [Ref: Bukhari, B36, H476] The question makes it clear that they are not suppose to know. This is proof that companions of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) practiced Ijtihad and innovated practices which were not taught by RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam). [2b] A praiseworthy innovation practiced by Ahle Sunnat of subcontinent is of making of dua for the deceased after funeral prayers have been completed. Even though this practice is not Sunnah of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) neither it was practiced by companions but its legitimacy is validated according to Qur’an. Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) states: “And your Lord says: "Call on Me; I will answer your (Prayer): but those who are too ...” [Ref: Surah 40:60] then Allah (subhana wa ta'ala): “... : I listen to the prayer (ie. dua) of every suppliant (i.e. da'aan) when he calleth on Me: Let them also, with a will,...” [Ref: Surah 2:186] therefore the conclusion is that when ever a believer calls upon Allah (subhana wa ta'ala); Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) answers the to prayers of supplicant. There is no time in a day in which we are prohibited to make dua, rather a supplicant can make a supplication before or after the funeral prayer. Ten minutes after the funeral prayers or ten hours after, in night or during day, dua is worship and its not prohibited to worship Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) before or after the funeral prayers and those who censor the worship of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) are kaffirs. - [3a] Stripping Out Of Context & Adding To It: Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) inquired of Bilal (radiallah ta'ala anh): "Tell me of the best deed you did after embracing Islam, for I heard your footsteps in front of me in Paradise." he replied: "I did not do anything worth mentioning except that whenever I performed ablution during the day or night, I prayed after that ablution as much as was written for me." [Ref: Bukhari, B21, H250, Muslim, B31, H6015,] His statement: “... whenever I performed ablution during the day or night, ...” indicates that he performed more then two nawafil whenever he performed wudu where as the Sunnah was to perform two nawafil after wudu:“Whoever performs ablution like my present ablution and then offers two rakat in which he does not think of worldly things, all his previous sins will be forgiven." [Ref: Bukhari, B31, H155, Muslim, B2, H436] His excess of nawafil was not Sunnah of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) rather through Ijtihad Bilal (radiallah ta'ala anh) came to conclusion on permissibility of performing more then two nawafil after wudu. The words: “... I prayed after that ablution as much as was written for me." indicate that there was no fixed amount he performed, maybe sometimes two, at others fours, or maybe he performed nawafil as long as he could keep his mind free from wordily thoughts. Whats certain is if it was two nawafil he would have specified the number two. Educated assumption is that he performed two nawafil after wudu when he was attending Masjid for compulsory prayers with other Sunnahs and out of Masjid he would have performed more. Also note that Bilal (radiallah ta'ala anh) emphasis the time: “...whenever I performed ablution during the day or night, ...” this indicates that according to Bilal (radiallah ta'ala anh) nawafil can be performed any time of the day or night. - [3b] The Wahhabi's argue that Sunnahs (i.e. innovations) of Sahabah were approved therefore they are now part of Sunnah of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) hence they are not praiseworthy innovations. In response to this reasoning please note that Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) heard the footsteps of Bilal (radiallah ta'ala anh) in paradise and then asked him about what action he does. This establishes that without even the approval of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) the actions of Bilal (radiallah ta'ala anh) had earned him paradise because Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) had deemed them to be praiseworthy innovations. - [4] This principle in essences is 'principle one' except that it focuses on practices which were not practiced by Sahabah, Tabiyoon, or Tabi-tabiyoon. - [5] Festivities such as Milad Un Nabi (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) Urs (i.e. commemorating death of a saint, scholar on yearly basis), Geeyarween (gathering for Isaal as'Sawab for Seikh Abdul Qadir Jilani rahimullah alayhi ta'ala on every 11th of Islamic month). - [6] Collecting various; Sunnahs of worship (i.e. performing of nawafil), acts of charity, recitation of Qur’an, recitation of poetry in praise/defense of Prophet Muahmmed (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam), etc. - [7] The nature of Qur’an is jawami al kalim (i.e. shortest of expressions widest in meaning) therefore many interpretations are possible. Any new interpretation should not oppose the Ijmah, should not oppose ahadith. Oppose in meaning of stating the opposite of what is established from Qur’an or Hadith. For example; Jesus is Lord of Alameen, mankind evolved from apes, etc. - [8a] Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) states: “Allah is He Who created seven samawat (i.e. skies) and of the lands (i.e. ardeen) alike. Through the midst of them (all) descends His Command: that ye may know ...” [Ref: Surah 65:12] One interpretation of is that there are skies and seven ear planets. About the seven heavens Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) states: “See you not how Allah has created the seven heavens one above another.” [Ref: Surah 71:15] Note that seven heavens are described as one above another, and Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) stated: “Allah is He Who created seven samawat (i.e. skies) and of the lands alike (i.e. Mislahunna).” Therefore another likeness of seven heavens to seven lands is that earth has layers one above another like the heavens and this is the interpretation of Imam Fakhr ud Din ar'Razi (rahimullah alayhi ta'ala). This interpretation also has its basis in authentically reported hadith: "Whoever takes a piece of the land of others unjustly, he will sink down the seven earths on the Day of Resurrection." [Ref: Bukhari, B43, H634] - [8b] The modern interpretation of this verse is that the seven heavens refers to seven layers (i.e. Thermosphere, Mesopause, Mesosphere, Stratopause, Stratosphere, Trapopause, Traposphere) of atmosphere which serve as protective barrier high above earth from radiation, etc. And seven lands (i.e. ardeen) refers to seven layers (i.e. Crust, Upper mantle, Transition region, Lower mantle, D-layer, Outer core, Inner core) of earth. - [9] This can be books of ahadith (i.e. Sahih Bukhari, Sahih Muslim, etc.) books of Tafsir (i.e. Tafsir Ibn Abbas, Tafsir Al Jalalayn, Tafsir Rooh ul Biyan, etc.), Qibla compass, Musalla (i.e. prayer mat), Tasbeeh (i.e. prayer beads), loud speaker for deeni purposes, etc.
  22. Definition Of Innovation – Sunni & Wahhabi Perspectives. Intorduction: Those who read into controversial religious matters would have come across the term 'Biddah' used to demonise another sect of Muslims. And truth is that many readers wouldnt be aware the meaning of word Biddah, and even if they are aware it would be a translation; 'Innovation'. Its very rare that causal readers would know the exact Shara'ee meaning of this term. And even those who are familiar they would arguing which version of 'Biddah Definition' is correct. The Sunni's and Wahhabi's argue whose definition of Biddah is in accordance to teaching of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam). The best way to answer the question to to learn these definitions and then judge according to them to see if they fit in the frame of Quran and Sunnah. My First hand experience of these two very different definitions of Biddah taught me a valueable lesson and that is you can not dismiss something without first understanding it properly. The conclusion I arived after learning and applying these two definitions to agreed upon issues of innovation was that regardless of which edefinition is used if it is applied correctly the result will be same. To illustrate the point, a beleife in legality of suicide in definition of the Wahabiyah would be termed as 'Biddah', hence the ruling would be that its misguidance, leading to hellfire, on the other hand those who lean toward Sufi side, would deem this beleife of legality of suicide as 'Biddah Sai'yah' {i.e.evil Innovation}, and the verdict of misguidance, leading to hellfire will be same. Lets suppose a person when ever sits in car recites Surah Fatihah, only recites it for sake of pleasing Allah (subhana wa ta'ala). In the definition of the Wahabiyah it would not amount to Biddah, they would consider it Biddah in linguistic sense, but not in Sharaee sense, therefore they would give verdict that the person will earn reward from Allah (subhana wa ta'ala). The Ahle Sunnat on other hand will consider this act to be a innovation of the person because this act has originated from him, but will judge it to be a praiseworthy innovation for which there will be reward from Allah (subhana wa ta'ala). The real point of contention is whos definition of innovation is fully in accordance with teaching of Quran, and Sunnah. On that point I have to take side and declare that the definition of Sufis is more comprehensive and it is derived using all the evidences avaliable on this subject in Quran and Sunnah, where as the Wahabi one is not fully accordance with Sunnah. To understand matters of deen, to determine the legality of a issue in Islam it doesn't really matter which is used the end result will be same. Source Of Definitions: Wahhabi definition I had learnt when I was with Ahle Hadith, a Pakistani Ghair Muqallid Wahabi sect, so there is no gaurantee about its adoption by Arabi Neo-Hanbali Wahhabi's. I have used this definition while dicussing with Hanafi Wahhabi's of India known as Deobandi's and none objected to it, so assumption is they agree to it. Unfortunately no source for their definition was given to me while learning it and even if it was I can not recall it. The sufi definition is gleamed from Urdu book; 'Islam aur Biddat' by Mufti Ahmed Yar Khan Naeemi {rahimullah alayhi ta'ala} for a detailed study of Sufi definition with detail explaination I recogmend readers refer to his work. Innovation: Biddah taken literally would give you an english translation of “Innovation”, but in Islamic law Bid'dah has special definition, and its istilah khaas {special terminology} which should not be understood lingustically rather its meaning in the light of Quran and Sunnah. 'Daleel' Explained: To correctly understanding the definitions of Biddah, one must undrstand the meaning of 'daleel'. Daleel is a Arabic word which means evidence, proof, testimony, substantiation. In the definition of Biddah it is incorporated to mean 'evidence' from Quran and Sunnah. There are two types of evidences: - Explicit Evidence - Implicit Evidence Where ever the word 'daleel' has been used the readers will have understand 'daleel' in meaning of explicit, implicit evidence, unless in places one or the other is specified. Wahabi Definition Of Biddah: - Biddah Simple: Any Action/Beleife without daleel[1] from the Qur'an or Sunnah such is deemed as Bidah. - Biddah Comprehensive: Any Action/Beleife of which there is no Explicit Evidence or Implicit Evidence[2] such is classed as Bidah. * Innovation for which there is no valid reason, is to be rejected. * Innovation which is not in harmony with the principles of Islam that is to be rejected. * Innovation for which there is no sanction from Quran/Sunnah, that is to be rejected. Sufi Definition Of Biddah: In Sufi definition of Biddah, anything which is not mentioned in Quran and Ahadith as Fard/Farz { i.e.Compulsary} or is not Sunnah of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) is Biddah. A newly invented matter, a novelty, and every Biddah has to be examined in light of Quran and Sunnah to determine weither its praiseworthy or reprehensiable. Even though the actions of Sahabah which have no evidence from Sunnah of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam), but evidence shows that it was their Ijtihad; technically is 'Biddah'. Even then their Ijtihad is not reffered as Biddah becaue the word in general is used with negative conotations. Therefore out of respect, and to make sure that people do not attribute Biddah Sai'yah to Sahabah the word 'Sunnah' is used, as in Sunnah of Sahabah to meanpraiseworthy innovation which was result of Ijtihad. If it is in accordance with Quran & Sunnah, then it is Biddah Hasanah.If the Ijtihad is wrong, its Bid'a Sai'yah but there is no punishment on the Mujtahid, only reward from Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) in both out comes. Part One: The Basic Definition. - Biddah Hasanah {Praiseworthy Biddah}: Any innovated Practice/Belief with daleel from the Qur'an/Sunnah then it is Biddah Hasanah. * Innovation for which there is valid reason, it is accepted * Innovation which is in harmony with the principles of Islam that is to be accepted. * Innovation for which there is sanction from Quran/Sunnah, that is to be accepted. - Biddah Sai'yah {BlameWorthy Innovation}: Any innovated Practice/Beleife without daleel from the Qur'an/Sunnah is Bidah Sai'yah. * Innovation for which there is no valid reason, is to be rejected. * Innovation which is not in harmony with the principles of Islam that is to be rejected. * Innovation for which there is no sanction from Quran/Sunnah, that is to be rejected. Part Two: Detailed Breakdown Of Biddah. Biddah: - Amali - Iqadi Biddah Amali (Innovation In Acts): - Hasanah (i.e. praiseworthy) - Sai'yah (i.e. reprehensiable) Biddah Itqadi (Innovation In Beleife): - Hasanah (i.e. praiseworthy) - Sai'yah (i.e. reprehensiable) Biddah Amali Hasanah (Innovation Of PraiseWorthy Action): - Jaiz - Mustahab - Wajib Biddah Amali Sai'yah: (Reprehensive Innovation In Acts): - Makhruh - Haram Biddah Amali Sai'yah Makhruh (Reprehensiable Innovation - Disliked Act): - Tehrimi - Tanzihi Biddah Itqadi Sai'yah: (Reprehensiable Innovation In Beleife): - Zindiqiyah - Kuffria - Shirkia Wama Alayna Ilal Balaghul Mubeen. Muhammed Ali Razavi ================ Footnotes: ======== - [1] The original definition had the word 'asal' instead of 'daleel' and translation of it does not make any sense of the sentence, so I have altered it to 'daleel'. I did not enquire to from the person explicitly if asal (i.e. root [evidence]) meant explicit proof or implicit proof, but based on the discussions, and my personel study I concluded asal has to mean explicit, implicit or direct, indirect evidence. - [2] Indirect evidence is source of Ijtihad therefore it's reffered as 'Ijtihadi evidence' . Where ever this term is used you can assume it means indirect, implicit evidence from Qur'an and Sunnah of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam).
  23. Deciphering: "...Every Innovation Is Evil ..." In Light Of Ijtihad. Introduction: It has been argued time, and time again by vast majority proponents of Wahabism that every innovation is misguidance. And to support their claim everyone of parrot family will either quote the Arabic wording of Ahadith or at least will know the translation of these two ahadith: Sahih Muslim, Book 4, Hadith 1885: “... and would further say: "The best of the speech is embodied in the Book of Allah, and the beet of the guidance is the guidance given by Muhammad. And the most evil affairs are the innovations; and every innovation is error." He would further say: I am more dear to a Muslim even than his self …" Sunnan Abu Dawood, Book 40, Number 4590: “… for those of you who live after me will see great disagreement. You must then follow my sunnah and that of the rightly-guided caliphs. Hold to it and stick fast to it. Avoid novelties, for every novelty is an innovation, and every innovation is an error." The aim of this article is to access the claim in light of concept of Ijtihad, and demonstrate literalism of these two ahadith is contradictory to the concept of Ijtihad, and eliminates the very root of Ijtihaad. And inshallah if my memory does justice at the end the correct meaning of these two ahadith will also be briefly explained. Evidence Of Ijtihaad: - Ijtihad was taught to Sahabah (alayhi ridwan) by Prophet Muhammed (sallalahu alayhi was'salam). Our beloved Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) reported to have said: Sahih Muslim, Book 18, Hadith 4261: “'Amr b. al-'As reported that he heard Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: When a judge gives a decision, having tried his best to decide correctly and is right, there are two rewards for him; and if he gave a judgment after having tried his best (to arrive at a correct decision) but erred, there is one reward for him.” Sahih Bukhari, Book 92, Hadith 450: “Narrated 'Amr bin Al-'As: That he heard Allah's Apostle saying, "If a judge gives a verdict according to the best of his knowledge and his verdict is correct (i.e. agrees with Allah and His Apostle's verdict) he will receive a double reward, and if he gives a verdict according to the best of his knowledge and his verdict is wrong, (i.e. against that of Allah and His Apostle) even then he will get a reward." These two ahadith make it clear that if a Judge gives a verdict according to his own understanding and his understanding is correct Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) will give him double the reward, and even if the Mujtahid errors in his judgment Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) will grant him single reward. One very important Hadith which is a clear proof for Ijtihaad: Sunan Abu Dawood, Book 24, Hadith 3585: “Narrated Mu'adh ibn Jabal: Some companions of Mu'adh ibn Jabal said: When the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) intended to send Mu'adh ibn Jabal to the Yemen, he asked: How will you judge when the occasion of deciding a case arises? He replied: I shall judge in accordance with Allah's Book. He asked: If you do not find any guidance in Allah's Book? He replied: (I shall act) in accordance with the Sunnah of the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him). He asked: If you do not find any guidance in the Sunnah of the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) and in Allah's Book? He replied: I shall do my best to form an opinion and I shall spare no effort.The Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) then patted him on the breast and said: Praise be to Allah Who has helped the messenger of the Apostle of Allah to find something which pleases the Apostle of Allah.” Our beloved Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) ensures that Mu'adh Ibn Jabal (radiallah ta'ala anh) understands that if new matters arise which have not been dealt in the Quran, Sunnah of Prophet Muhammed (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) then the Sahabi practices Ijtihad, and arrives at a understanding which accords the Quran and Sunnah. The Side Effect Of Literalism: - The very nature, purpose of Ijtihad is to innovate, strive and formulate a understanding which is in accordance with teaching of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) of a matter which is not taught in Quran and Sunnah of beloved Messenger (sallalahu alayhi was'salam), hence the new innovation requires a judgment in light of Quran and Sunnah which is in accordance with the spirit of Islam. If every innovation is misguidance then there can be no Ijtihad because everything which did not originate from Allah (subhana wa ta'ala), RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam), would automatically be shar (i.e. evil), misguidance, that is if the Ahadith of innovation are taken literally. Teaching of Ijtihad is proof that Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) himself understood that deen would evolve, practices, acts, beliefs, customs, would emerge which have to be judged in light of Quran, Sunnah, and then decide on the validity/invalidity of these practices, acts, beliefs, customs. And chance of some practice being a legitimate on the basis of Ijtihad is proof that not every innovation is evil, misguidance. Explanation Of Ahadith: - The literalism of: ”... every novelty is an innovation, and every innovation is an error.” is too restrictive, and it contradicts the teachings where beloved Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) told of reward for good innovations, punishment for bad innovations. It also eliminates the existence, the need of Ijtihaad, because every innovative practice, custom, belief, act would be misguidance. Yet RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) approved the practice of Ijtihad for matters which are not taught in Quran, Sunnah, this means that not all innovations are misguidance, only some, and some can be valid. - The two ahadith have been isolated from other ahadith which explain the meanings of these ahadith: Sahih Muslim, Book 18, Number 4267: “... and then said: 'A'isha informed me that Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: He who did any act for which there is no sanction from our behalf, that is to be rejected.” Sahih Muslim, Book 18, Number 4266: 'A'isha reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: He who innovates things in our affairs for which there is no valid (reason) (commits sin) and these are to be rejected.” Sahih Bukhari Book 49, Hadith 861: Narrated Aisha: Allah's Apostle said, "If somebody innovates something which is not in harmony with the principles of our religion, that thing is rejected." Sahih Muslim, Book 4, Hadith 1885: “..."The best of the speech is embodied in the Book of Allah, and the beet of the guidance is the guidance given by Muhammad. And the most evil affairs are the innovations; and everyinnovation is error." He would further say: …" The out is that an innovation for which there is no sanction Allah (subhana wa ta'ala), RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) nor a valid reason, and contradicts the principles of religion of Islam it is to be rejected. Such innovations are the most evil, and every such innovation is error. Conclusion: - To realize which of the innovations are error, misguidance, evil, and earn hellfire, and displeasure of Lord, RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) taught the Sahabah (radiallah tallah anhuma ajma'een) method of Ijtihaad, and encouraged them to practice it when new matters rise which have not been dealt in the book of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) and Sunnah of beloved Rasool (sallalahu alayhi was'salam). Thus not every innovation is error but only innovations which have no sanction, contradict the principles of Islam, and have no valid reason are evil, and misguidance. Wama Alayna Ilal Balaghul Mubeen. Muhammed Ali Razvi
  24. [Reprehensible/Shar'aee] Innovations Are Automatically Part Of Deen. Introduction: Subject of innovation in deen of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) is very important. The rules, principles surrounding this subject prevent excess in censoring of innovations, and restricts creation of praiseworthy innovations due to rules and regulations surrounding them. Without which the deen of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) will morph into either a totally new religion or transform into a rigid system that will become impractical. Keeping this in mind a essential principle about reprehensible innovations has to be explained so that people understand its threat and abstain from practices which are in contradiction with Qur’an and Sunnah. Innovation Of Murdering By Son Of Adam (alayhis salam): Beloved Prophet Muhammed (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) also told about son of Hadhrat Adam (alayhis salam): Sahih Bukhari, Book 55, Hadith 552: Narrated Abdullah: Allah's Apostle said, "Whenever a person is murdered unjustly, there is a share from the burden of the crime on the first son of Adam for he was the first to start the tradition of murdering." Hadhrat Adam's (alayhis salam) son having to bear burden of other murderers should be understood in light of RasoolAllah's (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) statement:“And he who introduced some evil practice in Islam which had been followed subsequently (by others), he would be required to bear the burden."[1] Clearly the blameworthy action of son of Hadhrat Adam (alayhis salam) was understood to be reprehensible innovation in Islam, this was the reason for Prophet's (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) revealing: "Whenever a person is murdered unjustly, there is a share from the burden of the crime on the first son of Adam ...”Note that words of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) clearly suggest that Hadhrat Adam's (alayhis salam) son was guilty of innovation in linguistic sense but the addition to his burden proves that it was considered part of Islam. Innovation Of Releasing Animals In Name Of Idols: Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) stated in the Qur’an: Surah Al Maidah (5) Verse 103: “It was not Allah who instituted bahira, or saibah, or waseela, or ham: It is disbelievers who invent a lie against Allah, but most of them lack wisdom.” Reprehensible innovations of al bahira, and as-saiba were not sanctioned by Allah (subhana wa ta'ala), but it was the Mushirkeen who invented these, and Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) says these innovations are lies of Mushrikeen against Allah (subhana wa ta'ala). Bahira, Saibah, Waseelah and Ham have been explained by Hadhrat Said bin Al Musaiyab (radiallah ta'ala anh): Sahih Bukhari, Book 60, Hadith 147: Narrated Said bin Al-Musaiyab: bahira is a she-camel whose milk is kept for the idols and nobody is allowed to milk it; Sa'iba was the she-camel which they used to set free for their gods and nothing was allowed to be carried on it. Abu Huraira said: Allah's Apostle said, "I saw 'Amr bin 'Amir Al-Khuzai (in a dream) dragging his intestines in the Fire, and he was the first person to establish the tradition of setting free the animals (for the sake of their deities)," Wasila is the she-camel which gives birth to a she-camel as its first delivery, and then gives birth to another she-camel as its second delivery. People (in the Pre-lslamic periods of ignorance) used to let that she camel loose for their idols if it gave birth to two she-camels successively without giving birth to a male camel in between. 'Ham' was the male camel which was used for copulation. When it had finished the number of copulations assigned for it, they would let it loose for their idols and excuse it from burdens so that nothing would be carried on it, and they called it the 'Hami.' Abu Huraira said, "I heard the Prophet saying so." Sahih Muslim, Book 40, Hadith 6839: “Sa'id b. Musayyib explained" al-bahira" as that animal which is not milked but for the idols. and none amongst the people milks them, and" as-sa'iba" as that animal which is let loose for the deities. Nothing is loaded over it, and Ibn Musayyib narrated that Abu Huraira stated that Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: I saw 'amr b. 'Amir al-Khuzili dragging his intestines in fire and he was the first who devoted animals to deity.” Amr bin Luhai started the practice of releasing animals in the names of idols in pre-Islamic era: Sahih Bukhari, Book 22, Hadith 303: “… at the time when you saw me stepping forward. No doubt, I saw Hell with its different parts destroying each other when you saw me retreating and in it I saw 'Amr bin Luhai who started the tradition of freeing animals (set them free) in the name of idols." Sahih Bukhari, Book 56, Hadith 723: Narrated Said bin Al-Musaiyab: Al-Bahira was an animal whose milk was spared for the idols and other deities, and so nobody was allowed to milk it. As-Saiba was an animal which they (i.e infidels) used to set free in the names of their gods so that it would not be used for carrying anything. Abu Huraira said, "The Prophet said, 'I saw Amr bin 'Amir bin Luhai Al-Khuzai dragging his intestines in the (Hell) Fire, for he was the first man who started the custom of releasing animals (for the sake idols).'" Even though these innovations were not considered part of Islam by Mushrikeen of Arabia the fact remains that Amr bin Luhai was guilty of a reprehensible innovation in primordial Islam. And his innovation was which distanced the people from monotheistic religion of Ibrahim (alayhis salam) and corrupted his religion of Islam. Therefore Amr bin Luhai will be carrying the burden of sin of those people who have fallowed his reprehensible innovation after him, because our Messenger of Allah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) stated: “And he who introduced some evil practice in Islam[2] which had been followed subsequently (by others), he would be required to bear the burden like that of one who followed this (evil practice) without theirs being diminished in any respect.”[3] Conclusion: Just as the religion of all the previous Prophets was same – Islam; so were their guiding principles on subject of innovations same. One such guiding principle was given by beloved Messenger (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) to his Ummah: “And he who introduced some evil practice in Islam which had been followed subsequently (by others), he would be required to bear the burden...." Its has been demonstrated that this guiding principle was also applied to the son of Prophet Adam's (alayhis salam).[4] This leads to the conclusion that any reprehensible action/belief acted/held by a believer or even a disbeliever and others imitate him in this practice using him/her as example, even though the person did not intend to make it part of Islam, it will be judged as part of Islam.[5] And a broader understanding is that polytheism of Makkans, Indian, Chinese, and the religion of Jews, Christians, Sabian, Zorastranism are in fact pervesion of religion of Islam in one way or another. The reprehensible innovations altered the pure religion of Islam into monstracities known to us today. What ever they invented in past or invent in present or in future will be judged as perversion of Islam which was sent to them originally. Therefore those who introduced reprehensible innovations which altered the relgions of Prophets and those who fallowed them for there will be equal sin. On the basis of this discussion and its conclusions it is absolute that any act which is against the Sharia of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) if one practices it and it becomes a custom/practice then it will be considered as a reprehensible innovation introduced in Islam even if it was not intended to be taken as part of Islam.[6] Wama alayna ilal balaghul mubeen Muhammed Ali Razavi Footnotes: ======== - [1] Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) stated:“And he who introduced some evil practice in Islam which had been followed subsequently (by others), he would be required to bear the burden." This proves that a sinner/innovator does not have to verbally express or intend to make the reprehensible innovative action/belief part of Islam for that sinful innovative action/belief to be considered innovation into Islam. Just acting/believing contrary to teaching of Islam is enough to deem that reprehensible act/belief as innovation and that reprehensible act/belief to be considered part of Islam. - [2]Religion of all Prophets is Islam so application of rule of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) to son of Adam (alayhis salam) is valid. - [3] Sahih Muslim, Book 34, Hadith 6466 - [4] And the rules of praiseworthy innovations were also granted to Ummatis of previous Prophets. It is stated about the followers of Isa (alayhis salam) that they innovated the practice of Monasticism: “Then, in their wake, We followed them up with (others of) Our apostles: We sent after them Jesus the son of Mary, and bestowed on him the Gospel; and We ordained in the hearts of those who followed him Compassion and Mercy. But the Monasticism which they invented for themselves, We did not prescribe for them: (We commanded) only the seeking for the Good Pleasure of Allah. but that they did not foster as they should have done. Yet We bestowed, on those among them who believed, their (due) reward, but many of them are rebellious transgressors.” [Ref: Surah 57:27] And Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) says those who practiced it for them there was reward. - [5] This point is substantiated with the evidence of Hadhrat Adam's (alayhis salam) son murdering his brother because he did not consider it part of Islam Yet addition to his sins the sins of those who murder unjustly indicates Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) will judge it to be part of Islam regardless of the intention. Also Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) states that killing of children by Mushrikeen was altering of religion of Islam: “Even so, in the eyes of most of the pagans, their "partners" made alluring the slaughter of their children, in order to lead them to their own destruction, and cause confusion in their religion. If Allah had willed, they would not have done so: But leave alone them and their inventions.” [Ref: Surah 6:137] this proves that any reprehensible action (i.e. against Sharia) becomes innovation even if it isnt intented. - [6] Naturally implications of this are that if a praiseworthy innovation is not intended to be part of Islam as Sunnah, or Fard it will be considered part of Islam due to its Ijtihadi evidence