MuhammedAli

Members
  • Content count

    1,295
  • Joined

  • Last visited

  • Days Won

    79

Everything posted by MuhammedAli

  1. Praiseworthy & Reprehensible Sunnah Understood According To Sunnah Of RasoolAllah Peace And Blessings Be Upon Him Introduction: Hadith narrated by Hadhrat Abu Huraira (radiallah ta'ala anh) records a guiding principle given by Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'salam): “... "Isn't He who raises his head before the Imam afraid that Allah may transform his head into that of a donkey or his figure (face) into that of a donkey?" [ref: Bukhari, Book 11, Hadith 660] Many such guiding principles are recorded in ahadith of beloved Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) which can be taken out of the context completely and they will still be source of legislation because the nature of language used is as such. And as a result of this numerous such statements can be found in the books of ahadith which are stripped from their original context.[1] In their context these guiding principles may have some contextual relevance, or absolute relevance to context, or have absolutely no relevance to its context. And their partial or absolute contextual relevance does not restrict the implications of these guiding principles to a particular person or era or meaning, rather these guiding principles remain universal and serve as rules for Ummah of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) can judge. Hadith of Praiseworthy & Reprehensible Sunnah: Sahih Muslim, Book 034, Number 6466: "Jarir b. Abdullah reported that some desert Arabs clad in woolen clothes came to Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him). He saw them in sad plight as they had been hard pressed by need. He (the Holy Prophet) exhorted people to give charity, but they showed some reluctance until (signs) of anger could be seen on his face. Then a person from the Ansar came with a purse containing silver. Then came another person and then other persons followed them in succession until signs of happiness could be seen on his (sacred) face. Thereupon Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect. And he who introduced some evil practice in Islam which had been followed subsequently (by others), he would be required to bear the burden like that of one who followed this (evil practice) without theirs being diminished in any respect." The Dispute Between Ahle Sunnat & Wahhabi's: The Wahhabis hold to the belief that this hadith is in specific meaning of; companion in the gathering who initiated giving of Sadqa to the poor Bedouins and those who fallowed him, for all of them there will be equal reward, therefore it can not be used to substantiate category of 'Praiseworthy Innovation' as well as the innovations. The Sunnis hold to the belief that this statement of beloved Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) can be stripped completely independent of it's context and still serve as a source of guidance. Therefore this hadith is evidence for category of 'Praiseworthy Innovation' and a justification for praiseworthy innovations. The aim of this article is to explain the hadith of praiseworthy and blameworthy Sunnah in light of Sunnah of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam).[2] Also to validate the contention of Ahle Sunnat Wal Jammat that it is Sunnah of beloved Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) to give guiding principles to his followers on which we can judge the right, wrong, permissible and prohibited. And the belief of Wahhabis that this hadith is only restricted to its context is heretical and blameworthy innovation. Analysis Of Hadith Sunnah Sai'yah & Hasanah: The complete statement does not fit the context of event because a blameworthy Sunnah in Islam was practiced presence of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam). Therefore the beloved Prophet's (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) saying: “And he who introduced some evil practice in Islam which had been followed subsequently (by others), he would be required to bear the burden like that of one who followed this (evil practice) without theirs being diminished in any respect." is not according to the context. And due to fact that there is no mention of blameworthy Sunnah[3] being made part of Islam by companions. It would be safe to conclude that this entire statement of beloved Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam), from: “He who introduced some good practice ...” to end of: “And he who introduced some evil practice ...” was given as guiding principles to encourage good and forbid the evil by him. So the companions can act on the verse of “... amr bil maroof wan'nahuna a'nil munkir ...”[4] and by extension of us being Ummatis the verse refers to us the Muslims. So we also use these guiding principles to encourage good which is part of deen as Fard and Sunnah as well as invite to good which is determined by Ijtihad. Forbid the evil which was declared by Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) as evil and his beloved Messenger (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) in Quran and Sunnah. As well as discourage the Muslims from taking part in modern evil practices which were not explicitly declared to be evil yet due to Ijtihadi evidence it can be established that these are against the spirit of Islam therefore evil. Hadith Of Intentions: Sahih Bukhari, Book 1, Hadith 1: “Narrated 'Umar bin Al-Khattab: I heard Allah's Apostle saying: "The reward of deeds depends upon the intentions and every person will get the reward according to what he has intended.” So whoever emigrated for worldly benefits or for a woman to marry, his emigration was for what he emigrated for." Sahih Bukhari, Book 86, Hadith 85: “Narrated 'Umar bin Al-Khattab: The Prophet said: “O people! The reward of deeds depends upon the intentions, and every person will get the reward according to what he has intended.” So, whoever emigrated for Allah and His Apostle, then his emigration was for Allah and His Apostle, and whoever emigrated to take worldly benefit or for a woman to marry, then his emigration was for what he emigrated for." Point One: Beloved Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) said: "The reward of deeds depends upon the intentions and every person will get the reward according to what he has intended.” and then he went to give examples to explain his rule/principle with words: “So whoever emigrated for worldly benefits or for a woman to marry, his emigration was for what he emigrated for." In another hadith it is reported Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) gave the same rule/principle but explained it slightly differently: “So, whoever emigrated for Allah and His Apostle, then his emigration was for Allah and His Apostle, and whoever emigrated to take worldly benefit or for a woman to marry, then his emigration was for what he emigrated for." Based on this one can not argue that since the rule/principle is given in a specific context marriage and migration[5] the meaning of it is restricted to that context only. And based on this conclude that a believer does not have to intend to do everything for sake of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) to be rewarded by Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) because the context was of marriage and emigration. Point Two: The aim of the statement: "The reward of deeds depends upon the intentions and every person will get the reward according to what he has intended.” is to let people know that if action is done with intention of worldly gain it will be judged as that and it will not earn reward, and reward of deeds done for worldly gain and show off, is punishment. This principle is in general meaning explained in a specific context to educate that any act done for worldly intentions will be judged and rewarded as such. To teach if you intend to worship Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) your actions of worship will earn you reward. If you give Zakat, and Sadqa with intention of pleasing Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) then the reward of this is with Allah (subhana wa ta'ala). If you was to marry for sake of protecting your self from adultery out of fear of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) or to marry with intention to have children who would fight for the cause of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) then the good intention will earn reward. And to teach that if a action is done for worldly intentions and without the intention of pleasing Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) then on the day of judgment it will be judged as that and will earn its doer no reward. Fighting In Allah's Cause: Sahih Muslim, Book 53, Hadith 355: “Narrated Abu Musa Al-Ashari: A Bedouin asked the Prophet, "A man may fight for the sake of booty, and another may fight so that he may be mentioned by the people, and a third may fight to show his position (i.e. bravery); which of these regarded as fighting in Allah's Cause?" The Prophet said: "He who fights so that Allah's Word (i.e. Islam) should be superior, fights for Allah's Cause." Sahih Bukhari, Book 3, Hadith 125: “Narrated Abu Musa: A man came to the Prophet and asked, "O Allah's Apostle! What kind of fighting is in Allah's cause? (I ask this), for some of us fight because of being enraged and angry and some for the sake of his pride and haughtiness." The Prophet raised his head (as the questioner was standing) and said: "He who fights so that Allah's Word (Islam) should be superior, then he fights in Allah's cause." Point One: A Bedouin came to Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) and said: "A man may fight for the sake of booty, and another may fight so that he may be mentioned by the people, and a third may fight to show his position (i.e. bravery); which of these regarded as fighting in Allah's Cause?" in another hadith which is also narrated by Abu Musa Al-Ashari (rahimullah alayhi ta'ala): "O Allah's Apostle! What kind of fighting is in Allah's cause?” The answer given by beloved Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) is: "He who fights so that Allah's Word (i.e. Islam) should be superior, fights for Allah's Cause.” Point Two: The context reveals questioner pacifically mentioned fighting in rage, fighting for pride, fight for haughtiness, fight for spoils of war, and then asked the question: “O Allah's Apostle! What kind of fighting is in Allah's cause?” The answer given was that one who fights so Allah's (subhana wa ta'ala) word should be superior he fights for the cause of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala). From this context can we correctly conclude that one who fights for pride, spoils of war, haughtiness, so deen of Allah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) is superior is fighting in cause of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala)? Or is he fighting for Allah's (subhana wa ta'ala) cause one who fights so Word of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) is superior over its enemies? One who fights so Allah's (subhana wa ta'ala) word is superior over its enemies is fighting in the cause of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala).[6] This demonstrates that a guiding principle can be in a particular context yet its meaning can absolutely be absolutely independent from it's context. Paying Debt Handsomely: Sahih Bukhari, Book 38, Hadith 502: “Narrated Abu Huraira: A man came to the Prophet demanding his debts and behaved rudely. The companions of the Prophet intended to harm him, but Allah's Apostle said (to them), "Leave him, for the creditor (i.e. owner of a right) has the right to speak." Allah's Apostle then said, "Give him a camel of the same age as that of his." The people said, "O Allah's Apostle! There is only a camel that is older than his." Allah's Apostle said, "Give (it to) him, for the best amongst you is he who pays the rights of others handsomely." Sahih Bukhari, Book 41, Hadith 578: Narrated Abu Huraira: The Prophet owed a camel of a certain age to a man who came to demand it back. The Prophet ordered his companions to give him. They looked for a camel of the same age but found nothing but a camel one year older. The Prophet told them to give it to him. The man said, "You have paid me in full, and may Allah pay you in full." The Prophet said, "The best amongst you is he who pays his debts in the most handsome manner." Point One: Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) owed debt to a man who was rude to Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) when he came to demand from Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) his debt. The companions of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) did not tolerate disrespect of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam), not even slight disrespect. So they wanted to harmed him (i.e. kill him)[7] but Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) prevented them. By saying: "Leave him, for the creditor (i.e. owner of a right) has the right to speak." Based on the context: “A man came to the Prophet demanding his debts and behaved rudely.” will one argue that Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) granted him permission to speak therefore Prophet of Allah (Sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) gave him permission to be rude to him![8] Of course not, the permission to speak was to demand the debt back from one who owes the debt to creditor and not to be rude to him. Point Two: RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) ordered that a camel be given to creditor: "Give him a camel of the same age as that of his." so the companions of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) searched for a same age camel to give to the creditor: “... but found nothing but a camel one year older.” So they informed Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) of the situation: “The Prophet told them to give it to him.” and then said: "The best amongst you is he who pays his debts in the most handsome manner." From the context it can be said that Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) is saying that he is the best amongst the Sahabah (alayhi ridwan). And clearly from hadith the lesson we learn, the guiding principle for us is to judge anyone who pays his debts handsomely as having characteristic of best of Muslims. It would be foolish to assume that this hadith was specific for Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) and it can not be used for guidance for Ummah of beloved Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam). This exercise demonstrates that a guiding principle may have partial relevance to the context but ultimately its purpose is to be source of guidance for all Muslims belonging to any era. Reprehensible Deeds In Jahilliyah: Sahih Muslim, Book 1, Hadith 217: “It is narrated on the authority of Abdullah b. Mas'ud that some people said to the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him): Messenger of Allah, would we be held responsible for our deeds committed in the state of ignorance (before embracing Islam)?[9] Upon his he (the Holy Prophet) remarked: He who amongst you performed good deeds in Islam, He would not be held responsible for them. And he who committed evil (even after embracing Islam) would be held responsible or his misdeeds that he committed in the state of ignorance as well as in that of Islam.” Sahih Muslim, Book 1, Hadith 218: “It is narrated on the authority of Abdullah b. Mas'ud: We once said: Messenger of Allah, would we be held responsible for our deeds committed in the state of ignorance? He (the Holy Prophet) observed: He who did good deeds in Islam would not be held responsible for what he did in the state of ignorance, but he who committed evil (after having come within the fold of Islam) would be held responsible for his previous and later deeds.” Point One: Some people said to Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) that would they be held responsible on the day of judgment for the sinful deed they committed before coming to Islam. Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) replied: “He who amongst you performed good deeds in Islam He would not be held responsible for them.” And about munafiqeen (i.e. hypocrites): “And he who committed evil (even after embracing Islam) would be held responsible or his misdeeds that he committed in the state of ignorance as well as in that of Islam.” Based on the context of question, and the answer is it possible to safely conclude that those who asked beloved Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) about the deeds of pre-jahiliyah period were pious and sinful! Of course not only a ignominious illiterate would come to such conclusion because there is indication in this hadith that only Sahabah (alayhi ridwan) asked.[10] Point Two: Sahih Muslim, Book 1, Hadith 222: “Hakim b. Hizam reported to 'Urwa b. Zubair that he said to the Messenger of Allah: Do you think that there is any thing for me (of he reward with the Lord) for the deed of religious purification that I did in the state of ignorance? Upon this he (the Apostle of Allah) said to him: You accepted Islam with all the previous virtues that you practiced.” Sahih Muslim, Book 1, Hadith 218: “It is narrated on the authority of Abdullah b. Mas'ud, We once said: Messenger of Allah, would we be held responsible for our deeds committed in the state of ignorance? He (the Holy Prophet) observed: He who did good deeds in Islam would not be held responsible for what he did in the state of ignorance, but he who committed evil (after having come within the fold of Islam) would be held responsible for his previous and later deeds.” Devils may deceive people and the people may deceive themselves and conclude that the Munafiqeen as well as Sahabah (alayhi ridwan) asked beloved (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) about their deeds of pre-conversion era. But it is clear from the ahadith that Hadhrat Hakim bin Hizam (radiallah ta'ala anh), Hadhrat Abdullah bin Mas'ud (radiallah ta'ala anh) as well as the other Sahabah had asked the question about deeds of pre-conversion era. Point Three: Importantly these ahadith are hope to anyone who converts to Islam, news to them that if they act piously adhere to deen of Islam, practice the deen as it is supposed to, then for them there will be reward for the good deeds done prior to being Muslim and while being part of Ummah. This hadith also serves as warning to new converts that if you convert but continue to sin without restrain and repentance then you will be punished with your sins done while being Muslim as well as in period prior to Islam. It would be illogical, irrational, to assume that this guiding principle news was limited to the persons involved, or restricted to companions only. This leads to the conclusion that guiding principles can have partial relevance to it's context but not absolute relevance and if a senseless shaytaan argues that this Hadith has absolute relevance to the people involved then there is defect in his aqeedah regarding beloved Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) and about Sahabah (alayhi ridwan).[11] Usurping Land Wrongfully: Sahih Muslim, Book 1, Hadith 256: “Ibn Mas'ud says: I heard the Messenger of Allah observing: He who took an oath on the property of a Muslim without legitimate right would meet Allah and He would be angry, with him. Then the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) in support of his contention recited the verse: "Verily those who barter Allah's covenant and their oaths at a small price.” Sahih Muslim, Book 1, Hadith 258: “Wa'il reported it on the authority of his father Hujr: I was with the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) that two men came there disputing over a piece of land. One of them said: Messenger of Allah, this man appropriated my land without justification in the days of ignorance. The (claimant) was Imru'l-Qais b. 'Abis al-Kindi and his opponent was Rabi'a b. 'Iban He (the Holy Prophet) said (to the claimant): Have you evidence (to substantiate your claim)? He replied: I have no evidence. Upon this he (the Messenger of Allah) remarked: Then his (that is of the defendant) is the oath. He (the claimant) said: In this case he (the defendant) would appropriate this (the property). He (the Holy Prophet) said: There is than no other way left for you but this. He (the narrator) said: When he (the defendant) stood up to take oath, the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: He who appropriated the land wrongfully would meet Allah in a state that He would be angry with him. Ishaq in his narration mentions Rabi'a b. 'Aidan (instead of Rabi'a b. 'Ibdan).” Point One: Imrul Qais bin Abis Al Khindi (radia'allah ta'ala anh) as well as Rabi'a bin Iban (radia'allah ta'ala anh) came to Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) regarding a dispute about land. It was said to him: “Messenger of Allah, this man appropriated my land without justification in the days of ignorance.” Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) said to Imrul Qais (radia'allah ta'ala anh): “Have you evidence (to substantiate your claim)?” To which he said no he doesn’t then Prophet instructed the defendant to take a oath and said: “He who appropriated the land wrongfully would meet Allah in a state that He would be angry with him.” as well as recited the verse: “Verily those who barter Allah's covenant and their oaths at a small price.” From the statement of Imrul Qais's statement: “In this case he (the defendant) would appropriate this (the property).” and the verse of Quran can we conclude that Rabi'a bin Iban (radia'allah ta'ala anh) was being revealed as one who sold his iman for sake of land? Or can we conclude that the verse of the Quran due to the context of the dispute regarding land in fact was revealed about land? Answer for both is no, and no; because this recitation of the verse of Quran: “Behold, those who barter away their bond with God and their own pledges for a trifling gain – they shall not partake in the blessings of the life to come; and God will neither speak unto them nor look upon them on the Day of Resurrection, nor will He cleanse them of their sins; and grievous suffering awaits them.” [ref: Surah 3:77] was to remind the companion that Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) does not approve of those who sell their iman, piety for worldly gains: “Nor sell the covenant of Allah for a miserable price: for with Allah is (a prize) far better for you, if ye only knew.” [ref: Surah 16:95] And in no way the quotation of verse can be righteously be used to attack the any of the two pious companions.[12] And no the verse is not about land but its about Allah's (subhana wa ta'ala) covenant which he made the with people of the books and their selling covenant and oaths for small price means they alter the books, conceal, distort what was revealed in the earlier books for worldly gains.[13] Point Two: Three essential lessons to be learned from this, one, the guiding principle: “He who appropriated the land wrongfully would meet Allah in a state that He would be angry with him.” does have some relevance to the dispute of land but not absolute. Therefore there is no blame upon any of the companions of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam). Two, even though the verse does not indicate anything about land Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) quoted it to warn the believers of danger of usurping ones land unjustly. This establishes the principle that verse of Quran can be used out of its context if the language permits, such usage is permissible especially if it's about characteristics of man or about mankind generally. Lastly Allah's (subhana wa ta'ala) states that in the stories of past nations there are lessons, instructions of guidance: “There is, in their stories, instruction for men endued with understanding.” [ref: Surah 12:111] and we the Muslims have to be men of understanding to learn lessons and take instructions from the stories of companions which are recorded as ahadith. And the guiding principle is warning of what to stay away from, therefore it is according to Allah's (subhana wa ta'ala) statement: “Verily in this is an instructive warning for whosoever feareth (i.e. Allah).” [ref: Surah 79:26] Conclusion: In the light of discussion questions needs to be asked, should these guiding principles only be understood in the light of context of Hadith or can they be stripped from their context and applied generally? Answer, Sunnah of beloved RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) is to give guiding principles in context of a event or to give a guiding principle in historical context and then explain that guiding principle with examples. Therefore the guiding principles can be stripped from their historical context and be applied to life of Muslims where ever they maybe and who ever they maybe. Also note that these guiding principles were given in historical context because Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) sent revelation (which became hadith) on basis of the necessity and RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) guided the Muslims with rules/principles so Muslims judge according to what Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) has revealed and know the limits which His beloved Messengers (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) had set. The Quran was revealed in specific context of Arabia, its religions, customs, but we do not restrict the understanding of it to only what what Quran and Sunnah explicitly establish. Rather we use Quran and Ahadith to meet the challenges of modern tribulations, and refute associating of partners with Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) may it be the Greek mythology or Chinese or Indian. And this can only be done if the verses of Quran are stripped from their historical context and used as guiding principles against these polytheistic creeds. The language of the Quran as well as statements of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) allow a broader interpretation. Therefore to restrict the meaning of a verse/statement (i.e. guiding principle) of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) to a specific context is dangerous. In fact so dangerous that it will eliminate the very basis of Ijtihad because the tribulations in modern times as well as religions which were not mentioned nor their beliefs discussed in Qur’an, their refutation depends on Ijtihadi evidence.[14] On the basis of analysis of Sunnah of Messenger (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) we can conclude that he gave rules/guiding-principles in context of events which happened around him and this indeed is also Sunnah of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala).[15] Therefore Prophet's (sallalahu alyhi was'sallam) saying: “He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.” and his saying: “And he who introduced some evil practice in Islam which had been followed subsequently (by others), he would be required to bear the burden like that of one who followed this (evil practice) without theirs being diminished in any respect." are to be understood as guiding principles given in specific context which have relevance to the historical event, as well as a guiding principles for Muslims in his time and those who come after the him and after the three generations. Our deduction is also based on the fact that Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) has stated; stories in revelation are narrated so the ulil albab (i.e. men of understanding) learn lessons from them. Therefore the guiding principle: “He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.” is valid source to perform ijtihad on to support the existence, the creation, of praiseworthy innovations in deen of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam). With certainty that one who innovates a ijtihadi praiseworthy innovation for him there is reward as well as equal reward for those who fallow his praise worthy innovation. Wama alayna ilal balaghul mubeen. Muhammed Ali Razavi Footnotes: ========= - [1] Reports like these are too numerous to list all: “... Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: He who died knowing (fully well) that there is no god but Allah entered Paradise.” [ref: Muslim, B1, H39] and “... the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) observed: he who as in his heart the weight of a mustard seed of pride shall not enter Paradise.” [ref: Muslim, B1, H166] Existence of such reports is also proof that Sahabah (alayhi ridwan) stripped such ahadith from their historical context to educate people. - [2] We have been commanded to obey Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) and Messenger (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) and prohibited from falling into disputes: “And obey Allah and His Messenger, and do not dispute and [thus] lose courage and [then] your strength would depart; and ...” [ref: Surah 8:46] the reality is that we have fallen into disputes on all sorts of issues including religion and considering the nature of man Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) instructed the best course of action if we do fall into dispute: “O ye who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those charged with authority among you. If ye differ in anything among yourselves, refer it to Allah and His Messenger, if ye do believe in Allah and the Last Day: ...” [ref: Surah 4:59] Note in disputes we are only instructed to refer to Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) and RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam). We have to probe why did Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) not say refer to ulil amr (i.e. ones with authority)! Reason, It is entirely possible for the ulil amr to fall into dispute on a matter of deen, and we have plenty of evidence in ahadith to substantiate this. We are instructed to obey the ulil amr on matters which there is no dispute, and we are instructed to obey Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) as well as Messenger (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) in all matters disputed or in agreement. As a matter of principle we first seek guidance in Quran (i.e. Allah subhana wa ta'ala) if we fail to find evidence for a matter in Quran then we seek guidance from Sunnah (i.e. Prophet sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) because: “He who obeys the Messenger has obeyed Allah ; but those who turn away ...” [ref: Surah 4:80] Even then if we do not find guidance on a matter then we are permitted to practice Ijtihad (i.e. striving to achieve a objective independently) in light of Quran and Ahadith. - [3] Wahhabis may be tempted by the shaytaan to say that reprehensible Sunnah of companions in the context of hadith was that they were reluctant to give sadqa. Explanation of their reluctance has to be understood in light of Prophet's (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) saying: “... Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) having said this: The most excellent Sadaqa or the best of Sadaqa is that after giving which the (giver) remains rich and the upper hand is better than the lower hand, and begin from the members of your household.” [ref: Bukhari, B5, H2254] Their reluctance was due to desire to practice sadqa in secret but when they saw signs of displeasure after Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) they realized that exhortation to give sadqa was for the poor Bedouins then they came forward until he was pleased. Therefore a cursed apostate Wahhabi would dare to accuse the companions of beloved Messenger (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) of introducing reprehensible Sunnah into religion of Islam. - [4] “[such believers are] the repentant, the worshipers, the praisers [of Allah ], the travelers [for His cause], those who bow and prostrate [in prayer], those who enjoin what is right and forbid what is wrong, and those who observe the limits [set by] Allah. And give good tidings to the believers.” [ref: Surah 9:112] - [5] Context of marriage and migration: 'The reward of deeds of migration as well as marriage depends upon the intentions, and every person will get the reward according to what he has intended.' - [6] The cause of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala), the aim, objective of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) is to make Islam dominant over its adversaries: “It is He Who hath sent His Messenger with guidance and the Religion of Truth, to over-come it over all religion, even though the Pagans may detest (it).” [ref: Surah 9:33, Surah 48:28, Surah 61:9] and therefore who fights Jihad in the way of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) with right intention he fights for cause of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala). - [7] The companions of beloved Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) would have killed him because this is the Sunnah of Sahabah for those who disrespect Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) and this is proven from: “... While we were with Allah's Apostle who was distributing (i.e. some property), there came Dhu-l-Khuwaisira, a man from the tribe of Bani Tamim and said, "O Allah's Apostle! Do Justice." The Prophet said, "Woe to you! Who could do justice if I did not? I would be a desperate loser if I did not do justice." 'Umar said, "O Allah's Apostle! Allow me to chop his head off." ...” [ref: Bukhari, B56, H807] in another hadith its reported: “Somebody who, I think was Khalid bin Al-Walid, requested the Prophet to let him chop that man's head off, but he prevented him.” [ref: Bukhari, B55, H558] - [8] Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) has prohibited it raising of voice over the voice of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) and talking to him in a manner in which we talk among our selves: “O ye who believe! Raise not your voices above the voice of the Prophet, nor speak aloud to him in talk, as ye may speak aloud to one another, lest your deeds become vain and ye perceive not.” [ref: Surah 49:2] Raising voice over the voice of another is disrespectful and one we talk freely to are often the ones we have no respect for. And also when people converse with each other they use derogatory nicknames or use words which show lack of respect, therefore common manners are prohibited for RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam). In another verse Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) has prohibited the believers: “O you who believe! do not say “Raina” and say “Unzurna” and listen, and for the unbelievers there is a painful chastisement.” [ref: Surah 2:104] 'Ra'ina' literally means 'listen to us' in Arabic, this word was used by companions to imply repeat what Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) said if they missed something. The Jews taking advantage of similarity of Hebrew and Arabic languages used to pronounce 'ra'ina' with twist of tonge: “Among the Jews are those who distort words from their [proper] usages and say … "Ra'ina," twisting their tongues and defaming the religion.” [ref: Surah 4:46] to make it sound like the Hebrew word which had derogatory meaning. On the basis of the Jews having malicious intentions Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) forbade the believers from using this word and instructed that companions use 'unzurna' (i.e. look at us). Beloved Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) was embodiment of Quran it could not be expected him to encourage evil (i.e. being rude to him) because Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) had prohibited it. - [9] Period of ignorance technically implies 'period of ignorance of Islam and lived in kuffr/shirk', and in this hadith the term is used to mean period of kuffr/shirk before converting to Islam. - [10] It is factually possible that among the Muslims in the time of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) there were people (i.e. munafiqeen) who practiced evil deeds even after converting to Islam and they will be punished for their sinful deeds of pre-conversion era and post conversion era. But it is impossible due to the nature of question because it reveals that one who has inquired is concerned about his deeds of pre-islamic era and a munafiq was/is never concerned about what he has done in past or is doing at the moment. And if a munafiq shows concern its only for sake of pride, salvaging prestige honor, and for fear of retribution. The Sahabah intended good for deen, and practiced good in deen and prohibited evil, abstained from evil, and were concerned about the evil deeds regardless of when they committed them due to fear of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala). The Munafiqeen had no interest in deen, their practice of deen (i.e. prayers etc ..) was simply a show and Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) said about them: “To the Hypocrites give the glad tidings that there is for them (but) a grievous penalty.” [ref: Surah 4:138] The penalty is explained in another verse: “The Hypocrites will be in the lowest depths of the Fire: no helper wilt thou find for them.” [ref: Surah 4:145] Therefore if the Munafiqeen were asking about what the good/evil deeds Prophet of Allah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) would have quoted the verses and answered their question. - [11] Defect in aqeeda regarding Sahabah (alayhi ridwan) because Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) has promised in the Quran to not to punish them but to grant then paradise: “The vanguard (of Islam) - the first of those who migrated (i.e. Muhajireen) and of those who gave them aid (i.e. Ansar), and (also) those who follow them in (all) good deeds,- well pleased is Allah with them, as are they with Him: for them hath He prepared gardens under which rivers flow, to dwell therein for ever: that is the supreme felicity.” [ref: Surah 9:100] To say that the guiding principle mentioned has absolute relevance to Sahabah is to argue that Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) frightened the Sahabah (radiallah ta'ala) about a matter which Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) had already decided and informed the Sahabah (radia'allah ta'ala anh) of paradise. - [12] The reason anyone of these two companions can not be said to be under wrath of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) is simple because Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) has forgiven their mistakes, sins of all companions: “To those who believe and do deeds of righteousness hath Allah promised forgiveness and a great reward.” [ref: Surah 5:9] forgiveness for their sins and reward unconditionally which has Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) promised in this verse to Sahabah (alayhi ridwan): “... to all has Allah promised a goodly (reward). And Allah is well acquainted with all that ye do.” [ref: Surah 57:10] The promise of reward, and forgiveness of their sins/mistakes itself is proof that Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) did not give this principle for the two companions. One who ignorant of Quran and Sunnah may argue this was given in time when RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) did not know about what Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) will do with the companions so he could have intended it for them. Response, revelation received by Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) was of two types one which became Quran, and one which was Hadith. Allah (subhana a ta'ala) does not forget what He has instructed nor does he contradict Himself. Hence the understanding that this principle, in fact any principle which is given in context of where it points negatively to a companion has to be understood for the rest of Ummah which isn’t protected from misguidance. With this the harmony between wahi of Quran and wahi of Hadith is remains intact, and Allah's (subhana wa ta'ala) challenge of no contradiction in his guidance remains legitimately uncontested. - [13] Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) has stated: “And, behold, there are indeed some among them who distort the Book with their tongues, so as to make you think that [what they say] is from the Book, the while it is not from the Book; and who say, "This is from God," the while it is not from God: and thus do they tell a lie about God, being well aware [that it is a lie]” [ref: Surah 3:78] about such people Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) says: “Behold, those who barter away their bond with God and their own pledges for a trifling gain – they shall not partake in the blessings of the life to come; and God will neither speak unto them nor look upon them on the Day of Resurrection, nor will He cleanse them of their sins; and grievous suffering awaits them.” [ref: Surah 3:77] in another verse Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) states about people of book: “Then woe to those who write the Book with their own hands, and then say:"This is from Allah," to traffic with it for miserable price!- Woe to them for what their hands do write, and for the gain they make thereby.” [ref: Surah 2:79] - [14] Evidence which is not explicit but is implicit and based on analogy. - [15] Allah's (subhana wa ta'ala) Sunnah is to send revelation when there is a justified cause for revelation. And that cause can be anything; someone attributing sons to Allah (subhana wa ta'ala), or attributing daughters to Allah (subhana wa ta'ala). ==========
  2. Hadith Of Praiseworthy/Reprehensible Innovation: Critical Analysis Of A Interpretation. Introduction. Hadith of praiseworthy and blameworthy innovation can be explained in many different ways without contradicting the established facts from Qur’an or Sunnah of beloved Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam). The first part of the article will explain why the hadith in discussion belongs to a specific genre of ahadith which does not necessitate direct link between the hadith of Sahih Muslim and others. In the second part this article will focus on one specific interpretation which is presented by the Wahhabiya and their like minded individuals to refute the legitimacy of praiseworthy innovations in Islam. In the last and finale part of the article khadim will explain the meaning of the hadith of Sahih Muslim in the context of ahadith of reprehensible innovation. Hadith Of Reprehensible Innovation. Sahih Muslim, Book 034, Number 6466: "… them in succession until signs of happiness could be seen on his (sacred) face. Thereupon Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: He who introduced some good practice (i.e. Sunnah) in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect. And he who introduced some evil practice (i.e. Sunnah) in Islam which had been followed subsequently (by others), he would be required to bear the burden like that of one who followed this (evil practice) without theirs being diminished in any respect." Part One: A Genre Of Hadith. It is narrated: “The servant does not introduce good practice which is followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.”[1] another hadith with similar theme states: “No one calls to guidance without having the same reward as those who follow him, without diminishing their rewards at all. And no one calls to error without having the same burdens as they do, without diminishing their burdens at all.”[2] One version of hadith states: “If anyone revives a Sunnah of my Sunnahs and dies afterward s then for him is a reward like (that of) those who conduct themselves on it without deducting anything from their rewards. And if anyone innovates a bidda of misguidance with which Allah and His Messenger are not pleased then he gets a sin like the sins of those who observe it and nothing is deducted from the sins of the people.”[Ref: Tirmadhi, B44, Chap15, H2686] yet another version states: “O son, that is from my Sunnah, and he who revives my Sunnah has indeed revived me and he who revives me will be with me in paradise.”[3] and finally another hadith states: “Whoever teaches some knowledge will have the reward of the one who acts upon it, without that detracting from his reward in the slightest.”[4] Importantly the hadith of praiseworthy, blameworthy innovation belongs to a category of ahadith which inform the believers of reward from Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) for either innovating a practice, propagating Islam, reviving a Sunnah, and inform of equale reward for those who fallow their footsteps. One set of ahadith makes mention of hadith praiseworthy, blameworthy innovations, the second set of ahadith mentions reviving of forgotten Sunnah of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam), the third type of hadith discusses teaching of knowledge, the fourth type of hadith talks about inviting to amr bil maroof. Therefore it would be absolutely ludicrous to use of one set of ahadith to distort the apparent meaning of another set of ahadith beyond recognition. Yes, it is possible to interpret all these ahadith harmoniously with one another but those interpretations do not impact negatively on the position of Ahle Sunnat (i.e. praiseworthy innovations can legitimately be part of Islam). There is no requirement for interpretation of any of these ahadith, and if they were to be interpreted no valid interpretation can exclude another valid interpretation. The nature of RasoolAllah's (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) speech is such that it can be interpreted to mean many thing. As a believer we should accept all valid interpretations without practicing selectivism because this is demonstration of firmly believing in Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) and in His beloved Messenger (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam). Part Two: Harmonizing Ahadith. Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) has stated: “He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.” The Wahhabi's interpret this hadith exclusively to mean: “He who [revived forgotten, neglected Sunnah] which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it..” in order to deny/reject the other possible interpretations. Even though this Wahhabi interpretation is acceptable[5] in light of: “If anyone revives[6] a Sunnah out of my Sunnahs and dies afterwards then for him is a reward like (that of) those who conduct themselves on it without deducting anything from their rewards.”[7] but in the context of hadith of Sahih Muslim the exclusivity of their interpretation is extremely heretical. The reason why this explanation is heretical is obvious that it can only derived after completely mutilating the hadith of Sahih Muslim. A interpretation which does not omit the contents of hadith of Sahih Muslim but rather incorporate them as well is safer then the mutilation of Hadith. One such interpretation is if the concept of reviving Sunnah/Practice of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) is itself considered a good Sunnah (i.e. practice, innovation) introduced in Islam then the meaning of hadith of Muslim would be: “He who introduced some good Sunnah in Islam [i.e. reviving of neglected, forgotten Sunnahs] which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.” With this interpretation the literal meaning of Sahih Muslim's hadith remains intact and hadith of Tirmadhi is incorporated into it's text to give a interpretation which does not refute the literal implications on which position of Ahle Sunnat is based but it refutes the exclusiveness of Wahhabi interpretation.[8] With this interpretation the reviving of Sunnahs of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) becomes a praiseworthy innovation and this interpretation does not contradict the position of Ahle Sunnat Wal Jammat but rather this interpretation is a valid interpretation due to hadith being shortest of expressions bearing widest of meanings. Part Three: Explanation of Reprehensible Innovations. It is clear that the hadith of praiseworthy/blameworthy innovations can be interpreted in a manner to include the meaning of reviving the forgotten or neglected Sunnahs of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam). And it is also clear that this is a interpretation, a valid interpretation at that, but the literal text of the hadith of Sahih Muslim is definitive which can be subject of further interpretations. It has been established that according to the interpretation in part two the very concept of reviving Sunnahs of beloved Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) is a praiseworthy innovation in Islam. Therefore the only excuse source of disharmony in Ahle Sunnats position is the hadith of: "… qullu muhdasa'tin bida´h, wa qullu bida´tin dalala ..." once this hadith is explained then alhamdulillah the position of Ahle Sunnat is haq which no batal can knock down with their heretical ways. Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) has reported to have said: “And the most evil affairs are the innovations; and every innovation is error."[9] on the basis of this the heretical Wahhabiya argue that 'every' innovation is evil misguidance. Yet in Arabic qullu (i.e. every) isn’t used always to mean all, every, but it is used to mean all or every in a specific category. That category of innovations is of type which: “... is not in harmony with the principles of our religion, ...”[10] or “... any act for which there is no sanction from our behalf, ...”[11] or “... for which there is no valid (reason) (commits sin) and these are to be rejected.”[12] Those innovations which; are in harmony with principles of our deen, are compromised of various Sunnahs that are sanctioned by Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) and for them there is valid justification then they should not be rejected. They are not the evil type of innovations which we are instructed to reject, but rather they are praiseworthy innovations, good innovations about which Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) stated: “He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.” Conclusion: The position of Ahle Sunnat is that in deen praiseworthy innovations can be made part of Islam with Ijtihad as Sahih Bukhari, Tafsir Ibn Kathir is part of Islam. And if the hadith of Sahih Muslim is not mutilated but the content of it are kept as it is. Then the text of hadith of Tirmadhi is incorporated into the text of hadith of Sahih Muslim. According to to this interpretation the very concept of reviving Sunnahs of beloved Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) is a praiseworthy innovation in Islam. Instead of refuting the position of Ahle Sunnat the Wahhabi interpretation substantiates it. Wama alayna ilal balaghul mubeen. Muhammed Ali Razavi ----------------------------- Footnotes: ======== - [1] “Jarir b. 'Abdullah reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: The servant does not introduce good practice which is followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6468] In Urdu translation book of Zakat, chapter of sadaqah another hadith is recorded: ”… Let a man give charity from his dinars, his dirhams, his clothing, his wheat or his dates – even if it is only half a date.’ A man from the Ansaar brought a package which he could hardly carry in his hand, then another and another came, until there were two piles, of food and clothing, and I saw the face of the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) beaming with joy. The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: ‘Whoever starts a good Sunnah (i.e. practice) in Islam will have his own reward and a reward equal to that of those who follow him, without it detracting in the least from their reward, and whoever starts a bad Sunnah in Islam will have to bear the burden of his own sin and a burden equal to that of those who followed him, without it detracting in the least from their burden.” [an'Nisaa’i, V2, H465] - [2] “Yahya related to me from Malik that he had heard that the Messenger of Allah said: “No one calls to guidance without having the same reward as those who follow him, without diminishing their rewards at all. And no one calls to error without having the same burdens as they do, without diminishing their burdens at all.” [Ref: Ibn Majah, B15, Chap9, H41] "Abu Huraira reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: He who called (people) to righteous, there would be reward (assured) for him like the rewards of those who adhered to it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect. And he who called (people) to error, he shall have to carry (the burden) of its sin, like those who committed it, without their sins being diminished in any respect." [Ref: Muslim, B34, N6470] - [3] “Sayyidina Anas Ibn Malik reported that Allah's Messenger said to him: “Son, if you can begin the morning and the evening without the hatred towards anyone then do it.” He then said to me: “O son, that is from my Sunnah, and he who revives my Sunnah has indeed revived me and he who revives me will be with me in paradise.” [Ref: Tirmadhi, B44, Chap15, H2687] - [4] Note classified Hasan by anthropomorphist Albani: “Sabl bin Mu’ddh bin Anas narrated from his father that the Prophet i said: “Whoever teaches some knowledge will have the reward of the one who acts upon it, without that detracting from his reward in the slightest.” [Ref: Ibn Majah, Book of Sunnah, Hadith 247] - [5] The meaning is acceptable because takhseesi (i.e. specific) meaning can be given to a hadith/verse on the basis of hadith/verse but that interpretation can not supersede the literal reading of hadith/verse. And the interpretations derived from hadith/verse can be valid/invalid but these interpretations do not close the door for other interpretations from same hadith/verse because the nature of Qur’an/Hadith is jawami al kalim (i.e. shortest expression bearing widest meanings). - [6] The matan (i.e. text) of the hadith has been tempered with. I assume a narrators knowingly/unknowingly took the explanation of the hadith and narrated it as Prophet's (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) statement. - [7] “Kathir Ibn Abdullah (who was Ibn Amr Ibn Awf Al Muzani) reported from his father on the authority of his grandfather that the Prophet said to Bilal Ibn Harith : “Know!” He said: “I will learn, O Messenger of Allah . He said: 'If anyone revives a Sunnah of my Sunnahs and dies afterwards then for him is a reward like (that of) those who conduct themselves on it without deducting anything from their rewards. And if anyone innovates a bidda of misguidance with which Allah and His Messenger are not pleased then he gets a sin like the sins of those who observe it and nothing is deducted from the sins of the people.” [Ref: Tirmadhi, B44, Chap15, H2686] - [8] The Wahhabi position of exclusiveness (i.e. this hadith refers to reviving the forgotten, neglected Sunnahs only) is refuted because the act, the concept, the philosophy of reviving forgotten, neglected Sunnahs of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) itself has is a praiseworthy innovation in Islam. Therefore one who revives neglected, forgotten Sunnahs of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) and those who fallow in his footsteps by making it his mission to revive the forgotten Sunnahs of beloved Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) will equally be rewarded then the ones whose example he fallowed. And those who act on revived Sunnahs of beloved RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) this too will earn the reviver and the enactor equale reward from Allah (subhana wa ta'ala). - [9] Sahih Muslim, Book 4, Hadith 1885: “... further say: "The best of the speech is embodied in the Book of Allah, and the beet of the guidance is the guidance given by Muhammad. And the most evil affairs are the innovations; and every innovation is error." He would further say: I am more dear to a Muslim even than his self …" - [10] Sahih Bukhari, Book 49, Hadith 861: “Narrated Aisha: Allah's Apostle said, "If somebody innovates something which is not in harmony with the principles of our religion, that thing is rejected." - [11] Sahih Muslim, Book 18, Number 4267: “Sa'd b. Ibrahim reported: I asked Qasim b. Muhammad about a person who had three dwelling houses and he willed away the third part of every one of these houses; he (Qasim b. Muhammad) said: All of them could be combined in one house; and then said: 'A'isha informed me that Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: He who did any act for which there is no sanction from our behalf, that is to be rejected.” - [12] Sahih Muslim, Book 18, Number 4266: “'A'isha reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: He who innovates things in our affairs for which there is no valid (reason) (commits sin) and these are to be rejected.” -----------------------------
  3. Hadith Of Praiseworthy & Blameworthy Innovation: Few Sentences, Vast In Meaning. Introduction: Sahih Muslim, Book 034, Number 6466: "Jarir b. Abdullah reported that some desert Arabs clad in woolen clothes came to Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him). He saw them in sad plight as they had been hard pressed by need. He (the Holy Prophet) exhorted people to give charity, but they showed some reluctance until (signs) of anger could be seen on his face. Then a person from the Ansar came with a purse containing silver. Then came another person and then other persons followed them in succession until signs of happiness could be seen on his (sacred) face. Thereupon Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect. And he who introduced some evil practice in Islam which had been followed subsequently (by others), he would be required to bear the burden like that of one who followed this (evil practice) without theirs being diminished in any respect." Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) has stated that he who introduces a praiseworthy Sunnah (i.e. Praiseworthy Innovation) into deen of Islam for him and those who fallow him their will be reward but also warned that anyone who introduces a blameworthy Sunnah (i.e. Blameworthy Innovation) into Islam and those who fallow that blameworthy Sunnah there will no reduction of sins. Note that word Sunnah has been used to mean innovation by Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam): Sunan Abu Dawood, Book 40, Hadith 4590: “... One day the Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him) led us in prayer, then faced us and gave us a lengthy exhortation at which the eyes shed tears and the hearts were afraid. A man said: Apostle of Allah! It seems as if it were a farewell exhortation, so what injunction do you give us? He then said: I enjoin you to fear Allah, and to hear and obey even if it be an Abyssinian slave, for those of you who live after me will see great disagreement. You must then follow my sunnah and that of the rightly-guided caliphs. Hold to it and stick fast to it. Avoid novelties, for every novelty is an innovation, and every innovation is an error.” And there are numerous innovations which the Khulafa of beloved Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) innovated after he had departed from this world. Just for the sake of record honorable Uthman (radiallah ta'ala anh) innovated the third Adhan (i.e. call to prayer) which was given in the market. In opposition to Ahle Sunnat the Wahhabi's are of the opinions that this hadith is not about praiseworthy or blameworthy innovations rather it is about neglected/forgotten Sunnah of giving Sadqa for pleasure of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala).[1] Therefore the hadith of praiseworthy and blame worthy Sunnahs will be examined in the light of beloved Prophet's (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) statement that he has been sent by Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) with 'jawami al kalim' (i.e. short expression with comprehensive meanings). Jawami Al Kalim: Sahih Al Bukhari, Book 87, Number 141: ”Narrated Abu Huraira: "I heard Allah's Apostle saying, "I have been sent with Jawami al-Kalim, and I was made victorious with awe (caste into the hearts of the enemy), and while I was sleeping, the keys of the treasures of the earth were brought to me and were put in my hand." Muhammad said, Jawami'-al-Kalim means that Allah expresses in one or two statements or thereabouts the numerous matters that used to be written in the books revealed before (the coming of) the Prophet." Sahih Bukhari, Book 52, Number 220: "Narrated Abu Huraira: Allah's Apostle said, "I have been sent with the shortest expressions bearing the widest meanings, and I have been made victorious with terror (cast in the hearts of the enemy), and while I was sleeping, the keys of the treasures of the world were ... " RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) has been recorded to have said in many ahadith that Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) has sent him with jawami al kalim: "I have been sent with Jawami al-Kalim, and ...” and it means: “I have been sent with [revelation whose nature is] Jawami al-Kalim, and ... ” and he was asked about what it means, he explained: “Allah expresses in one or two statements or thereabouts the numerous matters that used to be written in the books revealed before (the coming of) the Prophet." in another the statement has been summarized to: “... shortest expressions bearing the widest meanings, ...” One obvious meaning of this is that Quran's nature is jawami al kalim, that Quran has in it shortest of expressions to express widest of meanings, and it is so. Another meaning is that here Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) has been sent with ability to express widest meanings in few sentences, and it is so. Neither of the two meanings have explicitly been stated nor does the language negated the one or the other, and this itself is the proof that Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) has been granted the ability of jawami al kalim.[2] Wahi Qur’an & Wahi Hadithsi: Wahi (i.e. Revelation) sent to Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) was of two types; Wahi Qur’an (i.e. Qur'anic Revelation) and Wahi Hadithsi (i.e. Hadith Revelation). And proof of Hadith being part of revelation from Allah (subhana wa ta'ala): Sahih Bukhari, Book 59, Hadith 618: “Narrated Safwan bin Ya'la bin Umaiya: Ya'la used to say, "I wish I could see Allah's Apostle at the time when he is being inspired divinely." Ya'la added "While the Prophet was at Al-Ja'rana, shaded with a cloth sheet (in the form of a tent) and there were staying with him, some of his companions under it, suddenly there came to him a Bedouin wearing a cloak and perfumed extravagantly. He said, "O Allah's Apostle ! What is your opinion regarding a man who assumes the state of Ihram for 'umra wearing a cloak after applying perfume to his body?" 'Umar signaled with his hand to Ya'la to come (near). Ya'la came and put his head (underneath that cloth sheet) and saw the Prophet red-faced and when that state (of the Prophet ) was over, he said, "Where is he who as already asked me about the 'umra?" The man was looked for and brought to the Prophet The Prophet said (to him), "As for the perfume you have applied to your body, wash it off your body) thrice, and take off your cloak, and then do in your 'umra the rites you do in your Hajj." Note that the underlined part of the hadith is not part of the Quran yet its considered revelation by companions. This indicates that Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) received revelation which became hadith. And this leads to the conclusion that Prophet's (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) those ahadith which are part of deen (i.e. on which issues of deen are discussed) are part of revelation which Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) sent him.[3] Therefore the statement of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) which are connected with deen even if they are part of hadith are part of revelation hence such hadith are shortest expressions bearing widest of possible meanings, and to put it in the words of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam): “Allah expresses in one or two statements or thereabouts the numerous matters that used to be written in the books revealed before (the coming of) the Prophet." Therefore what Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) utters about deen with his truthful, purified, blessed tonge is in nature of jawami al kalim. And to put the above in the context of the subject being disucssed the nature of Prophets saying: "He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect." as well as his saying: "And he who introduced some evil practice in Islam which had been followed subsequently (by others), he would be required to bear the burden like that of one who followed this (evil practice) without theirs being diminished in any respect." are according to nature of jawami al kalim, meaning these statements are expressed in shortest form yet have vast meanings. Conclusion: The guiding principle given in the hadith of praiseworthy and blame worthy innovation is part of deen, part of revelation therefore its nature is that its few sentences but suffices for multitude of issues. It tells of equal reward for one who creates praiseworthy innovation and one who follows it: “He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.” and informs of equal sins for one who practices blameworthy innovation and one who creates it: “And he who introduced some evil practice in Islam which had been followed subsequently (by others), he would be required to bear the burden like that of one who followed this (evil practice) without there’s being diminished in any respect." And the nature of this hadith is that it encourages creation of good, and encourage fallowing of good because there is reward for it one who fallows it, and who creates it. Warns about creating of blameworthy innovations, and discourages fallowing of blameworthy innovations because Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) informed of equal sins of one who fallows innovation and one who creates it. In a nutshell this hadith is upon the verse of: “Those that turn (to Allah. in repentance; that serve Him, and praise Him; that wander in devotion to the cause of Allah,: that bow down and prostrate themselves in prayer; that enjoin good and forbid evil; and observe the limit set by Allah.- (These do rejoice). So proclaim the glad tidings to the Believers.” [ref: Surah 9:112] Enjoining good because it encourages fallowing the good innovations, and forbids evil by telling that creator and follower are equal in sight of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) in their sins. Job of a Prophet Muhammed (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) was to educate his Ummat about good, encourage them to practice good, and empower them to preach good. To inform them of the evil, to discourage them from being evil by practicing evil, and to tell them how far they can go to prevent evil; to physical stop a evil, to speak out against it, to believe it in heart that it is evil. And our beloved Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) just did that in his life time. Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) had destined for him a short life in earth and in this short life he was to convey to people the religion of Islam. Teach them the Islam, the Kuffr, the Shirk, the Halal, the Haram, and he did so. He explained many things, made clear what was fundamental and laid the foundations of Ijtihad for issues which were not to take place in his life time. He gave rules, principles which are recorded in Hadith so the later generations of Muslims who face new challenges, tribulations, face new creeds, and practices which are alien to Quran, Sunnah can deduce from these two sources the answers for their queries. It is beyond the shadow of doubt that Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) gave the guiding principle regarding good innovation to encourage good innovations and their fallowing. And those who oppose praiseworthy innovations do so due to their ignorance of Quran as well as Sunnah. May Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) guide all of us to the straight path. Ameen! Wama alayna ilal balaghul mubeen. Muhammed Ali Razavi Footnotes: ========= - [1] A separate article will be dedicated to the objections of Wahhabi's in which these points, objections, assumptions, as well as unintended dangerous disasters which their own positions inflict upon them will be laid bare. And for now you can try to understand the Hadith from a different angle. - [2] I expect Wahhabis to be foaming; 'Shirk! Mushrik! Kaffir! Bidda!' or choose to disbelieve in haq with their typical way of dismissing the truth: 'See the sufi's interpretation! This interpretation that Prophet is sent with ability of jawami al kalmiis Shirk because he is grave worshiper. Allah Wakbar, we are fallowing salaf as saliheen.' Considering the intellectual level of people who oppose Ahle Sunnat I have no choice but to substantiate my position. - [3] Sahih Muslim, Book 30, Hadith 5830: “Musa b. Talha reported: I and Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) happened to pass by people near the date-palm trees. He (the Holy Prophet) said: What are these people doing? They said: They are grafting, i. e. they combine the male with the female (tree) and thus they yield more fruit. Thereupon Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: I do not find it to be of any use. The people were informed about it and they abandoned this practice. Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) (was later) on informed (that the yield had dwindled), whereupon he said: If there is any use of it, then they should do it, for it was just a personal opinion of mine, and do not go after my personal opinion; but when I say to you anything on behalf of Allah, then do accept it, for I do not attribute lie to Allah, the Exalted and Glorious.” =========
  4. Good & Misguiding Bidda: Explaination Of Evidences. Intorduction: Servent will atempt to explain the evidences for Bidda Hasanah (i.e. praiseworthy Innovation) and Bidda Zalalah (i.e. Misguiding Innovation). Bare in mind that I might have used different labels for Bidda categorisation in my other articles. Use the corresponding labels: - Bidda Hasanah (Praiseworthy Innovation, Good Innovation, Excellent Innovation,) - Bidda Sai'ya (Bidda Zalalah, Evil Innovation, Reprehensiable Innovation, Blameworthy Innovation) Ahadith On Innovations (Bidda):Messenger of Allah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) stated: - Sunnan Abu Dawood, Book 40, Number 4590: "Narrated Irbad ibn Sariyah: Abdur Rahman ibn Amr as-Sulami and Hujr ibn Hujr said: ... He then said: I enjoin you to fear Allah, and to hear and obey even if it be an Abyssinian slave, for those of you who live after me will see great disagreement. You must then follow my sunnah and that of the rightly-guided caliphs. Hold to it and stick fast to it. Avoid novelties, for every novelty is an innovation, and every innovation is an error." - Sahih Muslim, Book 4, Hadith 1885:Jabir b. Abdullah said: ... He would also say:" The last Hour and I have been sent like these two." and he would join his forefinger and middle finger; and would further say: "The best of the speech is embodied in the Book of Allah, and the beet of the guidance is the guidance given by Muhammad.And the most evil affairs are their innovations; and every innovation is error." He would further say:, I am more dear to a Muslim even than his self; …" The word qullu (i.e. every) in Arabic is not always used to mean all, every, it can also mean most, majority, or all in a specific category, area, not all universally. The meaning of majority, most, or all, every in specific category can only be accepted if there is proof for it, otherwise it will be understood literally every, meaning, all, every. Examples of qullu, being used to mean some, all in specific area, category, 18:79, 2:260, 9:5, 26:128, 23:27, and 2:185. I wont go into details. Please use the above explaination to see which verse fits which category (i.e. most, some, all in specific category/area). Good Innovations: - Prophet of Allah (salllahu alayhi was'salam) gave us a rule: - Sahih Muslim, Book 034, Number 6466: "Jarir b. Abdullah reported that some desert Arabs clad in woollen clothes came to Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him). He saw them in sad plight as they had been hard pressed by need. He (the Holy Prophet) exhorted people to give charity, but they showed some reluctance until (signs) of anger could be seen on his face. Then a person from the Ansar came with a purse containing silver. Then came another person and then other persons followed them in succession until signs of happiness could be seen on his (sacred) face. Thereupon Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said:He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect. And he who introduced some evil practice in Islam which had been followed subsequently (by others), he would be required to bear the burden." Who so ever invents something good (i.e. Sahih Bukhari), which was fallowed by him, and fallowed after him, both the fallower, as well as the inventer, innovator will get the reward from Allah. Allah subhana wa tallah narrates the story of fallowers of Jesus: - Surah Al Hadid {57} Verse 27: Then, in their wake, We followed them up with (others of) Our apostles: We sent after them Jesus the son of Mary, and bestowed on him the Gospel; and We ordained in the hearts of those who followed him Compassion and Mercy. But the Monasticism which they invented for themselves, We did not prescribe for them: (We commanded) only the seeking for the Good Pleasure of Allah. but that they did not foster as they should have done.Yet We bestowed, on those among them who believed, their (due) reward, but many of them are rebellious transgressors. Allah tells why the stories are: - Surah Yusuf {12} Ayaat 111: "Laqana fi'qisasi'him ibratulli u'lil albab ..." (“There is, in their stories, instruction for men endued with understanding.”) Allah (subhana wa tallah) tells us that fallowers of Isa alayhis salam invented the Monasticism them selves with the intention of pleasing Allah even though Allah did not command them to do so, but those who did adhere to it, Allah rewarded them. The conclusion which the ulil albab (i.e. men of understanding) derive from 57:27 is best explained by what Prophet of Allah sallahu alayhi was'salam stated: “He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.” - Hazrat Umar radiallah tallah said: “What an excellent Bid'a (i.e. innovation in religion) this is; but the prayer which they do not perform, but sleep at its time is better than the one they are offering.” in a Sahih Hadith: Sahih Bukhari, Book 32, Hadith 227: Narrated Abu Huraira: Allah's Apostle said, "Whoever prayed at night the whole month of Ramadan out of sincere Faith and hoping for a reward from Allah, then all his previous sins will be forgiven." Ibn Shihab (a sub-narrator) said, "Allah's Apostle died and the people continued observing that (i.e. Nawafil offered individually, not in congregation), and it remained as it was during the Caliphate of Abu Bakr and in the early days of 'Umar's Caliphate." 'Abdur Rahman bin 'Abdul Qari said, "I went out in the company of 'Umar bin Al-Khattab one night in Ramadan to the mosque and found the people praying in different groups. A man praying alone or a man praying with a little group behind him. So, 'Umar said, 'In my opinion I would better collect these (people) under the leadership of one Qari (Reciter) (i.e. let them pray in congregation!)'. So, he made up his mind to congregate them behind Ubai bin Ka'b. Then on another night I went again in his company and the people were praying behind their reciter. On that, 'Umar remarked, 'What an excellent Bid'a (i.e. innovation in religion) this is; but the prayer which they do not perform, but sleep at its time is better than the one they are offering.' He meant the prayer in the last part of the night. (In those days) people used to pray in the early part of the night." This conclusively proves that in deen of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) there is room for good innovations. Had there been no room for good innovation Messenger of Allah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) would not have given us a criteria to judge on, and Hazrat Umar (radiallah tallah anh) would not have remarked excellent innovation. Meaning Of Innovation Ahadith: The conclusion above brings us back to the two ahadith and their correct interpretation: Sunnan Abu Dawood, Book 40, Number 4590: Hold to it and stick fast to it. Avoid novelties, for every novelty is an innovation, and every innovation is an error." Sahih Muslim, Book 4, Hadith 1885: ..."The best of the speech is embodied in the Book of Allah, and the beet of the guidance is the guidance given by Muhammad.And the most evil affairs are their innovations; and every innovation is error." …" In the context of 'all, every in specific category' the Ahadith mean: “Avoid (i.e. misguiding/evil) novelties, for every (i.e. misguiding/evil) novelty is an innovation, and every innovation is an error." In the context of other Sahih Ahadith: Sahih Bukhari Book 49, Hadith 861: Narrated Aisha: Allah's Apostle said, "If somebody innovates something which is not in harmony with the principles of our religion, that thing is rejected." Sahih Muslim, Book 18, Number 4266:'A'isha reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: He who innovates things in our affairs for which there is no valid (reason) (commits sin) and these are to be rejected. Sahih Muslim, Book 18, Number 4267: “Sa'd b. Ibrahim reported: I asked Qasim b. Muhammad about a person who had three dwelling houses and he willed away the third part of every one of these houses; he (Qasim b. Muhammad) said: All of them could be combined in one house; and then said: 'A'isha informed me that Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: He who did any act for which there is no (explicit or implicit) sanction from our behalf, that is to be rejected.” The two ahadith can also mean: “Avoid novelties [which are not in harmony with principles of deen, do not have a valid reason, and have no sanction from Sahabah, RasoolAllah,] for every [such] novelty is an (i.e. misguiding/evil) innovation, and every (i.e. misguiding/evil) innovation is an error." Explicitly Sanctioned & Implicitly Sanctioned: Heretical opponents of Ahle Sunnat Wal Jammat quote the fallowing Hadith: Sahih Muslim, Book 18, Number 4267: “Sa'd b. Ibrahim reported: I asked Qasim b. Muhammad about a person who had three dwelling houses and he willed away the third part of every one of these houses; he (Qasim b. Muhammad) said: All of them could be combined in one house; and then said: 'A'isha informed me that Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: He who did any act for which there is no sanction from our behalf, that is to be rejected.” They argue that for practices which Ahle Sunnat Wal Jammats pious scholars deffend can not be valid because there is no explicit sanction for these practices from Allah (subhana wa tallah), RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) hence they are rejected. Primarily this Hadith if taken literally contradicts the Hadith of Prophet of Allah in which he said the innovater of good practice will get reward, and it goes against the Sahabah's (alayhi ridwan) practice of intorducing good innovations during and after the departure of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam). Therefore the meaning of the Hadith can not be taken literally, but a understanding which fits the frame work of Quran and Sunnah is essential. Secondly if EXPLICIT sanction was required in all cases for a practice to be valid, then the gates of Ijtihad would be closed, and this Hadith would contradict ahadith which legitamise Ijtihad. One of most recent innovations of the Wahabiyah is Misyar-Halal, a marriage in which the woman give up her rights on husband, lives with her own family (i.e. Mother, Father) due to husbands bad financial situation, and woman's family willingly accepts daughters husband as part of their family, this is valid form of Misyar, a praise worthy innovation for which there is no explicit sanction Quran, Sunnah, but the Ijtihadi (i.e. indirect evidence, implicit sanction) understanding legitamises its practice for those who are in difficult financial situation. Another form of Misyar-Haram is practiced by the people who wish to escape punishement under the Wahabi regime, and secretly get married, without consent of either parent or gurdian, and woman surrenders her rights, lives with her parents, and husband lives seperately, and secretly meet for companionship as well as sexual enjoyment. This slightly differs from Muttah in one detail that no time is fixed for Talaq. This is haram, and another form of Muttah of the Rawafiz, and to bluntly put it, legalised prostitution in Saudi Arabia which is supported by the Wahabi scholars. There is no circumstantial evidence, to substantiate this form of Misyar. Coming back to the subject of correct meaning of Hadith; it means that if there is no EXPLICIT or IMPLICIT evidence, circumstantial evidence, which demonstrates that Prophet of Allah would sanction such a act, if there is no valid reason, and it contradicts with principles of deen then that act, practice, aqeedah, would be rejected. And to concude the disscusion of Misyar, for the second form there is no circumstantial evidence, implicit evidence (i.e. a woman marrying and keeping her marriage secret from her parents and living with her parents, and meeting her husband in secret etc ...). Themetic Commentary In Light Ahadith: Messenger of Allah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) stated: Sahih Muslim, Book 034, Number 6466: “... He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect. ...” Innovations which are good, as well as which do not contradict the principles of deen, (i.e. worship of Allah, calling to Islam etc …), which have been sanctioned by Allah subhana wa tallah well as RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam), and have a valid reason for innovating them (i.e. worship of Allah etc … ) they are accepted. And those who invent the good innovations and those who act on them, and those who call toward the good innovations, Messenger of Allah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) all of them will be rewarded by Allah subhana wa tallah: Sahih Muslim, Book 34, Number 6470:"Abu Huraira reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: He who called (people) to righteousness, there would be reward (assured) for him like the rewards of those who adhered to it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect. And he who called (people) to error, he shall have to carry (the burden) of its sin, like those who committed it, without their sins being diminished in any respect." Some Good Innovations: With the correct understanding of the Ahadith presented, it is would be prudent to present some examples of good innovations which Sahabah (radiallah tallah anhuma) brought forward, in the time of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) or after. - Sahih Bukhari, Book 12, Hadith 764: Narrated Rifa'a bin Rafi AzZuraqi: One day we were praying behind the Prophet. When he raised his head from bowing, he said, "Sami'a-l-lahu Liman hamida."A man behind him said,"Rabbana walaka-l hamd hamdan Kathiran taiyiban mubarakan fihi" (O our Lord! All the praises are for You, many good and blessed praises). When the Prophet completed the prayer, he asked, "Who has said these words?"The man replied, "I." The Prophet said, "I saw over thirty angels competing to write it first." Prophet rose (from bowing) and stood straight till all the vertebrae of his spinal column came to a natural position. - Sahih Bukhari, Book 13, Hadith 35: Narrated As-Saib bin Yazid: In the life-time of the Prophet, Abu Bakr and Umar, the Adhan for the Jumua prayer used to be pronounced when the Imam sat on the pulpit. But during the Caliphate of 'Uthman when the Muslims increased in number, a third Adhan at Az-Zaura' was added. Abu 'Abdullah said, "Az-Zaura' is a place in the market of Medina." - Sahih Bukhari, Book 59, Hadith 325: “… It was food Allah had provided Khubaib with." When they took him to Al-Hil out of Mecca sanctuary to martyr him, Khubaib requested them. "Allow me to offer a two-Rak'at prayer." They allowed him and he prayed two Rakat and then said, "By Allah! Had I not been afraid that you would think I was worried, I would have prayed more." Then he (invoked evil upon them) saying, "O Allah! Count them and kill them one by one, and do not leave anyone of them"' Then he recited: "As I am martyred as a Muslim, I do not care in what way I receive my death for Allah's Sake, for this is for the Cause of Allah. If He wishes, He will bless the cut limbs of my body." Then Abu Sarva, 'Ubqa bin Al-Harith went up to him and killed him. It was Khubaib who set the tradition of praying for any Muslim to be martyred in captivity (before he is executed). The Prophet told his companions of what had happened (to those ten spies) on the same day they were martyred. ...” - Sahih Bukhari, Book 32, Hadith 227: Narrated Abu Huraira: Allah's Apostle said, "Whoever prayed at night the whole month of Ramadan out of sincere Faith and hoping for a reward from Allah, then all his previous sins will be forgiven." Ibn Shihab (a sub-narrator) said, "Allah's Apostle died and the people continued observing that (i.e. Nawafil offered individually, not in congregation), and it remained as it was during the Caliphate of Abu Bakr and in the early days of 'Umar's Caliphate." 'Abdur Rahman bin 'Abdul Qari said, "I went out in the company of 'Umar bin Al-Khattab one night in Ramadan to the mosque and found the people praying in different groups.A man praying alone or a man praying with a little group behind him. So, 'Umar said, 'In my opinion I would better collect these (people) under the leadership of one Qari (Reciter) (i.e. let them pray in congregation!)'. So, he made up his mind to congregate them behind Ubai bin Ka'b. Then on another night I went again in his company and the people were praying behind their reciter. On that, 'Umar remarked, 'What an excellent Bid'a (i.e. innovation in religion) this is; but the prayer which they do not perform, but sleep at its time is better than the one they are offering.' He meant the prayer in the last part of the night. (In those days) people used to pray in the early part of the night." Sahabah (radiallah tallah anhuma) innovated these good practices during and after the life time of Prophet Muhammed (sallalahu alayhi was'salam), some of which he approved while others were after his departure from this world. And the frame work of Ijtihad he taught, the education of Ijtihad he gave to Sahabah (alayhi ridwan) and taught them the principles on which they can judge innovations as good or bad, they were able to derive, and further the understandings after his departure, without these understandings contradicting Quran and established Sunnah, hence they were not rejected but incorporated by Muslims as valid practices. Conclusion: - Defining bidda (i.e. Sai'yah) with the words of our beloved Prophet: “... which is not in harmony with the principles of our religion [i.e. islam], … for which there is no valid (reason) (commits sin) … [and] ... any act for which there is no [explicit or implicit] sanction from our behalf [that practice, aqeedah is a heresy], that is to be rejected.” - Defining Bidda (i.e. Hasana) is a innovation which is in harmony with pricinples of Islam, for which there is a valid reason, acting on it we the Muslims do not become sinful, and for which there is implicit evidence to prove its validity such practice is praiseworthy innovation. Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) told of reward for anyone who intorduces a praiseworthy innovation in Islam: He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.”, and Allah (subhana wa tallah) in the Quran al kareem states: “But the Monasticism which they invented for themselves, We did not prescribe for them: (We commanded) only the seeking for the Good Pleasure of Allah, ... Yet We bestowed, on those among them who believed, their (due) reward, ...” and Hazrat Umar's (radiallah tallah anh) remark about a excellent innovation:“'What an excellent Bid'a (i.e. innovation in religion) this is; but the prayer which they do not perform, but sleep at its time is better than the one they are offering.” The Sahabah (radiallah tallah anhuma ajma'eem) intorduced many praiseworthy innovations in deen after RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam), which did not contradict principles of deen, for which there is valid reason and Sahabah (radiallah tallah anhuma ajmaeen) innovated because it assisted in fullfilling a religious duty. Adhaan (i.e. call to prayers) for which there is explicit permission was increased to three for friday prayers due to increase of people. This increase is proven with implicit sanction from Allah (subhana wa tallah), RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam), because by its nature the Adhaan is worship so increase in its number doesnt make it vile, reprehensiable. Such praiseworthy innovations warrant reward from Allah (subnaha wa tallah) and another example of one such praiseworthy innovation is that Khubaib (radiallah tallah anh) started the practice of peforming two rakat nawafil prayer before his own execution, and since then it became practice among the Sahabah (radiallah tallah anhuma ajmaeen) that they performed two-rakat nawafil prayers before the kuffar, mushrikeen executed them. - Only those innovations which come in the category of heresy are error, misguidance, and take people into hellfire: Sahih Bukhari, Book 92, Hadith 382: "Narrated 'Abdullah: The best talk (i.e. speech) is Allah's Book (i.e. Quran), and the best way is the way of Muhammad, and the Worst matters are the heresies; and whatever you have been promised will surely come to pass, and you cannot escape (it)." “… the worst matters are the heresies, ...”and heresies are recognised, because they contradict the principles of our deen, they have no valid reason, nor have explicit or implicit sanction from Allah (subhana wa tallah) or Messenger (sallalahu alayhi was'salam), and these heretical innovations are to be rejected because they are path of going to hellfire, they lead people astray from sirat al mustaqeem. - It becomes apparent that in Sharia there are two major categories of Bidda (i.e. Praiseworthy & Blameworthy), and the practice of Sahabah (alayhi ridwan) to intorduce praisworthy innovations in Islam in the life time of Prophet of Allah as well as after his departure from this world proves that not all innovations in Islam are evil, misguiding. Wama Alayna Ilal Balaghul Mubeen. Muhammed Ali Razvi
  5. Clarifying: Linguistic Innovations Become ['Shara'ee'] Innovations When Made Part Of Deen. Introduction: - The prevalent understanding among the ahlul bidda, the Wahabiyah and Deobandiyah is that any act or belief which does not have explicit proof from Quran, Sunnah is [reprehensible][1] innovation. And this is the yardstick which is used by these heretics to demonize the praiseworthy innovations which have sprung up after the time of Sahabah, Tabi'un, generation succeeding the Tabi'un, as [reprehensible] innovations. When it is pointed out to them, there are many praiseworthy innovations after the time of first three generations (i.e. Bukhari, Muslim, etc ...) which have no explicit evidence from Quran, and Sunnah[2]they reply: These Are Innovations In Linguistic Sense, They Will Only Be [reprehensible] Innovations In Terms Of Sharia When They Are Made Part Of Deen. Meaning Of 'Part Of Islam': - There are three ways in which actions, beliefs can be part of Islam: * Teaching Found In Quran * Sunnah of RasoolAllah * Ijtihad - The Sunnah of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) found in ahadith is part of Islam because Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) said: Surah An'Najm (53) Verse 3: “Nor does he speak from [his own] inclination. (4) It is not but a revelation revealed.” Apart from the actions of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) which Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) rectified via revelation or Messenger (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) himself declared that they are not based on revelation all the rest are wahi. - About ijtihadi innovations into Islam Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) stated in Sahih Ahadith: Sahih Muslim, Book 034, Number 6466: “... on his (sacred) face. Thereupon Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect. And he who introduced some evil practice in Islam which had been followed subsequently (by others), he would be required to bear the burden." Sahih Muslim Shareef, Book 034, Number 6470:"Abu Huraira reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: He who called (people) to righteous (i.e. innovation), there would be reward (assured) for him like the rewards of those who adhered to it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect. And he who called (people) to error, he shall have to carry (the burden) of its sin, like those who committed it, without their sins being diminished in any respect." Praiseworthy & Reprehensible Innovations In Islam: - The praiseworthy innovations which the Wahabi/Deobandi declare has [reprehensible] innovations are collections of Sunnahs of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) practiced under various names. And these praiseworthy innovations are in part or as whole based on worship of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala), recitation of Quran, preaching of Islam, therefore the practice (i.e. Milad Un Nabi, Fatiha, Chehlam) as whole may not be supported but their individual practices are either Sunnahs, Farahid (i.e. compulsory practices), Wajibaat (i.e. recommended practices) with abundant evidence from Quran and Sunnah. And these ijtihadi innovative practices are not part of Islam in the sense that they have been commanded by Allah subhana wa ta'ala, or they are Sunnahs, but they are considered part of Islam because these are Sunnahs compiled together under a name. - About Ijtihadi innovations into Islam beloved Prophet of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) stated that who ever innovates a praiseworthy custom in Islam there is reward for him, and those who fallow this new innovation: Sahih Muslim, Book 34, Number 6466: “...He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect. Sahih Muslim, Book 34, Hadith 6468: Jarir b. 'Abdullah reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: The servant does not introduce good practice which is followed after him[3] (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect. Sahih Muslim Shareef, Book 34, Number 6470: "Abu Huraira reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: He who called (people) to righteous [i.e. innovation], there would be reward (assured) for him like the rewards of those who adhered to it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect. And those who innovate a evil practice into Islam there is punishment for them, and those who fallow them: Sahih Muslim, Book 34, Number 6466: “...And he who introduced some evil practice in Islam which had been followed subsequently (by others), he would be required to bear the burden." Sahih Muslim, Book 34, Hadith 6468:[3] “... And he who introduced some evil practice in Islam which had been followed subsequently (by others), he would be required to bear the burden like that of one who followed this (evil practice) without theirs being diminished in any respect. Sahih Muslim Shareef, Book 34, Number 6470: “And he who called (people) to error, he shall have to carry (the burden) of its sin, like those who committed it, without their sins being diminished in any respect." Readers should note the fact that Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) stated that praiseworthy innovations in Islam will be rewarded, and only those innovations in Islam which are evil will be punished. This proves that Islam is not a static religion, but innovations in Islam depending on their natures will be rewarded and punished, and this proves that additions in Islam can be made, but these additions have to be according to the rules laid down by Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'salam): Sahih Muslim, Book 18, Number 4267: “... and then said: 'A'isha informed me that Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: He who did any act for which there is no sanction from our behalf, that is to be rejected.” Sahih Bukhari Book 49, Hadith 861: Narrated Aisha: Allah's Apostle said, "If somebody innovates something which is not in harmony with the principles of our religion, that thing is rejected." Sahih Muslim, Book 18, Number 4266: 'A'isha reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: He who innovates things in our affairs for which there is no valid (reason) (commits sin) and these are to be rejected.” If someone innovates something which is in harmony with the principles of Islam, and for which there is valid reason, and there is sanction in Sharia that innovation is to be accepted in Islam, and if a practice violates any of the above mentioned in the ahadith then it will be rejected because it will be deemed as evil innovation in Islam for which there is punishment. - Wahabi's point was that when a linguistic innovation is made part of deen then it automaticaly becomes [reprehensible] innovation of Sharia, which now stands refuted because there is praiseworthy innovation in Islam, and Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) told of reward for those who make praiseworthy innovations in Islam. Also servant established that linguistic innovation does not become [reprehensible] innovation of Sharia until the nature of innovation is evil, until its not in harmony with principles of deen, and until there is no valid reason for the innovation, and it does not automatically become [reprehensible] innovation when its made part of Islam. Ijtihad issues which are neither mentioned in Quran, or part of Sunnah of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) have to be judged according to the rules, regulations of Quran, and Sunnah. Due to modern technological advances its possible to transfer organs of a person to another, but for a Muslim question is also: “Is it permissible in sharia to transfer the organ of a deceased to another?” This is how modern Ijtihadi issues become part of deen, not as Fard (i.e. compulsory), Aqeedah (i.e. belief) or Sunnah of Messenger of Allah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) but simply due to its question of permissibility/impermisibility in deen. The issue is judged according to Quran, Sunnah; therefore the issue and the ijtihadi judgment is part of Islam. Do we take drugs, can we conduct Jihad with modern weapons, which modern weapons we can't use in battle field, etc … all of these are part of Islam, and one does not have to explicitly declare that he considers them part of Islam for them to be considered innovation in Sharia. The judgment about these modern issues and many others in light of Quran, Sunnah, makes them part of Islam, might not be considered part of Islam as explicit teaching of Quran, or Sunnah, but they are part of Islam in sense of Ijtihad. A pious believers every action is done in light of Quran, Sunnah, he abstains from taking drugs, pornography, not because they are innovations into Islam, but there is circumstantial evidence which prohibits indulging in such acts. There are many things which were not sanctioned by Messenger (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) but Sahabah (radiallah ta'ala anhuma ajma'een) innovated them in his life time, and he approved those innovations as part of Islam, and others were innovated after he departed for his heavenly abode but they are considered part of Islam. The point is linguistic innovations are governed by rules of Sharia which determine permissibility/impermissible of actions/customs/objects/ according to the spirit of Islam, and making of a actions/custom/object part of Islam does not make it [reprehensible] innovation. Simple Refutation To Wahabi Point: - Wahabi's have simple form of definition of innovation: * Linguistical Innovation * Shara'ee Innovation [Shara'ee/reprehensible] 'Innovation', in terminology of Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jammah its termed as 'Reprehensible Innovation' and in the context of this article what the Wahabi's/Deobandi's termed as 'Linguistical Innovation' in terminology of Ahlus Sunnah its 'Praiseworthy Innovation'. Therefore the statement: “These (Sahih; Bukhari, Muslim) Are Innovations In Linguistic Sense, They Will Only Be [reprehensible/shara'ee] 'Innovations' In Terms Of Sharia When They Are Made Part Of Deen.” is non-sense because the statement in reality means: “These (Sahih; Bukhari, Muslim) Are praiseworthy Innovations, They Will Only Be [reprehensible/shara'ee] 'Innovations' In Terms Of Sharia When They Are Made Part Of Deen.” Sahih al Bukhari, Sahih al Muslim, and all the other Ahadith collections are part of deen and one who considers these sources to be not part of deen is a fool and supporter of munkireen e hadith, and not a Muslim. The only point worth answering was about when a linguistical innovation is made part of deen it becomes a [reprehensible/Shara'ee] innovation, which from the evidence is clear that it isn’t the case. According X's naming system a eagle is what in my naming system is vulture, we may never agree on the our names, but one thing we both will agree that we are referring, we mean the same bird. In the same manner there are two definitions referring to same objects, one considers them praiseworthy innovations, other linguistical innovations, just different labels. Muhammed Ali Razvi -------------- FootNotes: - [1] Sufi's may read sentence with word 'reprehensible'. - [2] No verse of Quran, or Hadith explicitly directs toward Sahih Bukhari, Sahih Muslim. - [3] Originally written as: “Jarir b. 'Abdullah reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: The servant does not introduce good practice which is followed after him ... The rest of the hadith is the same.”
  6. Biddah {Innovation}: It's Consequence Is HellFire. RasoolAllah {sallalahu alayhi was'salam} informed the Sahabah, that they must adhere to his Sunnah and Sunnah of Khulfa Rashideen, and told them that avoid newly invented matters, because every reprehensiable novelty is reprehensiable Biddah, and every reprehensiable Biddah is error: Sunnan Abu Dawood, Book 40, Number 4590: "Narrated Irbad ibn Sariyah: Abdur Rahman ibn Amr as-Sulami and Hujr ibn Hujr said: ... He then said: I enjoin you to fear Allah, and to hear and obey even if it be an Abyssinian slave, for those of you who live after me will see great disagreement. You must then follow my sunnah and that of the rightly-guided caliphs. Hold to it and stick fast to it. Avoid novelties, for every novelty is an innovation, and every innovation is an error." Sahih Muslim, Book 4, Hadith 1885:Jabir b. Abdullah said: ... He would also say:" The last Hour and I have been sent like these two." and he would join his forefinger and middle finger; and would further say: "The best of the speech is embodied in the Book of Allah, and the beet of the guidance is the guidance given by Muhammad. And the most evil affairs are their innovations; and every innovation is error." He would further say:, I am more dear to a Muslim even than his self; ..." Sahih Bukhari, Book 92, Hadith 382: "Narrated 'Abdullah: The best talk (i.e. speech) is Allah's Book {i.e. Quran}, and the best way is the way of Muhammad, and the Worst matters are the heresies (i.e. those new things which are introduced into the religion); and whatever you have been promised will surely come to pass, and you cannot escape (it)." Prophet {sallalahu alayhi was'salam} warned, that one who intorduces a Biddah {not in harmony with principles of deen, withoud valid reason of Sharia, and without aproval from Prophet, Sahabah} such a person is cursed by Allah as well as one who shelters him: Sunan Abu Dawood, Book 39, Hadith 4515: "Narrated Ali ibn AbuTalib: Qays ibn Abbad and Ashtar went to Ali and said to him: Did the Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him) give you any instruction about anything for which he did not give any instruction to the people in general? He said: No, except what is contained in this document of mine. Musaddad said: He then took out a document. Ahmad said: A document from the sheath of his sword. It contained: The lives of all Muslims are equal; they are one hand against others; the lowliest of them can guarantee their protection. Beware, a Muslim must not be killed for an infidel, nor must one who has been given a covenant be killed while his covenant holds. If anyone introduces an innovation, he will be responsible for it. If anyone introduces an innovation or gives shelter to a man who introduces an innovation (in religion), he is cursed by Allah, by His angels, and by all the people. Musaddad said: Ibn AbuUrubah's version has: He took out a document." Sahih Muslim, Book 7, Hadith 3159: 'Asim reported: I asked Anas b. Malik whether Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) had declared Medina as sacred. He said: Yes. (the area) between so and so. He who made any innovation in it, and further said to me: It is something serious to make any innovation in it (and he who does it) there is upon him the curse of Allah, and that of the angels and of all the people, Allah will not accept from him on the Day of Resurrection either obligatory acts or the surpererogatory acts. Ibn Anas said: Or he accommodates an innovator.” Sahih Muslim, Book 7, Hadith 3166: “Abu Huraira (Allah be pleased with him) reported Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) as saying: Medina is a sacred territory, so he who made any innovation in it. or gave protection to an innovator, there is upon him the curse of Allah, that of the angels and that of all the people. There would not be accepted on the Day of Resurrection either obligatory acts or supererogatory acts from him.” Mubtadi {Innovator's}and one who accommodates him are cursed by Allah his angles, and all the people, Messenger of Allah further revealed that Allah will not accept the obligatory acts of worship etc … nor will He accept supererogatory acts, i.e. nawafil prayers, Taraweeh, etc … on the day of judgement, hence without acceptance of Farahid, and Nawafil, person has no basis to enter paradise, he will be sent to fire of hell. RasoolAllah {sallalahu alayhi was'salam} foretells that on the day of judgement Allah subhana wa tallah will grant him honour on Al Kauthar, and a group of people will come to Messenger of Allah asking for the water, and angles will remind him that they are innovator's and Messenger of Allah will send them away: Sahih Muslim, Book 30, Hadith 5706 : “Anas b. Malik reported Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) as saying: Some persons from amongst my associates would turn to my Reservoir {Al Kauthar}; when I would see them and they would be presented to me, they would be detained in the way while coming to me. I would say: My Lord, they are my companions, they are my companions, and it would be said to me: You don't know what innovations they made after you?” Sahih Muslim, Book 30, Hadith 5690: “'Abdullah reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying; I shall be there at the Reservoir {Al Kauthar} before you, and I shall have to contend for some people, but I shall have to yield. I would be saying: My Lord, they are my friends, they are my friends, and it would be said: You don't know what innovations they made after you?” Sahih Muslim, Book 30, Hadith 5686: “Umm Salama, the wife of Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him), said I used to hear from people making a mention of the Reservoir {Al Kauthar}, but I did not hear about it from Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him). One day while a girl was combing me I heard Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) say:" O people." I said to that girl: Keep away from me. She said: He (the Holy Prophet) has addressed the men only and he has not invited the attention of the women. I said: I am amongst the people also (and have thus every right to listen to the things pertaining to religion). Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: I shall be your harbinger on the Resevoir {Al Kauthar}; therefore, be cautious lest one of you should come (to me) and may be driven away like a stray camel. I would ask the reasons, and it would be said to me: You don't know what innovations they made after you? And I would then also say: Be away.” Imam Nasai rahimullah narrates the above Hadith, but adds another part: * Sunan Nasai: “And the most evil affairs are the innovations. And every innovation is error; and every error is misguidance; and every misguidance will lead to the hell fire.” Wama Alayna Ilal Balaghul Mubeen. Muhammed Ali Razvi
  7. Definition Of Reprehensible Innovation: With Principles & Explaination Of Principles. Reprehensible Innovation: - Any innovated Practice/Beleife without daleel[1] from the Qur'an/Sunnah[2] is Bidah Sai'yah (i.e. reprehensible innovation). Footnotes: - [1] 'Daleel' literally means evidence, and in terminology of innovation it means two type of evidence, explicit evidence, or implicit evidence. Readers have to assume both where the word is used. - [2] Sunnah Qawli - proven from statement of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam). Sunnah Fehli - proven from actions of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam). Taqreeri - proven from acceptance of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam). Sunnah Wasfi - proven from qualities, characteristics, behavior of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam). Principle One: - Any innovated action/belief for which there is no explicit evidence from Qur’an or the Sunnah but it is done with the belief that it is part of deen[3] it is reprehensible innovation. - Any innovated action/belief for which there is no implicit evidence[4] from Qur’an or the Sunnah but it is done with the belief that it is part of deen[5] it is reprehensible innovation. Footnotes: - [3] 'part of deen' in meaning instruction from Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) in Qur’an or Sunnah of beloved Messenger (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) recorded in Hadith. - [4]Implicit evidence is evidence which directly does not refer to a issue in particular but with qiyas it can be turned toward the issue. Reciting bismillah while getting on bus. No direct evidence from Qur’an, Sunnah for it. But with qiyas, bus is like house, has four walls roof, seating area, therefore the hadith of: “Jabir b. 'Abdullah reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: When a person enters his house and mentions the name of Allah at the time of entering it and while eating the food, Satan says (addressing himself: ...” [Ref: Muslim, B23, H5006] can be used to substantiate recitation of bismillah entering bus. [5]'part of deen' in meaning of it being; permissible in Islam (even though it is not part of Sunnah or instruction/statement of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) in Quran.). To explain differently, considering it; permissible on the basis of Ijtihad; which is dependent upon indirect evidence. Principle Two: - Any innovated action/belief that is against[6] Qur’an & Sunnah but it is believed to be part of deen[7] is reprehensible innovation. Footnotes: - [6] Against in meaning of being prohibited (i.e. Haram), against in meaning of it being declared Kuffr (i.e. disbelief) or Shirk (i.e. Polytheism) in Qur’an or Sunnah. - [7] 'part of deen' in meaning of considering it permissible, considering it Sunnah, considering it a Fard (i.e. compulsory act) sanctioned in Qur’an by Allah (subhana wa ta'ala). Principle Three: - Adding, Altering, and/or Omitting anything from the Qur’an, & Sunnah of our beloved Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) is reprehensible innovation. Principle Three: Simplified - Adding anything to teaching of Qur’an, or Sunnah of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) for which there is no 'daleel' of is reprehensible innovation. - Altering anything of the teaching of Qur’an or Sunnah of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) for which there is no 'daleel' is reprehensible innovation. - Deleting anything from teaching of Qur’an or Sunnah of beloved Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) for which there is no 'daleel' is reprehensible innovation. Meaning Of: 'Adding' - words/actions to regulated acts of worship.[8] - a belief/practice into Islam as Sunnah.[9] - by enacting a reprehensible action with belief it is permissible/impermissible[10] in Islam. - by believing a reprehensible belief with conviction it is permissible in Islam.[11] Footnotes: - [8] Example of this would be adding extra prostrations; performing three prostrations instead of two. Or reciting a additional phrase (i.e. Qul huwallahu ahad) to what is recited in prostration (i.e. subhana rabbiyal a'ala). - [9] Considering Yoga as Sunnah, or believing in reincarnation etc. - [10]If the person considered it impermissible but it became a custom/practice and fallowed after him then its reprehensible innovation otherwise its sin. - [11] One such belief is of the anthropomorphists who believe in yaddullah in haqqiqi (i.e. literal) meanings. They believe in Hand of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) yet Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) is without likeness to His creation recorded in Surah 42 Verse 11: “... laysaka misli shai'ee ...” (i.e. “... there is nothing like Him [i.e. Allah] ...”). Meaning Of: 'Altering' - regulated acts of worship by performing something first which was to be practiced after[12] - regulated acts of worship by reciting something first which was to be recited after.[13] Footnotes: - [12] Performing Sajdah (i.e. prostration) before Ruku (i.e. bowing) in prayers. - [13] Reciting Surah Fatiha in Sajdah. Meaning Of: 'Omission' - of actions from regulated acts of worship.[14] - of recitation which is fundamentally part of regulated act of worship.[15] - of anything from Qur’an, Sunnah by rejecting it without just basis.[16] Footnotes: - [14] Not turning right/left to greet in prayers with words:'As'salamu alayqum wa rahmatullah.'but repeating it twice looking toward Qibla. - [15] Omitting of Salawat Ibrahimi (i.e.“Allahumma salli ala Muhammediv wa a'ala a'ali Muhammediv kama sal'laee ta'ala Ibrahima wa a'ala a'ali Ibrahima in'naka hameedum majeed. ...”) - [16] Believing that parts of Quran have been omitted as certain apostates of Shia'ism believe. Or rejecting a sahih hadith which is accepted by the Ummah as whole to be authentic. Principle Four: - Any praiseworthy innovation for which there is implicit evidence from Qur’an or the Sunnah but it is done with the belief that it is part of deen[17] it is reprehensible innovation. Footnotes: - [17] 'part of deen' in meaning of being Sunnah, or explicit instruction of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) in Quran. Wama alayna ilal balaghul mubeen. Muhammed Ali Razai
  8. Definition Of Praiseworthy Innovation: With Principles & Explanation Of Principles. Principle Methodology Of Ahle Sunnat: It is the methodology of Wahhabi's that judge according to labels, in the methodology of Ahle Sunnat we do not judge innovations with labels. We will not judge every innovation to be Haram but we judge a innovation it according to its content. If the innovation has evil in it (i.e. 'Martyrdom' Operation) because it contradicts the foundation of deen then it's deemed evil irrespective of its label. And if the innovation has something praiseworthy (i.e. Sahih Bukhari) about it and it's according to guidance of Qur’an & Sunnah then regardless of its label it will be considered a praiseworthy innovation. Also note that all praiseworthy innovations are substantiated with implicit evidences from Qur’an and Sunnahs of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam). Therefore we the Ahle Sunnat do not demand explicit proof for praiseworthy innovations, instead its the methodology of Wahhabi's who in opposition to Ahle Sunnat on selective issues demand explicit evidence from Qur’an & Sunnah. To illustrate a this point; we the practice performing of salawat before the call to prayer (i.e. Adhan). The Wahhabi's object to it on the ground that its not Sunnah of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) to recite salawat, and on this they demand explicit proof from Hadith or Qur’an to substantiate this practice. Its established that recitation of Salawat before Adhan is not Sunnah of beloved Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) nor part of Adhan. To ensure the listener can distinguish between the two, the Muadhin recites Salawat and then there is pause and then Adhan is pronounced. This being said recitation of Salawat before Adhan is not reprehensible innovation and it can be substantiated with implicit evidence because Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) declares: “Allah and His angels send blessings on the Prophet: ...” and then commands the believers to send Salawat on Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam): ”... O ye that believe! Send ye blessings on him, and salute him with all respect.” [Ref: Surah 33:56] and recitation of Salawat just before the Adhan is obeying Allah (subhana wa ta'ala). Even with such clear evidence the Wahhabi's refuse to believe in what Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) revealed. They consider anyone who recites Salawat before Adhan to be bidd'ati a person destined to hellfire because one can not substantiate this practice from Sunnah. Practices of Ahle Sunnat which depend on Ijtihadi evidence the Wahhabi's refuse to accept implicit evidence which is used to support these practices. Instead they desire explicit proof and during debates rely rhetorical skill to win admirers, converts. When the Wahhabi's are questioned about Sahih of Imam Bukhari:'Quote one hadith, one ayaat, in which Prophet used Sahih Bukhari, or Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) instructed us to use Sahih Al Bukhari for deen.'Soon as you make this demand they throw back the principle of explicit proof for innovations and quote: “Verily in the Messenger of Allah you have a good example for him who looks unto Allah and the last day and remembers Allah much.” [Ref: Surah 33:2] then they argue Sahih Bukhari contains good examples of Sunnahs therefore its proven. Explicitly this is not proof for legitimacy of Sahih Al Bukhari. Instead quoted verse is a explicit proof for Messenger (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) having a good example. When the verse is coupled with: “O ye who believe! ... obey the Messenger and those charged with authority among you.” [Ref: Surah 4:59] then the it means that obey the Messenger (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) in his good example.Sahih Al Bukhari has record of good example of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) therefore in a indirect, implicit way it substantiates the legitimacy of Sahih Al Bukhari. Wahhabi's judge every innovation to be reprehensible innovation and only on selective cases accept implicit evidence (i.e. Sahih Al Bukhari). Where as Ahle Sunnat do not judge a innovation to be blameworthy unless it contradicts Qur’an, Sunnah and Ahle Sunnat also accept implicit evidence on praiseworthy innovations which have not been dealt within Qur’an and Hadith explicitly. Therefore principle of implicit evidence being valid evidence on issues which have not been explicitly addressed by Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) or by RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) is closer to Prophet's (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) teaching regarding Ijtihad and Wahhabi's stubbornness to accept implicit evidence for praiseworthy innovations is error. Praiseworthy Innovation General Guide: A 'praiseworthy' innovation must not consist of Haram activities. Taking part in praiseworthy innovations has to be for pleasure of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala). It has to be in line with principle of encouraging good of deen, forbidding evil according to deen, and serve as a platform for worship of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala), gaining knowledge of deen. Innovated festivity must have it's root in Qur’an/Sunnah and the activities of worship in the festivity should be sanctioned in Qur’an [or/and] Sunnah explicitly. Definition Of Praiseworthy Innovation: - Any innovative Practice/Belief with daleel[1] from the Qur'an/Sunnah then it is Biddah Hasanah (i.e. praiseworthy innovation). Principle One: - Innovating a praiseworthy practice by stripping a Sunnah of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) or recommendation of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) or a verse of Qur’an out of it's original context and placing it in new context[2] or adding[3] something to it. Principle Two: - [4]A Innovated festivity[5] from Qur’an/Hadith by combining various Sunnahs/recommendations of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala)[6] is praiseworthy innovation. Principle Three: - Innovating a valid[7] belief by interpreting Hadith/Qur’an (subhana wa ta'ala) without contradicting the explicit of Qur’an/Hadith deems such interpretation as praiseworthy innovation.[8] Principle Four: - Innovated item[9] which assists with regards to a essential/non-essential aspect of deen is praiseworthy innovation. Wama Alayna Ilal Balaghul Mubeen. Muhammed Ali Razavi ================== Footnotes: - [1] Daleel literally means evidence and there are two types of evidences the explicit, the implicit. - [2a]Stripping Out Of Context & New Context: A group of companions went to a tribe and asked them to treat them as their guests which they refused. Incidentally the chief of that tribe was bitten by a snake so one of the companions made a deal with them. He recited Surah Al Fatiha and spat on the place where he was bitten the chief recovered:“... and his people presented the sheep to them, but they said, "We will not take it unless we ask the Prophet (whether it is lawful)."The companions asked RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) he permitted them to take the sheep: “Take it (flock of sheep) and assign a share for me." but questioned: "How do you know that Surat-al-Fatiha is a ruqya? [Ref: Bukhari, B36, H476] The question makes it clear that they are not suppose to know. This is proof that companions of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) practiced Ijtihad and innovated practices which were not taught by RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam). [2b] A praiseworthy innovation practiced by Ahle Sunnat of subcontinent is of making of dua for the deceased after funeral prayers have been completed. Even though this practice is not Sunnah of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) neither it was practiced by companions but its legitimacy is validated according to Qur’an. Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) states: “And your Lord says: "Call on Me; I will answer your (Prayer): but those who are too ...” [Ref: Surah 40:60] then Allah (subhana wa ta'ala): “... : I listen to the prayer (ie. dua) of every suppliant (i.e. da'aan) when he calleth on Me: Let them also, with a will,...” [Ref: Surah 2:186] therefore the conclusion is that when ever a believer calls upon Allah (subhana wa ta'ala); Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) answers the to prayers of supplicant. There is no time in a day in which we are prohibited to make dua, rather a supplicant can make a supplication before or after the funeral prayer. Ten minutes after the funeral prayers or ten hours after, in night or during day, dua is worship and its not prohibited to worship Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) before or after the funeral prayers and those who censor the worship of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) are kaffirs. - [3a] Stripping Out Of Context & Adding To It: Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) inquired of Bilal (radiallah ta'ala anh): "Tell me of the best deed you did after embracing Islam, for I heard your footsteps in front of me in Paradise." he replied: "I did not do anything worth mentioning except that whenever I performed ablution during the day or night, I prayed after that ablution as much as was written for me." [Ref: Bukhari, B21, H250, Muslim, B31, H6015,] His statement: “... whenever I performed ablution during the day or night, ...” indicates that he performed more then two nawafil whenever he performed wudu where as the Sunnah was to perform two nawafil after wudu:“Whoever performs ablution like my present ablution and then offers two rakat in which he does not think of worldly things, all his previous sins will be forgiven." [Ref: Bukhari, B31, H155, Muslim, B2, H436] His excess of nawafil was not Sunnah of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) rather through Ijtihad Bilal (radiallah ta'ala anh) came to conclusion on permissibility of performing more then two nawafil after wudu. The words: “... I prayed after that ablution as much as was written for me." indicate that there was no fixed amount he performed, maybe sometimes two, at others fours, or maybe he performed nawafil as long as he could keep his mind free from wordily thoughts. Whats certain is if it was two nawafil he would have specified the number two. Educated assumption is that he performed two nawafil after wudu when he was attending Masjid for compulsory prayers with other Sunnahs and out of Masjid he would have performed more. Also note that Bilal (radiallah ta'ala anh) emphasis the time: “...whenever I performed ablution during the day or night, ...” this indicates that according to Bilal (radiallah ta'ala anh) nawafil can be performed any time of the day or night. - [3b] The Wahhabi's argue that Sunnahs (i.e. innovations) of Sahabah were approved therefore they are now part of Sunnah of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) hence they are not praiseworthy innovations. In response to this reasoning please note that Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) heard the footsteps of Bilal (radiallah ta'ala anh) in paradise and then asked him about what action he does. This establishes that without even the approval of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) the actions of Bilal (radiallah ta'ala anh) had earned him paradise because Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) had deemed them to be praiseworthy innovations. - [4] This principle in essences is 'principle one' except that it focuses on practices which were not practiced by Sahabah, Tabiyoon, or Tabi-tabiyoon. - [5] Festivities such as Milad Un Nabi (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) Urs (i.e. commemorating death of a saint, scholar on yearly basis), Geeyarween (gathering for Isaal as'Sawab for Seikh Abdul Qadir Jilani rahimullah alayhi ta'ala on every 11th of Islamic month). - [6] Collecting various; Sunnahs of worship (i.e. performing of nawafil), acts of charity, recitation of Qur’an, recitation of poetry in praise/defense of Prophet Muahmmed (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam), etc. - [7] The nature of Qur’an is jawami al kalim (i.e. shortest of expressions widest in meaning) therefore many interpretations are possible. Any new interpretation should not oppose the Ijmah, should not oppose ahadith. Oppose in meaning of stating the opposite of what is established from Qur’an or Hadith. For example; Jesus is Lord of Alameen, mankind evolved from apes, etc. - [8a] Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) states: “Allah is He Who created seven samawat (i.e. skies) and of the lands (i.e. ardeen) alike. Through the midst of them (all) descends His Command: that ye may know ...” [Ref: Surah 65:12] One interpretation of is that there are skies and seven ear planets. About the seven heavens Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) states: “See you not how Allah has created the seven heavens one above another.” [Ref: Surah 71:15] Note that seven heavens are described as one above another, and Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) stated: “Allah is He Who created seven samawat (i.e. skies) and of the lands alike (i.e. Mislahunna).” Therefore another likeness of seven heavens to seven lands is that earth has layers one above another like the heavens and this is the interpretation of Imam Fakhr ud Din ar'Razi (rahimullah alayhi ta'ala). This interpretation also has its basis in authentically reported hadith: "Whoever takes a piece of the land of others unjustly, he will sink down the seven earths on the Day of Resurrection." [Ref: Bukhari, B43, H634] - [8b] The modern interpretation of this verse is that the seven heavens refers to seven layers (i.e. Thermosphere, Mesopause, Mesosphere, Stratopause, Stratosphere, Trapopause, Traposphere) of atmosphere which serve as protective barrier high above earth from radiation, etc. And seven lands (i.e. ardeen) refers to seven layers (i.e. Crust, Upper mantle, Transition region, Lower mantle, D-layer, Outer core, Inner core) of earth. - [9] This can be books of ahadith (i.e. Sahih Bukhari, Sahih Muslim, etc.) books of Tafsir (i.e. Tafsir Ibn Abbas, Tafsir Al Jalalayn, Tafsir Rooh ul Biyan, etc.), Qibla compass, Musalla (i.e. prayer mat), Tasbeeh (i.e. prayer beads), loud speaker for deeni purposes, etc.
  9. Definition Of Innovation – Sunni & Wahhabi Perspectives. Intorduction: Those who read into controversial religious matters would have come across the term 'Biddah' used to demonise another sect of Muslims. And truth is that many readers wouldnt be aware the meaning of word Biddah, and even if they are aware it would be a translation; 'Innovation'. Its very rare that causal readers would know the exact Shara'ee meaning of this term. And even those who are familiar they would arguing which version of 'Biddah Definition' is correct. The Sunni's and Wahhabi's argue whose definition of Biddah is in accordance to teaching of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam). The best way to answer the question to to learn these definitions and then judge according to them to see if they fit in the frame of Quran and Sunnah. My First hand experience of these two very different definitions of Biddah taught me a valueable lesson and that is you can not dismiss something without first understanding it properly. The conclusion I arived after learning and applying these two definitions to agreed upon issues of innovation was that regardless of which edefinition is used if it is applied correctly the result will be same. To illustrate the point, a beleife in legality of suicide in definition of the Wahabiyah would be termed as 'Biddah', hence the ruling would be that its misguidance, leading to hellfire, on the other hand those who lean toward Sufi side, would deem this beleife of legality of suicide as 'Biddah Sai'yah' {i.e.evil Innovation}, and the verdict of misguidance, leading to hellfire will be same. Lets suppose a person when ever sits in car recites Surah Fatihah, only recites it for sake of pleasing Allah (subhana wa ta'ala). In the definition of the Wahabiyah it would not amount to Biddah, they would consider it Biddah in linguistic sense, but not in Sharaee sense, therefore they would give verdict that the person will earn reward from Allah (subhana wa ta'ala). The Ahle Sunnat on other hand will consider this act to be a innovation of the person because this act has originated from him, but will judge it to be a praiseworthy innovation for which there will be reward from Allah (subhana wa ta'ala). The real point of contention is whos definition of innovation is fully in accordance with teaching of Quran, and Sunnah. On that point I have to take side and declare that the definition of Sufis is more comprehensive and it is derived using all the evidences avaliable on this subject in Quran and Sunnah, where as the Wahabi one is not fully accordance with Sunnah. To understand matters of deen, to determine the legality of a issue in Islam it doesn't really matter which is used the end result will be same. Source Of Definitions: Wahhabi definition I had learnt when I was with Ahle Hadith, a Pakistani Ghair Muqallid Wahabi sect, so there is no gaurantee about its adoption by Arabi Neo-Hanbali Wahhabi's. I have used this definition while dicussing with Hanafi Wahhabi's of India known as Deobandi's and none objected to it, so assumption is they agree to it. Unfortunately no source for their definition was given to me while learning it and even if it was I can not recall it. The sufi definition is gleamed from Urdu book; 'Islam aur Biddat' by Mufti Ahmed Yar Khan Naeemi {rahimullah alayhi ta'ala} for a detailed study of Sufi definition with detail explaination I recogmend readers refer to his work. Innovation: Biddah taken literally would give you an english translation of “Innovation”, but in Islamic law Bid'dah has special definition, and its istilah khaas {special terminology} which should not be understood lingustically rather its meaning in the light of Quran and Sunnah. 'Daleel' Explained: To correctly understanding the definitions of Biddah, one must undrstand the meaning of 'daleel'. Daleel is a Arabic word which means evidence, proof, testimony, substantiation. In the definition of Biddah it is incorporated to mean 'evidence' from Quran and Sunnah. There are two types of evidences: - Explicit Evidence - Implicit Evidence Where ever the word 'daleel' has been used the readers will have understand 'daleel' in meaning of explicit, implicit evidence, unless in places one or the other is specified. Wahabi Definition Of Biddah: - Biddah Simple: Any Action/Beleife without daleel[1] from the Qur'an or Sunnah such is deemed as Bidah. - Biddah Comprehensive: Any Action/Beleife of which there is no Explicit Evidence or Implicit Evidence[2] such is classed as Bidah. * Innovation for which there is no valid reason, is to be rejected. * Innovation which is not in harmony with the principles of Islam that is to be rejected. * Innovation for which there is no sanction from Quran/Sunnah, that is to be rejected. Sufi Definition Of Biddah: In Sufi definition of Biddah, anything which is not mentioned in Quran and Ahadith as Fard/Farz { i.e.Compulsary} or is not Sunnah of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) is Biddah. A newly invented matter, a novelty, and every Biddah has to be examined in light of Quran and Sunnah to determine weither its praiseworthy or reprehensiable. Even though the actions of Sahabah which have no evidence from Sunnah of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam), but evidence shows that it was their Ijtihad; technically is 'Biddah'. Even then their Ijtihad is not reffered as Biddah becaue the word in general is used with negative conotations. Therefore out of respect, and to make sure that people do not attribute Biddah Sai'yah to Sahabah the word 'Sunnah' is used, as in Sunnah of Sahabah to meanpraiseworthy innovation which was result of Ijtihad. If it is in accordance with Quran & Sunnah, then it is Biddah Hasanah.If the Ijtihad is wrong, its Bid'a Sai'yah but there is no punishment on the Mujtahid, only reward from Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) in both out comes. Part One: The Basic Definition. - Biddah Hasanah {Praiseworthy Biddah}: Any innovated Practice/Belief with daleel from the Qur'an/Sunnah then it is Biddah Hasanah. * Innovation for which there is valid reason, it is accepted * Innovation which is in harmony with the principles of Islam that is to be accepted. * Innovation for which there is sanction from Quran/Sunnah, that is to be accepted. - Biddah Sai'yah {BlameWorthy Innovation}: Any innovated Practice/Beleife without daleel from the Qur'an/Sunnah is Bidah Sai'yah. * Innovation for which there is no valid reason, is to be rejected. * Innovation which is not in harmony with the principles of Islam that is to be rejected. * Innovation for which there is no sanction from Quran/Sunnah, that is to be rejected. Part Two: Detailed Breakdown Of Biddah. Biddah: - Amali - Iqadi Biddah Amali (Innovation In Acts): - Hasanah (i.e. praiseworthy) - Sai'yah (i.e. reprehensiable) Biddah Itqadi (Innovation In Beleife): - Hasanah (i.e. praiseworthy) - Sai'yah (i.e. reprehensiable) Biddah Amali Hasanah (Innovation Of PraiseWorthy Action): - Jaiz - Mustahab - Wajib Biddah Amali Sai'yah: (Reprehensive Innovation In Acts): - Makhruh - Haram Biddah Amali Sai'yah Makhruh (Reprehensiable Innovation - Disliked Act): - Tehrimi - Tanzihi Biddah Itqadi Sai'yah: (Reprehensiable Innovation In Beleife): - Zindiqiyah - Kuffria - Shirkia Wama Alayna Ilal Balaghul Mubeen. Muhammed Ali Razavi ================ Footnotes: ======== - [1] The original definition had the word 'asal' instead of 'daleel' and translation of it does not make any sense of the sentence, so I have altered it to 'daleel'. I did not enquire to from the person explicitly if asal (i.e. root [evidence]) meant explicit proof or implicit proof, but based on the discussions, and my personel study I concluded asal has to mean explicit, implicit or direct, indirect evidence. - [2] Indirect evidence is source of Ijtihad therefore it's reffered as 'Ijtihadi evidence' . Where ever this term is used you can assume it means indirect, implicit evidence from Qur'an and Sunnah of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam).
  10. Deciphering: "...Every Innovation Is Evil ..." In Light Of Ijtihad. Introduction: It has been argued time, and time again by vast majority proponents of Wahabism that every innovation is misguidance. And to support their claim everyone of parrot family will either quote the Arabic wording of Ahadith or at least will know the translation of these two ahadith: Sahih Muslim, Book 4, Hadith 1885: “... and would further say: "The best of the speech is embodied in the Book of Allah, and the beet of the guidance is the guidance given by Muhammad. And the most evil affairs are the innovations; and every innovation is error." He would further say: I am more dear to a Muslim even than his self …" Sunnan Abu Dawood, Book 40, Number 4590: “… for those of you who live after me will see great disagreement. You must then follow my sunnah and that of the rightly-guided caliphs. Hold to it and stick fast to it. Avoid novelties, for every novelty is an innovation, and every innovation is an error." The aim of this article is to access the claim in light of concept of Ijtihad, and demonstrate literalism of these two ahadith is contradictory to the concept of Ijtihad, and eliminates the very root of Ijtihaad. And inshallah if my memory does justice at the end the correct meaning of these two ahadith will also be briefly explained. Evidence Of Ijtihaad: - Ijtihad was taught to Sahabah (alayhi ridwan) by Prophet Muhammed (sallalahu alayhi was'salam). Our beloved Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) reported to have said: Sahih Muslim, Book 18, Hadith 4261: “'Amr b. al-'As reported that he heard Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: When a judge gives a decision, having tried his best to decide correctly and is right, there are two rewards for him; and if he gave a judgment after having tried his best (to arrive at a correct decision) but erred, there is one reward for him.” Sahih Bukhari, Book 92, Hadith 450: “Narrated 'Amr bin Al-'As: That he heard Allah's Apostle saying, "If a judge gives a verdict according to the best of his knowledge and his verdict is correct (i.e. agrees with Allah and His Apostle's verdict) he will receive a double reward, and if he gives a verdict according to the best of his knowledge and his verdict is wrong, (i.e. against that of Allah and His Apostle) even then he will get a reward." These two ahadith make it clear that if a Judge gives a verdict according to his own understanding and his understanding is correct Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) will give him double the reward, and even if the Mujtahid errors in his judgment Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) will grant him single reward. One very important Hadith which is a clear proof for Ijtihaad: Sunan Abu Dawood, Book 24, Hadith 3585: “Narrated Mu'adh ibn Jabal: Some companions of Mu'adh ibn Jabal said: When the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) intended to send Mu'adh ibn Jabal to the Yemen, he asked: How will you judge when the occasion of deciding a case arises? He replied: I shall judge in accordance with Allah's Book. He asked: If you do not find any guidance in Allah's Book? He replied: (I shall act) in accordance with the Sunnah of the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him). He asked: If you do not find any guidance in the Sunnah of the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) and in Allah's Book? He replied: I shall do my best to form an opinion and I shall spare no effort.The Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) then patted him on the breast and said: Praise be to Allah Who has helped the messenger of the Apostle of Allah to find something which pleases the Apostle of Allah.” Our beloved Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) ensures that Mu'adh Ibn Jabal (radiallah ta'ala anh) understands that if new matters arise which have not been dealt in the Quran, Sunnah of Prophet Muhammed (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) then the Sahabi practices Ijtihad, and arrives at a understanding which accords the Quran and Sunnah. The Side Effect Of Literalism: - The very nature, purpose of Ijtihad is to innovate, strive and formulate a understanding which is in accordance with teaching of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) of a matter which is not taught in Quran and Sunnah of beloved Messenger (sallalahu alayhi was'salam), hence the new innovation requires a judgment in light of Quran and Sunnah which is in accordance with the spirit of Islam. If every innovation is misguidance then there can be no Ijtihad because everything which did not originate from Allah (subhana wa ta'ala), RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam), would automatically be shar (i.e. evil), misguidance, that is if the Ahadith of innovation are taken literally. Teaching of Ijtihad is proof that Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) himself understood that deen would evolve, practices, acts, beliefs, customs, would emerge which have to be judged in light of Quran, Sunnah, and then decide on the validity/invalidity of these practices, acts, beliefs, customs. And chance of some practice being a legitimate on the basis of Ijtihad is proof that not every innovation is evil, misguidance. Explanation Of Ahadith: - The literalism of: ”... every novelty is an innovation, and every innovation is an error.” is too restrictive, and it contradicts the teachings where beloved Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) told of reward for good innovations, punishment for bad innovations. It also eliminates the existence, the need of Ijtihaad, because every innovative practice, custom, belief, act would be misguidance. Yet RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) approved the practice of Ijtihad for matters which are not taught in Quran, Sunnah, this means that not all innovations are misguidance, only some, and some can be valid. - The two ahadith have been isolated from other ahadith which explain the meanings of these ahadith: Sahih Muslim, Book 18, Number 4267: “... and then said: 'A'isha informed me that Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: He who did any act for which there is no sanction from our behalf, that is to be rejected.” Sahih Muslim, Book 18, Number 4266: 'A'isha reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: He who innovates things in our affairs for which there is no valid (reason) (commits sin) and these are to be rejected.” Sahih Bukhari Book 49, Hadith 861: Narrated Aisha: Allah's Apostle said, "If somebody innovates something which is not in harmony with the principles of our religion, that thing is rejected." Sahih Muslim, Book 4, Hadith 1885: “..."The best of the speech is embodied in the Book of Allah, and the beet of the guidance is the guidance given by Muhammad. And the most evil affairs are the innovations; and everyinnovation is error." He would further say: …" The out is that an innovation for which there is no sanction Allah (subhana wa ta'ala), RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) nor a valid reason, and contradicts the principles of religion of Islam it is to be rejected. Such innovations are the most evil, and every such innovation is error. Conclusion: - To realize which of the innovations are error, misguidance, evil, and earn hellfire, and displeasure of Lord, RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) taught the Sahabah (radiallah tallah anhuma ajma'een) method of Ijtihaad, and encouraged them to practice it when new matters rise which have not been dealt in the book of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) and Sunnah of beloved Rasool (sallalahu alayhi was'salam). Thus not every innovation is error but only innovations which have no sanction, contradict the principles of Islam, and have no valid reason are evil, and misguidance. Wama Alayna Ilal Balaghul Mubeen. Muhammed Ali Razvi
  11. [Reprehensible/Shar'aee] Innovations Are Automatically Part Of Deen. Introduction: Subject of innovation in deen of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) is very important. The rules, principles surrounding this subject prevent excess in censoring of innovations, and restricts creation of praiseworthy innovations due to rules and regulations surrounding them. Without which the deen of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) will morph into either a totally new religion or transform into a rigid system that will become impractical. Keeping this in mind a essential principle about reprehensible innovations has to be explained so that people understand its threat and abstain from practices which are in contradiction with Qur’an and Sunnah. Innovation Of Murdering By Son Of Adam (alayhis salam): Beloved Prophet Muhammed (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) also told about son of Hadhrat Adam (alayhis salam): Sahih Bukhari, Book 55, Hadith 552: Narrated Abdullah: Allah's Apostle said, "Whenever a person is murdered unjustly, there is a share from the burden of the crime on the first son of Adam for he was the first to start the tradition of murdering." Hadhrat Adam's (alayhis salam) son having to bear burden of other murderers should be understood in light of RasoolAllah's (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) statement:“And he who introduced some evil practice in Islam which had been followed subsequently (by others), he would be required to bear the burden."[1] Clearly the blameworthy action of son of Hadhrat Adam (alayhis salam) was understood to be reprehensible innovation in Islam, this was the reason for Prophet's (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) revealing: "Whenever a person is murdered unjustly, there is a share from the burden of the crime on the first son of Adam ...”Note that words of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) clearly suggest that Hadhrat Adam's (alayhis salam) son was guilty of innovation in linguistic sense but the addition to his burden proves that it was considered part of Islam. Innovation Of Releasing Animals In Name Of Idols: Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) stated in the Qur’an: Surah Al Maidah (5) Verse 103: “It was not Allah who instituted bahira, or saibah, or waseela, or ham: It is disbelievers who invent a lie against Allah, but most of them lack wisdom.” Reprehensible innovations of al bahira, and as-saiba were not sanctioned by Allah (subhana wa ta'ala), but it was the Mushirkeen who invented these, and Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) says these innovations are lies of Mushrikeen against Allah (subhana wa ta'ala). Bahira, Saibah, Waseelah and Ham have been explained by Hadhrat Said bin Al Musaiyab (radiallah ta'ala anh): Sahih Bukhari, Book 60, Hadith 147: Narrated Said bin Al-Musaiyab: bahira is a she-camel whose milk is kept for the idols and nobody is allowed to milk it; Sa'iba was the she-camel which they used to set free for their gods and nothing was allowed to be carried on it. Abu Huraira said: Allah's Apostle said, "I saw 'Amr bin 'Amir Al-Khuzai (in a dream) dragging his intestines in the Fire, and he was the first person to establish the tradition of setting free the animals (for the sake of their deities)," Wasila is the she-camel which gives birth to a she-camel as its first delivery, and then gives birth to another she-camel as its second delivery. People (in the Pre-lslamic periods of ignorance) used to let that she camel loose for their idols if it gave birth to two she-camels successively without giving birth to a male camel in between. 'Ham' was the male camel which was used for copulation. When it had finished the number of copulations assigned for it, they would let it loose for their idols and excuse it from burdens so that nothing would be carried on it, and they called it the 'Hami.' Abu Huraira said, "I heard the Prophet saying so." Sahih Muslim, Book 40, Hadith 6839: “Sa'id b. Musayyib explained" al-bahira" as that animal which is not milked but for the idols. and none amongst the people milks them, and" as-sa'iba" as that animal which is let loose for the deities. Nothing is loaded over it, and Ibn Musayyib narrated that Abu Huraira stated that Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: I saw 'amr b. 'Amir al-Khuzili dragging his intestines in fire and he was the first who devoted animals to deity.” Amr bin Luhai started the practice of releasing animals in the names of idols in pre-Islamic era: Sahih Bukhari, Book 22, Hadith 303: “… at the time when you saw me stepping forward. No doubt, I saw Hell with its different parts destroying each other when you saw me retreating and in it I saw 'Amr bin Luhai who started the tradition of freeing animals (set them free) in the name of idols." Sahih Bukhari, Book 56, Hadith 723: Narrated Said bin Al-Musaiyab: Al-Bahira was an animal whose milk was spared for the idols and other deities, and so nobody was allowed to milk it. As-Saiba was an animal which they (i.e infidels) used to set free in the names of their gods so that it would not be used for carrying anything. Abu Huraira said, "The Prophet said, 'I saw Amr bin 'Amir bin Luhai Al-Khuzai dragging his intestines in the (Hell) Fire, for he was the first man who started the custom of releasing animals (for the sake idols).'" Even though these innovations were not considered part of Islam by Mushrikeen of Arabia the fact remains that Amr bin Luhai was guilty of a reprehensible innovation in primordial Islam. And his innovation was which distanced the people from monotheistic religion of Ibrahim (alayhis salam) and corrupted his religion of Islam. Therefore Amr bin Luhai will be carrying the burden of sin of those people who have fallowed his reprehensible innovation after him, because our Messenger of Allah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) stated: “And he who introduced some evil practice in Islam[2] which had been followed subsequently (by others), he would be required to bear the burden like that of one who followed this (evil practice) without theirs being diminished in any respect.”[3] Conclusion: Just as the religion of all the previous Prophets was same – Islam; so were their guiding principles on subject of innovations same. One such guiding principle was given by beloved Messenger (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) to his Ummah: “And he who introduced some evil practice in Islam which had been followed subsequently (by others), he would be required to bear the burden...." Its has been demonstrated that this guiding principle was also applied to the son of Prophet Adam's (alayhis salam).[4] This leads to the conclusion that any reprehensible action/belief acted/held by a believer or even a disbeliever and others imitate him in this practice using him/her as example, even though the person did not intend to make it part of Islam, it will be judged as part of Islam.[5] And a broader understanding is that polytheism of Makkans, Indian, Chinese, and the religion of Jews, Christians, Sabian, Zorastranism are in fact pervesion of religion of Islam in one way or another. The reprehensible innovations altered the pure religion of Islam into monstracities known to us today. What ever they invented in past or invent in present or in future will be judged as perversion of Islam which was sent to them originally. Therefore those who introduced reprehensible innovations which altered the relgions of Prophets and those who fallowed them for there will be equal sin. On the basis of this discussion and its conclusions it is absolute that any act which is against the Sharia of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) if one practices it and it becomes a custom/practice then it will be considered as a reprehensible innovation introduced in Islam even if it was not intended to be taken as part of Islam.[6] Wama alayna ilal balaghul mubeen Muhammed Ali Razavi Footnotes: ======== - [1] Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) stated:“And he who introduced some evil practice in Islam which had been followed subsequently (by others), he would be required to bear the burden." This proves that a sinner/innovator does not have to verbally express or intend to make the reprehensible innovative action/belief part of Islam for that sinful innovative action/belief to be considered innovation into Islam. Just acting/believing contrary to teaching of Islam is enough to deem that reprehensible act/belief as innovation and that reprehensible act/belief to be considered part of Islam. - [2]Religion of all Prophets is Islam so application of rule of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) to son of Adam (alayhis salam) is valid. - [3] Sahih Muslim, Book 34, Hadith 6466 - [4] And the rules of praiseworthy innovations were also granted to Ummatis of previous Prophets. It is stated about the followers of Isa (alayhis salam) that they innovated the practice of Monasticism: “Then, in their wake, We followed them up with (others of) Our apostles: We sent after them Jesus the son of Mary, and bestowed on him the Gospel; and We ordained in the hearts of those who followed him Compassion and Mercy. But the Monasticism which they invented for themselves, We did not prescribe for them: (We commanded) only the seeking for the Good Pleasure of Allah. but that they did not foster as they should have done. Yet We bestowed, on those among them who believed, their (due) reward, but many of them are rebellious transgressors.” [Ref: Surah 57:27] And Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) says those who practiced it for them there was reward. - [5] This point is substantiated with the evidence of Hadhrat Adam's (alayhis salam) son murdering his brother because he did not consider it part of Islam Yet addition to his sins the sins of those who murder unjustly indicates Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) will judge it to be part of Islam regardless of the intention. Also Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) states that killing of children by Mushrikeen was altering of religion of Islam: “Even so, in the eyes of most of the pagans, their "partners" made alluring the slaughter of their children, in order to lead them to their own destruction, and cause confusion in their religion. If Allah had willed, they would not have done so: But leave alone them and their inventions.” [Ref: Surah 6:137] this proves that any reprehensible action (i.e. against Sharia) becomes innovation even if it isnt intented. - [6] Naturally implications of this are that if a praiseworthy innovation is not intended to be part of Islam as Sunnah, or Fard it will be considered part of Islam due to its Ijtihadi evidence
  12. Praiseworthy Ijtihadi Innovations Of Sahabah (alayhi ridwaan). Introduction: Wahabi's/Deobandi's quote this hadith in support of their criticism of praiseworthy innovations in Islam: Sunnan Abu Dawood, Book 40, Number 4590: “… for those of you who live after me will see great disagreement. You must then follow my sunnah and that of the rightly-guided caliphs. Hold to it and stick fast to it. Avoid novelties, for every novelty is an innovation, and every innovation is an error." And they are firmly holding to the opinion that every innovation which is made part of deen therefore is reprehensible. Yet there were many praiseworthy innovations into Islam by Sahabah (alayhi ridwan) during the life time of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) as well as after. Aim & Objective: The aim of this article is to explain the meaning of Hadith in light of other Sahih Ahadith. This will help the readers in two fold, one, it will help the readers to defend the shair of Ahle Sunnat Wal Jammat, and it will refute the Rawafiz who use the Wahhabi idiocy to attack, defame, slander the companions of Sahabah (alayhi ridwaan), and accuse them of altering the deen based on heretical Wahhabi understandings of Qur’an, Sunnah. Meaning Of “... Every Innovation Is Error ...”: It is principle of deen that to make a general meaning specific, evidence in support of it from Qur’an, Ahadith is required otherwise the takhsees would be batal (i.e. false). In the context of this discussion evidence for praiseworthy innovations into Islam would be required to substantiate the takhseesi meaning. Prophet of Allah (subhana wa tallah) stated: Sahih Muslim, Book 034, Number 6466: “... on his (sacred) face. Thereupon Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect. And he who introduced some evil practice in Islam which had been followed subsequently (by others), he would be required to bear the burden." One who introduces a good innovation into Islam, and those who adhere to this innovation there is reward for both groups without the reward diminishing. This proves that not all innovations into Islam are reprehensible but praiseworthy innovations can be made into Islam. - Therefore the hadith: “Avoid novelties, for every novelty is an innovation, and every innovation is an error." should be understood to refer to the evil innovations because in the Arabic 'Qullu' means 'all, every' but according to the context of 'all, every' can mean 'all, every' in a certain category and not 'all, every' in absolute terms. Also considering what Prophet (salallahau alayhi was'salam) stated about reprehensible innovations into Islam: “And he who introduced some evil practice in Islam which had been followed subsequently (by others), he would be required to bear the burden."This would amount to sufficient evidence that statement of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'salam):“Avoid novelties, for every novelty is an innovation, and every innovation is an error." is in meaning of “Avoid [reprehensible] novelties, for every [such] novelty is an [reprehensible] innovation, and every [such] innovation is an error." - Another interpretation can be derived which is more comprehensive, and it is also in harmony with fallowing ahadith: Sahih Bukhari Book 49, Hadith 861: Narrated Aisha: Allah's Apostle said, "If somebody innovates something which is not in harmony with the principles of our religion, that thing is rejected." Sahih Muslim, Book 18, Number 4266:'A'isha reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: He who innovates things in our affairs for which there is no valid (reason) (commits sin) and these are to be rejected. Sahih Muslim, Book 18, Number 4267: ... one house; and then said: 'A'isha informed me that Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: He who did any act for which there is no (explicit or implicit) sanction from our behalf, that is to be rejected.” In context of the above ahadith the meaning of statement: “Avoid novelties, for every novelty is an innovation, and every innovation is an error." would be: “Avoid [reprehensible] novelties [which are not in harmony with principles of deen, do not have a valid reason, and have no sanction from Allah, RasoolAllah] for every [such] novelty is an [reprehensible] innovation, and every [such] innovation is an error." Evidence For Good Innovations: - Allah (subhana wa tallah) narrates the story of followers of Jesus: Surah Al Hadid {57} Verse 27: Then, in their wake, We followed them up with (others of) Our apostles: We sent after them Jesus the son of Mary, and bestowed on him the Gospel; and We ordained in the hearts of those who followed him Compassion and Mercy. But the Monasticism which they invented for themselves, We did not prescribe for them: (We commanded) only the seeking for the Good Pleasure of Allah but that they did not foster as they should have done.Yet We bestowed, on those among them who believed, their (due) reward, but many of them are rebellious transgressors. Allah tells why the stories are: Surah Yusuf {12} Ayaat 111: "Laqana fi'qisasi'him ibratulli u'lil albab ..." (“There is, in their stories, instruction for men endued with understanding.”) Allah (subhana wa tallah) tells us that followers of Isa alayhis salam invented the Monasticism them selves with the intention of pleasing Allah (subhana wa tallah) even though Allah (subhana wa tallah) did not command them to do so, but those who did adhere to it, Allah (subhana wa tallah) rewarded them. The conclusion which the ulil albab (i.e. men of understanding) derive from 57:27 is best explained by what Prophet of Allah sallahu alayhi was'salam stated: Sahih Muslim, Book 034, Number 6466: "... Then came another person and then other persons followed them in succession until signs of happiness could be seen on his (sacred) face. Thereupon Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect. And he who introduced some evil practice in Islam which had been followed subsequently (by others), he would be required to bear the burden." Prophet of Allah (salllahu alayhi was'salam) gave us a rule: Who so ever invents something good (i.e. Sahih Bukhari) practice in Islam which was fallowed by him, and fallowed after him, both the follower, as well as the inventor, innovator will get the reward from Allah (subhana wa tallah). - Hazrat Umar (radiallah ta'ala anh) said instructed that people perform their nawafil prayers under one Qari, and he exclaimed this is excellent/good innovation: Sahih Bukhari, Book 32, Hadith 227: Narrated Abu Huraira: ... So, 'Umar said, 'In my opinion I would better collect these (people) under the leadership of one Qari (Reciter) (i.e. let them pray in congregation!)'. So, he made up his mind to congregate them behind Ubai bin Ka'b. Then on another night I went again in his company and the people were praying behind their reciter. On that, 'Umar remarked, 'What an excellent Bid'a (i.e. innovation in religion) this is; but the prayer which they do not perform, but sleep at its time is better than the one they are offering.' He meant the prayer in the last part of the night. (In those days) people used to pray in the early part of the night." This conclusively proves that in deen of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) there is room for good innovations. Had there been no room for good innovation Messenger of Allah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) would not have given us a criteria to judge on, and Hazrat Umar (radiallah ta'ala anh) would not have remarked excellent innovation. Some Good Innovations Of Sahabah (alayhi ridwan): The correct understanding of the hadith presented and to go with that evidence on good innovation in Islam, it would be prudent to present some examples of good innovations which Sahabah (radiallah tallah anhuma) brought forward, in the time of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) or after. Addition Into Prayer: - Sahih Bukhari, Book 12, Hadith 764: Narrated Rifa'a bin Rafi AzZuraqi: One day we were praying behind the Prophet. When he raised his head from bowing, he said, "Sami'a-l-lahu Liman hamida."A man behind him said,"Rabbana walaka-l hamd hamdan Kathiran taiyiban mubarakan fihi" (O our Lord! All the praises are for You, many good and blessed praises). When the Prophet completed the prayer, he asked, "Who has said these words?"The man replied, "I." The Prophet said, "I saw over thirty angels competing to write it first." Prophet rose (from bowing) and stood straight till all the vertebrae of his spinal column came to a natural position. The taught response to: “Sami allahu liman hamida!” by Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) was: “Rabbana wa lakal hamd.” which is supported by: - Sahih Bukhari, Book 12, Hadith 701: “Narrated Abu Huraira: The Prophet said, "The Imam is to be followed. Say the Takbir when he says it; bow if he bows; if he says 'Sami a-l-lahu Liman hamida', say, ' Rabbana wa-laka-l-hamd', prostrate if he prostrates and pray sitting altogether if he prays sitting." - Sahih Bukhari, Book 11, Hadith 656: “... when he raises his head and when he [Imam] says, 'Sami a-l-lahu liman-hamida ' (Allah heard those who sent praises to Him) say then 'Rabbana wa laka-l-hamd' (O our Lord! All the praises are for You), and if he prays sitting then pray sitting." Sahabi (radiallah ta'ala anh) using his own ijtihad added the words: “... hamdan kaseeran, tay'yiban mubarakan fihi.” to what Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) had taught. Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) on completion of prayers asked who it was, and then informed him that angels competed to write this good innovation down. Good Innovation Of Unifying Two Talbiyas: Allah's Messenger (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) taught the fallowing Talbiya: Sahih Bukhari, Book 26, Hadith 621: Narrated 'Abdullah bin 'Umar : The talbiya of Allah's Apostle was : 'Labbaika Allahumma labbaik, Labbaika la sharika Laka labbaik, Inna-l-hamda wan-ni'mata Laka walmu Lk, La sharika Laka'” Sahih Bukhari, Book 26, Hadith 622: “Narrated 'Aisha: I know how the Prophet used to say (talbiya) and it was: 'Labbaika Allahumma Labbaik, Labbaika la sharika Laka labbaik, Inna-l-hamda wan-ni'mata Laka walmu Lk, La sharika Laka'.” Hadrat Abdullah Ibn Umar (radiallah ta'ala anh) reports another Talbiya recited by Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'salam): Sahih Muslim, Book 7, Hadith 2670: “... And 'Abdullah b. 'Umar (Allah be pleased them) said that 'Umar b. Khattab (Allah be pleased with him) pronounced, the Talbiya of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) in these words of his (Prophet's words) and said: Here I am at Thy service, O Lord; here I am at Thy service, ready to obey Thee, and good is in Thy Hand, Here I am at Thy service. Unto Thee is the petition and deed (is also for Thee).” Abdullah Ibn Umar (radiallah ta'ala anh) unified the Talbiyas of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'salam), and this is affirmed in the fallowing ahadith: Sahih Muslim, Book 7, Hadith 2667: 'Abdullah b. 'Umar (Allah be pleased with them) reported that the Talbiya of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) was this: “Here I am at Thy service. O Allah, here I am at Thy service, here I am at Thy service. There is no associate with Thee; here I am at Thy service. Verily all praise and grace is due to Thee, and the sovereignty (too). There is no associate with Thee.” He (the narrator) further said that 'Abdullah b. 'Umar (Allah be pleased with them) made this addition to it: “Here I am at Thy service; here I am at Thy service; ready to obey Thee, and good is in Thy Hand; here 1 am at Thy service; unto Thee is the petition, and deed (is also for Thee).” Sahih Muslim, Book 7, Hadith 2668: 'Abdullah b. 'Umar (Allah be pleased with them) reported that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) entered upon the state of Ihram near the mosque at Dhu'l-Hulaifa as his camel stood by it and he said:“Here I am at Thy service, O Lord; here I am at Thy service: here I am at Thy service. There is no associate with Thee. Here I am at Thy service. All praise and grace is due to Thee and the sovereignty (too). There is no associate with Thee.” They (the people) said that 'Abdullah b. 'Umar said that that was the Talbiya of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him). Nafi' said: 'Abdullah (Allah be pleased with him) made this addition to it:“Here I am at Thy service; here I am at Thy service; ready to obey Thee. The Good is in Thy Hand. Here I am at Thy service. Unto Thee is the petition and deed (is also for Thee).” This proves that Sahabah (alayhi ridwan) made Ijtihad in regulated acts of worship and while fully being aware what Sunnahs of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) were. Note this addition of Hadhrat Abdullah Ibn Umar (radiallah ta'ala anh) was adopted by people at large but this does not mean he sinned or was upon error. Collecting Of Sweet Smelling Sweat Of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'salam): Beloved Prophet's (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) body emitted beautiful fragrance: Sahih Muslim, Book 30, Hadith 5760: “Anas reported that Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) had a very fair complexion and (the drops) of his perspiration shone like pearls, ... and I never smelt musk or ambergris and found its fragrance as sweet as the fragrance of Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him).” Sahih Muslim, Book 30, Hadith 5759:“Anas reported: I never smelt ambergris or musk as fragrant as the fragrance of the body of Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) and I never touched brocade or silk and found it as soft as the body of Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him).” Sahih Bukhari, Book 31, Hadith 194: “... Anas further said, "I never touched silk or velvet softer than the hand of Allah's Apostle and never smelled Musk or perfumed smoke more pleasant than the smell of Allah's Apostle." Naturally the beautiful fragrance of beloved Prophet's (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) body was fused into his blessed sweat. Hadhrat Umm Sulaim (radiallah ta'ala anha) collected the blessed sweat of beloved Messenger (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) in bottles and in perfumes: Sahih Muslim, Book 30, Number 5763: “Umm Sulaim reported that Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) visited her house and (took rest) and she spread a piece of cloth for him and he had had a siesta on it. And he sweated profusely and she collected his sweat and put it in a perfume and in bottles. Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) said: Umm Sulaim, what is this? She said: It is your sweat, which I put in my perfume. Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) sweated in cold weather when revelation descended upon him.” The collected blessed sweat was mixed with Suk, and Hadhrat Anas bin Malik (radiallah ta'ala anh) asked that some of the blessed sweat be mixed with his Hanut, so when he dies his body can be perfurmed with Hanut which had sweat of blessed Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'salam): Sahih Bukhari, Book 74, Number 298: “... Anas added, "When the Prophet had slept, she would take some of his sweat and hair and collect it (the sweat) in a bottle and then mix it with Suk (a kind of perfume) while he was still sleeping. "When the death of Anas bin Malik approached, he advised that some of that Suk be mixed with his Hanut (perfume for embalming the dead body), and it was mixed with his Hanut.” Also while Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) was sleeping when Hadhrat Umm Sulaim (radiallah ta'ala anha) collected the blessed sweat beloved Messenger (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) was startled and woke up: Sahih Muslim, Book 30, Number 5762: “… It is Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) who is having siesta in your house, lying in your bed. She came and found him sweating and his sweat falling on the leather cloth spread on her bed. She opened her scent-bag and began to fill the bottles with it. Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) was startled and woke up and said: Umm Sulaim, what are you doing? She said: Allah's Messenger, we seek blessings for our children through it. Thereupon he said: You have done something right.” He (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) questioned her: “What are you doing?” to which she replied: “Allah's Messenger, we seek blessings for our children through it.” meaning Allah's Messenger (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) through your blessed sweat we seek blessing from Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) for children. Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) replied: “You have done something right.” He approved the collecting of the blessed sweat for sake of seeking blessing from Allah (subhana wa tallah) through sweat. The collection of blessed sweat into bottles of perfume and using it to gain blessings for the children from Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) by the means (i.e. Wasila) of Prophet's (salallahu alayhi was'salam) blessed sweat was not taught by RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) nor Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) instructed it in Quran. Also note Hadhrat Anas bin Malik (radiallah ta'ala anh) had the blessed sweat mixed with his Hanut so his body can be perfumed with it. Surely his intention of doing this was to gain the blessings of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala). These two instances are examples of praiseworthy innovations into deen of Islam. Evil Eye & The Blessed Hair Of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam): It is reported in Sahih of Imam Bukhari (rahimullah alayhi ta'ala) that Um Salama (radiallah ta'ala anha) collected the blessed hair and sweat of Prophet Muhammed (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam): Sahih Bukhari, Book 74, Number 298: “... Anas added, "When the Prophet had slept, she would take some of his sweat and hair and collect it (the sweat) in a bottle and then mix it with Suk (a kind of perfume) while he was still sleeping. "When the death of Anas bin Malik approached, he advised that some of that Suk be mixed with his Hanut (perfume for embalming the dead body), and it was mixed with his Hanut.” Sahih Bukhari, Book 72, Number 784: “Narrated IsraiI: Uthman bin 'Abdullah bin Mauhab said, "My people sent me with a bowl of water to Um Salama." Isra'il approximated three fingers ('indicating the small size of the container in which there was some hair of the Prophet. 'Uthman(ra) added, "If any person suffered from evil eye or some other disease, he would send a vessel (containing water) to Um Salama. I looked into the container (that held the hair of the Prophet) and saw a few red hairs in it," The blessed hair and sweat of Prophet (sallalahu alayhiw as'sallam) was collected in a bottle and mixed with a perfume and used to cure illnesses of people. Cloak Of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) Curing Sick: Honorable Prophet Yusuf (alayhis salam) instructed his brothers when he gave them his kamees (i.e. long tunic): Surah Yusuf (12) Verse 93: "Go with this my shirt, and cast it over the face of my father: he will come to see (clearly). Then come ye (here) to me together with all your family." When brothers of Yusuf (alayhis salam) reached their father Honorable Prophet Yaqoob (alayhis salam): Surah Yusuf (12) Verse 96: Then when the bearer of the good news came. He cast (the shirt) over his face, and he forthwith regained clear sight. He said: "Did I not say to you, 'I know from Allah that which ye know not?'" Honorable Prophet Yaqoob (alayhis salam) placed the shirt on his face and with tawassul of his sons kamees Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) restored the sight in the eyes of Honorable Prophet Yaqoob (alayhis salam). - In a hadith recorded in Sahih of Imam Muslim (rahiumullah alayhi ta'ala) it is recorded that Asma the sister of Ummul Momineen Hadhrat Aysha (radiallah ta'ala anha) soaked the cloak of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) in water [and the water was drained from cloak and sick person was given to drink it] to cure them of illness they suffer: Sahih Muslim, Book 24, Hadith 5149: Abdullah. the freed slave of Asma' (the daughter of Abu Bakr). the maternal uncle of the son of 'Ata, reported: Asma' sent me to 'Abdullah bin 'Umar saying: … I went back to Asma' and informed her. whereupon she said: Here is the cloak of Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him). and she brought out to me that cloak made of Persian cloth with a hem of brocade, and its sleeves bordered with brocade and said: This was Allah's Messenger's cloak with 'A'isha until she died, and when she died. I got possession of it. The Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) used to wear that, and "we soaked it for the sick and sought cure thereby." The conclusion we reach is Hadhrat Um Salama (radiallah ta'ala anha), Hadhrat Aysha (radiallah ta'ala anha), Hadhrat Asma (radiallah ta'ala anha) and many other Sahabah practiced Tawassul via Tabarrukat of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam). - The praiseworthy innovation of companions of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) was based on recommendation of a Prophet (i.e. Yusuf alayhis salam) and practice of another Prophet (i.e. Yaqoob alayhis salam). Had this practice been at odds with any principle of deen or contradicted teaching of Tawheed the Prophets and the companions would not have practiced it. This praiseworthy innovation was approved by Messenger of Allah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) in his life time. The Third Adhan Addition: - Before servant moves to the topic of actual third Adhan (i.e. call to prayer). Readers should know that second Adhan is Iqamah because the similarity in its wording: Sahih Bukhari, Book 11, Hadith 579: “Narrated Anas: Bilal was ordered to repeat the wording of the adhan for prayers twice, and to pronounce the wording of the Iqamas once except "Qad-qamat-is-Salat". Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) stated that prayer is between two Adhans he said that twice in one narration: Sahih Bukhari, Book 11, Hadith 600: “Narrated 'Abdullah bin Mughaffal: The prophet said, "There is a prayer between the two adhans (adhan and Iqama), there is a prayer between the two adhans." And then while saying it the third time he added, "For the one who wants to (pray)." Note the words of Prophet there is prayer between the two Adhans. The choice of words indicates that Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) was not talking about Fard prayer but Sunnah prayer which is to be performed after the first Adhan and before the second Adhan (i.e. Iqamah) for the Fard prayer is recited. The words of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) indicate this: "For the one who wants to (pray)." because performing Sunnah prayers is optional, for which there is reward if performed, and no blame if abstained from. The second Adhan is interpreted to mean Iqamah, and the prayer between the two Adhans is interpreted to mean two rakat Sunnah Moqadda prayers before the three rakat Fard of Maghrib prayer according in light of this Hadith: Sahih Bukhari, Book 11, Hadith 598: Narrated Anas bin Malik: "When the Mu'adhdhin pronounced the adhan, some of the companions of the Prophet would proceed to the pillars of the mosque (for the prayer) till the Prophet arrived and in this way they used to pray two Rakat before the Maghrib prayer.There used to be a little time between the adhan and the Iqama." Shu'ba said, "There used to be a very short interval between the two (adhan and Iqama).” - Hadhrat Usman Ghani (radiallah ta'ala anh) added the third Adhan which was recited in the market place: Sahih Bukhari, Book 13, Hadith 35: Narrated As-Saib bin Yazid: In the life-time of the Prophet, Abu Bakr and Umar, the Adhan for the Jumua prayer used to be pronounced when the Imam sat on the pulpit. But during the Caliphate of 'Uthman when the Muslims increased in number, a third Adhan at Az-Zaura' was added. Abu 'Abdullah said, "Az-Zaura' is a place in the market of Medina." It was Ijtihad of Hadhrat Usman Ghani (radiallah ta'ala anh): based on this verse of the Quran: Surah Al Jumma (62) Verse 9: “O ye who believe! When the call is proclaimed to prayer on Friday (the Day of Assembly), hasten earnestly to the Remembrance of Allah, and leave off business (and traffic): That is best for you if ye but knew!” To call the people of markets to worship of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) because due to business of market, the noise, the commotion, which could suppress the sound of Adhan and shaytan would make them forget performing of prayers. So on this basis Hadhrat Usman Ghani (radiallah ta'ala anh) made Ijtihad and started his praiseworthy ijtihadi sunnah of third Adhan in market. Two Rakat Nawafil Before Execution: - Hadhrat Khubaib (radiallah ta'ala anh) was sent with group of ten men to spy but they were found and surrounded. They were given word that if they surrender they will be spared but the leader of the party refused to surrender and fought until seven of them were honored with martyrdom. The three remaining Sahabis surrendered but two were killed for one reason or another. Hadhrat Khubaib (radiallah ta'ala anh) remained from the ten and he was to be executed when he sought permission to perform nawafil: Sahih Bukhari, Book 59, Hadith 325: “… It was food Allah had provided Khubaib with." When they took him to Al-Hil out of Mecca sanctuary to martyr him, Khubaib requested them. "Allow me to offer a two-Rak'at prayer." They allowed him and he prayed two Rakat and then said, "By Allah! Had I not been afraid that you would think I was worried, I would have prayed more." Then he (invoked evil upon them) saying, "O Allah! Count them and kill them one by one, and do not leave anyone of them"' Then he recited: "As I am martyred as a Muslim, I do not care in what way I receive my death for Allah's Sake, for this is for the Cause of Allah. If He wishes, He will bless the cut limbs of my body." Then Abu Sarva, 'Ubqa bin Al-Harith went up to him and killed him. It was Khubaib who set the tradition of praying for any Muslim to be martyred in captivity (before he is executed). The Prophet told his companions of what had happened (to those ten spies) on the same day they were martyred. ...” He performed the two nawafil and then made dua so that Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) punishes his killers after he is martyred. - Performing of two nawafil before execution and then making dua to Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) to punish the executioners is a Sunnah of Hadhrat Khubaib (radiallah ta'ala anh) and the above hadith affirms this: “It was Khubaib who set the tradition of praying for any Muslim to be martyred in captivity (before he is executed).”. This is also affirmed by other ahadith: Sahih Bukhari, Book 52, Number 281: “... They allowed him and he offered Two Rakat and then said, "Hadn't I been afraid that you would think that I was afraid (of being killed), I would have prolonged the prayer. O Allah, kill them all with no exception." (He then recited the poetic verse):-- "I being martyred as a Muslim, Do not mind how I am killed in Allah's Cause, For my killing is for Allah's Sake, And if Allah wishes, He will bless the amputated parts of a torn body" Then the son of Al Harith killed him. So it was khubaib who set the tradition for any Muslim sentenced to death in captivity, to offer a two-Rak'at prayer (before being killed). Allah fulfilled the invocation of Asim bin Thabit on that very day on which he was martyred. The Prophet informed his companions of their news and what had happened to them. Later on when ...” Sahih Bukhari, Book 59, Number 412: “... Later on she used to say, "I have never seen a captive better than khubaib Once I saw him eating from a bunch of grapes although at that time no fruits were available at Mecca, and he was fettered with iron chains, and in fact, it was nothing but food bestowed upon him by Allah." So they took him out of the Sanctuary (of Mecca) to kill him. He said, "Allow me to offer a two-Rak'at prayer." Then he went to them and said, "Had I not been afraid that you would think I was afraid of death, I would have prayed for a longer time."So it was khubaib who first set the tradition of praying two Rakat before being executed. He then said, "O Allah! Count them one by one," and added, 'When I am being martyred as a Muslim, I do not care in what way I receive my death for Allah's Sake, because this death is in Allah's Cause. If He wishes, ...." The beautiful thing is that this Wali of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala), sahib e kramat, muqarrib of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala), did not ask for longer life because he felt that this will dishonor him. Excellent Innovation Of Umar (radiallah ta'ala anh): - In the time of Hadhrat Abu Bakr As Sadeeq (radiallah ta'ala anh) the Sahabah performed Nawafil prayers in the masjid either individually. In the time Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta'ala anh) people were performing Nawafil in small groups each group led a Imam or individually: Sahih Bukhari, Book 32, Hadith 227: Narrated Abu Huraira: Allah's Apostle said, "Whoever prayed at night the whole month of Ramadan out of sincere Faith and hoping for a reward from Allah, then all his previous sins will be forgiven." Ibn Shihab (a sub-narrator) said, "Allah's Apostle died and the people continued observing that (i.e. Nawafil offered individually, not in congregation), and it remained as it was during the Caliphate of Abu Bakr and in the early days of 'Umar's Caliphate." 'Abdur Rahman bin 'Abdul Qari said, "I went out in the company of 'Umar bin Al-Khattab one night in Ramadan to the mosque and found the people praying in different groups.A man praying alone or a man praying with a little group behind him. So, 'Umar said, 'In my opinion I would better collect these (people) under the leadership of one Qari (Reciter) (i.e. let them pray in congregation!)'. So, he made up his mind to congregate them behind Ubai bin Ka'b. Then on another night I went again in his company and the people were praying behind their reciter. On that, 'Umar remarked, 'What an excellent Bid'a (i.e. innovation in religion) this is; but the prayer which they do not perform, but sleep at its time is better than the one they are offering.' He meant the prayer in the last part of the night. (In those days) people used to pray in the early part of the night." Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta'ala anh) on his one visit came to conclusion that it would be better to collect the different Jammats under one Imam: 'In my opinion I would better collect these (people) under the leadership of one Qari (Reciter). So, he made up his mind to congregate them behind Ubai bin Ka'b.' When he went to Masjid again he found that Sahabah (radiallah ta'ala anhuma ajma'een) were performing the nawafil (i.e. salatul taraweeh) in one Jammah as he instructed then he remarked: “What an excellent Bid'a (i.e. innovation in religion) this is; ...” From this we can conclude that performing of Salatul Taraweeh in one Jammah under the Imamat of one Qari was not a Sunnah of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam). Sunnah Of Khulafa ar'Rashideen: Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) in the Quran states that believer should obey Allah (subhana wa ta'ala), Messenger (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) and the ones who have been given authority: Surah an'Nisa (4) Verse 59: “O ye who believe! Obey Allah, and obey the Messenger, and those charged with authority among you. If ye differ in anything among yourselves, refer it to Allah and His Messenger, if ye do believe in Allah and the Last Day: That is best, and most suitable for final determination.” The people who have been given authority are of two types, religious scholars, and leadership of Muslims. Assumption is that Messenger (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) in Tafsir of: “... ulil amri ...” stated fallow the Sunnah of rightly guided Khulafah: Sunan Abu Dawood, Book 40, Hadith 4590: “... One day the Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him) led us in prayer, then faced us and gave us a lengthy exhortation at which the eyes shed tears and the hearts were afraid. A man said: Apostle of Allah! It seems as if it were a farewell exhortation, so what injunction do you give us? He then said: I enjoin you to fear Allah, and to hear and obey even if it be an Abyssinian slave, for those of you who live after me will see great disagreement. You must then follow my sunnah and that of the rightly-guided caliphs. Hold to it and stick fast to it. Avoid novelties, for every novelty is an innovation, and every innovation is an error.” Note Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) stated that fallow Sunnah of Khulafa ar'Rashideen, and this indicates that Khulafah ar'Rashideen will have their own Sunnahs which are not Sunnahs of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam). Here Prophet used the word Sunnah for the Ijtihadi praiseworthy innovations of Khulafa ar'Rashideen. Clearly if ever innovation was evil, reprehensible, misguidance then Messenger (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) would not have instructed the Muslims to fallow the Ijtihadi innovations of Khulafah ar'Rashideen. We also have clear proof that Sahabah in general as well as the Khulafah ar'Rashideen innovated practices which were not practices of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam), and examples of them already have been discussed. Conclusion: Prophet's (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) statement: “Avoid novelties, for every novelty is an innovation, and every innovation is an error." when interpreted in the light of the abundance of evidence mean that those innovations which are by their nature reprehensible, misguiding, evil, are to be avoided. Those innovations which do not contradict the spirit, essence of Islam, and have their basis in Islam directly or indirectly, which can be established with Ijtihadi evidence can be accepted as part of deen as well as practiced. In support of this interpretation there is a lot of evidence from praiseworthy innovations of Sahabah (alayhi ridwan) to Prophet's (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) statements: “... He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, ...” and his statement also supports praiseworthy ijtihadi innovations: “You must then follow my sunnah and that of the rightly-guided caliphs.” Allah guides whom He wills misguides whom He wills.Whom He guides none can misguide and whom He Misguides none can guide. Wama alayna ilal balaghul mubeen. Muhammed Ali Razavi
  13. "... Every Novelty Is An Innovation ..." Is "... Every Innovation An Error." Introduction: Beloved Messenger (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) is reported to have said: Sunnan Abu Dawood, Book 40, Number 4590: “… for those of you who live after me will see great disagreement. You must then follow my sunnah and that of the rightly-guided caliphs. Hold to it and stick fast to it. Avoid novelties, for every novelty is an innovation, and every innovation is an error." Sahih Muslim, Book 4, Hadith 1885: “... and would further say: "The best of the speech is embodied in the Book of Allah, and the beet of the guidance is the guidance given by Muhammad. And the most evil affairs are the innovations; and everyinnovation is error." He would further say: I am more dear to a Muslim even than his self …" On the basis of these Ahadith the heretical scholars all of them are of opinion that innovation is of only one reprehensible type, blameworthy type, evil type, and it would not be wrong to say majority of them is of opinion that '… qullu bid'a dhalala ...' means '… every innovation is misguidance ...' without exception in these two ahadith. There are from amongst them some learned scholars who do give it takhseesi (i.e. Specific) meaning to '… qullu bid'a dhalala ...' to restrict it's generality. Because of their belief that every innovation is reprehensible they are unwilling to accept some legitimate practices which have originated after the period of Rasoolallah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam), as well as after the first three protected generations. Usage Of 'QULLU' In Arabic: In Arabic the word 'QULLU' is used to mean every, all, but its mostly used in specific context to restrict its meaning to every, all, in a certain category, and not every, all in general meaning. - Surah Al Kahf (18) Verse 79: "As for the boat, it belonged to certain men in dire want: they plied on the water: I but wished to render it unserviceable, for there was after them a certain king who seized on every boat by force.” Note the words used are: “... qullu safina'tin ghas'ba.” which in context means the king ordered every boat to be seized by force. The literal implication is that King ordered every boat to be seized, in reality he ordered every useable boat in his kingdom to be seized, on the basis of this Khidr (alayhis salam) a friend of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) whom knowledge from Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) was given damages the boat, so it would not fit the criteria on which the boats were to be seized. - Surah Al Muminoon (23) Verse 27: “So We inspired him (with this message): "Construct the Ark within Our sight and under Our guidance: then when comes Our Command, and the fountains of the earth gush forth, take thou on board pairs of every species, male and female, and thy family- except those of them against whom the Word has already gone forth: And address Me not in favor of the wrong-doers; for they shall be drowned (in the Flood).” The words: “... min qulli zau'jaynis nayni ...” which means that Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) ordered that two of every kind to taken on board of the ship, meaning two of every animal male, female which can not fly. Parrots, eagles, crows, sparrows, these fly to a place which is safe when the water rises and eventualy roam back to the area. Here the animals which can not escape the rising of water like sheep, camel, horse, cow, dog, domestic animals are mentioned so when the water recedes the area can be repopulated with animals. - Surah Ash'Shura (42) Verse 33: “If it be His Will He can still the Wind: then would they become motionless on the back of the (ocean). Verily in this are Signs for everyone who patiently perseveres and is grateful.” The words: “... la'ayatilli qulli sab'barin shakoor.” which in the context means that in this there are signs for everyone who is patient and is grateful to Allah (subhana wa ta'ala). Yet only a righteous believers who use sailboats as means of travel would be grateful, thankful for Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) for the bounty of wind. Even though the non-believers, believers realize the part which wind plays in movement of sailboat, and the how lack of wind totally will still the sailboat but they are not thankful to Allah (subhana wa ta'ala). - Surah Az'Zariyat (51) Verse 49: “And of everything We have created pairs [of male, female]: That ye may receive instruction.” Even though Allah subhana wa ta'ala states that He has created: “... qullu shai'in khalaqna zawjayni ...” which means created everything in pair of male and female, this would insinuate that angles are male, female, but we know this qullu the angles are not included because angles are not male, and not female they are neutral in gender. [See: 43:19, 37:150] So in this verse only birds, planets, human, Jinn, Animals, Insects are mentioned and not absolutely everything as the verse insinuates. - At the end of this little exercise we can safely conclude that in Arabic the word 'QULLU' does not mean 'ABSOLUTELY EVERY' but it can mean a 'EVERY IN SPECIFIC CONTEXT' if the supportive evidence for the restriction exists within Quran and Sunnah of beloved Messenger (sallalahu alayhi was'salam). Usage Of Bid'a & Muh'dasa: - The words Muh'dasa, and Bidd'a have been used interchangeably in the two Ahadith to convey the same meaning, the popular rendering reads: “Wa sharil amoori muhdasa wa qullu bidd'a dhalala.” [see: Sahih Muslim – above.] The same words have been used by Sahabah (radiallah ta'ala anhuma ajma'een) in positive light. One such example of this would be: Sahih Bukhari, Book 32, Hadith 227: “... 'Abdur Rahman bin 'Abdul Qari said, "I went out in the company of 'Umar bin Al-Khattab one night in Ramadan to the mosque and found the people praying in different groups. A man praying alone or a man praying with a little group behind him. So, 'Umar said, 'In my opinion I would better collect these (people) under the leadership of one Qari (Reciter) (i.e. let them pray in congregation!)'. So, he made up his mind to congregate them behind Ubai bin Ka'b. Then on another night I went again in his company and the people were praying behind their reciter. On that, 'Umar remarked, 'What an excellent Bid'a (i.e. innovation in religion) this is; but the prayer which they do not perform, but sleep at its time is better than the one they are offering.' He meant the prayer in the last part of the night. (In those days) people used to pray in the early part of the night." Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta'ala anh) when he saw that smaller groups performing nawafil prayers under leadership of their own Imams, and individuals who were praying separately in the Masjid gathered in one Jam'at under the leadership of one Qari said: “What an excellent Bid'a this is but the prayer which they do not perform ...”, the use of word Bid'a in positive meaning indicates that not every Bid'a is evil, rather there is praiseworthy innovations. Legislative Praiseworthy Innovation: - No explicit sanction is required for a act/practice which is instructed in Quran/Sunnah but practiced in different context. Rather if there is Ijtihadi evidence meaning indirect evidence then the act/practice becomes a valid act because it will be in harmony with principles of deen. To illustrate my point, a Sahabi with the name of Khubaib (radiallah tallah anh) was to be executed the the Mushrikeen, he requested that he be allowed to perform two Rak'at nawafil prayers, which he was granted and this new practice became accepted amongst the Sahabah (radiallah ta'ala anhuma ajma'een): Sahih Bukhari, Book 59, Hadith 325: “… It was food Allah had provided Khubaib with." When they took him to Al-Hil out of Mecca sanctuary to martyr him, Khubaib requested them. "Allow me to offer a two-Rak'at prayer." They allowed him and he prayed two Rak'at and then said, ... I do not care in what way I receive my death for Allah's Sake, for this is for the Cause of Allah. If He wishes, He will bless the cut limbs of my body." Then Abu Sarva, 'Ubqa bin Al-Harith went up to him and killed him. It was Khubaib who set the tradition of praying for any Muslim to be martyred in captivity (before he is executed). The Prophet told his companions of what had happened (to those ten spies) on the same day they were martyred. ...” Note the Hadith records: “It was Khubaib who set the tradition of praying for any Muslim to be martyred in captivity (before he is executed).”Even though there was no EXPLICIT sanction/permission to do say by Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) or by the beloved Messenger (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) the Sahabi performed two Rak'at nawafil before he was martyred in the way of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala). This proves that a act/practice sanctioned Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) can be performed in any specific context without it impacting negatively on ones faith. Otherwise direct evidence would be required for legitimizing this praiseworthy innovation of a Sahabi of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) and there is none such evidence because the Hadith itself declares: “It was Khubaib who set the tradition of praying for any Muslim to be martyred in captivity (before he is executed).” Therefore specific act done in specific context amounts valid indirect evidence legitimizing the practice/act, such practices/acts can be acted on earning it innovator reward from Allah (subhana wa ta'ala), and the one who acts on his praiseworthy innovation: - Sahih Muslim, Book 034, Number 6466: “... on his (sacred) face. Thereupon Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect. And he who introduced some evil practice in Islam which had been followed subsequently (by others), he would be required to bear the burden." Sahih Muslim Shareef, Book 034, Number 6470:"Abu Huraira reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: He who called (people) to righteous (i.e. innovation), there would be reward (assured) for him like the rewards of those who adhered to it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect. And he who called (people) to error, he shall have to carry (the burden) of its sin, like those who committed it, without their sins being diminished in any respect." The innovations which accord the principles of deen, which have a valid base from Quran, Sunnah, and EXPLICIT root does exist for them they are praiseworthy innovations, excellent innovations. Beloved Messenger (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) said about innovator of praiseworthy innovations, and his praiseworthy innovations, that he will be rewarded, and those who act on his praiseworthy innovation they too would be rewarded without the reward being diminished. Every In Specific Context: It has been firmly established from the Sunnah of our beloved Messenger (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) the existence of praiseworthy innovation, reward for it's innovator, and reward for those who act on the praiseworthy innovations. The above evidence of praiseworthy innovation has validated that: “... qullu bid'a dhalala ...” only refers to a specific type of innovation, and every such specific innovation is shar (i.e. evil), and dhalala (i.e. error). And due to this the ahadith which state innovations are reprehensible, will autocratically be categorized as referring to blameworthy innovations, because there is no contradiction in the teachings of any Prophet, especially our beloved Prophet Muhammed (sallalahu alayhi was'salam), because the teacher of Prophets is Allah (subhana wa ta'ala). Legislative Blameworthy Innovation: - Every innovative act/practice for which there is no sanction/permission from Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) or RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) that practice is to be rejected: Sahih Muslim, Book 18, Number 4267: “... and then said: 'A'isha informed me that Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: He who did any act for which there is no sanction from our behalf, that is to be rejected.” He who did any act considering it part of deen for which there is no sanction from Allah (subhana wa ta'ala), RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam), that practice is innovation in deen, and it is to be rejected. To illustrate the point, a person innovates a new form of worship, which consists of running in straight line, back and forth arms held high, with yellow face paint, shouting: 'I am dead man.' This practice/act, new form of worship method would be rejected, because its not in harmony with principles of our religion, and there is no valid reason for it, and most importantly there is no explicit sanction indicating such act/practice is a form of worship. Also if someone innovates a belief which does not have sanction from Quran, nor it can be established from the authentic Ahadith it would be rejected. - Every novelty which has been termed as innovation, evil, error, is of type which is not in harmony with the principles of religion of Islam: Sahih Bukhari Book 49, Hadith 861: Narrated Aisha: Allah's Apostle said, "If somebody innovates something which is not in harmony with the principles of our religion, that thing is rejected." Every innovation which does not have a valid reason, meaning valid supportive evidence for that innovation from Quran, Sunnah of beloved RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) it is to be rejected, and the innovator is sinful for it: Sahih Muslim, Book 18, Number 4266: 'A'isha reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: He who innovates things in our affairs for which there is no valid (reason) (commits sin) and these are to be rejected.” - Every innovation which is not in harmony with principles of Islam, every innovation which does not have a valid base from Quran, from the Sunnah of beloved Messenger (sallalahu alayhi was'salam), and its EXPLICIT root does not exist within the two sources its to be rejected, and innovator of such innovation is sinful for his vile, evil, blameworthy innovation. Conclusion: Not every innovation is evil, misguiding, heretical, but every blameworthy innovation is heretical its innovator, the one who acts on it, both will be punished without the punishment being reduced for either. And one who innovates a praiseworthy innovations there is assured reward for him, and those who fallow in his foot steps. Wama Alayna Ilal Balaghul Mubeen MuhammedAli Razvi
  14. Jawab yahi heh kay logoon ko qayamat kay din un kay walid aur walida kay naam say bulaya jahay ga. Aur meray [pass itna time nahin kay meh is 20 gantay kay munazireh ko sun ker reffrences talash keroon. Aap sun lenh aur reffrences likh lena.
  15. Yeh link lenh: aur saray links dekh lenh, Allah ta'ala nay Deobandiyon ko khoob besat keeya.
  16. Thora ghor o fikr kernay kay baad mujjay yaqeen heh kay yeh ihtiraaz us munazray meh huwa thah aur Mufti Muti ur Rehman sahib nay achi khaasi jawab meh khatar tawazoh kee thee Deobandi maulvi kee.
  17. Salam alayqum wr wb Baee meh nay be is ka jawab rawayat kay saath pera heh ya suna heh. Ghaliban yeh ihtiraaz Tahir Giyawi kay saathi ka joh munazira Mufti Muti ur Rehman ka India meh huwa thah us meh yeh masla uthaya gaya thah Ala Hazrat ko kaffir sabat kernay kay leyeh. Yeh munazra is forum per mojood heh please sun lenh.
  18. As Salam alayqum wr wb Baee sahib joh aap damagh rakhtay hen woh be hammeh pata heh aur joh aap ilm rakhtay hen woh be hammeh pata heh. Jistera marasi ko haq nahin paunchta kay woh badsha kay takht per be'thay aap ko haq nahin paunchta kay aap ahle ilm o aqal honay ka dawa keren. Har banday kee ilmi aur aqali oqaat hoti heh aap aapni oqaat meh rahen. Aap kee oqaat nursery kay bachay jesi heh deeni ilm kay midaan meh aap nusery meh ho ker hadaiq e bakhsish kay expert honay ka hammeh na batahen aur nah apni aqal kay geet hamaray samjnay gahen. Ham ko woh bilqul nazr aa raha heh kay aap kitnay ilm walay hen aur aqal walay.
  19. Salam alayqum wr wb Brother is maslay meh yaqeenan aap ghalti per hen. Sunniyoon ki ghalti yeh heh kay in ko adat per gahi heh ilzami jawab denay kee jis say masail hal nahin hotay. Woh zamana guzr chuka heh kay ilzami jawab pa ker logh ghor o fikr kertay thay aur is say nateeja nikaltay thay joh behtr hota thah. Aaj kal kay daur me logoon kee aqaloon aur soch damagh 2 + 2 = 5 walay hen. Is leyeh aap Deobandi sahibaan thora ghor o fikr keeya keren kay aap ko ilzaami jawab aur is kay dalahil per ghor kerna chahyeh jab aap kay uqabir aap kay khilaaf likh ker gahay hen toh jin dalahil ko unoon nay bunyaad banaya apni tehreer ka un ko talash keren aur samjen. Agar aap ko gold watch ka ek kinara dekhahi deh toh aap us ko khod ker baqi be zameen say bahir nikal lenh gay magar joh sahih bateh aap kay ulamah likh ker gahay hen aap un ko yeh keh ker jaan churwa detay hen kay woh apni jaga magar meri tehqeeq yeh kehti heh. Apnay uqabir ulamah kay nazriyat per tehqeeq keeya keren nah kay khud tehqeeq keren. Aur Sunni brother please aap har discussion ko munazra nah bana leeya keren, is mentality ko chor denh. Discuss keeya keren in bahiyoon kay saath, in kay dalahil kee Quran o hadith say wazahat keeya keren, apnay mowaqif kay dalahil pesh keeya keren, aur phir ulamah kee taeed. Aur agar aap achay tareekay say Quran o hadith ki roshini meh mukhalifeen kay dalahil kee wazahat ker denh gay toh 70% target aap achieve ker lenh gay aur baqi 30% apnay mowaqif kay dalahil say achieve ker lenh. The Of Abdullah Ibn Umar In Context Of Prophet's (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) Teaching: Mother of Momineen Aysha (radiallah ta'ala anha) narrates the types of innovations Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) termed misguidance and error: “He who did any act for which there is no sanction from our behalf, that is to be rejected.” [Ref: Muslim, B18, H4267] The misguiding, erroneous innovation is further defined in another hadith: "If somebody innovates something which is not in harmony with the principles of our religion, that thing is rejected." [Ref: Bukhari B49, H861] Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) explains further: “He who innovates things in our affairs for which there is no valid (reason) and these are to be rejected.” [Ref: Muslim, B18, H4266] So every action, custom, practice, belief which is not in harmony of principles of deen such as worship, Tawheed, encouraging good, forbidding evil, halal, haram is to be rejected because its a evil innovation. Also if there is no explicit permission from; Allah (subhana wa ta'ala), RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) and does not have valid reason in form of sharaee ijtihadi evidence then such innovation is to be rejected. Every such innovation is a error, a most evil affair, and as such: "Every innovation is misguidance, even if the people see it as something good." Hence the one who innovates a misguiding, reprehensible, evil innovation, practice; Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) has informed he is to bear the burden of his innovation: “And he who introduced some evil practice in Islam which had been followed subsequently (by others), he would be required to bear the burden." [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] as well as those he misguided: “And he who called (people) to error, he shall have to carry (the burden) of its sin, like those who committed it, without their sins being diminished in any respect." [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6470] Finale point "... every innovation ..." does not mean every innovation in the sense of word, but every innovation is used to mean every innovation which does not agree with deen, which has no proof from Quran and sunnah, and every innovation without a valid reason is innovation. Every is restricted to a particular type as mentioned and not unrestricted otherwise every innovation would include computers, your mother, bukhari, Deobandi madrassa, Mango juice, electricity, Radio, Cars. You can not take the meaning of every literally because it has been restricted according to ahadith to a certain type of innovations. Praiseworthy Innovations Established From Ahadith: Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) has stated: “He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.”[Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] and in another hadith Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) is reported to have said: “He who called (people) to righteous (i.e. innovation), there would be reward (assured) for him like the rewards of those who adhered to it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6470] Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) said: “I enjoin you to fear Allah, and to hear and obey even if it be an Abyssinian slave, for those of you who live after me will see great disagreement. You must then follow my sunnah and that of the rightly-guided caliphs.” [Ref: Abu Dawood, B40, H4590] Here the fallowing of Sunnah rightly-guided Khulafah means innovations, practices of rightly-guided Successors after Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam). I have some 18 articles explaining the innovations, their evidences, which explain the hadith of innovation and reffute Deobandi, and Wahhabi distortions of these ahadith. If a Sunni brother is willing to post them on this forum I will email them to you. Jazakallah khair.
  20. I have been trying to post for past 45 five mins a article. And yet I am to complete posting it. Can someone check whats wrong with this forum. I have 100+ articles written in english but it takes around 40 mins to an hour just pasting one of them from computer to forum. I have got sick of trying. Can someone have look at the thread: http://www.islamimehfil.com/topic/20314-mushrikeen-believed-their-idols-to-be-allahs-subordinate-gods/page__pid__86758#entry86758 And could you also delete the post number 4. Can this problem be sorted or should i just not aspire for posting anything in future. I really do not have four and half days, 110 hours, required to post all the material. I made a effort last time but got fed up with it, and tried this time again and decided I wont ever make the mistake three times.
  21. Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) states: “We do relate unto thee the most beautiful of stories, in that We reveal to thee this (portion of the) Qur'an: before this, thou too was among those who knew it not.” [Ref: 12:3] and these stories were narrated in all over the Quran of evens that had taken place before Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam): “Thus do We relate to thee some stories of what happened before: for We have sent thee a Message from Our own Presence.” [Ref: 20:99] These stories were revealed via Wahi as part of Quran: “Such is one of the stories of what happened unseen, which We reveal by inspiration unto thee; nor wast thou (present) with them then when they concerted their plans together in the process of weaving their plots.” [Ref: 12:102] No Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) was not with them but yet he knew of their plan because Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) informed him of it. “This is part of the tidings of the things unseen, which We reveal unto thee (O Messenger.) by inspiration: Thou wast not with them when they cast lots with arrows, as to which of them should be charged with the care of Mary: Nor wast thou with them when they disputed (the point).” [Ref: 3:44] Nor was he witness to the events of when they cast lots to about who would look after Maryam (alayhis salam) but he did knew what had transpired. And that was because Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) states: “This is of the news of the Unseen which We reveal unto you ; neither you nor your people knew it before this. So, be patient. Surely, the (good) end is for those who have Taqwa.” [Ref: 11:49] So Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) revealed to him about incidents which Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) was not aware of nor were the Arabs before him yet the revelation of Quran narrates these incidences and Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) narrates the incidents of past nations. This was done because Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) wishes to remove the rijs from tayyib, meaning the falsehood around the lives of Prophets and to do that he chooses our Prophet (sallalahu aalyhi was'sallam) whom He reveals these stories of ghayb: “Allah will not leave the believers in the state in which ye are now, until He separates what is evil from what is good nor will He disclose to you the secrets of the Unseen. But He chooses of His Messenger. (For the purpose) whom He pleases. So believe in Allah. And His apostles: And if ye believe and do right, ye have a reward without measure.” [Ref: 3:179] Note all these verses do not disprove the aqeedah of hazir nazir at all. Rather they have nothing to do with it. We do not believe Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) was Shahid on previous Ummats before everything was shown to him, but we believe he was Shahid upon previous Ummats after he had made declaration of Prophethood and more specificly after the entire universe was shown to him of past present and future and through it he came to see all. My dear brother this is your qiyas that wife of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) did not believe Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) was not hazir nazir. You have assumed on the basis of her asking: “Who has informed you of this?” implies that Prophet's wife did not believe in his being hazir nazir. Could it not be that wife of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) thought that the one she told the secret to might have told the Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) and her assuming that asked Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam): “Who has informed you of this?” Because she knows that Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) does not lie so he will tell her if her confidence was violated by the one she trusted with secret of Prophet (sallalahu alayi was'sallam). You cannot bring qiyas to reffute what is explicit in the Quran. Let me bring you a qiyas using the same incident of wife of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) betraying his trust. Imagine a Mushrik,a Christian, a Jew come to you and present you this argument: 'Your Prophet's (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) wife did not believe that her husband was receiving Wahi from Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) nor she believed Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) is watching her actions because had she done so she would not have asked who told him about her betraying his trust she would have known that Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) has informed him of it.' Now just be honest with your self will you disbelieve in Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) and the Quran as word of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) on the basis of just this qiyas? Do you really believe this is a valid argument against disproving Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) receiving wahi? If not then how can you consider your this argument to be valid against the aqeedah of hazir nazir. Just like you will not disbeleive in the aqeedah of Prophet recieiving wahi on this qiyaas but you will believe that the Quran states. I too do not believe in qiyaas which you have invented to distort and destroy deen of Islam. My dear brother deen is very delicate matter we can base our qiyas on ahadith or verses of Quran and reffute the fundamental believes of Quran and Hadith. Tawheed is fundamental aspect of Islam, yet a Christian can take into account use of words We, Us, Our, which Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) uses for His ownself and can argue this proves Trinity, father, son, holy ghost make one Allah thats why plurals have been used. Point is that even the harmless information can be distorted to harm deen. And you should be careful if you are not doing exactly that. As a principle you should first explain the verses according to a interpretation and then you should support that interpretation with either Quran, Hadith or backing of scholars. And this is by far the safest path, if you venture into interpretation and deriving information your self from ahadith, and Quran chances are you will infer something from text which is heretical and become heretic and spread heretical understanding among foolish people. As a brother I have advised you to what I consider the best and invited you to what was just and balanced with good intentions. May Allah guide us to better understanding of deen, open our hearts, fill them with noor of guidance, ameen. Wama alayna ilal balaghul mubeen. Muhammed Ali Razavi Footnote: [1] The elephant army which came from Yemen under the command of Abrahah Al-Ashram intending to destroy the Ka'bah at Makkah.
  22. We believe that Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) was shown all the universe just as Ibrahim (alayhis salam) was shown everything in the universe: “Narrated AbdurRahman ibn A'ish: Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) said: I saw my Lord, the Exalted and Glorious in the most beautiful form. He said: What do the Angels in the presence of Allah contend about? I said: Thou art the most aware of it. He then placed His palm between my shoulders and I felt its coldness in my chest and I came to know what was in the Heavens and the Earth. He recited: 'Thus did we show Ibrahim the kingdom of the Heavens and the Earth and it was so that he might have certainty.' (6:75)" [Ref: Tirimdhi, Vol 5, Hadith No. 3245, Tafsir Surah S'ad] "[...] Then I saw Him put his palms between my shoulder blades till I felt the coldness of his fingers between the two sides of my chest. Then everything was illuminated for me and I recognized everything. He said: Muhammad! I said: At Thy service, my Lord. He said: What do these high angels contend about? I said: In regard to expiations. He said: What are these? [...]" [Ref: Tirimdhi, Vol 5, Hadith No. 3246, Tafsir Surah S'ad] Further the hadith details Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) testing the kamal station of shahid by asking questions: He (i.e. Allah) said: Muhammad! I said: At Thy service, my Lord. He said: What do these high angels contend about? I said: In regard to expiations. He said: What are these? I said: Going on foot to join congregational prayers, sitting in the mosques after the prayers, performing ablution well despite difficulties. He again said: Then what do they contend? I said: In regard to the ranks. He said: What are these? I said: Providing of food, speaking gently, observing the prayer when the people are asleep. He again said to me: Beg (Your Lord) and say: O Allah, I beg of Thee (power) to do good deeds, ..." [Ref: Tirimdhi, Vol 5, Hadith No. 3246, Tafsir Surah S'ad] Also after he was shown everything Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) brings to attention of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) by stating: “Have you not seen those who have been given a portion of the Scripture? They are being invited to the Book of Allah to settle their dispute, then a party of them turn away, and they are averse.” [Ref: 3:23] “Have you (O Muhammad - peace be upon him) not seen how your Lord dealt with the Owners of the Elephant?[1] ” [Ref: 105:1] and in another verse: “Did you (O Muhammad - peace be upon him) not see how your Lord dealt with 'Ad (people)?” [Ref: 89:6] This establishes that Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) was shown everything of ghayb and then Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) was reminding Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) about the events which he had been shown. You have quoted: "You was not on the Western side when We decreed the Commission to Moses, nor was you amongst witnesses (of those events).” [Ref: 28:44] and: “But We raised up (new) generations, and long were the ages that passed over them; but thou wast not a dweller among the people of Madyan, rehearsing Our Signs to them; but it is We Who send apostles (with inspiration).” [Ref: 28:45] First of all this verse does not reffute our aqeedah of hazir nazir because indeed Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) was not from amongst the shahideen, witnesses, to these events because he was not born yet. His maqam e shahid was granted to him after his birth, after he was instructed to preach deen of Islam and after the verse of shahid was revealed. This verse does not refute our aqeedah of shahid at all. Secondly all these verses negate his being witness to the events while they were taking place. This means he can be witness to these events during his life time. Let me explain the verse, the purpose of revelation of this verse is not to negate the knowledge of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) but to point out to the Jews that even though he was not shahid to the even of Musa (aalayhis salam) he has explained to you these events as he was present to the event and this is supported by: “Allah points out the proof of the prophethood of Muhammad , whereby he told others about matters of the past, and spoke about them as if he were hearing and seeing them for himself. But he was an illiterate man who could not read books, and he grew up among a people who knew nothing of such things.” [Ref: Tafsir Ibn Kathir, 28:44] and the two Jalal's explain the verse similarly: “And you were not, O Muhammad (s), on the western side, of the mountain, the valley, or the spot, [to the west] of Moses at the time of the communion, when We decreed, revealed, to Moses the commandment, to deliver the Message to Pharaoh and his people, nor were you among the witnesses, to this, to know it and inform of it;” [Ref: Tafsir Al Jalalayn, 28:44] Also the interpretation of the next verse 45 by mufassireen is so categorically clear in favour of ahle sunnat: “but We brought forth generations, communities, after Moses, and life was prolonged in their case, in other words, they lived long lives and so they forgot the covenants [made with God], knowledge disappeared and revelation ceased. Then We brought you as Messenger and revealed to you the story of Moses and others. And you were not a dweller, a resident, among the people of Midian reciting to them Our revelations (tatlū ‘alayhim āyātinā, a second predicate [after thāwiyan, ‘dweller’), to know their story and inform of it; but truly We are the senders, of you [as Messenger] and [the senders] to you of the stories of former generations.”[Ref: Tafsir Al Jalalayn, 28:45] The Tafsir need bit explaination the point is Prophet Muhammed (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) was not a man from people of Midian that he would know what had happened in the past. Rather he came to know of the story of Midian via revelation and on the basis of his he has informed the people what transpired in Midian. Ibn Abbas (radiallah ta'ala anh) is supposed to have interpreted the verse in fallowing words: “(But We brought forth) We created (generations) generation after generation, and explained the event of the former to the latter, just as We explained it to you, (and their lives dragged on for them) their lives were prolonged, and when they did not believe We destroyed them. (And thou wast not) O Muhammad (a dweller in Midian, reciting unto them Our revelations) reciting the Qur'an to your people, (but We kept sending (messengers to men)) to past generations and exposited to them the events of those who preceded them just as We explained the events of the people of old to you.” [Ref: Tafsir Ibn Abbas, 28:45] This establishes that even though Prophet (sallalahu alahi was'sallam) was actual witness to the events nor it him who gave the revelation of Allah to people of Midian yet being a Ummi Prophet who has not learnt anything of any religion yet he knows in detail the events that took place via revelation of Quran. And this is the proof of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) being a true Prophet that he knows of events of past, present, and the future events to unfold. Even the Mushrikeen of Makkah knew Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) was not present in the time of Musa alayhis salam or Isa alayhis salam or Shu'yaib alayhis salam hence there was no reason for Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) to say you was not witness to this and this and that, apart from the reason that Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) wanted to make them realise that he is truly receiving wahi from Allah (subhana wa ta'ala). They knew he was not learnt, they were reminded that he wasnt witness to these events, no one has claimed that Prophet Muhammed (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) was taught the knowledge of previous nations by him, the unmatched beauty of Quran, the mojzaat of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) with all these facts they should be able to come to conclusion that he is not learnt, he wasnt witness to these events, yet he knows the full details of them, this means he is receiving guidance from Allah (subhana wa ta'ala). The purpose of these verses not to negate his knowledge of these events but to negate his witnessing of these events and to establish his Prophethood.
  23. Now coming to Khalis ul Ittiqaad of Sayyidi Ala Hazrat Imam e Ahle Sunnat Qutb ul Awliyah wa Ulamah Ahlus Sunnah Ahmad Raza Khan rahimullah alayhi ta'ala. First of all Khalis ul Ittiqaad is book on ilm al ghayb and while writing on this subject he wrote about mushayda alal ghayb: نبی صلی اللہ علیہ و سلم حاضر و ناظر ہیں اور دنیا میں جو کچھ ہوا اور جو کچھ ہو گا، آپ صلی اللہ علیہ و سلم ہر چیز کا مشاہدہ فرما رہے ہیں۔ آپ صلی اللہ علیہ و سلم ہر جگہ حاضر ہیں اور ہر چیز کو دیکھ رہے ہیں I have no aqeedah difference from these scholars of Ahlus Sunnah wal Jammah only difference between me and these two great scholars is that when they write about hazir nazir they also include the evidences of mushayda alal ghayb hence they summarize the subject or explain the subject of hazir nazir in light of evidences presented. Where as I have only presented the evidences of hazir nazir and I am summarizing, explaining the subject of hazir nazir according to its fundamental evidences and not going into subject of mushayda alal ghayb. Its heart warming to know that me and you atleast agree on one aspect of Hazir Nazir; Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) visiting someone himself. May Allah bless you with knowledge, ameen. Also other statements have been put in perspective of the definition but I was unable to figure out your intent behind presenting this quote of page 169: خدا کو ہر جگہ میں ماننا بے دینی ہے ہر جگہ میں ہونا تو رسول خدا کی شان ہو سکتی ہے۔ You have written ,shortened, Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) is witness in the sense that his Ummah will bear witness. Ummah will be questioned about the source of their knowledge then Ummah will say Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) told them and then he will bear witness, and in this sense he will be witness not in the sense of seeing, hearing type of witness. My brother your chronology of the events is something I agree with because its based on these verses How then if We brought from each people a witness, and We brought you as a witness against these people!" [Ref: 4:41] "Thus, have We made of you an Ummat justly balanced, that ye might be witnesses over the nations, and the Messenger a witness over yourselves; ..." [Ref: 2:143] and on the fallowing hadith: “... ‘Did this one convey the message to you?’ and they will say, ‘No.’ It will be said to him: ‘Did you convey the message to your people?’ and he will say: ‘Yes.’ It will be said to him: ‘Who will bear witness for you?’ He will say: ‘Muhammad and his ummah.’ So Muhammad and his ummah will be called, and it will be said to them: ‘Did this one convey the message to his people?’ They will say: ‘Yes.’ It will be said: ‘How did you know that?’ They will say: ‘Our Prophet came to us and told us that the Messengers had conveyed the message.’ That is the words of Allaah, ‘Thus We have made you a just (and the best) nation.’ He said: Just, so that you will be witnesses over mankind and the Messenger will be a witness over you.” [Ref: Musnad Imam Ahmad, Hadith 1164, Sunan Ibn Maajah, Hadith 4284] These verses 4:41, 2:143 were only for the purpose of building up chronological order of events where as the actual evidence which establishes Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) was sent as a seeing, hearing type of witness was this verse: "O Prophet! Truly We have sent you as a Witness, a Bearer of Glad Tidings, and Warner." [Ref: 33:45] And this verse is the key which explains in which meaning Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) will be witnessing. And you have not commented or reffuted this. This verse explicitly establishes Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) is seeing hearing type of witness. This verse is the definition, the key which explains the type of witnessing Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) will be bearing. Ibn Kathir explains which type of witnessing Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) will be bearing: “(as witness) means, a witness to Allah's Oneness, for there is no God except He, and a witness against mankind for their deeds on the Day of Resurrection.” [Ref: Tafsir Ibn Kathir, 33:45] And this is because Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) saw the deeds of his Ummah: “And say: "Do deeds! Allah will see your deeds, and (so will) his Messenger and the believers. And you will be brought back to the All-Knower of the unseen and the seen. Then He will inform you of what you used to do." [Ref: 9:105] In another verse Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) states that He and Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) will see the actions of munafiqeen: ”They will present their excuses to you when ye return to them. Say thou: "Present no excuses: we shall not believe you: Allah hath already informed us of the true state of matters concerning you:It is your actions that Allah and His Messenger will observe: in the end will ye be brought back to Him Who knoweth what is hidden and what is open: then will He show you the truth of all that ye did.” [Ref: 9:94] Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) has been sent as a witness: "O Prophet! Truly We have sent you as a Witness, a Bearer of Glad Tidings, and Warner." [Ref: 33:45] and as a witness mutlaq he must possess the qualities which a witness has to possess otherwise he is not a witness. As a witness he must be hazir as stated according to this verse: Never said I to them aught except what Thou didst command me to say, to wit, 'worship Allah, my Lord and your Lord'; and I was a witness over them whilst I dwelt amongst them; when Thou didst take me up Thou wast the Watcher over them, and Thou art a witness to all things." [Ref: 5:117] and seeing as this verse indicates: He said: "It was she that sought to seduce me - from my (true) self. "And one of her household saw (this) and bore witness, (thus):- "If it be that his shirt is rent from the front, then is her tale true, and he is a liar!"[Ref: 12:26] and have first hand knowledge aquired through seeing hearing as brother of Yusuf (alayhis salam) stated: "Turn ye back to your father, and say, 'O our father! behold! thy son committed theft! we bear witness only to what we know [from first hand experience], and we could not well guard against the unseen!" [Ref: 12:81] otherwise his bearing witness upon nations is untruthful witnessing. His bearing witness nessciates that he is Shahid in meaning of hearing, seeing, otherwise Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) sent him as a witness without qualities of witness (i.e. hearing, seeing, hazir) and we know our Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) was not blind, was not deaf, and did exist. You have failed to explain the verses of Shahid in a manner which refutes the creed of Ahle Sunnat Wal Jammat. If creed of Ahle Sunnat was heretical, kuffria, shirkia, then you would have been able to successfully explain away these verses in favour of your understanding but alhamdulillah evidence of ahle sunnat clear and irrefutable. To reffute the aqeedah of Hazir Nazir you have gone into subject of ilm a ghayb like Deobandi's, Wahhabi's generally do and this is the only reason why the scholars of ahle sunnat couple these two subjects togather, and this is the only reason I am going to now right about the subject of hazir nazir and mushayda alal ghayb as one subject. Strickly, subject of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) being Shahid and type of Shahid, and his witnessing on previous nations is a different subject from mushayda alal ghayb. Your objections are about ilm al ghayb and using this route you wish to refute our aqeedah of hazir nazir hence it is important that I answer these objections according to the subject it. Before I set out to explain to you the verses. I would like to state something which is fundamental to all of the evidences which you have quoted. We do not believe Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) was Shahid upon nations before his birth but we believe it was decree of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) to grant him the station of Shahid. We also believe after Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) was declared Shahid in revelation of Quran he was granted darja e kamal on being Shahid. What the Ummats did before him was shown to him and what was to happen in future was shown to him as well but he observed it also after reaching darja e kamaal in being shahid.
  24. My Response: As salamu alayqum wr wb My dear brother you have not replied to my actual discussion rather you have only commented on the four points. Pleasse in future adress the content of the discussion. Adress the evidences used to establish the aqahid. You asked me the questions and I was expecting that once you have clear picture you will address my actual post but instead you have only commented on the four points. You can take as much time as you like to read and respond. There is no urgency on my part. I understand everyone is busy with their life chasing dunya. So people have very little time for deen. You can take your time in replying to me. I am not regular individual who will scream victory or celebrate that you have not responded to me for so long. My cause of celebration would be when we both agree on this issue. Had you actually paid attention to what was written by me you would have not need to write this. You have written that Ulamah of Ahle Sunnat state Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) is Nazir upon every spec of the universe and what I have written contradicts them. Before I adress your points let me state something beneficial for studying ikhtilafi issues. It is totally unnesscary to bring into disscussion what the scholars of ahle sunnat have written because what I invite you to is aqeedah of Quran and Hadith. Would you reject what is establish with proofs on the basis of what I have written contradicting Ulamah of Ahle Sunnat? Your criteria for accepting, rejecting is not my 'contradiction' with Ulamah of ahle sunnat but the evidence of Quran and Hadith and it should be the basis for judging validity of my belief not my 'contradictions'. Those people who quote your scholar stated this and you state this during a disscussion do not want to sort the ikhtilaf, understand the ikhtilaf, but such people complicate disscussions to such extent where they are themselves unable to understand anything. Correct methodology is to learn, discuss primarily from Quran and Sunnah once agreement is reached on a subject from these two sources then present; your scholar stated this and I think it contradicts the aqeedah we agreed on. And then it would make sense in explaining or rejecting the statements of scholars. If we dont reach agreement on the evidences of Quran and Hadith on a particular topic then would you care what my scholars have written and what I have written 'contradicting' them? No you won't because the basis of agreeing on a topic creates the need of explaination of statements and statements of sunni scholars. When the basis of agreement does not exist then my statements and writtings of sunni scholars are worthless hence there is no need to explain the statements of sunni scholars or mine. Also lets suppose the impossible my aqeedah of hazir nazir contradicts Sayyidi Ahmad Yar Khan's (rahimullah) and lets just confess for sake of the point; I am at wrong in stating the aqeedah of Hazir nazir and mufti Ahmad Yar Khan (rahimullah) was correct. Now will you accept the aqeedah of hazir nazir? No, I didnt think so either. Or lets suppose the impossible; I Muhammed Ali Razavi say Mufti Ahmad Yar Khan (rahimullah) was wrong and I am correct. Will you now believe that Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) is hazir nazir? I know you won't. Your bringing this alleged contradiction does not serve any purpose apart from fuelling the ikhtilaf and lenthening the discussion. My dear brother your methodology of disscussion is wrong because you have brought into discussion which will not benefit you or me, if I admit I am wrong, or say Mufti sahib was wrong you gain nothing because you still have to contend with me and my evidences or him and his evidences. Therefore bring into discussion which will help to resolve or soundly refute what we are discussing. Suppose if there was contradiction and I conceed my fault or say Mufti sahib was at wrong then it serves no benefit to you. With regards to statements of scholars. I had explained my self quite clearly in my previous response and even furnished evidence. I had explained that issue of mushayda al ghayb and subject of hazir nazir are closely related: It maybe that you have misunderstood or confused the issue with Ilm Al Ghayb. Has commonly happens the subject of Ilm Al Ghayb and Hadhir Nadhir over lap each other in debates and discussions. For example evidence of Hadhir Nadhir and ilm al ghayb are same: “Allah's Apostle said, "Do you consider or see that my face is towards the Qibla? By Allah, neither your submissiveness nor your bowing is hidden from me, surely I see you from my back." [Ref: Bukhari, B8, H410] in another hadith Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) was leading prayers after which he said: "I am your predecessor and I am a witness against you. By Allah, I am now looking at my Tank-lake (Al-Kauthar) and I have been given the keys of the treasures of the earth (or the keys of the earth).” [Ref: Bukhari, B59, H411] So it could be that he went into Hadhir Nadhir, and from there into subject of Ilm ul ghayb, specificly into subject of mushayda alal ghay.[5] And we do believe that Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) was given the knowledge of everything written in al lawh al mafooz, because it contains knowledge of every spec and everythng that was to happen in future and everything that happened before it. So that might be the cause of your confusion. And in footnote 5 I wrote: “We believe that Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) came to see everything of ghayb in other words had mushayda alal ghayb of everything at a specific time: "[...] Then I saw Him put his palms between my shoulder blades till I felt the coldness of his fingers between the two sides of my chest. Then everything was illuminated for me and I recognized everything. He said: Muhammad! I said: At Thy service, my Lord. He said: What do these high angels contend about? I said: In regard to expiations. He said: What are these? [...]" [Ref: Tirimdhi, Vol 5, Hadith No. 3246, Tafsir Surah S'ad] “Narrated AbdurRahman ibn A'ish: Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) said: I saw my Lord, the Exalted and Glorious in the most beautiful form. He said: What do the Angels in the presence of Allah contend about? I said: Thou art the most aware of it. He then placed HIS PALM between my shoulders and I felt its coldness in my chest and I came to know what was in the Heavens and the Earth. He recited: 'Thus did we show Ibrahim the kingdom of the Heavens and the Earth and it was so that he might have certainty.' (6:75)" [Ref: Tirimdhi, Vol 5, Hadith No. 3245, Tafsir Surah S'ad] There is no difference in my beliefe and in the belief of scholars of Ahle Sunnat. They wrote about mushayda alal ghayb and Hadhir Nadhir togather as one subject and I have devided them into two subjects. Simply because then it would be easier for us to discuss and easir for you to understand the subject of hazir nazir. And then in discussion about ilm al ghayb I would have established the beliefe that Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) is granted the ability to see all creation. Note this brother, hazir nazir is related to being shahid (i.e. witness) and in this sense the subject of witnessing is only limited to actions of Jinn and mankind. Where as mushayda alal ghayb is subject which isnt specificly about hazir nazir but it is proof for Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) seeing the actions of jinn and mankind. From river you can take a glass of water but you can not take out a river from glass of water. Mushayda alal ghayb subject is river and from it the glass of hazir nazir can be taken out but not other way round. Comming to what Sayyidi Ahmad Yar Khan (rahimullah) wrote in Jaa al Haq, page 162, Zia ul Quran, May 2003 print, حضور علیہ السلام کی نگاہ پاک ہر وقت عالم کے ذرہ ذرہ پر ہے اور نماز، تلاوت قرآن، محفل میلاد شریف اور نعت خوانی کی مجالس میں، اسی طرح صالحین کی نماز جنازہ میں خاص طور پر اپنے جسم پاک سے تشریف فرما ہوتے ہیں نبی صلی اللہ علیہ و سلم حاضر و ناظر ہیں اور دنیا میں جو کچھ ہوا اور جو کچھ ہو گا، آپ صلی اللہ علیہ و سلم ہر چیز کا مشاہدہ فرما رہے ہیں۔ آپ صلی اللہ علیہ و سلم ہر جگہ حاضر ہیں اور ہر چیز کو دیکھ رہے ہیں And on page 167 کسی بندے کو ہر جگہ حاضر و ناظر ماننا شرک نہیں۔۔۔۔دوسرے یہ کہ حضور علیہ السلام کے خدام میں ہر جگہ رہنے کی طاقت ہے تو حضور علیہ السلام میں بدرجہ اولیٰ یہ صفت ہے۔ Mufti Ahmad Yar (rahimullah alayhi ta'ala) states Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) is watching everything [of the Ghayb]. He has not stated that Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) is was sent as a seeing, hearing shahid upon every spec of the universe thus it does not contradict anything I have written. He is using evidence of mushayda alal ghayb to prove Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) being hearing, seeing type of witness. With regards to Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) actually coming to a majlis please read how he defines hazir nazir. I will just quote his Shar'ri definition of hazir nazir: "Hadhir lughvi meaning is being present [infront another] meaning not being Ghayb. - Mutahi Alarb [...] Nadhir has few meanings, Seer - one who sees, pupil [in the eye], sight, vain of nose [??], Cornea, - Al Masabih al Munir [...] As far as we can see there we are Nadhir, and as far place our reach of hand is there we are Hadhir.To sky we can see to there we are Nadhir, but we are not Nadhir that far because its out of our hand reach. And which ever room, or house we are present there we are hazir because [the area of the house] is in our reach. In the world Hadhir Nadhir's shar'ee meaning is that one with angelic power being stationed in one place can see the entire world like palm of his hand, and who can hear, sounds of distance and near or be able to travel anywhere on the earth in a instant. And provide for the hundereds of needy [people]. " [Ref: Jaa al Haq, Page 145, Zia Ul Quran, May 2003 print] So in no way Sayyidi wa Sanadi Mufti Ahmad Yar Khan (rahimullah alayhi ta'ala) wrote that Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) is hazir with his body upon entire universe. You have not read the definition of hazir, nazir in Jaa al Haq and because of that you misunderstood what the quotes actually mean. Similarly you do not interpret the verses of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) being Shahid upon his Ummah and previous nations in the context of verse which defines how Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) is Shahid: "O Prophet! Truly We have sent you as a Witness, a Bearer of Glad Tidings, and Warner." [Ref: 33:45] hence you have misunderstood how he will be shahid.
  25. Brothers Response: Assalamo alikum! Before I give a proper response to your detailed posts with some arguments I would like to make it sure that what ever I could understand, so for,is correct. plz don't go in to details just testify it or correct the following statements. 1:The ummat will bear witness on being told by Prophet(saw) 2: Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) has been sent as a actual witness, seeing, hearing type of witness upon his Ummah and previous nations. 3: Prophet(saw) is not hazir every where but can be hazir at any place he wants to be. 4: Prophet(saw) is not nazir upon every spec of universe but only nazir to the actions of his ummah and previous ummahs. Me Answering His Points: Salamu alayqum wr wb To your Point: 1: Yes Ummat will bear witness because they were told by Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam). 2: Yes he is actual witness upon his own Ummah and previous Ummahs. 3: Yes Prophet sallalahu alayhi was'salam is not hazir every where [with his body or soul] but bi'iznillah he can be hazir where ever he wants to. 4: Yes Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) is not Nazir on every spect of universe only nazir on actions of his Ummah, and previous Ummahs of previous Prophets. Your four points accurately reflect what we believe. Brother's Response: Assalamo alikum! Sorry for a little bit late response I will start from point 4 to 1 You say Prophet is not Nazir on every spect of universe but your ulema say opposite to it In ja ul haq p129 mufti Ahmad yar sab says: حضور علیہ السلام کی نگاہ پاک ہر وقت عالم کے ذرہ ذرہ پر ہے اور نماز، تلاوت قرآن، محفل میلاد شریف اور نعت خوانی کی مجالس میں، اسی طرح صالحین کی نماز جنازہ میں خاص طور پر اپنے جسم پاک سے تشریف فرما ہوتے ہیں And on p141 he says: Hazoor hazir hain aur tamam jahan ko mulahiza frma rahay hain mager nazar nai atay. Maoulana Ahmad raza khan sab writes in his book kalis ihtiqad: نبی صلی اللہ علیہ و سلم حاضر و ناظر ہیں اور دنیا میں جو کچھ ہوا اور جو کچھ ہو گا، آپ صلی اللہ علیہ و سلم ہر چیز کا مشاہدہ فرما رہے ہیں۔ آپ صلی اللہ علیہ و سلم ہر جگہ حاضر ہیں اور ہر چیز کو دیکھ رہے ہیں I agree with you on this point but your ،علما say different thing: نبی صلی اللہ علیہ و سلم حاضر و ناظر ہیں اور دنیا میں جو کچھ ہوا اور جو کچھ ہو گا، آپ صلی اللہ علیہ و سلم ہر چیز کا مشاہدہ فرما رہے ہیں۔ آپ صلی اللہ علیہ و سلم ہر جگہ حاضر ہیں اور ہر چیز کو دیکھ رہے ہیں مفتی احمد یار صاحب جاالحق ص 133 پر کہتے ہیں کسی بندے کو ہر جگہ حاضر و ناظر ماننا شرک نہیں۔۔۔۔دوسرے یہ کہ حضور علیہ السلام کے خدام میں ہر جگہ رہنے کی طاقت ہے تو حضور علیہ السلام میں بدرجہ اولیٰ یہ صفت ہے۔ اور ص 134 پر کہتے ہیں خدا کو ہر جگہ میں ماننا بے دینی ہے ہر جگہ میں ہونا تو رسول خدا کی شان ہو سکتی ہے۔ اب آتے ہیں آیات 2:143 اور 4:41 کی طرف ۔ ان آیات کی تفسیر خود نبی صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم نے فرما دی جس کا خلاصہ یہ ہے کہ قیامت کے دن انبیا، کہیں گے ہم نے احکامات پہنچا دئے تھے ان کی امتیں اس سے انکار کریں گی تو انبیا، سے ہوچھا جائے گا تمہارا کوئی گواہ ہے تو وہ کہیں کہ ہاں محمد اور ان کی امت گواہ ہیں اور جب امت محمدیہ گواہی دے گی تو ان پر اعتراض ہو گا کہ تم نے تو وہ زمانہ پایا ہی نہیں پھر گواہی کیسے ؟ تو امت عرض کرے گی ہمیں ہمارے نبی صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم نے بتایا تھا اس کے بعد نبی صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم امت کی تصدیق کے لئے ان پر گواہی دیں گے۔ یہ سیدھا سا مفہوم ہے ان آیات کا جس میں واضح کر دیا گیا ہے امت کن معنوں میں شھید یعنی گواہ ہے اور نبی صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم کن معنوں میں امت پر گواہ ہیں۔ ان آیات سے قطعاً یہ نتیجہ نہیں نکلتا کہ نبی صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم اپنی امت اور گزشتہ امتوں کے اعمال پر ناظر ہیں۔ جس طرح امت محمدیہ شہادت بالتسامع ہے اسی طرح نبی صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم کی شہادت بھی بالتسامع ہے یعنی شہادۃبالمشاہدہ نہیں ہے۔ اور قرآن بھی اس کی تصدیق کرتا ہے۔ وَ مَا کُنْتَ بِجَانِبِ الْغَرْبِیِّ اِذْ قَضَیْنَآ اِلیٰ مُوْسَی الْاَمْرَ وَ مَا کُنْتَ مِنَ الشّٰہِدِیْنَ(القصص 44) "اور آپ (پہاڑ کے ) مغربی جانب موجود نہ تھے، جب ہم نے موسیٰ علیہ السلام کو احکام دیئے تھے۔ اور آپ صلی اللہ علیہ و سلم ان لوگوں میں سے نہ تھے، جو (اس وقت)موجود تھے۔ وَ مَا کُنْتَ ثَاوِیًا فِیْ اَہْلِ مَدْیَنَ تَتْلُوْا عَلَیْہِمْ ٰایٰتِنَالا وَ ٰلکِنَّا کُنَّا مُرْسِلِیْنَ (القصص45) "اور نہ اہل مدین میں قیام پذیر تھے کہ ہماری آیتیں لوگوں کو پڑھ کر سنا رہے ہوں، لیکن ہم آپ کو رسول بنانے والے تھے۔ " وَ مَا کُنْتَ لَدَیْہِمْ اِذْ یُلْقُوْنَ اَقْلامَہُمْ اَیُّہُمْ یَکْفُلُ مَرْیَمَ وَ مَا کُنْتَ لَدَیْہِمْ اِذْ یَخْتَصِمُوْنَ (آل عمران44) "اور آپ تو ان لوگوں کے پاس تھے نہیں اس وقت جب وہ اپنے قلم ڈال رہے تھے، کہ ان میں سے کون مریم کی سرپرستی کرے؟ اور نہ آپ ان کے پاس اس وقت تھے جب وہ باہم اختلاف کر رہے تھے تِلْکَ مِنْ اَنْبَآء الْغَیْبِ نُوْحِیْہَآ اِلَیْکَ مَا کُنْتَ تَعْلَمُہَآ اَنْتَ وَ لا قَوْمُکَ مِنْ قَبْلِ ہٰذَا فَاصْبِرْ اِنَّ الْعاقبة لِلْمُتَّقِیْن (ہود49)"یہ(قصہ) اخبار غیب میں سے ہے۔ ہم نے اسے وحی کے ذریعہ سے آپ تک پہنچا دیا۔ اس کو اس (بتانے ) سے قبل نہ آپ ہی جانتے تھے اور نہ آپ کی قوم۔ سو صبر کیجئے، یقیناً نیک انجامی پرہیزگاروں ہی کے لیے ہے۔ " ذٰلِکَ مِنْ اَنْبَاء الْغَیْبِ نُوْحِیْہِ اِلَیْکَ وَ مَا کُنْتَ لَدَیْہِمْ اِذْ اَجْمَعُوْآ اَمْرَہُمْ وَ ہُمْ یَمْکُرُوْنَ (یوسف102) "یہ (قصہ) غیب کی خبروں میں سے ہے، جس کی ہم آپ کی طرف وحی کرتے ہیں۔ اور آپ ان کے پاس اس وقت موجود نہ تھے جب انہوں نے اپنا ارادہ پختہ کر لیا تھا اور وہ چالیں چل رہے تھے۔ اس حوالے سے سورہ تحریم میں بھی واضح کر دیا گیا ہے ازواج نبی صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم بھی یہ عقیدہ نہیں رکھتی تھیں کہ نبی صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم حاضر ناظر ہیں اور جب نبئ (مکرّم صلي اللہ عليہ وآلہ وسلم) نے اپني ايک زوجہ سے ايک رازدارانہ بات ارشاد فرمائي، پھر جب وہ اُس (بات) کا ذکر کر بيٹھيں اور اللہ نے نبي (صلي اللہ عليہ وآلہ وسلم) پر اسے ظاہر فرما ديا تو نبي (صلي اللہ عليہ وآلہ وسلم) نے انہيں اس کا کچھ حصہ جِتا ديا اور کچھ حصہ (بتانے) سے چشم پوشي فرمائي، پھر جب نبي (صلي اللہ عليہ وآلہ وسلم) نے انہيں اِس کي خبر دے دي (کہ آپ راز اِفشاء کر بيٹھي ہيں) تو وہ بوليں: آپ کو يہ کس نے بتا ديا ہے؟ نبي (صلي اللہ عليہ وآلہ وسلم) نے فرمايا کہ مجھے بڑے علم والے بڑي آگاہي والے (رب) نے بتا ديا ہے ہائی لائٹ کئے گئے الفاظ اس مسئلے پر کافی روشنی ڈال رہے ہیں اور بات سمجھنے کے لئے بہت ہیں۔