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      IslamiMehfil Rules (Please Must Read, Before You Post Anything)   04/09/2017

        فورم کےعمومی قوانین آخری ترمیم: ۱۰ اپریل ۲۰۱۷ ۔۔۔عمومی فورم رول نمبر ۱۵ ایڈ کیا گیا ،جو نیچے آخر میںبولڈ فونٹ میں موجود ہے۔ فورم کی انتظامیہ کی طرف سے تمام ارکان کو خوش آمدید! پوسٹ ارسال کرنے سے پہلے تمام اراکین کو تاکید کی جاتی ہے کہ وہ مندرجہ ذیل قواعد و ضوابط کا مطالعہ کر لیں تا کہ مستقبل میں کسی قسم کا کوئی ابہام پیدا نہ ہو۔ اگر کوئی پوسٹ یا ٹاپکس فورم رولز کے خلاف نظر آئے تو تمام ممبرز سے گزارش ہے کہ رپورٹ کا بٹن استعمال کرکے انتظامیہ کی مدد کریں۔ ۱- اسلامی محفل ایک مکمل اسلامی سنی حنفی بریلوی مسلک سے منسلک فارم ہے جس میں کسی قسم کی غیر اسلامی و غیر اخلاقی پوسٹ کرنے کی اجازت نہیں ہے۔
      کسی قسم کی غلط پوسٹ کسی ممبر کو فارم پر نظر آئے تو رپورٹ بٹن کو استعمال کر کے انتظامیہ کو اطلاع کریں۔ اپنی طرف سے کسی ممبر پر نقطہ چینی کرنے کی اجازت نہیں۔

      ۲- اس فورم یا منتظمین کے متعلق کوئی شکوہ یا شکایت یا اعتراض واضح طور پر کسی بھی سیکشن میں بیان نہیں کرسکتے۔ اور شکوہ شکایت وغیرہ کرنے کیلئے ایڈمن سے براہ راست رابطہ کریں

      ۳- فورم میں دستخط استعمال کرنے کیلئے صرف ایک تصویر اور اس کی ازحد چوڑائی550پکسلز اور اونچائی145پکسلزسے زیادہ نہ ہو۔اور ساتھ میں کچھ لنکس کی اجازت ہے۔ سیگنیچر امیج میں یا لنکس میں کسی بد مذہب سائٹ کا لنک یا قابل اعتراض مواد پوسٹ کرنے کی اجازت نہیں۔

      ۴- کسی جاری گفتگو کے دوران ایسے روابط ارسال کرنے سے پرہیز کریں جن کا گفتگو سے تعلق نہ ہو۔

      ۵- بحث برائے بحث سے بچنے کی حتی الامکان کوشش کریں

      ۶۔ فورمز کی انتظامیہ آپ کو ہدایت کرتی ہے کہ براہ کرم کسی قسم کی ذاتی معلومات جیسے کہ اپنا پتا یا فون نمبر ارسال مت کریں جس سے تمام لوگوں کی اس تک رسائی ممکن ہو سکے۔ان معلومات کا غلط استعمال کیا جا سکتا ہے۔ اس لیے ہر ممکن طور پر ، اگر آپ اپنی معلومات کا تبادلہ کسی دوسرے رکن کے ساتھ کرنا چاہتے ہیں تو ذاتی پیغامات کا استعمال کریں۔ ۷۔ ٹاپک کے لئے مناسب ،موضوع سے متعلق ٹائٹل استعمال کریں۔  need answer,  jawab dejiye, please read it, must reply وغیرہ جیسے غیر موضوع ٹائٹل استعمال نہ کریں. ٹائٹل کی ایک بہتر مثال یہ ہے۔
      "A good example: "Help: I need "This" Book Scan
      "A bad example: "PLZZ HEEEEELP ۸۔ سرکار مدینہ صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم کا مبارک نام جہاں بھی استعمال کریں۔ درود شریف ضرور لکھیں۔ درود شریف والا ایموٹیکن بھی استعمال کرسکتے ہیں۔ (s.a.w) یا (pbuh) وغیرہ لکھنے کی اجازت نہیں۔ ۹۔ سنیوں کے آپسی اختلافات میں فورم کا *رجحان جمہور اور جید علماء کی طرف ہوگا۔ اس لئے ان موضوعات پر طویل بحث ممنوع ہے۔
      مثلاً...پیر کرم شاہ صاحب والا موضوع۔۔۔ اس جیسے موضوعات پر فورم کا رخ جید علماء اور جمہور علماء کی طرف ہوگا۔ دوسرا یعنی ویڈیو کا مسئلہ یا اسپیکر پر نمازوغیرہ کا مسئلہ(فروعی مسائل) ۔
      اس جیسے مسائل کو بنیاد کو بنا کر علماء کو برا بھلا کہنا ہرگز ممنوع ہےاور بلا وجہ بحث بھی ممنوع ہے۔ فروعی مسائل میں فورم کا رجحان بعض اوقات کسی عالم کی طرف یا بعض اوقات غیر جانبدار بھی ہوسکتا ہے۔

      ۱۰۔ غیر اخلاقی پوسٹ کرنے پر وارننگ یا بین کیا جا سکتا ہے۔

      ۱۱۔ کسی بھی عالم چاہے بد مذہبوں کا ہو ان کی بگاڑ کر تصویر شئیر کرنا منع ہے۔

      ۱۲۔ انگلش سیکشن کے علاوہ کسی بھی سیکشن میں انگلش پوسٹ کرنا منع ہے۔

      ۱۳۔ پوسٹ کو متعلقہ سیکشن میں کریں غیر متعلقہ سکیشن میں پوسٹ کرنے پر آپ کی پوسٹ کو موو (move) کر دیا جائے گا۔ ۱۴۔ عورتوں کی تصاویر ویڈیوز وغیرہ شئیر کرنا منع ہے۔ ۱۵۔ یہ فورم آپ کی سائیٹس کی تشہیر، بیک لنکنگ یا گوگل رینکنگ بڑھانے کے لئے نہیں ہے۔ جو بھی اسلامی مواد پوسٹ کریں اللہ اور اس کے حبیب صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم کی رضا کیلئے پوسٹ کریں۔ غیر متعلقہ لنکس ٹاپکس سے حذف کر دیے جائیں گے۔اگر کسی اسلامی سنی ویب سائیٹ کا لنک آپ پوسٹ کرنا چاہتے ہیں تاکہ دیگر ممبرز مستفید ہوں، تو سنی سائیٹس کے متعلقہ سیکشن میں نیا ٹاپک ویب سائیٹ ٹائٹل ہیڈنگ کے ساتھ  پوسٹ کریں۔

        مناظرہ سیکشن کے قوانین

      ۱۔ تمام ممبرز (خصوصاً سُنی ممبرز) مناظرہ سیکشن میں غلط زُبان کا استعمال نہ کریں اور اَدب کے دائرے میں رہ کر اعتراض کریں یا جواب دیں۔ غلط زبان استعمال کرنے پر آپکی پوسٹ میں ترمیم یا پوسٹ کو ڈیلیٹ کیا جاسکتا ہے۔ اور بار بار کرنے پر وارن یا بین بھی کیا جا سکتا ہے۔

      ۲۔ اگر کسی ممبر کے ایک موضوع پر دو مختلف ٹاپکس نظر آئے تو ایک ٹاپک بغیر اطلاع کے لاک یا ڈیلیٹ کیا جا سکتا ہے۔

      ۳۔ جن موضوعات سے متعلق پہلے سے ٹاپکس موجود ہیں، اپنا سوال،اعتراض یا جواب اُسی ٹاپک میں پوسٹ کریں۔ اگر الگ سے ٹاپک بنا کر پوسٹ کیا تو آپکے ٹاپک کو بند، ضائع یا دوسرے ٹاپک کے ساتھ یکجا کیا جاسکتا ہے۔

      ۴۔ مناظرہ سیکشن بحث برائے بحث کیلئے نہیں ہے۔ اگر کوئی پوسٹ بحث برائے بحث یا موضوع سے ہٹ کر محسوس ہوئی تو بغیر اطلاع کئے ڈیلیٹ کر دی جائے گی۔ بار بار ایسا کرنے پر وارن کیا جا سکتا ہے۔اور بین بھی کیا جاسکتا ہے۔

      ۵۔ ایسی سائٹ جن کا تعلق بد مذہبوں سے ہو یا ان سائٹ پر بد مذہبوں کا کوئی مواد موجود ہو ان کی کسی بھی قسم کی تشہیر کسی پوسٹ میں ان کا لنک وغیرہ شئیر کرنا پوسٹ کرنا سخت منع ہے ۔خلاف ورزی پر پوسٹ ڈیلیٹ یا ایڈیٹ کی جاسکتی ہے۔

      ۶۔ بدمذہبوں کی ویڈیوز شئیر کرنا منع ہے اگر کسی اعتراض کا جواب درکار ہو تو اس ویڈیو کا سکرین شاٹ لے کر بد مذہبوں کی سائٹ کا لنک ریمو کر کے امیج کی صورت میں پوسٹ کریں۔

      کسی سنی عالم کی تضحیک سخت منع ہے۔

      ۷۔ اگر کو ئی اعترض بھی ہو جس میں سنی عالم کے خلاف غلط زبان استعمال کی گئی ہو تو اس میں سے غلط زبان کو ریمو کر کے اعتراض پوسٹ کیا جائے۔

      ۸۔ صرف وہی سائٹ شئیر کی جائیں جو سنیوں کی ہوں صلح کلی مکتب فکر کی سائٹ بھی شئیر کرنا منع ہے۔

      ۹۔ اسلامی محفل کے کسی بھی ٹیم ممبر یا سینئر ممبر سے بدتمیزی ناقابل برداشت ہوگی اور بین بھی کیا جاسکتا ہے۔ ٹیم ممبرز بھی حدود کے دائرے میں رہ کر جواب دینے کے مجاز ہیں۔

      ۱۰۔ انتظامیہ کا فیصلہ حتمی ہے۔ اگر آپ کو کسی نقطے پر اعتراض ہے تو مناظرہ سیکشن میں پوسٹنگ کرکے اپنا اور ہمارا وقت ضائع نہ کریں۔ کسی بھی ممبر کو رولز کے خلاف کوئی پوسٹ نظر آئے تو فوراً رپورٹ کے بٹن سے ہمیں آگاہ کریں۔
         

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  1. Introduction: Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has been quoted as saying in Ahadith, every innovation is misguidance. Muslims believe literally every innovation is not misguidance. Only every reprehensible innovation is misguidance and every reprehensible innovation is composed of components which are violating the prophetic teaching and contradict spirit of Islam. Contrary to Islamic belief, the anti-Islamic elements believe every innovation in literal sense is innovation even if it is composed of Islamicly sanctioned acts of worship, charity, etc. This is due to their literal interpretation of Hadith and their emphasis on qullu (i.e. every). Hence it is important to establish use of ‘every’ is not in respect of every innovation but ‘every’ has been limited and restricted to reprehensible type of innovations. Also the Ibn Fawzaan quoted renowned scholar to aid his position. He stated collection of Quran into a book and writing and collecting Ahadith into books is not a praiseworthy innovation. Saalih Al Fawzaan And Issue Of Translation: Ibn Fawzaan is a prominent scholar in Saudi Khariji State and member of Board Of Senior Scholars And Member Of Permanent Committee For Fatwah And Research. His works carry weight amongst the Khawarij hence it is crucial his writing is addressed from Islamic perspective and lays bare heretical understandings which he has purposed. Secondly, the translation of Ibn Fawzaan’s work by Maaz Qureshi at times was incoherent and bereft of contextual relevance. The points were poorly conveyed and lacked clarity hence original[1] was altered for sake of clarity by adding words and rephrasing sentences. Also discussion regarding Taraweeh prayer was separated into parts. Between which the subject of compilation of Quran was discussed. So material was connected with the relevant discussion and material regarding compilation of Quran was added after Taraweeh prayer discussion. Note, textual criticism skills were employed to reconstruct the message being conveyed in original Arabic and alterations were not result of reading Arabic text of original essay. Hence there is possibility errors might have been made in re-constructing of his point of view. I seek refuge in Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) from misguidance of Satan the cursed. In case of errors in representing his view, please do notify me and mistakes will be rectified. Part One: Saalih Al Fawzaan’s Short Essay: “Whoever divides innovation in the religion into good innovation (i.e. bid'ah hasanah), and sinful innovation (i.e. bid'ah Say’yah), then he has committed wrong, and has opposed Prophet’s (sallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) statement, "Every innovation is a misguidance", because the Messenger (sallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) ruled that innovation - all of it - is misguidance, and this says that not all innovation is misguidance, rather there is good innovation. Al-Haafidh Ibn Rajab said in his commentary in al Arba'een: 'So his (sallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) statement, “The best discourse is the Book of Allah, and the best guidance is the guidance of Muhammad, and the worst of affairs are those which are newly introduced, for every innovation is an error” is a comprehensive statement, nothing is excluded from it. And this is the greatest principle from the principles of the Religion and it is connected with his (sallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) following statement, "Whoever invents in this affair of ours, what is not from it, then it is rejected" So whoever invents things and attributes them to the religion, and it does not have an origin in the religion to return to then it is misguidance, and the Religion is free from those things. And equal to that are matters of beliefs, or actions, or statements whether hidden, or manifest.’ [Ref: Jaami'ul 'Uloom Wal Hikam, p. 233] And there is not a proof for them that there is good innovation, except for the statement of Umar (radiallaahu 'anhu) regarding the Taraweeh prayer, "What a good innovation this is!" (i.e. ni'imatul bida'atu hadhihi).”[2] Ibn Rajab’s Definition Of Innovation: Prior to Ibn Fawzaan’s quoted material Ibn Rajab stated: “Regarding the Holy Prophet’s saying: “Beware of newly introduced matters, for every innovation is a straying.” It is a warning to the community against following innovated new matters. He emphasized that with his words, “every innovation is a straying.” [Such type of] innovations are those things which are newly introduced, having no source in the Shari’ah to prove them.” Ibn Rajab believes any practice/belief which is termed as innovation is by default a Shar’ri innovation, and such innovation has no evidence from Quran or Hadith. Yet from his statement one can glimpse that according to Ibn Rajab, an innovation without evidence of Shari’ah is straying innovation, because he connected Hadith of; every innovation is misguidance, to his following statement: “[Such type of] innovations are those things which are newly introduced, having no source in the Shari’ah to prove them.” Of course this is not his actual position rather an in-depth observation. He also stated; an innovated practice/belief with evidence of Shari’ah is not an innovation from Shar’ri perspective, here: “As for whatever has a source in the Shari’ah, thereby establishing it, then it is not an innovation in the [sense of] Shari’ah, even though it might linguistically be an innovation.” And same was repeated bit later: “As for those things in the sayings of the right-acting first generations where they regard some innovations as good, that is only with respect to what are innovations in the linguistic sense, but not in the Shari’ah.” Here Ibn Rajab is gravely mistaken because the scholars of Islam have always considered good innovations to be from perspective of Shari’ah. Shari’ah defines the goodness and evilness of innovations hence what it judges to be good and bad is part of Shari’ah. Before continuing to next point it is important to state that linguistic meaning of innovation is; which is without precedent. Shar’ri meaning of innovation is; which is without precedent in Islam. The important point in is that those scholars who have divided innovation to be good have done so on basis of following Hadith: “Whoever sets a good precedent in Islam, he will have the reward for that, and the reward of those who acted in accordance with it, without that detracting from their reward in the slightest.” [Ref: Nisa’i, B23, H2555] When something is not part of Islam but it is being part of Islam than innovation is being made part of Islam. This is assertion is supported by linguistic and Shar’ri meaning of innovation. Considering this, meaning of the Hadith is when a good innovation which is not part of Islam is made part of Islam then the one who sets a good innovation in Islam [for others to follow] will receive reward and those who follow his good innovated precedent. Four Important Points Made By Saalih Al Fawzaan: There are four main points in the short essay produced by chief of Khawarij and they are as follow: i) One who divides innovation into categories of praiseworthy and blameworthy innovations has wronged teaching of Islam and opposed the statement of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). ii) Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) said: “And the most evil affairs are the innovations; and every innovation is misguidance." [Ref: Muslim, B4, H1885] Use of وَكُلُّ (i.e. and every) in the relevant Hadith is to include everything and nothing is excluded from it hence all innovations are misguidance. iii) There is no proof for good innovation except the statement of Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) regarding Taraweeh prayer. iv) Quote from Jami Ul Uloom Wal Hakim of Ibn Rajab Al Hanbali as quoted by Saalih Ibn Fawzaan. Scholars Always Divided Innovation In Two Main Branches: Early Muslim scholars have always and scholars continue to divide innovation to two main categories. Type one, which is composed of Islamicly sanctioned practices/beliefs. Type two, which is composed of Islamicly prohibited practices/beliefs. Type one, has been termed as, praiseworthy, permissible, righteous, guidance, and even termed it linguistic innovation.[3] Type two, has been stated to be, prohibited, evil, misguiding, sinful, and legal innovation.[4] Then these categories are subdivided into many categories.[5] The chief of Khawarij stated one who divides innovation into good and bad has wronged and opposed the Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) because he believes every newly invented matter, from perspective of Sharia if it is declared as an innovation than it is misguidance. Therefore it is important to point out who according to Ibn Fawzaan’s statement has wronged the religion of Islam and who in Ummah is guilty of opposing the teaching of Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). The Eminent Scholars Who Wronged And Opposed: Imam Shafi (rahimullah) stated innovations are of two types. The type which contradicts the teaching of Quran, the Sunnah, Hadith and Ijma, such one he classed as misguiding innovation. Concerning the type which does not contradict the teaching of Quran, Sunnah, Ahadith, and Ijma, he classed good and quoted Hadith where Hadhrat Umar (radiallah) had said Taraweeh is good innovation. Following is evidence of Imam Shafi (rahimullah) understanding on subject of innovation: “It was narrated to us by Muhammad ibn Musa ibn al-Fadl who had it narrated to him from Abul-Abbas Al-Asam who said Rabi ibn Sulayman narrated to us from Imam ash-Shafi’s that he said, “Innovated matters in religion are of two kinds: 1) Whatever is innovated and is contradicts the Book, or the Sunnah, or a narration, or Ijma – then this is an innovation of misguidance. 2) Whatever is innovated of good and that does not contradict any of these – then this is a novelty which is not blameworthy. And Umar (radiya Allahu ‘anhu) said concerning the night-prayer in the month of Ramadhan: نِعْمَتِ الْبِدْعَةُ هَذِهِ (i.e. what a good innovation this is!) meaning something new not previously present, and if done does not rebut anything which existed before.” [Ref: Reported by al-Bayhaqi in Manaqib ash-Shafi'i, 1/469] Imam Al-Ghazali (rahimullah), Imam Ibn Hajar Al-Asqalani (rahimullah), Imam Nawavi (rahimullah), Imam Qurtubi (rahimullah), Muhammad al-Shawkani (Khariji), Imam Suyuti (rahimullah), and countless others defined innovation into praiseworthy and blameworthy. Even Ismail Dehalvi (the apostate) divided innovation into good and bad in his Tazkira Al Ikhwan.[6] Position Of Muslims About Prominent Scholars: In light of Ibn Fawzaan’s statement it can be concluded that he believes the mentioned scholars and all those who divided innovation into good and bad categories are the ones who have wronged and opposed prophetic teaching. Considering this insolence of Ibn Fawzaan, effort is being made to defend the honor of prominent scholars of Islam from the indirect attack by supporting the definition of Muslims. As Muslims we believe, Imam Shafi (rahimullah), Imam Al Ghazali (rahimullah), Imam Ibn Hajar (rahimullah), and Imam Nawavi (rahimullah) scholars are not the ones who have wronged and opposed the teaching of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). It is Ibn Fawzaan who is opposing the prophetic Sunnah and if Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) wills the charge will be established. Valid Difference Of Opinion Over The Definition: It would be too much to say he was unaware of evidence which establishes the understanding of these scholarly giants but it is just and befitting his caliber to say; he is ignorant of their interpretations. Ibn Fawzaan failed to understand; the difference on definition of innovation is a valid difference of opinion and none from these two definitions is blameworthy because the evidence exists for both versions. As Muslims we believe those scholars whose understanding of innovation agrees with Ijtihad of these luminaries, they are upon the truth, like those who pioneered this understanding of innovation. Those who have pioneered the simple definition of innovation and those who employ it they are closer to the truth but missed the mark of perfection. The pioneers of this definition have erred in their Ijtihad and there is no blame upon them for this but only reward from Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) because mistakes of Mujtahid are rewarded. Hadith Of Every Innovation Is Misguidance: Ibn Fawzaan quoted the following Hadith: “And the most evil affairs are the innovations; and every innovation is misguidance." [Ref: Muslim, B4, H1885] And argued the words وَكُلُّ (i.e. and every) are used in the Hadith therefore nothing is excluded from this statement. There will be five approaches to answer this point: i) logical criticism to solve problem, ii) on usage of وَكُلُّ (i.e. and every), iii) concluding remarks regarding usage of ‘every’, iv) explaining the Hadith of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) with Ahadith which support the positions argued for first and second approach, v) and establishing category of good innovation. Note, out of the four important points of Ibn Fawzaan pointed in the beginning or article, three will be addressed in forth coming material and the last one will be addressed as a separate part. First Approach – The Counter Attack: If Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) had stated; all of innovations are misguidance literally, without restricting/limiting the meaning of ‘every’ to a specific genre of innovations then questions is: Are books of Ahadith (i.e. Bukhari, Muslim, Tirmadhi etc.) included in this ‘every’ or excluded from ‘every’? If you say they are excluded therefore not innovations, then you have eliminated the foundation of your argument because your argument was ‘every’ used in this Hadith is without Takhsees (i.e. specifics) yet you have made Takhsees in ‘every’ to accommodate the books of Ahadith. We Muslims affirm that ‘every’ is connected with a specific type of innovation and it is not to be understood on its generality. The point is; ‘every innovation’ is not in meaning of ‘absolutely every innovation’ but ‘every innovation’ is used to mean ‘every innovation in a specific context’. What that specific context is, if Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) permits will be explained in third approach. Second Approach – The Usage Of Every: Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) states: "As for the boat, it belonged to certain men in dire want: they plied on the water: I but wished to render it unserviceable, وَرَاءَهُم مَّلِكٌ يَأْخُذُ كُلَّ سَفِينَةٍ غَصْبًا (i.e. for there was after them a certain king who seized on every boat by force).” [Ref: 18:79] It is stated in the verse that a king has ordered every boat is to be ceased but order was to cease all usable boats. Hence Khidar (alayhis salaam) damaged the boat to prevent the livelihood of boat owner being ceased by inflicting damage which can be repaired with little effort. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) states: “And [recall] when Moses prayed for water for his people, so We said, "Strike with your staff the stone." And there gushed forth from it twelve springs, قَدْ عَلِمَ كُلُّ أُنَاسٍ مَّشْرَبَهُمْ (i.e. and every people knew its watering place). "Eat and drink from the provision of Allah, and do not commit abuse on the earth, spreading corruption." [Ref: 2:60] The verse states every people knew where to drink water from when Prophet Musa (alayhis salaam) struck the rock with his staff. Yet it was not every people in literal sense of the word but every tribe from the twelve tribes of tribe of Israeel. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) states: “They said, Postpone [the matter of] him and his brother and send among the cities gatherers. Who will bring you every learned magician? يَأْتُوكَ بِكُلِّ سَاحِرٍ عَلِيمٍ (i.e. And the magicians came to Pharaoh). They said, Indeed for us is a reward if we are the dominant." [Ref: 7:111/113] Logistics of undertaking such task at that time would make it impossible to reach every city of earth. Yet the verse says they were sent to every city which is too farfetched. The polytheists in time of Prophet Musa (alayhis salaam) sent for emissaries to every major city or to every city of Egypt to gather the best magicians to compete with Prophet Musa (alayhis salaam). Therefore literal reading of every city is not intended. Please bear with an example which would resonate with readers. Ali is carrying valet full of money, credit card, a brand new mobile phone, wearing on his 50 carat gold ring. Thief strikes and says: Hand over everything you have or you going to die. Does the thief want Ali to hand over all that he doesn’t carry with him as well or just what he is carrying with him? All that Ali is carrying at that moment. Third Approach – Summing Up The Findings: The word ‘every’ even though by itself is not limited/restricted and is inclusive of all but when it is used in a restrictive/limiting context then it is no longer on its natural meaning. Rather it is limited and restricted according to the context. Note the word ‘every’ was used but it was limited restricted by circumstances. Similarly in the verses ‘every’ was limited and restricted according to contextual relevance.[7] Hence it could be said, use of word ‘every’ in the following Hadith is not ‘absolutely every’ but in meaning of ‘every in specific context’, here: “And the most evil affairs are the innovations; and every innovation is misguidance." [Ref: Muslim, B4, H1885] Just as the context of verses limit and restrict the meaning of ‘every’ to ‘every in specific context’ the words ‘every innovation’ are limited and restricted by other Ahadith of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). Fourth Approach – Explaining Hadith With Ahadith: Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is reported to have said: “And he who introduces a فِي الإِسْلاَمِ سُنَّةً سَيِّئَةً (i.e. evil precedent in Islam), there is upon him the burden of that, and the burden of him also who acted upon it subsequently, without any deduction from their burden.” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] Linguistically innovation is what does not have precedent in Quran of Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). What is not part of Islam and is made part of Islam is innovation hence the mentioned Hadith is talking about one who introduces into Islam evil innovation. And tells for him who introduces evil innovation and those who follow his evil innovation will receive equal burden of sin. This understanding of above Hadith is supported by another Hadith found in Tirmadhi, here: "And whoever introduces a بِدْعَةَ ضَلاَلَةٍ (i.e. erroneous innovation) with which Allah is not pleased nor His Messenger then he shall receive sins similar to whoever acts upon it without that diminishing anything from the sins of the people.” [Ref: Tirmadhi, B29, H2677] In light of this, the following statement of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is not literal: “And the most evil affairs are the innovations; and every innovation is misguidance." [Ref: Muslim, B4, H1885] Rather it should be understood in context of Hadith of ‘evil precedent in Islam’ and ‘erroneous innovation’. Therefore the interpretation of Hadith is as follows: the most evil affairs are the evil precedents and erroneous innovations introduced into Islam and every evil/erroneous innovation is misguidance. Hence the word ‘every’ is restricted and limited in the phrase, “… every innovation is misguidance …” in specific context of evil and erroneous innovations. Now question must arise, how are evil innovations judged to be evil? Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) answered this question by saying: “Aishah reported the Messenger of Allah as saying: if any one introduces into this affair of ours anything which does not belong to it, it is rejected. Ibn Isa said: the prophet said: if anyone practices any action in a way other than our practice, it is rejected.” [Ref: Dawood, B41, H4589] And in another Hadith it is stated: “He who enacted any act for which there is no sanction from our behalf that is to be rejected.” [Ref: Muslim, B18, H4267] In other words if an innovation is composed of anything which is not from prophetic Sunnah it is evil innovation and it is to be rejected. Fifth Approach – Establishing The Good Innovation: It was previously said, innovation is which does not have precedent in Quran and Sunnah, and following words of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) point to permissibility of, and reward for, introducing good innovation into Islam: “He who introduces a فِي الإِسْلاَمِ سُنَّةً حَسَنَةً (i.e. good Sunnah in Islam), there is a reward for him for this and reward of that also who acted according to it subsequently, without any deduction from their rewards …”[8] [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] Note, the Hadith states one who introduces into Islam a good Sunnah, if a good Sunnah is being introduced into Islam then it means it is not part of Islam. What is not part of Islam and it is being made part of Islam is, innovation. Hence Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) told of reward for introducing good innovation into Islam. It was based upon understanding of the Hadith of good Sunnah in Islam that Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) declared his gathering of worshipers under leadership of an Imam as an excellent innovation, here: “Then on another night I went again in his company and the people were praying behind their reciter. On that, 'Umar remarked نِعْمَتِ الْبِدْعَةُ هَذِهِ (i.e. what an excellent innovation this is) but the prayer which they do not perform, but sleep at its time is better than the one they are offering.' He meant the prayer in the last part of the night. (In those days) people used to pray in the early part of the night." [Ref: Bukhari, B32, H227] These Ahadith establish the position of Muslims that to introduce praiseworthy innovations into Islam is permissible and reward worthy. Conclusion: We have established the prominent scholars of past have divided the innovation into two categories. It has been established those who have divided innovation into good and bad have not erred nor opposed the teaching of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) but rather have employed all evidence available on the topic of innovation to perfect their understanding. And it was minion of Iblis incarnate who actually opposed the teaching of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). The usage of ‘every’ has been explained in detail. The usage of ‘every’ is affected by context, which limits its absolute meaning and restricts it to a specific. The foolish assumption that Muslims do not have any evidence but the evidence related to Taraweeh was shattered with proper explanation of Hadith of introducing good Sunnah into Islam. As for the quote taken from Ibn Rajab it has been explained by the content of first, second and third approach. Ibn Fawzaan position is based on Ibn Rajab's quote and due to which no direct response is required. Instead, Ibn Rajab's understanding of innovation was explored and his error was pointed out in light of evidence of Hadith. Wama alayna ilal balaghul mubeen. Muhammed Ali Razavi Footnotes: - [1] To find out where the alterations have been made please use MSWord to compare original and revised versions. To see the original quote click, here. - [2] Clarification Of Doubts Concerning Innovation. Originally taken from; Kitab at-Tawheed, author; Saalih al Fawzaan, page 106/110 Translation; Maaz Qureshi, Amendments; Muhammed Ali Razavi. - [3] Those scholars who have labelled type one innovations as linguistic innovation they follow a different definition of innovation. Their definition accords the following principles: Any action/belief of which there is no Asal (i.e. foundation - explicit or implicit evidence) such is innovation. And the opposite was: Any action/belief which can be established from Quran/Sunnah from implicit or from generality of words is not an innovation. They maintain innovation is of two types, linguistic and legal. According to this classification when an innovation is classed as an innovation from legal perspective than it is in meaning of ‘type two’ innovation (i.e. reprehensible - which composed of that which contradicts teaching of Islam). So according to their understanding compiling Quran into a book after death of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and Hadhrat Umar’s (radiallah ta’ala anhu) gathering the people of Masjid to perform Taraweeh under one Qari for entire Ramadhan are not innovations [in legal sense]. And this is because Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) in his life time over saw the writing of revelation (i.e. Quran). Also there is precedent of performing Taraweeh under leadership of Imam because Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) in person led Taraweeh for three days. These scholars agree that these are innovations in linguistic sense. The vast majority of scholars have classified these two practices to be good innovations because of their division of innovation being divided as good and bad. Words of Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) are evidence of Taraweeh being innovation and being good innovation according to this definition: قَالَ عُمَرُ نِعْمَ الْبِدْعَةُ هَذِه.ِ [Ref: Bukhari, B32, H227] Therefore the real difference between the two parties is due to label and not of result. One group labels it linguistic innovation and other considers as good innovation. - [4] From Islamic perspective anti-Muslim element’s legal/Shar’ri innovation’s equivalent is reprehensible innovation. In Islamic terminology, all innovations are legal/Shar’ri innovations, be it praiseworthy or reprehensible. - [5] The details of sub-divisions and explanation of them can be found in the following book, What Is Innovation In Islam, by Mufti Ahmad Yar Khan Naeemi (rahimullah alayhi ta’ala). - [6] If Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) permits an article will be written on subject of innovation containing writings of these scholars. - [7] The word ‘every’ in its natural meaning cannot be used for creation without warranting major Shirk. The natural meaning of ‘every’ which is unlimited, unrestricted can only truly be used for Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). When the word ‘every’ is used for creation of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) it is always used with certain constraints implied from context or implied from inability of creation for whom it was used for. - [8] “Narrated Ibn Jarir bin 'Abdullah: from his father that the Messenger of Allah said: "Whoever starts a good tradition which is followed, then for him is a reward, and the likes of their rewards of whoever follows him, there being nothing diminished from their rewards." [Ref: Tirmadhi, B39, H2675] “It was narrated that Abu Juhaifah said: "The Messenger of Allah said: 'Whoever introduces a good practice that is followed after him, will have a reward for that and the equivalent of their reward, without that detracting from their reward in the slightest.” [Ref: Ibn Majah, B1, H207]
  2. Introduction: Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) said, whosoever introduces a good Sunnah into Islam which is followed, the innovator and the follower both will receive equal reward from Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). On basis of this Muslims believe Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) created room for introducing innovations into religion of Islam. Anti-Muslim elements argue that in context of Hadith Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) was stating one who revives a Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and those who follow it will receive equal reward. Note Servant has produced numerous refutations against this claim hence it will not be addressed in here. Rather Servant will utilize the linguistic meaning of بدعة to establish Islamic position. Note, this article continues some aspects which were neglected in the following article, here. Linguistic Meaning Of بدعة In Light Of Quran And Ahadith: Linguistically بدعة means innovation, something which does not have precedent. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) instructed Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) to say: قُلْ مَا كُنتُ بِدْعًا مِّنْ الرُّسُلِ (i.e. “Say: "I am not a new thing amongst the Messengers.") (Ref: 46:9). Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is told to say to disbelievers; that his Messenger-ship is not unique/innovative but there are precedents (i.e. Prophet Ibrahim alayhis salaam and others). Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) states in another verse He is the: بَدِيعُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضِ (i.e. “The originator of the heavens and the earth") (Ref: 2:117/6:101) Note Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) created the universe and earth without relying upon a preceding example. Example of innovation without precedent is incident of a son of Prophet Adam (alayhis salaam) killing his brother: “Narrated Abdullah: The Prophet said, "None is killed unjustly, but the first son of Adam will have a part of its burden." Sufyan said: A part of its blood because he was مَنْ سَنَّ الْقَتْلَ أَوَّلاً (i.e. the first to establish the tradition of murdering)." [Ref: Bukhari, B83, H6] Words of Sufyan (rahimullah alayhi ta’ala) are attested in another Hadith: “It was narrated from Abdullah that: The Prophet said: "No person is killed wrongfully, but a share of responsibility for his blood will be upon the first son of Adam, because he was, أَوَّلُ مَنْ سَنَّ الْقَتْلَ (i.e. the first one to set the precedence of killing).” [Ref: Nisa’i, B37, H3990] Shar’i meaning of بدعة is which does not have a precedent in text of Quran or Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and it is of two types blameworthy and praiseworthy. Depending upon what the innovation is composed of, it can be good or bad. Murder Of Son Of Adam (alayhis salaam) Is Innovation: Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) said: “Narrated Abdullah: The Prophet said, "None is killed unjustly, but the first son of Adam will have a part of its burden." Sufyan said: A part of its blood because he was مَنْ سَنَّ الْقَتْلَ أَوَّلاً (i.e. the first to establish the tradition of murdering)." [Ref: Bukhari, B83, H6] “It was narrated from Abdullah that: The Prophet said: "No person is killed wrongfully, but a share of responsibility for his blood will be upon the first son of Adam, because he was, أَوَّلُ مَنْ سَنَّ الْقَتْلَ (i.e. the first one to set the precedence of killing).” [Ref: Nisa’i, B37, H3990] On the basis of Hadith of son of Adam (alayhis salaam) it can be said that Sunna does not require precedent because Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) used the word Sunna for a murder which had no precedent and innovation does not have precedent either in Shari’ah. Hence the word Sunna means innovation and the murderer introduced an innovation. His Sunna should be understood to mean innovation even though Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) used Sunna (i.e. practice). Another proof that he introduced innovation is the principle used to judge his action Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) stated: “And whoever بِدْعَةً ابْتَدَعَ (i.e. introduces an innovation) that is acted upon, will have a burden of sins equivalent to that of those who act upon it, without that detracting from the burden of those who act upon it in the slightest.'" [Ref: Ibn Majah, B1, H209] So therefore the son of Prophet Adam (alayhis salaam) introduced innovation of murdering. Note, Shaikh used the word bad Sunnah even though it is obvious from the text of Hadith that murderous act was committed which was without precedent, hence appropriate translation should have been innovation. Establishing Basis Of Proof On Ahadith Of Good And Bad Sunnah: Sunnah linguistically means, way, precedent and practice. Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) regarding good Sunnah are: “Messenger of Allah said: "Whoever starts a سُنَّةَ خَيْرٍ (i.e. good Sunnah) which is followed, then for him is a reward and the likes of their rewards of whoever follows him, there being nothing diminished from their rewards." [Ref: Tirmadhi, B39, H2675] "Jarir b. 'Abdullah reported Allah's Messenger as saying: The servant does not introduce سُنَّةً صَالِحَةً (i.e. good Sunnah) which is followed after him. The rest of the hadith is the same." [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6468] Another Hadith establishes that good Sunnah for which the reward is being told is being made part of Islam: “He who introduces a فِي الإِسْلاَمِ سُنَّةً حَسَنَةً (i.e. good Sunnah in Islam), there is a reward for him for this and reward of that also who acted according to it subsequently, without any deduction from their rewards …” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] Reward being told is of good Sunnah which is not part of Islam but is being made part of Islam. In other words, the Sunnah being introduced into Islam has no precedent in Islam, yet reward for it is guaranteed. Regarding bad Sunnah Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is reported to have said: “And whoever introduces a سُنَّةً سَيِّئَةً (i.e. reprehensible practice) that is followed, he will receive its sin and a burden of sin equivalent to that of those who follow it, without that detracting from their burden in the slightest.'" [Ref: Ibn Majah, B1, H203] Once again, the burden of sin being equally shared is for a bad Sunnah which is not part of Islam but being made part of Islam: “And he who introduces an فِي الإِسْلاَمِ سُنَّةً سَيِّئَةً (i.e. evil precedent in Islam), there is upon him the burden of that, and the burden of him also who acted upon it subsequently, without any deduction from their burden.” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] Proof That Ahadith Good And Bad Sunnah Are About Innovations: It is established that word بدعة means something new without a precedent and the word سنة is used for Sunnah of first murder which did not have a precedent. Hence it is linguistically possible to use word سنة to mean بدعة. In context of reprehensible Sunnah, the word بدعة is used: “And whoever introduces a سُنَّةً سَيِّئَةً (i.e. reprehensible practice) that is followed, he will receive its sin and a burden of sin equivalent to that of those who follow it, without that detracting from their burden in the slightest.'" [Ref: Ibn Majah, B1, H203] "And whoever introduces a بِدْعَةَ ضَلاَلَةٍ (i.e. reprehensible innovation) with which Allah is not pleased nor His Messenger then he shall receive sins similar to whoever acts upon it without that diminishing anything from the sins of the people.” [Ref: Tirmadhi, B29, H2677] “Whoever بِدْعَةً ابْتَدَعَ (i.e. introduces an innovation) with which Allah and his Messenger are not pleased, he will have a (burden of) sin equivalent to that of those among the people who act upon it, without that detracting from their sins in the slightest.'" [Ref: Ibn Majah, B1, H210] This is proof that both words can be used interchangeably to mean same thing. To further support it, note Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) said: “And he who introduces a فِي الإِسْلاَمِ سُنَّةً سَيِّئَةً (i.e. evil precedent in Islam), there is upon him the burden of that, and the burden of him also who acted upon it subsequently, without any deduction from their burden.” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] That which is not part of Islam via precedent is innovation, therefore evil Sunnah in this Hadith is referring to evil innovations. Continuing, Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) said: “He who introduces a فِي الإِسْلاَمِ سُنَّةً حَسَنَةً (i.e. good Sunnah in Islam), there is a reward for him for this and reward of that also who acted according to it subsequently, without any deduction from their rewards …” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] This means reward is for a Sunnah which is not part of Islam but being made part of Islam. In other words reward is for good Sunnah which does not have precedent in Islam. Considering the meaning of بدعة we have to conclude the reward is for introducing a good innovation and for those who follow it. As proof of Islamic position; innovation can be good, note the words of Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) in following Hadith: “… that Abd ar-Rahman ibn Abd al-Qari said, "I went out with Umar ibn al-Khattab in Ramadan to the mosque and the people there were spread out in groups. Some men were praying by themselves, whilst others were praying in small groups. Umar said, 'By Allah! It would be better in my opinion if these people gathered behind one reciter.' So he gathered them behind Ubayy ibn Kab. Then I went out with him another night and the people were praying behind their Qur'an reciter. Umar said, نِعْمَتِ الْبِدْعَةُ هَذِهِ (i.e. How excellent this innovation is!) But what you miss while you are asleep is better than what you watch in prayer.' He meant the end of the night, and people used to watch the beginning of the night in prayer." [Ref: Muwatta Malik, B6, H3] Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) gathered the people to perform Taraweeh prayer under leadership of a single Imam. His innovation was followed by the companions in month of Ramadhan prompting him to say that his innovation was excellent. Ever since Hadhrat Umar gathering the companions under a single Imam it has been practiced during the entire duration of Ramadhan. This amounts to roughly thirty days, yet prophetic Sunnah is of three days only, therefore he is source of an innovation which has no precedent in prophetic Sunnah. Warning About The Distortion Of Texts Of Islam: Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is reported to have said that you will follow the way of Jews and Christians: “Narrated Abu Sa`id: The Prophet said, "You will follow the wrong ways, of your predecessors so completely and literally that if they should go into the hole of a lizard, you too will go there." We said, "O Allah's Messenger! Do you mean the Jews and the Christians?" He replied, "Whom else?" [Ref: Bukhari, B55, H662] Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) states regarding the Jews: “And verily, among them is a party who distort the Book with their tongues, so that you may think it is from the Book, but it is not from the Book, and they say: "This is from Allah," but it is not from Allah; and they speak a lie against Allah while they know it.” [Ref: 3:78] Do not follow the footsteps of Yahood and distort the texts of Islam by changing the meaning of words, no good will be result of it. It is better for you to submit to Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and authority given to his Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) then to rebel against it. The straight path of Islam has been shown to you, so walk upon it. Aspire to be from amongst the Jammah (i.e. group) of Muslims and do not oppose it. Conclusion: Words سنة and بدعة are used interchangeably to mean innovation in Ahadith of equal reward and sin. بدعة means something without a precedent. In the Ahadith of good and bad سنة the reward is being told for Sunnahs which lack a precedent in Islam hence the usage of سنة is in meaning of innovation. Therefore the reward being told is about good innovations and the blame of sin is for bad innovations. Wama Alayna Ilal Balaghul Mubeen Muhammed Ali Razavi
  3. Introduction: Shaikh Abu Rumaysah wrote an extensive article in which he presented his sects Khariji understanding on subject of innovation. Part of this article is dedicated to refuting arguments which Muslims present to refute his understanding of innovation. At explanation number three he attempts to explain the Hadith from Sahih of Imam Muslim (rahimullah alayhi ta’ala) regarding followers of good Sunnah being rewarded equal to one who introduced it. Briefly, his position on this Hadith is to be understood according to context, and that charity was already part of Islam hence the phrase was uttered for sake of reviving a Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam), and this principle is not for introduction of praiseworthy innovations. His position will be judged from Islamic perspective so the truth of matter is revealed for the Muslims. An Invitation To Access Evidence And Dialogue: In the beginning of the article the writer/compiler Abu Hanna wrote why this article was penned. There is mention of many accusations hurled against them, which is of no interest of servant. The author of first statement continued to write: “We ask the brothers and sisters to look for the 'clear argument', to consider the evidence that is provided herein. Do not let this article be a cause for creating more fitna (trials), but instead an opportunity to see a way forward for some reconciliation.” He continues to write: “If you do disagree with this article, then let this be a chance to start a dialogue between us and you rather than a war of words. You know our evidence, please show us yours and let us approach the issue with the scholastic behavior of our predecessors.” As a Muslim one cannot agree with the content of article because it contradicts words of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam), and is based on distortion of clear and emphatic teaching of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). Hence it is in spirit of fair academic sincere dialogue, servant will present the Islamic approach to understanding the set of Ahadith in question. We are commanded to change the evil in following ways: “Whoever among you sees an evil action and can change it with his hand (by taking action), let him change it with his hand. If he cannot do that, then with his tongue (by speaking out); and if he cannot do that, then with his heart (by hating it and feeling that it is wrong), and that is the weakest of faith.” [Ref: Ibn Majah, B36, H4013] And if writing can be considered internet form of speech then the most befitting way to rectify the misguidance is by writing a response pointing to misguidance. The objective is, to guide to path of Islam, neither to humiliate nor to hurt the feelings of those who follow the path contrary to Prophetic teaching. Effort has been made to maintain an academic decorum, but if there is slip, then servant humbly requests; you bare it knowing companions suffered far greater for sake of religion of Islam then a stinging word. Servant ends with: “Remember that at times, due its inherent power the truth can be somewhat painful at first, but acceptance and submission to it is ultimately the objective of every sincere student of knowledge. As Allah the Truth says (what means), "Nay, we fling down the truth against falsehood so it smashes through its mind, and behold, it vanishes." “[Ref: Surah al-Anbiya 21:18] If Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) permits the author of this article will be notified and given opportunity to respond. Any beneficial developments will be published on the forum. Articles On This Subject Which Support Islamic Position: Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) gave many principles in numerous Ahadith which are in a specific context but those principles are generally applied by Muslims and Khawarij to judge all modern issues. The following article shows Khariji sectarian bias remains in regards to Ahadith of good Sunnah but the generality of Ahadith is maintained in other Ahadith, here. Yet Khawarij only restrict the principles given in the Ahadith of good Sunnah to their context because these Ahadith establish legitimacy of introducing praiseworthy innovations into Islam and tell of reward for emulating these Sunnahs. Next one demonstrates that the words of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) can be taken literally and interpreted, and both methodologies are valid, and presents Islamic position, here. Also by contextualizing Ahadith can negate the generality and this means all principles which Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) are according to the context and cannot be used as a guiding principle outside of contextual relevance as demonstrated, here. It is established from Hadith that word Sunnah is being used in meaning of innovation and the benefit of this is that it eliminates the argument; the Ahadith of good Sunnah are about reviving Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam), here. Lastly another article argues words of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) are part of revelation and regarding revelation Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) said that it is jawami al kalim in nature (i.e. meaning shortest expression with vast meanings). Therefore the principles which Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) gave in Ahadith of good Sunnah and bad Sunnah are short but express vast meanings. For these principles to be in line with jawami al kalim nature they must not be restricted to context but all valid interpretations must be accepted. May they be historical, contextual, and intertextual, here. Full Explanation Of Shaikh Abu Rumaysah: The Hadith: “He who sets a good Sunnah in Islam, there is a reward for him for this and reward of that also who acted according to it subsequently, without any deduction from their rewards; and he who sets in Islam an evil Sunnah, there is upon him the burden of that, and the burden of him also who acted upon it subsequently, without any deduction from their burden.” [Ref: Muslim, B5, H2219] The evidence that they derive from this hadith is that people can invent new practices in Islam which are either good or bad. Of course, if they were to take the hadith in its full context then it is not possible to derive this meaning. The context of the hadith states that a group of poor people came to the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) so he asked those around him to give charity, but no one came forward - so much so that signs of anger could be discerned on the face of RasoolAllah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam), so one of the companions stepped forward and gave charity, so the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said the above hadith. Firstly, the word 'Sunnah' which is used in this hadith cannot be understood to mean the Sunnah of RasoolAllah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam), because that would imply that there is something bad in the Sunnah; rather it is to be understood in its linguistic meaning of 'practice’. Secondly, this action the companion did was not something new in Islam, since giving charity was already legislated from the very first days of Islam; rather he was simply implementing it, so the statement of the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) "a good Sunnah" was said at a time when the people were reluctant to give charity, so one man started to give the charity and others followed him in it. Thus, he revived a Sunnah at a time when the people were reluctant to practice it, and this is the meaning of "a good Sunnah” Hence, in the early works of 'Aqeedah, this hadith was included under the chapter headings, "The reward of the one who renews the Sunnah." [For example Sharh Usool I'tiqaad 1/50] The meaning of "a bad Sunnah" is similar. It is renewing or starting something that the Shari’ah has already declared to be bad, and the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) gave the example of the two sons of Adam (alayhis salaam wa 'alaa nabiyina), one killing the other. So upon the murderer was the sin of the killing and the sin of all those that killed after him, without their sins being reduced. Thirdly, the hadith uses the terms 'good' and 'bad', and the Shari’ah has already defined in its totality all that is good and all that is bad. This is what is pointed to in the statement of Imam ash-Shaafi'ee in his refutation of Istihsaan (declaring something to be good) when he said, "Whoever declares something to be good, he has declared it part of Shari’ah." [Ref: ar-Risala][!] [Ref: MuslimConverts] The Hadith In Discussion: “Jarir bin Abdullah reported that some desert Arabs clad in woolen clothes came to Allah's Messenger. He saw them in sad plight as they had been hard pressed by need. He (the Holy Prophet) exhorted people to give charity, but they showed some reluctance until (signs) of anger could be seen on his face. Then a person from the Ansar came with a purse containing silver. Then came another person and then other persons followed them in succession until signs of happiness could be seen on his (sacred) face. Thereupon Allah's Messenger said: He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect. And he who introduced some evil practice in Islam which had been followed subsequently (by others), he would be required to bear the burden like that of one who followed this (evil practice) without their being diminished in any respect.” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] Key Points Of Shaikh Abu Rumaysah’s Explanation: i) Statement of Hadith in discussion is to be understood in the context of historical event. ii) Word Sunnah is not in meaning of Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) but in linguistic meaning of practice. iii) The charity was part of Islam even before the event took place. iv) Companion of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) implemented the charity when people were reluctant. v) He revived a Sunnah/the Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) by giving charity. Key Points Of Hadith Of Sahih Muslim: i) Poor people came to Masjid Nabvi belonging to tribe of Mudar. ii) Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) gave khutbah (i.e. speech) reminding the companions about their bond with one another through Prophet Adam (alayhis salaam)[1] and exhorted them to give charity. iii) Companions were reluctant which angered Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and signs of it showed on his face. iv) A companion came with purse of silver and donated it. This started a chain reaction and all companions contributed according to their capacity. This continued until signs of happiness Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) were visible on his face. v) Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) told of equal reward for one who sets/introduces a good Sunnah in Islam and those who follow this good Sunnah. Meaning Of Word Sunnah In Hadith Of Good And Bad Sunnah: Both of us agree, word Sunnah in Hadith of bad Sunnah in literally means way and practice. Shaikh Abu Rumaysah has stated: “… the word 'Sunnah' which is used in this hadith cannot be understood to mean the Sunnah of RasoolAllah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam), because that would imply that there is something bad in the Sunnah; rather it is to be understood in its linguistic meaning of 'practice’.” If the word Sunnah is considered in context of the phrase, he who introduced a bad Sunnah into Islam, then implication of this is; bearing of burden being told is for something which is not already part of Islam. Note innovation is not part of Islam hence the word way/practice is in meaning of innovation. A Hadith from Tirmadhi which has exactly same meaning uses the word Bid’ah (i.e. innovation) instead of Sunnah (i.e. practice), here: “ And if anyone introduces a misguiding innovation with which Allah and His Messenger are not pleased then he gets a sin like the sins of those who observe it and nothing is deducted from the sins of the people.” [Ref: Tirmadhi, B39, H2677] This establishes part of Hadith of Muslim (i.e. bad Sunnah) is about innovation and note both parts of Hadith of Muslim (i.e. good Sunnah and bad Sunnah) are grammatically exactly same apart from words which give each principle a distinctive meaning. Therefore in the Hadith of Muslim the word Sunnah phrase, good Sunnah, is in meaning of innovation. To strengthen the Islamic position note, if the word Sunnah is considered in context of the phrase, he who introduced a good Sunnah into Islam, then implication of this is; reward being told is for something which is not already part of Islam innovation is not part of Islam hence the word way/practice is in meaning of innovation. Good Sunnah Is Reviving Which Is Already Part Of Islam: Considering the following part of quote: “Second, this action the companion did was not something new in Islam, since giving charity was already legislated from the very first days of Islam; rather he was simply implementing it, so the statement of the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) "a good Sunnah" was said at a time when the people were reluctant to give charity, so one man started to give the charity and others followed him in it. Thus, he revived a Sunnah at a time when the people were reluctant to practice it, and this is the meaning of "a good Sunnah.” And considering the following: “The meaning of "a bad Sunnah" is similar [to good Sunnah]. It is renewing or starting something that the Shari’ah has already declared to be bad …” I have come to conclusion that brief position of Shaikh Abu Rumaysah would be two possibilities: i) Meaning of a good Sunnah is renewing or reviving something that the Shari’ah has already declared to be good. ii) Meaning of a good Sunnah is renewing or reviving something that the Shari’ah has already made part of Islam. Question for Shaikh, is reciting Salat (i.e. sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) after mentioning Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) a good Sunnah? You will agree it is good Sunnah. Did Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) or Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) declare this as good Sunnah? Is reciting Salat after mentioning Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) part of Islam? No it isn’t! Yet you agreed it is a good Sunnah. The people of knowledge know; reciting Salat after mentioning of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) was started by Imam Ma’lik (rahimullah alayhi ta’ala) and this practiced continued to be enjoined by Muslims ever since. There is reward for Imam Ma’lik (rahimullah alayhi ta’ala) due to starting this good Sunnah and those who follow his example, according to following: “He who introduces a good Sunnah in Islam, there is a reward for him for this and reward of that also who acted according to it subsequently, without any deduction from their rewards …” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] Point to note is, your definition of good Sunnah is invalid. Introducing good Sunnah into Islam does not mean reviving a prophetic Sunnah rather it means something which was not part of Islam but is made part of Islam via Ijtihad. Claiming Of Reviving Prophetic Sunnah Of Charity: Ahadith record Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) exhorted the companions to give charity, here: “Jarir bin Abdullah reported that some desert Arabs clad in woolen clothes came to Allah's Messenger. He saw them in sad plight as they had been hard pressed by need. He (the Holy Prophet) exhorted people to give charity, but they showed some reluctance until (signs) of anger could be seen on his face. Then a person from the Ansar came with a purse containing silver. Then came another person and …” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] There was no need of reviving of prophetic Sunnah of charity. It was alive amongst them, and Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) was alive, encouraging good and forbidding evil. Reviving is of those prophetic Sunnahs which have been erased from the memory of Muslims, and reviving of prophetic Sunnahs is only after death of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam), here: "I am ready to know O Messenger of Allah!" He said: "That indeed whoever revives a Sunnah from my Sunnah which has died after me, then for him is a reward similar to whoever acts upon it without diminishing anything from their rewards." [Ref: Tirmadhi, B39, H2677] "I heard the Messenger of Allah say: 'Whoever revives a Sunnah of mine that dies out after I am gone, he will have a reward equivalent to that of those among the people who act upon it, without that detracting from their reward in the slightest." [Ref: Ibn Majah, B1, H210] Shaykh interpreted the reluctance of companions to give charity has death of prophet Sunnah. Reluctance of companions to give charity cannot be interpreted to mean prophetic Sunnah of giving charity was dead amongst them and which needed reviving. Burden of proof is upon Shaykh to establish; prophetic Sunnah of giving charity was forgotten/dead in life time of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) which was being revived by companion. As for the Islamic position, servant has already established it with evidence. Note, there was no need for reviving the prophet Sunnah of giving charity because it was known to companions and by establishing this position the basis of Abu Rumaysah’s argument has been refuted. Hence the literal meaning of prophet words in Hadith of, whoever introduces good Sunnah in Islam, stands: “He who introduces a good Sunnah in Islam, there is a reward for him for this and reward of that also who acted according to it subsequently, without any deduction from their rewards …” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] Companion Introduced Nothing New Into Islam: He writes: “…this action the companion did was not something new in Islam, since giving charity was already legislated from the very first days of Islam; rather he was simply implementing it …” Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) said: “He who introduces a good Sunnah in Islam, there is a reward for him for this and reward of that also who acted according to it subsequently, without any deduction from their rewards …” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] So my question is, the first person who initiated the donation process what was his contribution to Islam? Note, the words of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) are clear that one who introduces a good practice in Islam he will get reward equal to those who follow his Sunnah. By giving charity he merely initiated a process of giving charity and he did not introduce this practice into Islam because charity and giving charity was already part of Islam. Companion Revived A Prophetic Sunnah: He writes further: “… so the statement of the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) "a good Sunnah" was said at a time when the people were reluctant to give charity, so one man started to give the charity and others followed him in it. Thus, he revived a Sunnah at a time when the people were reluctant to practice it …” Abu Rumaysah saying that he revived a Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) by being the first one to donate does not fit the statement of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). If the words of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) were, he who introduces a good Sunnah of Islam, then the context would fit the statement of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) but the words of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) are: he who introduces a good Sunnah in Islam. Note the Hadith states, one who introduces a good Sunnah in Islam and implication of which is; the Sunnah being introduced into Islam is not part of it already. Therefore the arguments that this statement of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) was about reviving the Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is incorrect. The position of Abu Rumaysah; this statement of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is to be understood in the historical context is proven wrong. It is wrong on the basis that this statement is about which is not part of Islam and the companion only initiated charity which was part of Islam. Hadith Was Part Of Reviving A Sunnah: He wrote: “Thus, he revived a Sunnah at a time when the people were reluctant to practice it, and this is the meaning of "a good Sunnah” Hence, in the early works of 'Aqeedah, this hadith was included under the chapter headings, "The reward of the one who renews the Sunnah." [For example Sharh Usool I'tiqaad 1/50] Answer to this is; there are two components of the following Hadith, one is introducing into Islam [which is not part of it already] and the other is connected with reviving good/bad innovated Sunnah, here: “He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect. And he who introduced some evil practice in Islam which had been followed subsequently (by others), he would be required to bear the burden like that of one who followed this (evil practice) without their being diminished in any respect.” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] The Hadith has an innovating component and reviving component, and it was part of reviving corpus cause of reviving component. It is due to foolishness that one ignores the following part of Hadith: “… He who introduced some good practice in Islam …”, and is only focusing at the following part only: “… which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect, …” Also note, reviving component of the Hadith is connected with innovating component of Hadith hence it means, those who revive the newly introduced practice into Islam will have equal reward to one who introduced it. Hence it was part of reviving corpus not because of reviving Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) but it was in such collections due to reviving newly introduced Sunnah into Islam. Bad Sunnah Is Renewing Which Is Already Declared Bad: He wrote: “The meaning of "a bad Sunnah" is similar. It is renewing or starting something that the Shari’ah has already declared to be bad …” According to Shaikh Abu Rumaysah meaning of bad Sunnah is renewing something which Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) already declared sinful/bad. Question for Shaikh, could you guide me to a verse of Quran or Hadith in which pole dancing almost naked in presence of none family males is declared bad/sinful? No! I didn’t think you could quote me a Hadith or Ayah either but is watching pole dancing bad/sinful or not? Sinful! Has the Shari’ah already declared it bad? An honest answer is, no! Point here is pole dancing is not renewing which Shari’ah has declared bad/sinful but it is still bad and this refutes your position, quoted above. Another question, was oral ###### declared bad by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) or by Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam)? No! Is oral ###### bad or not? Bad![2] Has the Shari’ah declared oral ######, bad? Another honest and truthful answer is, no! The point is renewing or starting something Shari’ah has already declared to be bad is not the definition of bad Sunnah. Engaging in something which Shari’ah has declared bad, is sinful. Bad Sunnah is, a Sunnah which is introduced into religion of Islam and is composed religious/non-religious activities but component of which is engaging in Haram, or Shirk, or Kufr. To explain this with an example, filthy rich money-Shaikh goes to perform Hajj. He takes with him the finest quality wine bottles, 20k a piece. An imported infidel butler and the money-Shaikh is accompanied by 10 of the sluttiest sluts of Europe in sluttiest clothes possible. Monkey-Shaikh is fit as a fiddle but he is carried by these sluttiest sluts on a throne made out of gold thread embroidery and on his head is diamond crown. His sluts carry him around the Kabah for first Tawaf, and the butler pours the fine wine in glass for him. He sips bit by bit until second Tawaf begins and butler being professional pours the second glass of cold fine wine. The money-Shaikh ends his seventh Tawaf with his seven glass of fine wine. His behavior becomes a yardstick for filthy rich Arabs and all emulate his Sunnah closely as they can. Now question is, is this renewing or starting something which Shari’ah has declared bad, or is it a new bad Sunnah? It is a new bad Sunnah into religion of Islam. Will money-Shaikh earn the equal sin of those who follow his newly invented reprehensible Sunnah? Damn right he will because Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) said: “And he who introduced some evil Sunnah in Islam which had been followed subsequently (by others), he would be required to bear the burden like that of one who followed this (evil practice) without their being diminished in any respect.” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] Important point here is that principle is not just for historical context but it is to be applied generally to all new reprehensible innovations/practices. The Issue Of Relevance Of Second Sentence Of Statement: Now if the first sentence of good Sunnah in Islam was said in context of historical event then it must be that the second sentence was also in context of historical event. The second sentence of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) statement is: “And he who introduced some evil Sunnah in Islam which had been followed subsequently (by others), he would be required to bear the burden like that of one who followed this (evil practice) without their being diminished in any respect.” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] What is the reprehensible Sunnah which the companions introduced which resulted in Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) telling them that they will be bearing the burden of introducing evil Sunnah? Shaikh Abu Rumaysah does not answer this question but instead he interprets the Hadith out of the context. An educated estimation would be that his response would be as follows: companions were eliminating the Sunnah of giving charity in the way of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) due to their reluctance and this was evil Sunnah. Does this statement apply to all types of reprehensible Sunnahs or just the one you pointed out? If he says to all types of reprehensible Sunnahs then note he has taken this statement out of historical context. This statement was in context of reluctance to give charity according to his methodology hence it can only be applied to similar event. If he was to interpret it generally he is going against his own position of interpreting the Hadith according to context, and he did go against his own principle. He interpreted the second sentence of the Hadith in light of Hadhrat Adam’s (radiallah ta’ala anhu) son murdering his brother, he wrote: “The meaning of "a bad Sunnah" is similar. It is renewing or starting something that the Shari’ah has already declared to be bad, and the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) gave the example of the two sons of Adam (alayhis salaam wa alaa nabiyina), one killing the other. So upon the murderer was the sin of the killing and the sin of all those that killed after him, without their sins being reduced.” This establishes that Shaikh Abu Rumaysah interpreted the Hadith and went against what he complained about in the beginning of his response (i.e. words of Hadith are interpreted out of context). If the context was so fundamental to understanding the statements of Hadith in discussion why would he leave it and interpret it with Hadith of son of Adam (alayhis salaam)? Point here is; context is important but the principles are not limited restricted to the context only. Interpretation Of Bad Sunnah Critically Analyzed: Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) said: "Whenever a person is murdered unjustly, there is a share from the burden of the crime on the first son of Adam for he was the first to start the tradition of murdering." [Ref: Bukhari, B55, H552] It is clear that son of Prophet Adam (alayhis salaam) was the first person to start murder and one who follows his footsteps receives equal sin to him and this agrees with the following principle: “And he who introduced some evil Sunnah in Islam which had been followed subsequently (by others), he would be required to bear the burden like that of one who followed this (evil practice) without their being diminished in any respect.” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] Note the word underlined here: “And he who introduced some evil Sunnah in Islam which had been followed subsequently …” This points to reprehensible Sunnah which was not part of Islam before but is being made part of Islam by son of Adam (alayhis salaam). Murder was an evil Sunnah which did not exist prior to incident mentioned in Hadith of Bukhari. In this context the meaning of Hadith of Bukhari compliments the following perfectly: And he who introduced some evil Sunnah in Islam which had been followed subsequently (by others), he would be required to bear the burden like that of one who followed this (evil practice) without their being diminished in any respect.” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] Hence if a bad practice is introduced in Islam then continuously revived by others then all those who renew it are equally sinful for emulating it and son of Prophet Adam (alayhis salaam) did introduce a bad Sunnah of murder which was without a precedent. Therefore this incident of Bukhari is proof of Islamic position not Khariji position because an evil Sunnah is introduced and then followed. And in part of good Sunnah the Shaikh Abu Rumaysah’s position is that nothing new was introduced only an old practice was revived. Note he wrote meaning of bad Sunnah is similar to good Sunnah: The meaning of "a bad Sunnah" is similar. It is renewing or …” If this is indeed the case then companion must have introduced a good Sunnah into Islam which was not part of it prior to the event. The Companion Introduced An Innovation Into Islam: The companion acted on the Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) amongst reluctant group of people. It maybe that it was first occasion where the companions were reluctant to give charity to their fellow Muslims. Hence he is the first one to give charity amongst reluctant people, and this can be deemed as a good Sunnah, and in context of reluctance of companions, and in context of being first companion stepping up to give charity, Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) said: “He who introduces a good Sunnah in Islam, there is a reward for him for this and reward of that also who acted according to it subsequently, without any deduction from their rewards …” [Ref: Muslim, B5, H6466] Implication of which would be that in context of reluctance of all companions Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) termed the action of companion as a good Sunnah in Islam. This explanation holds to the literal meaning of statement of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and keeps in touch with the historical event. Also note, Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) introduced the concept of charity in Islam and those who follow his example will have reward. With both interpretations a Sunnah is being introduced into Islam which is followed by others or revived by others. The Issue Of Context And Generality: Sa’d bin Ubada (radiallah ta’ala anhu) is reported to have said: "If I saw a man with my wife, I would strike him (behead him) with the blade of my sword." In context of this Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) said: "You people are astonished at Sa`d's Ghira. By Allah, I have more Ghira than he, and Allah has more Ghira than I …” He continued to inform us: “… and because of Allah's Ghira, He has made unlawful shameful deeds and sins done in open and in secret. And there is none who likes that the people should repent to Him and beg His pardon than Allah, and for this reason He sent the warners and the givers of good news.” [Ref: Bukhari, B93, H512] In the context of Sa’d bin Ubada’s statement the following words mean, Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has prohibited adultery [which is a sin] done openly or secretly: “He has made unlawful shameful deeds and sins done in open and in secret.” Yet these words are not restricted to context but apply to all shameful deeds [according to Shari’ah] and sins. Even though the words can be interpreted according to context yet generality of these words remains intact allowing for application of these words to other shameful and sinful actions. Note, the words of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) quoted in Hadith do not entirely fit the context but do have some connection with context. In similar fashion the following words of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) have relevance to context because reviving a practice (i.e. of giving charity) by engaging in it by others is part of Hadith: “He who introduces a good Sunnah in Islam, there is a reward for him for this and reward of that also who acted according to it subsequently, without any deduction from their rewards …” [Ref: Muslim, B5, H6466] This statement of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) does not entirely fit into context like statement of shameful deeds but has loose connection with context. And similar to Hadith of shameful deeds the generality of meaning of the statement cannot be negated because the statement begins with, he who introduced a good Sunnah in Islam, which is indication that reward being told further on is for a practice which is not already part of Islam. An Exhortation To One Who Distorts Prophetic Words: It was Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) to give general guidance relating to an event but provide a principle on basis of which the Muslims can judge issues which are were not addressed by Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). The principle of good Sunnah and bad Sunnah are part of these principles and to limit and restrict their understanding to an era, or a people, or event, takes away from Muslims a source of guidance. The one who negates the generality of these words, opposes what the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) said about his Prophetic words: "I have been sent with the shortest expressions bearing the widest meanings, and …” [Ref: Bukhari, B52, H220] The principles of good and bad Sunnah carry wide range of meanings which your sectarian entrenched mind cannot comprehend and refrain from what your intellect cannot grasp and fear Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and not oppose His beloved Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has stated about such people: “And whoever opposes the Messenger after guidance has become clear to him and follows other than the way of the believers - We will give him what he has taken and drive him into Hell, and evil it is as a destination.” [Ref: 4:115] You have no excuse, neither of lack of knowledge, nor of those who are in state of oblivion and as a reminder note the following words of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam), here: "The best speech is Allah's Book and the best guidance is the guidance of Muhammad." [Ref: Bukhari, B73, H120] The guidance of Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is in form of principles and his guidance is best guidance. He has told of reward for one who brings into Islam good innovation and for those who follow this innovated Sunnah has declared equal reward. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has stated: "It is not fitting for the believing man nor for the believing woman, that whenever Allah and His Messenger have decided any matter, that they should have any other opinion." [Ref: 33:36] Believe in Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) as he was to believed, and accept the guidance of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) as it was to be accepted, and have no opinion over the verdict of Messenger of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Conclusion: It is true the statement of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) about good Sunnah into Islam can be loosely interpreted in light of the historical context but the statement itself establishes its generality which allows multiple interpretations, including literal. To force the historical context upon a statement which is general, and to restrict the generality, and to reject the generality based on context is heretical. As matter of principle, a general statement can be interpreted in a context but it cannot be limited by the contextual interpretation, neither the generality can be altered due to contextual interpretation. The generality remains unaffected by contextual interpretations or theological expositions. Footnotes: - [1] Alterations have been made into the text. The first alteration is the text of Hadith in discussion has been inserted instead of paraphrased translation with reference. Salawat have been bracketed and some Arabic words have been capitalized and spelling of the words has been altered also. The last part of the content has been omitted because it was not connected with explanation of Hadith in discussion. There may be other alterations but none effects the original meaning of content. - [2] “Mundhir bin Jarir reported on the authority of his father: While we were in the company of the Messenger of Allah in the early hours of the morning, some people came there (who) were barefooted, naked, wearing striped woolen clothes, or cloaks, with their swords hung (around their necks). Most of them, nay, all of them, belonged to the tribe of Mudar. The color of the face of the Messenger of Allah underwent a change when he saw them in poverty. He then entered (his house) and came out and commanded Bilal (to pronounce Adhan). He pronounced Adhan and Iqima, and he (the Holy Prophet) observed prayer (along with his Companion) and then addressed (them reciting verses of the Holy Qur'an): '" 0 people, fear your Lord, Who created you from a single being" to the end of the verse," Allah is ever a Watcher over you" (iv. 1). (He then recited) a verse of Sura Hashr:" Fear Allah. and let every soul consider that which it sends forth for the morrow and fear Allah" (lix. 18). (Then the audience began to vie with one another in giving charity.) Some donated a dinar, others a dirham, still others clothes, some donated a sa' of wheat, some a sa' of dates; till he (the Holy Prophet) said: (Bring) even if it is half a date. Then a person from among the Ansar came there with a money bag which his hands could scarcely lift; in fact, they could not (lift). Then the people followed continuously, till I saw two heaps of eatables and clothes, and I saw the face of the Messenger glistening, like gold (on account of joy). The Messenger of Allah said: He who sets a good Sunnah in Islam, there is a reward for him for this and reward of that also who acted according to it subsequently, without any deduction from their rewards; and he who sets in Islam an evil Sunnah, there is upon him the burden of that, and the burden of him also who acted upon it subsequently, without any deduction from their burden.” [Ref: Muslim, B5, H2219] - [3] It is bad due to implicit evidence of following Hadith: “… and because of Allah's Ghira, He has made unlawful shameful deeds and sins done in open and in secret.” [Ref: Bukhari, B93, H512]
  4. Introduction: Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has reportedly stated, one who introduces into Islam a good Sunnah he/she will be rewarded and those who act on this good Sunnah will also receive equal reward, Hadith: “He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] From the literal reading of the words of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) it is clear that it is permissible to introduce into Islam good Sunnahs/Biddahs and to follow them. If it was impermissible to introduce good Sunnahs/Biddahs into Islam then Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) would not have told of reward. The Muslims believe the literal implications of this Hadith and accept all interpretations that can be derived according to historical context. Prophetic teaching is that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has been granted ‘Jawami Al Kalim’ meaning the ability to express vast meanings in few sentences. Hence the multiple interpretations of this Hadith are in agreement with this nature of prophetic words hence all are valid. Now, the opponents of religion of Islam argue against the literal implications and interpret the Hadith in historical context in order to negate the understanding of Muslims. Their understanding is; in a gathering where people are reluctant to give charity, one who gives charity and those who follow his example all will receive equal reward. Readers should note, this is article is continuation of response given to brother Sa’id Imtiaz, here and here. Evidence For Validity Of Holding To Literal Meaning Of Prophetic Words: Hadith records Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) gave following instruction to a group of Sahabah after returning from the battle of Al Ahzab: “None of you Muslims should offer the Asr prayer but at Banu Quraiza's place.” While they were travelling toward the tribe of Quraiza the Hadith records: “The Asr prayer became due for some of them on the way.” This divided the companions into two groups, one group said: “We will not offer it till we reach it, the place of Banu Quraiza.” While the other group said: “No, we will pray at this spot, for the Prophet did not mean that for us.” The Hadith goes on to record that the difference of opinion was brought to attention of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) who did not rebuke either group: “Later on it was mentioned to the Prophet and he did not berate any of the two groups.” [Ref: Bukhari, B59, H445] Position Of Both Group Of Companions On This Matter: The first group acted on the literal instructions of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and did not perform Asr prayer. They second group of companions via Ijtihad came to conclusion that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) was not preventing them from performing Asr prayer on the way but he was instructing them to travel quickly and reach the destination before Asr prayer and then perform the Asr prayer. So they realized they will not reach destination before the Asr prayer time expires and worship of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is more important then reaching a destination quickly hence they decided to perform the prayers on the way: “… (Some) people being afraid that the time for prayer would expire, said their prayers before reaching the street of Banu Quraiza.” [Ref: Muslim, B19, H4374] The other group they said: “We will not offer it till we reach it, the place of Banu Quraiza.” [Ref: Bukhari, B59, H445] “We will not say our prayer except where the Messenger of Allah has ordered us to say it even if the time expires.” [Ref: Muslim, B19, H4374] This establishes one group of companions held to literal instructions and made no Ijtihad hence did not perform prayers on the way to destination and also establishes one group of companions did engage in Ijtihad and performed prayers on the way to said destination. Reaction Of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) To This Difference: Hadith of Bukhari and Muslim record the following words regarding this difference of opinion between the companions: ”When he learned of the difference in the view of the two groups of the people, the Messenger of Allah did not blame anyone from the two groups.” [Ref: Muslim, B19, H4374] “Later on it was mentioned to the Prophet and he did not berate any of the two groups.” [Ref: Bukhari, B59, H445] Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) not correcting any group indicates both groups of companions were correct in their approach because Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is reported to have said: “Whoever among you sees an evil action, and he is able to change it with his hand, then change it with his hand (by taking action); if he cannot, (do so) with his tongue then with his tongue (by speaking out); and if he cannot then with his heart (by hating it and feeling that it is wrong), and that is the weakest of faith.” [Ref: Ibn Majah, B5, H1275] Disobedience to command of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is form of Munkir (i.e. evil/wrong) hence Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) would have clearly pointed out the error of Ijtihad if there was any. Therefore the conclusion both groups were correct in their understanding is established. The Principle Derived From Incident Of Banu Quraiza: From this historical event it is established; literal implications of prophetic words and interpreted implications derived using tool of Ijtihad are both be correct. If any of the two interpretations of prophetic words was in contradiction with Prophet’s (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) teaching he would have corrected the wrong party. An important point, both groups were correct hence Prophet’s (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) methodology is of literal and reinterpretation. Hadith Of Good Sunnah In Light Of Approved Methodologies: Understanding the prophetic words literally and acting upon them as Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) instructed is established. Also reinterpreting the words of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) in light of other evidence is also established. The following prophetic words now can be understood according Prophet’s (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) approved methodologies: “He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] The literal reading of Hadith establishes reward for introducing good Sunnahs/Biddahs into Islam and which is akin to establishing permissibility of introducing good Sunnahs/Biddah into Islam. The reinterpreting methodology establishes reward for engaging in prophetic Sunnahs which people are reluctant to practice and this is akin to granting permission for engaging in prophetic Sunnahs which people are reluctant to engage. Conclusion: Prophetic words are according to ‘Jawami Al Kalim’ nature hence they can be interpreted differently depending on the evidence. From the Hadith of Bani Quraiza it was deduced that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) approved the actions of two groups of companions who differed over the meaning of prophetic words. One group held to the literal meaning of words while the other reinterpreted the words and came to different understanding. As a result one group did not perform their prayers until they reached their destination while the other performed it on the way to destination. In context of objective of this article it is important to point out; the Muslims in regards to the Hadith of good Sunnah hold to the literal meaning and consider it permissible to create good Sunnah/Biddahs and introduce them into Islam with hope of gaining reward from Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala), while accepting the interpretation presented by opponents of Islam. It is important to point out, we the Muslims accept the interpretation of Hadith in discussion but not their understanding of; it is not permitted to introduce good innovations into Islam.
  5. Introduction: This response is continuation of dialogue with Wahhabi brother Sa’id Imtiaz and this is previous exchange has been responded to, here. His methodology is to attempt to undermine with principles what has been established clear evidence from Quran/Hadith. He does not respond to evidences used to establish arguments against his sectarian belief rather attempts to present his position while ignoring all that is piled against his position. This was the first time he actually replied to my evidence and attempted to justify his position and find fault in Islamic position. It is strongly advised that readers acquaint themselves with earlier exchange and note your own thoughts and then compare the noted thoughts as you progress through each exchange. Key Points Of Email Received From Brother Sa’id Imtiaz: While I was researching on the subject of innovation and how innovations are identified I had sought help of a student which caused the delay in response. The gist of his response is; fixing date or time or day for a particular practice and repeatedly engaging in the practice on the fixed date, time and day, causes the practice to become [reprehensible] innovation. Also if any innovated practice is performed believing that it will earn reward from Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) then it is also innovation. Based on these two principles many if not all Barelwi innovated practices/customs become innovations. Coming to the words of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam); one who introduces into Islam a good Sunnah for him there is reward and for those who follow it, does not refer to innovations. Sheikh Muhammad Salih Al-Munajjid has alluded to the correct understanding of Hadith on IslamQA website and it was explained emphatically by Sheikh Abu Rumaysah on MuslimConverts website.[1] Their explanation in nutshell is that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam)in the context of historical event was informing the companions; the Ansari man initiated [prophetic] Sunnah [of giving charity] and gave charity in the gathering for him and those who contributed following his example will be rewarded equally without their rewards being diminished. So in reality Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) did not permit introduction of good innovation in religion of Islam but he merely told of reward for engaging in his Sunnah of giving charity. The Destiny Of Ahle Sunnat Is To Dominate And Conquer: The religion of Islam and the State of Islam are destined to dominate, evidence: “It is He who sent His Messenger with guidance and the religion of truth to manifest it over all religion. And sufficient is Allah as Witness.” [Ref: 48:28] Those who establish the superiority of Islam and its state are Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jammah. They will remain the champions of Islam and spread the authority of Islamic state on earth, evidence: “A group of people from my Ummah will continue to fight in defense of truth and remain triumphant until the Day of judgment.” [Ref: Muslim, B20, N4718] In one Hadith it is stated: “The people of the West will continue to triumphantly follow the truth until the Hour is established.” [Ref: Muslim, B20, H4722] “The callousness of heart and sternness is in the East (i.e. Najd) and faith is among the people of the Hijaz (i.e. it is located in West of Najd).” [Ref: Muslim, B1, H95] The Ahle Sunnat adheres to understandings of people of Hijaz and our creed is of people of Hijaz and truth of Islam is evident over falsehood of your sect. Hence even if all of the minions of Iblees of Najd were to conspire against the truth of Islam they cannot produce a worthy substitute to replace guidance of Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). Therefore it really does not matter whose help you solicit to respond to what is presented to you and it would be better if you keep your sources private. Just refer to me the relevant information which is connected with the issue and avoid mentioning issues which are unrelated to religion. Also as a matter of principle when you dispute you are instructed to refer to Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and the Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam), evidence: “O you, who have believed, obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those in authority among you. And if you disagree over anything, refer it to Allah and the Messenger, if you should believe in Allah and the Last Day. That is the best [way] and best in result.” [Ref: 4:59] Yet you referred to a student who presented you with innovated principles. 1.0 - The Issue Of Fixing Time, Day And Date Of For Innovative Practices: You stated, fixing of time, or day, or date, for an innovative practice and then consistently engaging in the innovative practice on the fixed time, or day, or date causes it to be deemed as [reprehensible] innovation. Factually, there is absolutely no basis and no evidence in Quran/Hadith where this has been stated as a criterion of determining a [reprehensible] innovation. Saying it explicitly, neither Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) nor the Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has stated; fixing a time, or day, or date to engage in a newly invented practice/custom makes it a reprehensible Biddah/Sunnah. The criterion of determining innovation is not established with evidence from Quran/Hadith therefore it cannot be used as a criterion in regards to determining innovations. 1.1 - In Dispute Refer To Allah And His Messenger: Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has stated in Quran: “O you who have believed, obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those in authority among you. And if you disagree over anything, refer it to Allah and the Messenger, if you should believe in Allah and the Last Day. That is the best [way] and best in result.” [Ref: 4:59] Therefore it is expected from a proponent of the mentioned criteria to provide evidence to establish legality of this criterion within Islam.[2] A companion is reported to have said: “No people introduce an innovation into their religion, except that its like from the Sunnah is raised from them and it does not return to the people till the judgment day.” [Ref: Darimi, B1, H99, Urdu Version] Judging on this Hadith the criterion of determining [reprehensible] innovation itself is a newly invented reprehensible innovation which has raised a Sunnah criterion of determining [reprehensible] innovation from amongst Wahhabi’s. 1.2 - Prophetic Criterion Of Determining A [Reprehensible] Innovation: It is recorded that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) said: “He who innovates things in our affairs for which there is no valid (reason) and these are to be rejected.” [Ref: Muslim, B18, H4266] Another translation of same Hadith is: "If somebody innovates something which is not in harmony with the principles of our religion, that thing is rejected." [Ref: Bukhari B49, H861] Similar type Hadith records: “He who did any act for which there is no sanction from our behalf that is to be rejected.” [Ref: Muslim, B18, H4267] A Hadith records: "And whoever introduces an erroneous innovation with which Allah is not pleased nor His Messenger then he shall receive sins similar to whoever acts upon it without that diminishing anything from the sins of the people.”[3] [Ref: Tirmadhi, B29, H2677] From these Ahadith we understand that any action not established from Quran/Hadith and not in harmony with spirit of Islam and not sanctioned by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) or Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and which does not please Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam), it is to be rejected/discarded. The reason of rejection is that it will be deemed as a evil/reprehensible innovation and about which Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has said: “Whoever introduces an evil Sunnah that is followed after him, will bear the burden of sin for that and the equivalent of their burden of sin, without that detracting from their burden in the slightest.” [Ref: Ibn Majah, B1, H207] 1.3 - Reprehensible Innovations Are Misguidance: We have established an innovation which does not please Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and does not agree with spirit of Islam is misguidance. Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is reported to have said: “And the most evil affairs are the innovations; and every innovation is misguidance." [Ref: Muslim, B4, H1885] In another similar Hadith instruction of avoiding newly invented practices is given along with mention of novelties being [reprehensible] innovations and being misguidance: “Avoid novelties, every novelty is an innovation and every innovation is misguidance." [Ref: Abu Dawood, B40, H4590] A Hadith records: “Abdullaah Ibn 'Umar (radiallah ta'ala anhu) said, "Every innovation is misguidance, even if the people see it as something good." [Ref: Darimi, B1, H96, Urdu Version] Incorporating the understanding from the previous section in here leads to the conclusion; every innovative Sunnah/Biddah which does not please Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and has not been sanctioned and goes against the spirit of Islam is misguidance. 1.4 - Innovated Principle Of Wahhabis And Correct Judgment Regarding It: Biddahs/Sunnahs which are composed of acts of worship such as; supplication, non-obligatory prayers (i.e. Nawafil), recitation of Quran, and fasting. Or composed of acts of charity or have objective of providing Islamic education are in no way opposed to Islamic teachings nor customs/practices composed of these can be source of gaining displeasure of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) or RasoolAllah (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). Any act which contradicts the sanctioned teaching of Islam such as engaging in impermissible activities (i.e. Haram) or polytheistic activities (i.e. Shirk) or encouraging evil and forbidding good will gain one wrath of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and displeasure of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). Recitation of Quran or performing of non-obligatory prayers or engaging in supplication before or after the Adhan/Janazah, or fixing a time, or date, or day, to engage Islamicly sanctioned acts of worship (i.e. Dua, Nawafil, Tilawat) which are not explicitly established for that time, or day, or date, as Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) cannot be termed as [reprehensible] innovations on the basis that a time, a date, a day, was fixed for it to be performed. In Islam reprehensible of actions, or customs, or practices, is judged based on if they contradict the teaching of Islam and not on fixing of time, or date, or day. Yet the Wahhabi principle deems actions performed on a particular time, or date or day continuously deems it to be innovation just on the basis of fixing of time, date, and day even if these customs are Islamicly sanctioned acts of worship. 2.0 - The Hell Earned By Engaging In Islamic Acts Of Worship: Consider this scenario, a believer after performing Fajr prayers waits fifteen minutes and then recites the first chapter of Quran and recites Surah Ikhlas then raises his hands in supplication and just recites the first chapter of Quran and ends it with, Ameen! This believer engages in this practice/custom all his life knowing well that it is not Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) but his own practice. Do you think this person has been committing a major sin for which he will be punished and all his good actions be rejected? Or has been engaged in worshiping Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) via his supplication and for which he will be rewarded on judgment day? According to Wahhabism, just because he engaged in worshipping Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) on a fixed time and performed it regularly this person has committed a crime serious enough to go to hell while having all good actions rejected – all for supplicating to Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) on a fix time. 2.1 - Mentioned Scenario According To Prophetic Principles Of Determining Innovation: Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has been reported to have stated; any act for which there is no sanction from Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) or Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) it is to be rejected. Based on this principle, supplication has been sanctioned and is Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) instructed and Prophet’s (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) taught method of worship. Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is reported to have said; if something innovated is not in harmony with spirit of Islam it is to be rejected. Considering this, engaging in supplication [which essentially is worship of Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala] is perfectly in accordance with spirit of Islam so is recitation of Quran. Another states; anything for which there is not valid reason it is to be rejected. Is worship of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and gaining His pleasure and wanting to engage in non-obligatory acts of worship not valid reason enough? A literal translation, if anyone innovates into our affairs what is not from it, it is rejected. Is not worship of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) from Islam? Then how can it be deemed as a [reprehensible] innovation? Is not invocation religiously sanctioned form of worship? 2.2 - Silence Of Allah And Prophet On Issue Of Fixing Of Time, Day, Date: From all angles the mentioned scenario is a invented Sunnah/Biddah composed of acts of worship therefore it is not [reprehensible] Biddah/Sunnah and it will not be rejected nor be cause of displeasure of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) or Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). We have instructions of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) which help us identify [reprehensible] innovations and he has not stipulated fixing of time, day, and date has a principle to determine innovations. Judging according to the prophetic principles of innovation the person who supplicates to Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) on fixed time, day and date on regular or irregular basis is not engaging in an innovation which conflicts with prophetic principles hence the innovated practice/custom cannot be [reprehensible] innovation and cannot be rejected. We find that Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) are silent on the fixing of time, date, and day. We find no explicit evidence where Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has permitted fixing of day, or date, or time to engage in a act of worship nor we find any prohibition for such fixing of days, dates, or time but Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is silent. This silence is very important for establishing permissibility of fixing time, or day, or date. 2.3 - The Verdict On Fixing Of Time, Date, Day Based On Prophetic Teaching: Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is reported to have said, lawful has been declared haram has been declared and on matters which Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is silent it is excused, meaning one will not be questioned regarding it, Hadith: “The lawful is what Allah made lawful in His Book, the unlawful is what Allah made unlawful in his Book, and what He was silent about; then it is among that for which He has pardoned." [Ref: Tirmadhi, B22, H1726] The underlined part is better explained in the following Hadith: “What Allah has made lawful in His Book is halal and what He has forbidden is haram, and that concerning which He is silent is allowed as His favor. So accept from Allah His favor, for Allah is not forgetful of anything. He then recited, "And thy Lord is not forgetful." [Ref: Musnad Al Bazzar] Due to silence of Quran/Hadith on the issue of fixing of time, or day, or date we can confidently say as per the teaching of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam); it is permissible to fix days, time, and date to engage in acts of worship. Those who say contrary they must establish the prohibition from Quran/Hadith for fixing of time, date, and day. In contrast to prophetic guidance, we have Wahhabi principle which deems acts of worship performed on fixed time, date, and day as [reprehensible] Sunnah/Biddah. We Muslims are told: “Narrated Tariq: Abdullah said, "The best talk is Allah's Book (Qur'an), and the best guidance is the guidance of Muhammad." [Ref: Bukhari, B73, H120] And we choose and follow the best of guidance and reject the [reprehensible] innovation of heretics. We reject the principle which demonizes a practice/custom as [reprehensible] innovation which prophetic principle determined to be praise worthy Sunnah/Biddah. 3.0 - Reasons For Fixing Of Days And Time And Dates For Innovated Sunnahs/Biddah: Commonly a time, date, and day are fixed for religious conventions. Order is fixed, a will speak after whom b will deliver speech and then c will speak on this topic. All this is done for organizational purposes. It makes it easier for those who wish to participate to gather for the event. If it was un announced or if announced but announced as; hello people, we will randomly choose a day for religious convention and randomly grab someone to deliver a speech on random topic in random order at a randomly selected mosque in a random country and in a random city on a random time, please people ensure you all come. With this type of creating awareness for a religious convention we might avoid Wahhabi [reprehensible] Biddah charge but practically it is the stupidest invitation to join a religious convention. Who would want to come to such stupid and unplanned event and who will be able to make it even if they decide to actually attend it. Hajj is performed on every tenth of month of Hajj or at least that is the idea. What is so special about 10th of Islamic month of Hajj? Does Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) get weak on that day and Hajj strengthens Him? Its purpose is to organize to fix so all Muslims from all over the world know that we will perform Hajj as an Ummah. Prayer times are fixed and for organizational purposes all stand in row and face direction of Qibla. Alhasil the fixing of times, or day, and dates for innovated Sunnahs/Biddahs is strictly for purpose of organization. It allows people to know where the event is taking place, what date and day it has been organized and on what time it will begin and end. Knowledge of which will enable people to decide to attend. 3.1 - Performing Good Acts Regular On Fixed Times, Days, And Dates: Hadith records, mother of believers Umm Salamah (radiallah ta’ala anha) said: “And the dearest of the actions to him was the righteous action that the person does regularly, even if it were a little.” [Ref: Ibn Majah, B5, H1225] Same Hadith has been narrated by mother of believers Hadhrat Aysha (radiallah ta’ala anha), she said: “The most beloved action to Allah's Messenger was that whose doer did it continuously and regularly.” [Ref: Bukhari, B76, H469] This establishes that actions done regularly are pleasing to Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). Action can be regular in meaning of, daily on fixed time of day, or after a certain act, or fixed month, or fixed date of a month, or fixed day of week, or fixed to perform once in a year. As long as the aspect was fixed and regularly performed on fixed then it would be pleasing to Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). 3.2 - Fixing Of All Types Established From Sunnah Of Prophet and Companions: Hadith records that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) travelled on Thursday, Hadith: “Narrated Ka`b bin Malik: The Prophet set out on Thursday for the Ghazwa of Tabuk and he used to prefer to set out on Thursdays.” [Ref: Bukhari, B52, H199] And another Hadith establishes; deviation from the travel norm was a rare event: “Ka`b bin Malik used to say: "Scarcely did Allah's Messenger set out for a journey on a day other than Thursday." [Ref: Bukhari, B52, H198] It would be safe to conclude that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) had fixed Thursday to travel and only on absolutely essential like Hajj or emergency cases would travel on any other day. Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) had made routine for visiting Masjid Quba, Hadith: “Narrated Ibn `Umar: The Prophet used to go to the Quba' mosque, sometimes walking, sometimes riding.” [Ref: Bukhari, B92, H427] And the it was established this was every Saturday, Hadith: “Narrated Abdullah bin Dinar: Ibn Umar said, "The Prophet used to go to the Mosque of Quba every Saturday (sometimes) walking and (sometimes) riding." Abdullah (Ibn Umar) used to do the same.”[4] [Ref: Bukhari, B21, H284] Another Hadith records; upon reaching Masjid Quba Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) used to perform two Rakat Salat ad-Duha non-obligatory prayer.[5] Hadhrat Bilal (radiallah ta’ala anhu) routinely performed Nawafil (i.e. Tahhayyatul Wudhu) each time he performed Wudhu and Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) enquired from him, Hadith: “Narrated Abu Hurairah: At the time of the Fajr prayer the Prophet asked Bilal, "Tell me of the best deed you did after embracing Islam, for I heard your footsteps in front of me in Paradise." Bilal replied, "I did not do anything worth mentioning except that whenever I performed ablution during the day or night, I prayed after that ablution as much as was written for me." [Ref: Bukhari, B21, H250] Cutting the long Hadith short, quoting: “They said: 'A man from the Ummah of Muhammad. So I said: 'I am Muhammad, whose palace is this?' They said: ''Umar bin Al-Khattab's.' So Bilal said: 'O Allah's Messenger! I have never called the Adhan except that I prayed two Rak'ah, and I never committed Hadath (an act which invalidates ablution i.e. breaking wind) except that I performed Wudu upon that, and I considered that I owed Allah two Rak'ah. So the Messenger of Allah said: 'For those two.'" [Ref: Tirmadhi, B49, H4053] From Hadith of Tirmadhi it becomes apparent that Hadhrat Bilal (radiallah ta’ala anhu) performed two Nawafil each time he had completed Wudhu. A Hadith narrates that women requested Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) to devote a day for them where they can come and ask questions about Islam, Hadith: “Narrated Abu Sa`id: The women requested the Prophet: "Please fix a day for us." So the Prophet preached to them and said: "A woman whose three children died would be screened from the Hell Fire by them." Hearing that, a woman asked: "If two died?" The Prophet replied, "Even two (would screen her from the Fire." And Abu Hurairah added: "Those children should be below the age of puberty.” [Ref: Bukhari, B23, H341] This establishes even Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) fixed days/time to engage in religious activities. 3.3 – Concluding The Discussion On Fixing Of Days, Time And Dates: It has been established; Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) had fixed days and even particular days of week/month to engage in a particular actions. The companions of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) following the footsteps also followed the prophetic examples and in some cases fixed a time and day to engage in acts of worship. Hence fixing of time, day and date or to perform an action, after a certain action, or to engage it on a particular day, on a particular place, at a particular time, of a particular month, in particular order, has got nothing to do with an action/custom or act of worship/charity becoming [reprehensible] innovation. 3.4 – True Criteria Of Determining [Reprehensible] Innovation: As a matter of fact [reprehensible] innovation is created, if one engages in an act which is against the spirit of Islam and against the teaching of worship and charity. Also if it goes against the good of Islam and consists of engaging in activities contrary to Islam [think along the lines of disco nights, plus free mixing and alcoholic drinks] then the creator of reprehensible practice is sinful. If a newly invented practice/custom is followed by others then he has created an innovation into deen of Islam[6] even though it was not intended to be made part of Islam.[7] The good/evil of innovation is determined based on what the innovation is composed of. If it was composed of dancing, consuming alcoholic beverages, free mixing of males/females, music, drugs and other unislamic activities then clubbing is Haram – because it is composed of all Haram. On other hand if the innovation is composed of recitation of Quran and other forms of worship such as Nawafil or any other permissible Islamic teaching then it is permissible. 4.0 - Invented Sunnah/Biddah Performed For Sake Of Reward Is Not [Reprehensible] Innovation: You stated: “Also if any innovated practice is performed believing that it will earn reward from Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) then it is also innovation.” It is worth noting; reward for innovated Sunnahs/Biddahs depends on what it is composed of. If the innovated Sunnah/Biddah is composed of acts of worship such a Nawafil, engaging in invocation and composed of charitable gifts and providing education about Islam then the reward gained will be based on these acts. Therefore the principle of: any innovated act performed for reward from Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is [reprehensible] innovation, is not valid. Nor it is correct to employ this principle because it deems a praiseworthy Biddah/Sunnah as a reprehensible Sunnah/Biddah. And the principle and the results this principle produces are contrary to explicit teaching of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) because he said: “He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] If the innovated Sunnah/Biddah is composed of acts which Islam has sanctioned and told of reward then reward for innovated Sunnahs is established from Hadith of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and believing contrary to this is misguidance which takes to hell-fire. 5.0 – Heretical Position -Introducing Of Sunnah Does Not Mean Innovating Sunnahs/Biddahs: You presented the following defense for your sectarian position: “… Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam)in the context of historical event was informing the companions; the Ansari man initiated [prophetic] Sunnah [of giving charity] and gave charity in the gathering for him and those who contributed following his example will be rewarded equally without their rewards being diminished. So in reality Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) did not permit introduction of good innovation in religion of Islam but he merely told of reward for engaging in his Sunnah of giving charity.” Not surprisingly this is nothing new and it has been comprehensively addressed in my numerous articles on understanding of this genre of Ahadith. The claim that the word Sunnah used in the Hadith does not mean Biddah has been addressed, here. Wahhabi argument that here reward being told is for reviving a forgotten Sunnah and your above position falls into this category and this has been addressed, here. Historical events became reasons on which the injunctions of Quran/Hadith were revealed yet the interpretation of Quran/Hadith is not limited restricted according to the context of the events. It is principle that a Mutliq (i.e. general) statement will remain general even though if it can and is interpreted specifically in light of another piece of evidence. The position of Muslims in regards to this genre of Ahadith is; the words of these Ahadith are Mutliq and any Takhseesi (i.e. specific) interpretation cannot abrogate the generality of these statements. Many Ahadith provide guiding principles which are based in a specific context but the principles are not limited and restricted to a particular context or era but their generality is not challenged nor restricted to context. The evidence for this position of Muslims and double standard employed by the opponents of Islam is established, here. The nature of Prophetic words is shortest expression bearing widest meanings and how this establishes the position of Muslims and refutes Wahhabi understanding is explained, here. The following article completely takes the sting out of Wahhabi position; guiding principle is to be understood according to the context and its generality is specific due to its context, here. And the finale article puts the Hadith of good/bad Sunnah in context of other Ahadith about [reprehensible] innovations. It also establishes how the Ahadith are connected, here. 5.2 – Principle Given In Particular Context Is Not Limited To The Context: The interpretation of event in the light of principle told by Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is valid but the principle cannot be restricted to a context of event. Just as the interpretation of verses of Quran revealed in particular historical context cannot be restricted to that particular context only. If Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) was merely informing the companions; “…the Ansari man initiated [prophetic] Sunnah [of giving charity] and gave charity in the gathering for him and those who contributed following his example will be rewarded equally without their rewards being diminished …” then he would have expressed that in similar wording. Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) would have been more specific and would not have made general statement which can be given dual interpretation. Note, the statement is general in a specific context, which gives a specific meaning in its context, but the generality of the statement remains. Scenario, ten friends none of them performed prayers, then one starts five prayers, other nine fallow him and begin to perform the five obligatory prayers. Now the question is, Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has stated: “He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.” And based on this statement, the one who started performing the obligatory prayers and those who imitated him and those who imitate them will they gain reward without their reward being diminished? 5.3 – The Islamic Verdict And Verdict Of Heretics: Well according to the Wahhabi position of interpreting the Hadith according to strict historical context the answer is, no and yes. No, due to the fact; context of Hadith is about charity and here the context on which the Hadith is applied is prayers. Yes, due to a Wahhabi generalizing the teaching and judging on this principle: any Prophetic-Sunnah/Islamic-Teaching if followed by one and others follow his example, all will earn equal reward. Truly, the answer depends on which type of Wahhabi you encounter. One high on Biddah, Shirk, Kafir, Mushrik, it is permissible to kill you, will likely say no. One slightly more awake intellectually and scripturally will say yes. The no-type has held to the principle context is not same therefore no reward. The yes-type has left the historical context and has invented a principle based on that context and now judges based on that principle. He is no different from Muslims in adopting a non-contextual position but has invented a principle to maintain the status quo sectarian belief. The Islamic answer is, yes [based on yes-type Wahhabi principle] they all will be rewarded. The Muslims [and the yes-type Wahhabis] have understood from this Hadith; the principle is given in a context but not made specific to the context. 5.4 - Clear Evidence The Prophetic Principle Is Not Limited To The Context: Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) said after the companions had collectively gave charitable donations for the poor Muslims: “He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] The Muslims believe this is a general principle and it permits creation of praise worthy Sunnahs/Biddahs into Islam. The opponents of Muslims argue: nope, the principle is to be interpreted in its historical context. Ignoring the disputed part of the Hadith it would be better to move on to none disputed part of Hadith: “And he who introduced some evil practice in Islam which had been followed subsequently (by others), he would be required to bear the burden like that of one who followed this (evil practice) without their being diminished in any respect.” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] Question for the opponent of Islam is; what connection does this part of the Hadith have with the historical events? The Ansari companion, who initiated giving of charity, and those who followed his example, will they all bear the sin of equally? If not, then this establishes; the first and the last part of Hadith were not restricted to the context but were provided as a general rule. 5.5 – The General Rule And Its Application At Present: There has been plenty of discussion on good Sunnah part of the Hadith and it is important that evil Sunnah part of the Hadith is discussed a little. Scenario, five boys decide to go out every Saturday at night and engage in listening to music, drink all types of alcoholic drinks, dance up close and personnel with girls who are Ghair-Mehram, get all touchy feely with them and bring home one whore each from that club and they call it ‘Boys Saturday Night Out’. What does Islam say about BSNO? Simple answer is nothing, no verse of Quran or Hadith says anything about BSNO. Is it permissible to engage in BSNO? If you looking for explicit evidence then; no! Go on and knock your self out engaging in BSNO Islam didn’t prohibit it. Permissibility/Impermissibility is not established on clear/explicit evidence but the question: is it part of core Islamic teaching this is settled on clear/explicit evidence. The permissibility is settled on: is it composed of Islamicly sanctioned activities. The impermissibility is decided on: does it contradict Islamic teaching in part or whole? BSNO, contradicts numerous teachings of Islam because it is composed of Haram activities. Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) stated regarding such innovated evil practices: “And he who introduced some evil practice in Islam which had been followed subsequently (by others), he would be required to bear the burden like that of one who followed this (evil practice) without their being diminished in any respect.” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] 5.6 – If Sanctioned Sunnahs Earn Reward Then Sanction Haram Earns Sin: Now if the following part of Hadith was for Islamicly sanctioned Sunnahs[8] and cannot be used to justifying legality of praiseworthy innovations: “He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] Then the following part of Hadith was for Islamicly prohibited activities[9] and cannot be used to justifying impermissibility of practices which Islam hasn’t sanctioned as Haram: “And he who introduced some evil practice in Islam which had been followed subsequently (by others), he would be required to bear the burden like that of one who followed this (evil practice) without their being diminished in any respect.” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] Therefore any practice which Islam hasn’t explicitly declared Haram cannot be declared Haram. What about watching a stripper dance naked on a pole? What is the verdict on those who follow the example of y and go to watch a stripper dance? Do they engage in Islamicly sanctioned Haram? If yes, then please quote me a verse or Hadith in which it is stated: watching strippers get naked and dance on pole is Haram and those who follow y’s example all will earn equal sin.[10] 5.7 – The Islamic Position On Innovations Composed Of Islamic/Unislamic Activities: Islamic position is; any practice composed of Islamicly sanctioned Haram even if the practice has not been mentioned by name in Quran/Hadith is Haram and anyone who follows this evil Sunnah will all earn equal sin and punishment. Similarly any practice composed of Islam sanctioned acts even if the practice is not mentioned by name in Quran/Hadith it is good Sunnah and will earn reward from Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). This establishes the Islamic position which is contested by Wahhabis and that Islamic position is; the good Sunnah [and the evil Sunnah] of Hadith are general principle[s] and not specific to an era and time or to a context. 6.0 – A Muslim Innovates A Practice - All Earn Reward By Following Him: Scenario, a Muslim daily recites Surah YaSin after completing Isha prayers and then performs four Nawafil prayers and ends with invocation. According to following Hadith of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) his act is most pleasing to Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) because it is being performed regularly and continuously: “The most beloved action to Allah's Messenger was that whose doer did it continuously and regularly.” [Ref: Bukhari, B76, H469] Another Muslim joins this Muslim and like the first one completes Isha prayers and recites Surah YaSin and performs four Nawafil prayers and ends with the invocation. This becomes a daily routine of all the members of family and they give this practice a name ‘daily & continuously’ and gradually the practice of ‘daily & continuously’ spreads in the community. 6.1 – The Practice Of Daily & Continuously Islamic And Wahhabi Verdicts: Note in the previous scenario it was unlikely any sane heretic would say; those who performed the five prayers imitating another person’s example will not earn reward. In this scenario from the Wahhabi side there is only one verdict; the person engages in [reprehensible] innovation and he along those who follow his practice are sinful. Even though this position goes completely against following Wahhabi principle: any Prophetic-Sunnah/Islamic-Teaching if followed by one and others follow his example, all will earn equal reward. Here it is likely that a heretic may argue; Salah is established from Islamic teaching. It is commanded by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and instructed by Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) but the practice of ‘daily & continuously’ was neither commanded nor instructed to Muslims.[11] Due to this reason it is a [reprehensible] innovation which is sin and takes to hell-fire. According to Muslims engaging in ‘daily & continuously’ is reward worthy because the practice of ‘daily & continuously’ is composed of prophetic Sunnahs and Islamic teachings and it is composed of acts of worship. Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has stated: “He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.” Nothing can be better then worship of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) hence the reward for those who engage in this practice are established. 6.2 – The Lesson Derived From This Discussion: The following derived principle: any Prophetic-Sunnah/Islamic-Teaching if followed by one and others follow his example, all will earn equal reward, is correct but the heretic’s selectively would employ it to judge issues which their hearts agree with and withdraw it from which their hearts are blackened. Even more importantly it establishes that the following words of Hadith: “He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.” are not restricted to the historical events in which it was given. It is to be applied generally and evidence of this application is forming of general underlined principle to judge if one will earn reward if others follow one performing explicitly sanctioned acts of Islam. 7.0– Explaining The Islamic Principle With Examples From Ahadith: In the following parts of article the Wahhabi principle of; interpret guiding principles in light of the context, will be criticized and its error established. Also the Islamic principle; a general statement in a specific context remains general and does not become specific due to the context, will be explained with same Ahadith, so the truth of Islam remains dominant over the falsehood of heretics. 7.1 – Stopping Wrong With Hand, Speaking Against it And Hating It In Heart: Hadith from Sahih Muslim records that: “He who amongst you sees something abominable should modify it with the help of his hand; and if he has not strength enough to do it, then he should do it with his tongue, and if he has not strength enough to do it, (even) then he should (abhor it) from his heart, and that is the least of faith.” [Ref: Muslim, B1, H79] All factions, the Muslims, Wahhabi’s, Deobandi’s, and to some degree even the Shia believe; if someone is engaged in ANY unislamic activity the best course is to physically stop it, speak out against it, or at the very least affirm its being wrong in the heart. Now chucking spanner into works come's Wahhabi methodology – interpret the Hadith in the context and limit its understanding according to it. The context is as it follows: “It is narrated on the authority of Tariq bin Shihab: It was Marwan who initiated (the practice) of delivering Khutbah before the prayer on the Eid day. A man stood up and said: Prayer should precede khutbah. He (Marwan) remarked, This (practice) has been done away with. Upon this Abu Sa'id remarked: This man has performed (his duty) laid on him.”[12] Abu Sa’id (radiallah ta’ala anhu) continued: “I heard the Messenger of Allah as saying: He who amongst you sees something abominable should modify it with the help of his hand; and if he has not strength enough to do it, then he should do it with his tongue, and if he has not strength enough to do it, (even) then he should (abhor it) from his heart, and that is the least of faith.” [Ref: Muslim, B1, H79] According to the context in which the companion quoted the last part of Hadith, the Wahhabi methodology leads one to conclude that anyone giving Khutbah before the Eid prayer is the abominable act against which one should physically prevent, speak out against or detest it in heart and nothing else. Anyone insane enough to actually believe; the instruction given by Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is only specific to the context in which the companion narrated it and does not refer to other wrongs? The Islamic understanding is that the context is specific but the teaching last part of Hadith applies to all unislamic activities. In other words, Islamicly we are instructed to physically stop all unislamic wrong, or to speak out against it, or detest it in our hearts. 7.2 – Death Of Two/Three Children Will Save Mother From Fire: It is recorded in the Hadith that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) stated: "A woman whose three children died would be screened from the Hell Fire by them." Hearing that, a woman asked: "If two died?" The Prophet replied, "Even two (would screen her from the Fire)!" Should we interpret this Hadith according to Wahhabi methodology of, interpreting in the context of the women gathered on that day or should we understand; this Hadith is not specific to a group of women, in a particular era, in a gathering, in a city, in a country, but it applies to all Muslim women in all eras? Before one decides to answer this question please read the context: “Narrated Abu Sa`id: The women requested the Prophet: "Please fix a day for us." So the Prophet preached to them and said: "A woman whose three children died would be screened from the Hell Fire by them." Hearing that, a woman asked: "If two died?" The Prophet replied, "Even two (would screen her from the Fire)!" And Abu Hurairah added: "Those children should be below the age of puberty.” [Ref: Bukhari, B23, H341] According to the methodology employed by Wahhabi Sheikh’s – interpret in the context, only the women gathered and the one who asked about the death of two children will be screen from the fire everyone else, gets no exemption. We Muslims know that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is Prophet sent to mankind hence his teachings are not limited and restricted to a nation, era, or group of women. Hence this teaching even though has a relevance to the women gathered and era of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) its implications and exemption isn’t just for them. What has been established here is that a teaching in particular context applies to all Ummah and its implications/meanings are not restricted to a context. 7.3– Refuting The Heretics And Summing Up Of Discussion On This Matter: The valid methodology is of Muslims – interpreting Hadith in a particular context and holding to its literal reading. Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is reported to have said; he has been given [ability] short expression with vast meanings and his statements are in keeping with short expression but vast meanings and the Hadith in discussion – introduction of praiseworthy Sunnahs and reward of it, contains vast meanings. Nor it could not be expected from Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) that he did not know the implications of his statements. As a Muslim one is to believe that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) provided the best of guidance. Part of his guidance is the following statement: “He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.” Is the generality of statement part of best of guidance and according to jawami al kalim nature of his speech or those born fourteen centuries after know better then Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam)? If the intended meaning was only what you referred to[ then would it be hard for Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) to express this in emphatic words? If one consistently adheres to principle of interpreting the general of statements according to their historical context then all guiding principles given become irrelevant to other contexts and this has been demonstrated in 7.1 and 7.2. Therefore the generality of a prophetic statement cannot become specific but only specific interpretation can be derived from it using a specific piece of evidence. One cannot legitimately abrogate the generality of statement by giving it a specific interpretation. Specific interpretations based on valid evidence are acceptable and the interpretation of Muslims is based on the words of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and no contradiction between it and Quran/Hadith has been established by the opponents of Muslims. Conclusion: The following principle of: The gist of his response is; fixing date or time or day for a particular practice and repeatedly engaging in the practice on the fixed date, time and day, causes the practice to become [reprehensible] innovation.”, presented by you is baseless for two reasons, it does not have valid Shar’ri evidence and it deems something reprehensible something which prophetic principles of judge to be innocent. In light of other teachings of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) innovations in discussion are praiseworthy the principle presented by you deems these praiseworthy acts to be reprehensible, hence it cannot be valid. Engaging in innovated acts for sake of rewards is established from explicit evidence of Hadith and this is sufficient refutation of your belief. The meaning of Hadith has been established and the generality of words of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) cannot be abrogated with a contextual interpretation. Words of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) are shortest expression with widest meanings and the interpretation given by Muslims to refute Wahhabi heresy is valid and according to his speech containing widest of meanings. And I end with the words of Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) whose teaching is the best of guidance: “He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.” Wama alayna ilal balaghul mubeen. Muhammed Ali Razavi Footnotes: - [1] “The context of the hadith states that a group of poor people came to the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) so he asked those around him to give charity, but no one came forward - so much so that signs of anger could be discerned on the face of RasoolAllah (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) so one of the companions stepped forward and gave charity, so the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) said the above Hadith. [...] Secondly, this action the companion did was not something new in Islaam, since giving charity was already legislated from the very first days of Islaam; rather he was simply implementing it, so the statement of the Prophet sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam "a good sunnah" was said at a time when the people were reluctant to give charity, so one man started to give the charity and others followed him in it. Thus, he revived a Sunnah at a time when the people were reluctant to practice it, and this is the meaning of "a good sunnah." Hence, in the early works of 'aqeedah, this hadith was included under the chapter headings, "The reward of the one who renews the Sunnah." <For example Sharh Usool I'tiqaad 1/50> [Ref: MuslimConverts, Argument Of Innovators, Point 3] - [2] As a former Wahhabi and a peddler of this criterion, and now better educated and more in tune with book of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and Sunnah of RasoolAllah (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) would like to say; there is no such evidence if there was then there would have not been change of side on my part. It would be my pleasure and fortunes to be proven wrong in this regard. - [3] “Kathir bin Abdullah narrated from his father, that his grandfather said: "I heard the Messenger of Allah say: 'Whoever revives a Sunnah of mine that dies out after I am gone, he will have a reward equivalent to that of those among the people who act upon it, without that detracting from their reward in the slightest. Whoever introduces an innovation with which Allah and his Messenger are not pleased, he will have a (burden of) sin equivalent to that of those among the people who act upon it, without that detracting from their sins in the slightest.'" [Ref: Ibn Majah, B1, H210] - [4] Abdullah Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) also visited Masjid Quba on every Saturday by walking/riding and performed Nawafil in the Masjid. - [5] “Narrated Nafi: Ibn Umar never offered the Duha prayer except on two occasions: Whenever he reached Mecca; and he always used to reach Mecca in the forenoon. He would perform Tawaf round the Ka`ba and then offer two Rak`at at the rear of Maqam Ibrahim. Whenever he visited Quba, for he used to visit it every Saturday. When he entered the Mosque, he disliked to leave it without offering a prayer. Ibn `Umar narrated that Allah's Messenger used to visit the Mosque of Quba (sometime) walking and (sometime) riding. And he used to say, "I do only what my companions used to do and I don't forbid anybody to pray at any time during the day or night except that one should not intend to pray at sunrise or sunset." [Ref: Bukhari, B21, H283] - [6] For which he will be blamed and punished as well as those who emulated his [reprehensible] Sunnah without the punishment and the sin being reduced in anyway. - [7] Good/Bad actions and any custom/festivity compromised of these actions are by default part of Islam. The following Ahadith reveals this principle, sinful acts become reprehensible innovations into Islam: “And he who introduced some evil practice in Islam which had been followed subsequently (by others), he would be required to bear the burden like that of one who followed this (evil practice) without their being diminished in any respect.” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] “Whoever introduces an evil Sunnah that is followed after him, will bear the burden of sin for that and the equivalent of their burden of sin, without that detracting from their burden in the slightest.” [Ref: Ibn Majah, B1, H207] Now try to understand why Hadhrat Adam’s (alayhis salaam) son will be responsible for every murder, Hadith "Narrated Abdullah: Allah's Messenger said, "Whenever a person is murdered unjustly, there is a share from the burden of the crime on the first son of Adam for he was the first to start the tradition of murdering." [Ref: Bukhari, B55, H552] No evidence to establish he intended his action to be part of Islam. This points to the default rule; every action is part of Islam may it be good/bad. Judging on this rule establishes how Prophet Adam’s (alayhis salaam) son’s action was judged to be part of Islam. - [8] As an example, one who feeds a poor person and those who follow his example and also feed a poor person then he and all those who followed him earn equal reward. One who fasts in the month of Ramdhan and those who follow him will all earn equal reward. Putting it simply anyone being the cause of reviving a neglected Sunnah and others following him after he establishes it with his action then they all will earn equal reward. - [9] The Shaykh of heretics Abu Rumaysah agrees with us Muslims that the second part of ‘evil Sunnah’ refers is about Islam sanctioned Haram activities and I quote: “The meaning of "a bad sunnah" is similar. It is renewing or starting something that the [Islamic] Shari’ah has already declared to be bad and the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) gave the example of the two sons of Adam (alayhis salaam wa 'alaa nabiyina), one killing the other. So upon the murderer was the sin of the killing and the sin of all those that killed after him, without their sins being reduced.” - [10] Part One: The heretic Shaykh Abu Ruymaysah and his co-religionists are likely to argue using option1, BSNO is composed of all activities which are against the clear teaching of Islam hence it is Haram. Or they are likely to argue with option2; we do not accept the existence of BSNO as a practice but we judge each individual act and based on all these individual acts we say these boys are engaging in sinful activities and if they are followed by others will earn them equal sin and punishment. Part Two: It doesn’t really matter what their line of argument is because the outcome is predetermined. If option1 is employed then note the principle employed by heretic is: practices which are composed of Haram activities are Haram. The opposite of this principle is: practices which are composed of Halal activities are Halal. Therefore the counter response in context of good Sunnah would be: ‘daily & continuously’ and other innovated practices are composed of acts of worship hence they are permissible. If option2 is employed then the heretic has employed: a practice not established in from Quran/Hadith is not recognized by me. This is attitude is foolishness because Islam does recognize the existence of [reprehensible] innovations but does not legitimize these innovations. Where as Mr. Idiot has climbed the high horse of: ‘I am so conscious of purity of Islam that I refuse to even entertain Islam recognizing conceptual existence of [reprehensible] innovations.’ Frankly such an individual is waste of precious minerals and chemicals with which he is made. As a intelligent man/woman one cannot acknowledge the existence of such people, therefore you must close your eyes/ears and say: Mr. Idiot doesn’t really exist, even though you should know Mr. Idiot exists. Mr. Idiot should be reminded, you don’t acknowledge existence of innovations and you judge each individual action in those ‘innovations’ individually. Now we would like you to judge each action individually in ‘daily & continuously’ and tell us your verdict and also the verdict on those who follow it. If he is bit of lesser Mr. Idiot he will be consistent with his methodology and spill the beans: we do not accept the existence of ‘daily & continuously’ as a practice but we judge each individual act and based on all these individual acts we say these people are engaging in good activities and if they are followed by others will earn them equal reward. - [11] In a nutshell, such Wahhabi is saying, Salah is explicitly established as part of [core teaching] Islam and the practice of ‘daily & continuously’ is not therefore it is innovation. To refute such foolishness you enquire from him; are the following activities explicitly established from Islam: Nawafil, recitation of Quran and invocation? Now ask him did not the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) state; a practice engaged continuously and routinely is most pleasing to him. Then how can something which pleases Allah’s Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) be sinful and be punishable by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala)? Only activities which displease Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and His Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) are sinful and punishable, evidence: "And whoever introduces an erroneous innovation with which Allah is not pleased nor His Messenger then he shall receive sins similar to whoever acts upon it without that diminishing anything from the sins of the people.” [Ref: Tirmadhi, B29, H2677] The people engage in daily & continuously following the good example of another Muslim and they like the originator of this practice perform it daily and continuously hence they all please Messenger of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Anyone from them with insight and wisdom will accept the Islamic verdict and only the foolish will continue to argue against Islamic position. - [12] He could be saying, Marwan done the duty entrusted upon him by removing the practice of Khutbah before Eid prayers. Or he could be saying the man has fulfilled the duty to speak out against an activity which is not established from Prophetic Sunnah. As the information stands, Marwan and the man both performed according to the Prophetic standard.
  6. Introduction: After reading latest article a heretic supporter of Ibn Uthaymeen (lanatu lillah) wrote a response to 5.0 defend the Wahhabi Sheikh. The supporter of heresy attempted to argue; Ibn Uthaymeen’s methodology does not demonize those who use modern weapons in battle field. Rather his position his being misrepresented to erect a boogie man for purpose of refuting Salafi/Wahhabi Minhaj. Despite his claim Salih Ibn Uthaymeen position is being used unjustly to victimize Salafi Minhaj he presented no proof how my presentation of Salih Ibn Uthaymeen’s position does not truly represent his actual position. Instead he attempted to justify how modern weapons are legal in light of Quran/Hadith. 1.0 – Wahhabi Arguments - Weapons Used Were Not Part Of Islam: Firstly, Jihad is part of teaching of Islam but the weapons to be used in Jihad are not part of Islam. Secondly, Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) stated: “And make ready against them all you can of power, including steeds of war to threaten the enemy of Allah and your enemy, and others besides whom, you may not know but whom Allah does know.“ [Ref: 8:60] Allah’s Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) employed against the disbelievers all that was available to Muslims in his time. In our times the Mujahideen acquired modern weaponry and by employing them they are obeying the command of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) because Quranic verse states; “And make ready against them all you can of power, including …” Therefore they are not guilty of any innovation but rather obeying the command of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). 2.0 – Response To The Heretical Argument – Weapons Are Part Of Islam: Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) states: “There has certainly been for you in the Messenger of Allah an excellent pattern for anyone whose hope is in Allah and the Last Day and [who] remembers Allah often.” [Ref: 33:21] Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) declared that the example/practice of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is excellent for one who wishes to succeed on the day of judgment. The mother of believers, Hadhrat Aysha (radiallah ta’ala anha) explains why the example/practice of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is best of example for those who wish to succeed on the day of judgment. She said Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) was walking, talking, living example of Quran in action and he was indeed embodiment of Quran. Hence the weapons he used in Jihad and the weapons which he saw being used by his followers are part of Islam. How could the living example of Quran use sword, spear, bow and arrow, horse, camel, shield and these weapons not be part of written Quran/Islam? Salah is part of Islam and how it is performed demonstrated is by the living Quran. Jihad is part of Islam and the means weapons to be used were demonstrated by the living Quran. Secondly, if Jihad is part of Islam and the weapons used in it are not part of Islam then why would you make an attempt to justify the validity of using modern weapons in Jihad according to Quranic verse? Surely you consider the weapons as part of Islam as well and therefore you had to establish the legality of modern weapons in light of Quran/Hadith. If the type of weapons that can be used was not part of Islam then why would you attempt to establish the modern weapons can be used according to broad meanings of Quran? 2.1 – Allah’s Instructions To Prepare Horses Of War: Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) instructs the believers to have the war horses in ready state: “And make ready against them all you can of power, including steeds of war to threaten the enemy of Allah and your enemy, and others besides whom, you may not know but whom Allah does know.“ [Ref: 8:60] Hence the use of war horses in battle is part of Islam. 2.2 – The Conclusion Of The Discussion So Far: The Wahhabis who use modern weaponry and do not employ the war horses in their terrorist activities [which they label JIHAD unjustly] and who support use of modern weapons including battle Tanks are innovators according to their own methodology. They according to Ibn Uthaymeen’s understanding are denier of perfection/completion of Islam and they indirectly insinuate they have perfected/completed the teaching of Islam which Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and his beloved Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) did not. 2.3 – The Muslim Position On The Weapons Of Jihad: Everything Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) did was according to either Wahi Zahiri or Wahi Khaf’fi. Wahi Zahiri means apparent revelation and this is Quran. Wahi Khaf’fi means hidden revelation and this became source of Sunnah Qawli and Sunnah Fehli. Sunnah Qawli means words of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and Sunnah Fehli means actions of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and both these reached us in form of Hadith. The following verses of Quran are evidence for both types; “Your companion has neither gone astray nor has erred. Nor does he speak of (his own) desire. It is only a Revelation revealed.” [Ref: 53:62] “There has certainly been for you in the Messenger of Allah an excellent pattern for anyone whose hope is in Allah and the Last Day and [who] remembers Allah often.” [Ref: 33:21] Hence weapons used by Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and his companions are part of teaching of Islam and are part of perfection/completion of the religion of Islam and the teaching of Quran and one who teaches/believes against this has brought into religion of Islam a reprehensible innovation. 3.0 – Wahhabi Argument – Make Ready All Of Power: The heretic argued: “Allah’s Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) employed against the disbelievers all that was available to Muslims in his time. In our times the Mujahideen acquired modern weaponry and by employing them they are obeying the command of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) …” The explanation and the refutation of this would be in line with the principle of Wahhabi methodology. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has stated in the Quran: “And make ready against them all you can of power, including steeds of war to threaten the enemy of Allah and your enemy, and others besides whom, you may not know but whom Allah does know.“ [Ref: 8:60] Based on the principle that the verse states, make ready all means of power against enemies of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and no specific weapon has been mentioned. 4.0 – Incompatibility Of Wahhabi’s Argument With Wahhabi Methodology: Wahhabi methodology of interpreting the Quran/Hadith consists of interpreting Quran/Hadith according to the understanding of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and Salaf As Saliheen – the companions and two succeeding generations. According to Wahhabism your understanding is a novelty. Only, when you don’t find a precedent from Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) then one is permitted to take route of Ijtihad according to Wahhabi methodology, isn't it? Yes, indeed Ijtihad only when there is no precedent to be followed from the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) then the route of Ijtihad is to be taken on a matter. The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has interpreted the verse with his actions and has demonstrated all the means of power to threaten the enemies of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and there is a precedent to be followed regarding the type of weapons to be used in Jihad. Therefore your own interpretation contradicts the methodology you adhere to. According to your methodology the means to be prepared to threaten and to strike fear in the hearts of enemy of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) are: sword, spear, bow and arrow, shield, camel, horse, and what ever else that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and his companions used. 4.1 – Concluding This Aspect Of Discussion: According to Wahhabi methodology Quran is to be understood and acted upon as Allah’s Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) understood and acted on. And any interpretation of Quran which is not from the the practical/oral teaching of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and of Salaf As Saliheen (i.e. pious predecessors) it is to be rejected. Hence the interpretation of 'and prepare against them all means of power' presented by the Wahhabi contradicts the Prophetic interpretation. In addition to this it also goes against Ibn Uthaymeen’s philosophy of Islam being perfected/completed and Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) explaining every aspect of Islam – including weapons of Jihad. According to frame work of Ibn Uthaymeen's methodology, Quran/Islam was explained in detail and anyone introducing even good Sunnah – such as modern weaponry is insinuating Islam/Quran was not completed/perfected by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and His Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). 4.2 – Wahhabi’s Methodology And The Interpretation: The methodology employed by the Wahhabi and the interpretation of the following verse are correct according to Muslims: “And make ready against them all you can of power …” We the Muslims believe; Quran is written short but expresses widest possible meanings. Therefore it has capacity to validate and address all aspects of human life. In the time of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) horse was the fastest and best mean of charging enemy ranks. Hence we deduce prepare the best of means of threatening the enemies of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). At present the horse is obsolete as a mean weapon of war. Yet the believer is still instructed to prepare horse to strike fear in the enemy of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). At the present instruction is, prepare for Jihad even with the very least battle option – horse. When least is instructed then anything greater then it, is automatically instructed – battle tanks, APC’s etc. Hence the short expression vast meaning of speech of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) yields that as Muslims we should have whatever means possible for war - the very best means of war and the very least. 4.3 – Islamic Methodology Employed By Wahhabi: Heretic ignored the traditional Wahhabi methodology in interpreting the Quran and adopted the Islamic methodology to interpret and justify the weapons used by Wahhabi terrorists in their terrorist activities. On the basis of following verse: “And make ready against them all you can of power …” he argued the legality of modern weapons. He used the generality of meaning of verse of Quran to legalize the use of modern weapons. Based on this principle we can understand the following Hadith: “It was narrated that Abu Juhaifah said: "The Messenger of Allah said: 'Whoever introduces a good practice that is followed after him, will have a reward for that and the equivalent of their reward, without that detracting from their reward in the slightest. Whoever introduces an evil practice that is followed after him, will bear the burden of sin for …" [Ref: Ibn Majah, B1, H207] The generality of Hadith establishes any good practice or custom or festivity [which incorporates Islamic acts of worship, charity, etc.] is permissible and is reward worthy. 4.4 - Triumph Of Islamic Methodology: Wahhabi employed Islamic methodology to legalize the use of modern weaponry and to defend his terrorist brothers who use these weapons in their terrorist activities. If he held to traditional Wahhabi understanding and methodology then chance of arguing against Ibn Uthaymeen’s position was zero.[1] Note to argue the case that modern weapons are permissible – he by default rejected Ibn Uthaymeen’s position that all innovations are misguidance even if the intention is good. He shifted his methodology to establish permissibility of modern weaponry.[2] This only validates Ahle Sunnat’s methodology and refutes Wahhabi and Ibn Uthaymeen’s heretical reasoning – no room for [praiseworthy] innovations. Only complete methodology which is equipped to meet the challenges of the modern world and still hold to Islam is methodology of Ahle Sunnat. Conclusions: According to Wahhabi methodology the precedent of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is to be followed because his precedent is Islam and leaving his precedent and following a new Sunnah/Biddah is misguidance. Therefore one cannot legitimately use any modern means for which there is precedent of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). If someone introduces a Sunnah/Biddah then Ibn Uthaymeen’s words are enough to establish that y has become heretic according to Wahhabi methodology. Salih Ibn Uthaymeen’s and his Wahhabi ilk’s position, Islam is perfected/completed and there is no room for Sunnah/Biddah within boundaries of Sharia does not leave any room for flexible maneuvering to incorporate Ijtihad. Rather this rigid and extreme position is destructive enough to close the gates of Ijtihad.[3] Wama alayna ilal balaghul mubeen. Muhammed Ali Razavi Footnote: - [1] Wahhabi Traditional Understanding: Interpretation of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and the pious predecessors is Islam and all innovations are misguidance, - [2] Please note, commonly Wahhabi arguing against a Muslim and in attempt to demonize the celebration of Prophet’s birthday as [reprehensible] Biddah/Sunnah will strictly utilize Salih Al Ibn Uthaymeen’s methodology of – Islam is perfected/completed hence no room for [praiseworthy] Biddahs/Sunnah in Islam and one is distorting the perfection of Islam by introducing [praiseworthy] Sunnahs/Biddahs into Islam. Soon as one starts criticizing their practice of – reading Quranic in Taraweeh prayers then he will change to Islamic methodology to justify its permissibility but rejects Islamic methodology and what is derived with it when it does not suite his sectarian bias. - [3] All things legalized via implicit/indirect evidence (i.e. Ijtihad) are fundamentally praiseworthy Sunnah/Biddah for which the Mujtahid reaps reward and those who follow his Ijtihad. Bottom line is without praiseworthy Sunnah/Biddah being part of Islam and implicit/indirect evidence being valid methodology of conducting Ijtihad there can be no Ijtihad and no room for dressing modern trends into Islamic garb.
  7. Introduction: Already an article has been written to refute Ibn Uthaymeen’s (lanatu lillah) mutilation of religion of Islam. With mercy of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) it was established the true innovator and defacer of perfection/completion of Islam was Ibn Uthaymeen (lanatu lillah). He is the undeclared prophet and undeclared god of those who follow his reprehensible innovative methodology. For us Muslims, there is no law giving God but Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and there is no law giving prophet after Prophet and the Messenger Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). 1.0 - Quote From Ibn Uthaymeen’s Book: “My brothers, now that this matter has been settled, did the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) die while something from the religion which draws one closer to Allah the Exalted remained which he did not explain? Never! Since the Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) explained the whole of the religion either by his speech, his action or his (silent) approval, whether that was initiated of his own accord or whether it was due to a response to a question. Sometimes Allah would send a Bedouin from the furthest region of the desert in order to ask the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) a thing from among the matters of the religion which the Companions, who stuck by the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) did not ask him. This is why they used to rejoice when a Bedouin would come and ask the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) about certain affairs. That the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) did not leave anything which the people are in need of in their worship, their dealings with one another and their livelihood without having explained it is proven to you by His speech, the Exalted: “This day have I perfected for you your religion and have completed My favor upon you and have chosen for you Islam as a religion.” When this matter has been explained [that Islam is perfected/completed then] - O Muslim - know that every one who innovates something in the religion of Allah (azza wa jal) even if it is with a good intention, then his innovation, along with it being misguidance, will be considered a defamation of the religion of Allah (azza wa jal) and will be considered a denial and rejection of Allah (azza wa jal) the Exalted in His speech: “This day have I perfected for you your religion …” Since this innovator who innovated a matter into the religion of Allah (azza wa jal) which is not from the religion of Allah (azza wa jal) is saying silently that the religion has not been completed because this matter which was left out, and which he innovated, can be used to draw closer to Allah (azza wa jal).” [Ref: Innovations In The Light Of Perfection Of Shari’ah, Pages 3/4, by Muhammad bin Salih Al Uthaymeen] 1.1 - Salih Al Uthaymeen’s Position In My Own Words: Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) taught all aspects of the religion of Islam. Even the minute details were taught and religion of Islam was completed, perfected, with all these fine details. Comprehensiveness of Islamic teaching is detailed in Quran and Hadith therefore there is no room for praiseworthy innovations in religion of Islam. And one who innovates into religion of Islam anything which was not taught by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) or the Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) insinuates indirectly; Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) did not perfect/complete the religion of Islam because x, y, z matters were not made part of Islamic teaching which should have been part of Islam. As such, this innovator is a heretic and his deeds will be rejected and will end in hell fire. 1.2 - The Heretical Argument Summed By Wahhabi Side Of Me: There is no need for innovations in Islam even if they are introduced for the purpose; 1) of improving Islam, 2) propagating Islam, 3) assisting Islam, 4) sending reward of good deeds to the deceased.[1] The religion of Islam was comprehensively explained by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) in minute detail. All improvements were made until Islam reached perfection/completion in the life time of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). All that was required to spread Islam, assist Islam was taught by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). Hence every newly introduced matter in the religion of Islam is [reprehensible] innovation, a misguidance and takes to hell fire even if the people see goodness in it. 2.0 - The Straight Path And Straight To Hell Path: Islam being perfected and completed and every aspect of Islam being taught by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has absolutely no consequence to introduction of praiseworthy Biddahs/Sunnahs into religion of Islam. Rather the comprehensiveness of Islam is being misused by Khariji fringe elements to support predetermined heretical belief. If one does not accept the Shar’ri legality of introducing praiseworthy Sunnahs/Biddahs into religion of Islam then such a person should in principle not accept praiseworthy innovations which became backbone of Islam. 3.0 - Jihad Example Of Exhaustive Prophetic Teaching: Jihad is important part of Islamic teaching. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) gave direct instruction to Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) to engage in Jihad: “O Prophet, fight against the disbelievers and the hypocrites and be harsh upon them. And their refuge is Hell, and wretched is the destination.” [Ref: 9:73] He engaged in Jihad against the hypocrites and disbelievers as instructed by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). The Sunnah weaponry employed by Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) was sword, spear, shield, bow and arrow. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) instructs the believers: “And make ready against them all you can of power, including steeds of war (tanks, planes, missiles, artillery) to threaten the enemy of Allah and your enemy, and others besides whom, you may not know but whom Allah does know.“ [Ref: 8:60] Note, Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) instructs the Muslims to prepare all the means of war in power and then instructs the Muslims to prepare the war horses to threaten the enemy of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). The means of war are explained by the Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) – sword, spear, bow and arrow, etc. 3.1 - Miswak Demonstration Of Comprehensiveness Of Islam: Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) explained the following verse: “The nature made by Allah in which He has created men there is no altering of Allah's creation; that is the right religion", with words: “There is none born but is created to his true nature (i.e. Islam). It is his parents who make him a Jew or a Christian or a Magian. Quite like beasts produce their young with their limbs perfect.”[2] In other words every child born is born on the religion of Islam but the parents alter this natural inclination according to their own world view. Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has reported to have said: “Narrated 'Aishah, that the Prophet said: "Ten are from the Fitrah: Paring the mustache, leaving the beard to grow, Siwak, cleaning the nose with water, paring the fingernails, washing the knuckles, plucking the underarm hair, shaving the pubic hairs, and Intiqas with water." [Ref: Tirmadhi, B41, H2757] Note, Islam is religion of Fitrah or accurately the pure human Fitrah is fundamentally Islam and therefore use of Miswak/Siwak is part of Fitrah/Islam. Hence Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) routinely used Siwak before performing Tahajjud prayers: “Narrated Hudhaifa: Whenever the Prophet got up for Tahajjud prayer he used to clean his mouth (and teeth) with Siwak.” [Ref: Bukhari, B21, H237] He is reported to have said: “Abu Hurairah narrated; Allah's Messenger said: "If it were not that it would be difficult on my nation, then I would have ordered them to use the Siwak for each prayer." [Ref: Tirmadhi, B1, H22] 4.0 – Biddah Weapons And Sunnah Weapons And Heretical Methodology: Religion of Islam was completed/perfected and detailed guidance on every aspect of religion of Islam was provided by Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). As evidence establishes Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) engaged in Jihad against the disbelievers and demonstrated the type of weapons to be employed. These weapons are part of Islam and are part of perfected/completed and detailed guidance on Jihad. To employ any other weapon not established from the Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is adding to already perfected/completed religion of Islam.[3] It is akin to saying; Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala), Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) did not know about the AK47, RPG, MG’s, HG’s but we know better what weapons are better for Jihad in the way of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and we have to improve Islam and their short comings by introducing Biddah weapons into battle field.[4] Also it is akin to saying; religion of Islam was not completed/perfected and the micro-guidance of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and his beloved Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) was not enough hence these Biddah weapons are better substitute in modern battlefield then the Sunnah weapons. 4.1 - Biddah Tooth Brush/Paste And Sunnah Miswak And Heretical Methodology: Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is to use Miswak to clean his teeth and use of Miswak is part of completion/perfection of religion of Islam and part of micro-guidance from Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). This Sunnah Miswak has been replaced by Biddah brushes/pastes and heretics especially use Colgate brushes/pastes.[5] Use of these Biddah brushes/pastes is equal to believing that Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) did not know better then the disbelievers about oral hygiene and what the disbelievers invented is better replacement to Miswak.[6] One who leaves the guidance of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) for the tooth brushes/pastes of what the disbelievers invented believes Islam was incomplete and imperfect and the guidance of beloved Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) regarding oral hygiene was insufficient. If Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala), the knower of unseen and apparent, willed for the Muslims to use tooth pastes/brushes he would have revealed a verse in Quran saying when it is invented then use it. Or Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) to whom the news of unseen arrived would have told us about tooth pastes/brushes. 4.2 – Biddah Bukhari/Muslim And Heretical Methodology: Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) revealed and explained the Quran to Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and he explained it to his followers. Deen of Islam was completed/perfected and we find absolutely no instruction from Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) or Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) about Hadith collections called Bukhari/Muslim. If Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) completed and perfected the religion of Islam and provided micro-guidance without employing Bukhari/Muslim then what need is there for Bukhari/Muslim? Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) did not employ Bukhari/Muslim in his sermons and there is no record of his saying; in Bukhari/Muslim it is written, yet he was means of completion/perfection of Islam. Then question worth asking is, what need is there for Bukhari/Muslim? If Islam was perfected/completed without Bukhari/Muslim then question is; can Islam be perfection/completed without Bukhari/Muslim? Is Bukhari/Muslim essential part of Islam and part perfection/completion of Islam? Can Biddahs be part of perfection/completion of Islam? Are not the Biddahs misguidance even if the people see goodness in them? Do you see goodness in Bukhari/Muslim? You distort the perfection/completion of Islam by introducing Biddahs of Bukhari/Muslim into Islam. Your adherence to these Biddahs is proof that you believe Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) did not provide comprehensive guidance in religion of Islam and Quran is not enough for guidance. Neither Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) nor his beloved Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) left any instruction compile Bukhari/Muslim or any Hadith book for that matter nor they gave instructions regarding employing these two Biddahs. 5.0 – Putting Everything In Perspective Of Heretical Methodology: In parts 3.0, it was established that Jihad is essential part of Islam. Also the weapons used by Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and his companions were declared. Using this as a base, in part 4.0 a heretical argument against the heretics was advanced, using their own methodology to establish for them the fault of their own methodology. In part 3.1 and part 4.1 exact methodology was employed for the same purpose. In part 4.2, purpose was to demonstrate how a member of anti-Hadith sect can use the very same argument of Ibn Uthaymeen against books of Ahadith. Heretical methodology was employed for sole purpose of showing these heretics the mirror so they see the ugliness of Wahhabism. In the hope they would realize the heretical nature of their understandings which stem from their heretical methodology of – every innovation of evil/sinful even if people see goodness in it. 5.1 – Exposing The Heretical Methodology Of Wahhabism From Sunnah: Heretics have not believed in Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) when he said: “It was narrated that Abu Juhaifah said: "The Messenger of Allah said: 'Whoever introduces a good practice that is followed after him, will have a reward for that and the equivalent of their reward, without that detracting from their reward in the slightest. Whoever introduces an evil practice that is followed after him, will bear the burden of sin for …" [Ref: Ibn Majah, B1, H207] We Muslims are instructed by Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) in Hadith Qawli; “I enjoin you to fear Allah, and to hear and obey even if it be an Abyssinian slave, for those of you who live after me will see great disagreement. You must then follow my sunnah and that of the rightly-guided caliphs.” [Ref: Abu Dawood, B41, H4590] We follow his Sunnah because Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has explained: “Narrated `Abdullah: The best speech is Allah's book, and the best guidance is the guidance of Muhammad, and the worst are newly-invented matters, and whatever you have been promised will surely come to pass, and you cannot escape (it).” [Ref: Bukhari, B73, H120] This also attested by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) in the Quran: “There is indeed the best example for you to follow, in the Messenger of Allah, for every such person looks forward to Allah and the Last Day, and remembers Allah much.” [Ref: 33:21] Hence the best of guidance on Sunnahs/Biddahs which are good is of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). We the Muslims reject and disbelieve the minions of Satan from Najd and reject their heretical methodology which contradicts teaching of Islam. We believe in the Prophet of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) who has informed us of reward for praiseworthy Sunnahs/Biddahs. 6.0 - Muslim Perspective On Comprehensiveness Of Islam: Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) revealed the Quran to his beloved Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and explained all aspects of religion of Islam to him. He taught worship, types of worship, time of worship, actions in worship, what to say in worship, number of time one should worship, and times on which one should worship. Wudhu is ritual washing of hands, mouth, cleaning nose, washing face, elbows, and feet. Prophetic tradition provides absolute guidance on how to perform Wudhu, when to perform Wudhu and how Wudhu is invalidated. Quran/Hadith detail almost every aspect of Islam and human life and give verdict on it and this is part of comprehensiveness of Islamic teaching. Another part to comprehensiveness of Islamic teaching is, Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and his beloved Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) provided principles to judge matters/practices which would arise after completion of Islam. Part of these principles is the teaching; if one introduces a praiseworthy Sunnah into Islam and it is followed by the people the reward will be equal to one who acts on the innovated Sunnah.[7] The second principle in context of innovated practice states; one who innovates a reprehensible Sunnah into religion of Islam, he will be sinful for it, and those who will follow the reprehensible Sunnah they will receive equal amount of sin.[8] Without these principles and without teachings of Ijtihad - the comprehensiveness of Islamic teaching would be limited to a particular era and Islam would have been unable evolve to withstand the ideological and social challenges faced in past and faces at present. These principles and the teaching about Ijtihad ensure that core of Islam remains static yet the Muslims are empowered to judge worldly and religious innovations in the light of Quran/Hadith.[9] 6.1 - Later Innovations Into Islam According To Methodology Of Muslims: Starting with modern weapons, even though there is no explicit evidence which establishes that these weapons are established from the Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) but their use allows the believers to fulfill a command of religion. Therefore there use is permissible and there use in Jihad comes into category of good Sunnah/Biddah and it is reward worthy. Tooth brushes/pastes are not Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and Miswak is Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). Despite this the use of tooth brush/paste is permissible in Islam because it helps to achieve a objective of deen – oral hygiene. The first Muslim to employ it for purpose of oral hygiene will be rewarded because those who followed him achieved a religious objective via tooth paste/brush. These modern inventions are not replacement for the Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) but the permissibility is established. Coming to Bukhari/Muslim, indeed they are later innovations and they are essential part of religion of Islam and without these the perfection/completion of Islam would not be appreciated. Even though names of these books are not mentioned in Quran/Ahadith these books contain essential knowledge of Islam and are fundamental to understanding Quran. They are indeed later Biddahs/Sunnahs but they are good and reward worthy because they contain Sunnahs of beloved Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) which explain Quran. Conclusion: Ibn Uthaymeen’s position; Islam was completed and perfected and Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) provided micro-guidance on affairs of religion hence one who introduces Biddah/Sunnah into Islam has defaced the perfection/completion of Islam, is a poor excuse to justify his this heretical belief. If is accepted and employed fairly without bias it could even eradicate the basis for Quran because neither Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) nor the Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) left instruction to compile the Quran into one book format. Based on this fact it can be argued, if Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) perfected religion of Islam and provided complete guidance on everything but did not consider it important to leave instructions for compiling Quran in single book format nor did his Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was aalihi was’sallam) then what need is of it? O senseless Ibn Uthaymeen, isn’t this akin to insinuating Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) did not perfect/complete Quran good enough and their guidance wasn’t complete enough? Quran is complete/perfect and the guidance of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is perfect guidance. Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has told of reward for introducing into Islam good Sunnah/Biddah and for those who follow the good Biddah/Sunnah. Those who support the evil/sin of Ibn Uthaymeen they will bear the burden of it and he will be their leader in hell-fire. Wama alayna ilal balaghul mubeen. Muhammed Ali Razavi Footnotes: - [1] Heretics understand the following Hadith literally, it states; every newly introduced matter is innovation, and matter of fact is that his [praiseworthy] innovations fall into these four categories. Hence the detail was incorporated into summing up of Wahhabi position because when they state EVERY innovation is MISGUIDANCE then they declare all FOUR types of [praiseworthy] innovations as MISGUIDANCE. No sane heretic would ever dare to actually negate all FOUR types of [praiseworthy] innovations. - [2] “There is none born but is created to his true nature (i.e. Islam). It is his parents who make him a Jew or a Christian or a Magian quite as beasts produce their young with their limbs perfect. Do you see anything deficient in them? Then he quoted the Qur'an., The nature made by Allah in which He has created men there is no altering of Allah's creation; that is the right religion" [Ref: Muslim, B33, H6423] - [3] Sunnahs of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) are of four types; 1) Qawli (i.e. speech), Fehli (i.e. actions), Taqreeri (i.e. tacitly approved), and Wasfi (i.e. quality). - [4] No it is not akin to saying anything; it is me being [stupid] Wahhabi and being Ibn Uthaymeen (lanatu lillah). Belief is in Islam is what you affirm with tongue and confirm within your heart. - [5] Use of Colgate is for dramatic effect, trying to be like all knowing Wahhabi, who knows everything about the intentions and reasons and nothing is concealed from him when he writes something to refute his opponent. I do not have any idea what the Wahhabi’s actually use but rest assured they have replaced the Miswak with some modern tooth paste/brush and the Miswak is used before Friday prayers. So point is, they use tooth pastes/brushes and the brand, you can ask your closest Wahhabi. - [6] Read footnote #4, it explains the intention behind it. - [7]“He who introduced some good Sunnah in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] - [8] “And whoever introduces a bad practice that is followed, he will receive its sin and a burden of sin equivalent to that of those who follow it, without that detracting from their burden in the slightest." [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6470] - [9] Core of Islam – here means fundamental teaching of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). Core of Islam is, Islam without additions made after the death of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). Core without Biddahs/Sunnahs of companions, generations succeeding companions and the generation succeeding the second generation and core without all types Sunnahs/Biddahs that Muslims introduced thereafter.
  8. Introduction: Recently during discussions with a Salafi about the nature of innovations in Islam. The Salafi ‘student of knowledge’ presented me translation of Ibn Uthaymeen’s small pamphlet size MSWord format copy of a Arabic work. He requested me to read and think about the contents and note the strenth of Ibn Uthaymeen’s reasoning against the legitimacy of praiseworthy innovations. He was convinced, once his this booklet was understood by me, it would be impossible for me to hold to the position of Ahle Sunnat Wal Jammat. Instead it will force me to back-track into Salafism. In this word format he highlighted a certain [portion which will be quoted below] and requested that special attention needs to be paid to it. After reading the entire treaty and much mulling over its line of reasoning and understanding the in-between the line material it was decided best response would be in a written format. Below is the written response which al hamdu lillah demolished the castle of Wahhabiyyah. 1.0 - Salih Al Uthaymeen’s Position In His Own Words: “That the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) did not leave anything which the people are in need of in their worship, their dealings with one another and their livelihood without having explained it is proven to you by His speech, the Exalted: “This day have I perfected for you your religion and have completed My favour upon you and have chosen for you Islaam as a religion.” When this matter has been explained [that Islam is perfected/completed then] - O muslim - know that every one who innovates something in the religion of Allah (azza wa jal) even if it is with a good intention, then his innovation, along with it being misguidance, will be considered a defamation of the religion of Allah (azza wa jal) and will be considered a denial and rejection of Allah (azza wa jal) the Exalted in His speech: “This day have I perfected for you your religion …” Since this innovator who innovated a matter into the religion of Allah (azza wa jal) which is not from the religion of Allah (azza wa jal) is saying silently that the religion has not been completed because this matter which was left out, and which he innovated, can be used to draw closer to Allah (azza wa jal).” [Ref: Innovations In The Light Of Perfection Of Shari’ah, by Muhammad bin Salih Al Uthaymeen] 1.1 - Salih Al Uthaymeen’s Position In My Own Words: Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is the source of perfection/completion which is beyond improvement. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) perfected/completed the religion of Islam and any additions or alterations to perfection/compeletion of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) cannot be praiseworthy. This is the reason Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi wa’sallam) told any/every innovation made part of Islam [after completion/perfection of Islam] is misguidance which takes to hellfire. Hence, there can be no and there is no, valid basis for praiseworthy innovations in Islam. By introducing ‘praiseworthy’ innovations into Islam one is negating the completion/perfection of Islam and improving upon what Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and his Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) left us with and is implying that Islam was not perfected/completed.[1] 2.1 - Islam Is The Perfection/Completion Of Islams: Religion of Prophet Musa (alayhis salam) and his followers, Prophet Isa (alayhis salam) and his followers was Islam: “And Moses said: ‘O my people! If you have believed in Allah, then put your trust in Him if you are Muslims.’” [Ref: 10:84] “And when I Allah inspired the disciples [of Jesus] to believe in Me and My Messenger, they said: ‘We believe. And bear witness that we are Muslims.” [Ref: 5:111] It is recorded in the Hadith that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) stated that the religion of all Prophets was Islam: "I am most akin to Jesus Christ among the whole of mankind, and all the Prophets are of different mothers but belong to one religion and no Prophet was raised between me and Jesus." [Ref: Muslim, B30, H5835] Their versions of Islam were suitable for their immediate evoriments but the Islam given to our Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) is a continuation of previous versions of Islam and perfection/completion of all those religions of Islam and is a universal message. Hence to argue on basis; our Islam is perfection/compeletion of previous versions of Islams therefore one cannot introduce praiseworthy innovations into our Islam, is utterly useless reasoning, because perfection/compeletion of older versions does not rule out praiseworthy innovations via Ijtihad. 2.2 - Islam Is Perfection/Compeletion In Itself: Improvements are made by Prophets/Messengers and there is no Prophet/Messenger with revelation after Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam): “Muhammad is not the father of [any] one of your men, but [he is] the Messenger of Allah and last of the prophets. And ever is Allah, of all things, Knowing.” [Ref: 33:40] Hence the version of Islam given to our Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is perfect/complete and beyond any need of improvements - Islam is perfection/compeletion in itself but this does not mean praiseworthy innovations cannot be made part of Islam via Ijtihad. 2.3 - Allowing Innovated Practices Is Part Of Perfection/Compeletion Of Islam: Part of compeletion/perfection of Islam that it incorporates teachings which enable the Muslims to incorporate new practices into Islam via Ijtihad. Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is reported to have said in numerous Ahadith: “He who introduced some good Sunnah in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] As long as the newly introduced Sunnahs/Biddahs agree with fundamental principles of Islamic worship, charity, enjoining good, prohibiting wrong and we do not invent a new act of worship but we assemble the Sunnah of Prophet (sallallalu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) under various names, we inroduce good Sunnah. For which there will be reward one who invents it and those who adhere to it and those who call to it: “He who called (people) to righteousness/guidance, there would be reward (assured) for him like the rewards of those who adhered to it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6470] 2.4 – Perserving The Compeletion/Perfection Of Islam: Shara’i evidence firmly established new praiseworthy Biddah/Sunnah can be introduced into Islam and it would be permissible to act on them and acting on these praiseworthy Sunnahs/Biddahs will earn reward from Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Islam was perfected/completed but in this perfected/completed Islam room was created for incorporation of praiseworthy Sunnahs/Biddahs. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has stated: “We have, without doubt, sent down the Reminder (i.e. the Quran); and We will assuredly guard it (i.e. from corruption).” [Ref: 15:9] Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has promised to protect the completion/perfection of Islam from corruption and if introducing praiseworthy innovations into Islam was corruption of Islam then Allah’s Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) would not have created the room for them. Therefore the perfection/completion of Islam will not be effect by newly introduced praiseworthy Sunnahs/Biddahs into religion of Islam. 3.1 - Distorting The Perfection/Compeletion Of Islam: As Muslims we cannot nor we can believe that a Prophet can come after our Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and abrogate or subsitute or add or ommit or alter any thing that has been taught by Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). We must adhere to the Islam taught by Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) without engaging in mentioned to maintain perfection/compeletion of Islam. If one engages in abrogation of matters in Ayaat/Ahadith without valid proof, or alters a method taught in Quran/Hadith, or subsitutes a action/belief by another not established with Quranic/Hadith evidence, or adds to a ritual practice or Quranic text which was not part of it, then such person engages in mutilation of Islam. He/She defaces the perfection of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and his beloved Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and it is akin to indirectly claiming God-hood or Prophet-hood.[2] As Muslims we have ensured the teaching of Islam are protected from corruption and we have not made anything part of Islam which defaced Islam. 3.2 - Those Who Defaced Their Versions Of Islam: The Yahood/Nasara defaced the Islams given to them by their respective Prophets and took their innovative religions as the Islams of Prophets Musa/Isa (alayhis salam). In short they alterted the Islams and made them into monsteracities which they are recognized by at present. The message and teaching of Quran are still preserved and easily accessible. There has been no alteration, addition, ommition and abrogation of Quranic message of Islam in the Ummah of RasoolAllah (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) like it happened to the religions of previous Prophets. Therefore the completion, the perfection of Islam is preserved and nothing of Islam has been defaced, or removed, or omitted, or abrogated, or altered. 3.3 – True Act Of Defacing Of Islam: True defamation of Islam would be, if one engages in altering the order of actions performed in prayers. One starts his prayers with prostration and ends it with standing or recites Surah Fatihah in prostration three times and recites twenty hail Mary’s (i.e. Ave Maria). Another example would be to believe that some parts of Quran have been omitted/deleted by Muslims. Or to add another verse to the end of Surah Fatiha, such as; lana tulillahi alal kazibeen, and believe it is part of Quran. Or altering the confession of Tawheedi creed to; there is no god except three in the One god and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah. These are examples of improvements/innovations which in reality deface Islam not praiseworthy innovations. A praiseworthy innovation introduced into Islam via Ijtihad and which was not and is not believed to be Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and it accords with teaching of Islam, does not effect the compeletion/perfection of Islam, rather it compliments it. 4.1 – Innovated Sunnah In Line With Perfection/Completion Of Islam: During the Khilafat of Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radiallah ta’ala anhu) Musailamah claimed Prophet-hood. Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radiallah ta’ala anhu) sent armies to eliminate this Dajjal. At the end of wars some seventy Hufadh had fallen in the way of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) realized if the Hufadh continue to receive matyrdom at this rate sooner or later Quran will be lost, so he visited Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radiallah ta’ala anhu). He said to Hadhrat Abu Bakr (subhanahu wa ta’ala): "Casualties were heavy among the Qurra' of the! Qur'an (i.e. those who knew the Qur'an by heart) on the day of the Battle of Yalmama, and I am afraid that more heavy casualties may take place among the Qurra' on other battlefields, whereby a large part of the Qur'an may be lost. Therefore I suggest, you (Abu Bakr) order that the Qur'an be collected." At this point one can say, Hadhrat Abu Bakr (subhanahu wa ta’ala) was opinion that collection of Quran as a single book format is a innovation which will deface the perfection/completion of Islam, so he said: "How can you do something which Allah's Apostle did not do?" Hadhrat Umar (subhanahu wa ta’ala) trys to convince him that it is a good Sunnah which does not effect the perfection/completion of Islam by saying: "By Allah, that is a good project.” Hadhrat Abu Bakr (subhanahu wa ta’ala) continues saying: "Umar kept on urging me to accept his proposal till Allah opened my chest for it and I began to realize the good in the idea which `Umar had realized." [Ref: Bukhari, B61, H509] Hadhrat Abu Bakr (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is now convinced that compiling Quran in a book is a praiseworthy innovation which even Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) did not engage in nor instructed. He also understood that religion of Islam was complete and all that was part of fundamental teaching Islam has been made part of Islam by Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). He also realized that the perfection/completion of Islam is not effected by a innovative praiseworthy Sunnah and nor do the praiseworthy innovations deface the perfection/completion of Islam. He also understood, by compiling Quran in a single book it does not amount to him ordering completion/perfection of Islam after Islam was perfected/completed.[3] 4.2 – Khalifah Gives Instructions To Engage In Praiseworthy Innovation: Hadhrat Abu Bakr (subhanahu wa ta’ala) says to a Sahabi: “You are a wise young man and we do not have any suspicion about you, and you used to write the Divine Inspiration for Allah's Messenger. So you should search for (the fragmentary scripts of) the Qur'an and collect it in one book)." The Sahabi narrator added: “By Allah If they had ordered me to shift one of the mountains, it would not have been heavier for me than this ordering me to collect the Qur'an.” Then he said to Hadhrat Abu Bakr (subhanahu wa ta’ala) what Hadhrat Abu Bakr (subhanahu wa ta’ala) said to Hadhrat Umar (subhanahu wa ta’ala) when he had suggested compiling Quran in single book format: "How will you do something which Allah's Messenger did not do?" The Hadith continues: "By Allah, it is a good project." Abu Bakr kept on urging me to accept his idea until Allah opened my chest for what He had opened the chests of Abu Bakr and `Umar.” [Ref: Bukhari, B61, H509] Once the companion realized the goodness in this praiseworthy Biddah/Sunnah and just like Hadhrat Abu Bakr realized it does not amount to blameworthy innovation [which disfigures the perfection/completion of Islam] he began gathering and compiling Quran into single book format and the result was Quran in our possesion today. 5.1 - The Destroyer of Perfection/Completion Of Islam: The Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) explained all essentials of religion of Islam. He explained the concept of worship, types of worship, the method of worship and when to worship. He explained Zakat, Sadqa, Khayrat, and all issues connected with charity. He taught how to perform Ghusul and when to perform Ghusul. He taught the method of Wudhu and when to perform Wudhu. In short he taught all aspects of daily life and this is completion/perfection of Quran and Islam, stated: “This day have I perfected for you your religion and have completed My favour upon you and have chosen for you Islaam as a religion.” [Ref: 5:3] Islam is religion of micro-guidance, it aims to guides/manage all affairs. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) made Islam for mankind and for those who will come till the judgment day. Our Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) explained the affairs which were happening in his time but left principles via aid of which we will be able to judge matters to arise after, and part of these principles the teaching is: “He who introduced some good Sunnah in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] Therefore Muslims know that praiseworthy Sunnahs/Biddahs are part of perfection/compeletion of Islam. One who argues against and believes; praiseworthy Sunnahs/Biddahs are against the teaching of Islam is guilty of innovation. He refutes/rejects a teaching of Islam, which daringly can be said to be established by Tawatir. Even though one has good intentions his innovation is misguidance and is a distortion of perfection/completion of Islam – the religion approved by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). The innovator of reprehensible innovation is indirectly claiming the right of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) for himself – claims to have the right to legislate religion. Or he is claiming to be spokes person of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) after it has been clearly stated there is no Nabi/Messenger with Shari’a after our beloved Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). Allah’s Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has reported to have said: “Aishah reported the Messenger of Allah as saying: if any one introduces into this affair of ours anything which does not belong to it, it is rejected. Ibn Isa said: the prophet said: if anyone practices any action in away other than our practice, it is rejected.” [Ref: Dawood, B41, H4589] O Muslims, therefore believe in Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) as your God and believe in His beloved Messenger Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) as the last/final Prophet. O Muslims, reject those who exercise the right of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and exercise the right of a Prophet to disfigure the perfection/completion of Islam and reject their reprehensible innovations. They oppose Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and His beloved Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). O Muslims, you oppose such a individual and his party and believe what is taught by Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). If you do not then know in sight of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) the only acceptable religion is of Islam and you will be amongst the loosers in day of judgment: “And whoever seeks a religion other than Islam, it will never be accepted of him, and in the Hereafter he will be one of the losers.” [Ref: 3:85] This is Islam is composed of teaching of Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and if you leave him and obey the rival and enemy of Allah’s Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi wa’sallam) then you have preffered for your self religion other then perfected/compeleted religion of Islam. You have chosen for your self; the religion of Shaytan, the religion of Ibn Uthaymeen but not the religion of Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). O heretics, you be to your religion and know that we believed in Islam and we believed in our Nabi Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) when he said: “Whoever introduces a good practice that is followed, he will receive its reward and a reward equivalent to that of those who follow it, without that detracting from their reward in their slightest. And whoever introduces a bad practice that is followed, he will receive its sin and a burden of sin equivalent to that of those who follow it, without that detracting from their burden in the slightest." [Ref: Ibn Majah, B1, H203] This the best of guidance of Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and what opposes his teaching is innovation and every teaching which opposes and disfigures the perfection/completion of Islam takes to hellfire. 5.2– Blameworthy Innovations Harm Perfection/Completion Of Islam: Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is reported to have said: “The best of the speech is embodied in the Book of Allah, and the best of the guidance is the guidance given by Muhammad. And the most evil affairs are their innovations; and every innovation is error." [Ref: Bukhari, B4, H1885] and in another Hadith Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is reported to have said: “The worst of things are those that are newly invented; every newly-invented thing is an innovation and every innovation is going astray, and every going astray is in the Fire.” [Ref: Sunan Nisa’I, B19, H1579] It is established Ibn Uthaymeen the chief of group of Satan, the leader of the Khawarij, opposed Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) in regards to introducing praiseworthy Sunnahs/Biddahs into Islam, hence he introduced a blameworthy innovation into Islam. Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) stated: “He who enacted any act for which there is no sanction from our behalf, that is to be rejected.” [Ref: Muslim, B18, H4267] "If somebody innovates something which is not in harmony with the principles of our affair religion, that thing is rejected." [Ref: Bukhari, B49, H861] In obedience to Allah’s Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) we reject Ibn Uthaymeen’s innovation which defaced the perfected/completed Islam. Conclusion: Religion of Islam is has been completed and perfected by Allah’s (subhanahu wa ta’ala) last and finale Prophet – Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). The beloved Prophet and the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) informed one who introduces praiseworthy Biddah/Sunnah into Islam which is followed after him it will be rewarded by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and those who call toward such praisworthy Sunnahs/Biddahs they will also be rewarded like the ones who act upon it. The teaching which permit introduction of praiseworthy Sunnahs/Biddahs into Islam is part of perfection/compeletion of Islam and as long as the innovated practice is in accordance with the teaching of Islam and does not contradict the teaching of worship, charity, encouraging good, forbidding evil, and it aids Islam, then it is a good Sunnah/Biddah. The real true enemy of Islam, the destroyer and negater of perfection/completion of Islam is Ibn Uthaymeen the enemy of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). He has censored praiseworthy Biddah/Sunnah which Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) permitted and about which Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) told of reward – for one who innovates and one who practices it. Ibn Uthaymeen and the Khariji minions of Iblees from Najd have found fault in the perfection/completion of Islam. Hence they have rejected the conceptual validity of introducing praiseworthy Sunnahs/Biddahs into Islam. The Khariji’s reject this teaching of Islam and the fruits of this teaching. Therefore the innovation and the distortion of perfection/completion of Islam is from Khawarij and their scholars, and in this context Ibn Uthaymeen the cursed. Wama alayna ilal balaghul mubeen. Muhammed Ali Razavi Footnotes: - [1] If anyone is unhappy about my presentation of Ibn Uthaymeen’s reasoning then please be my guest and present his position from his own work better then my representation. Rest assured I have greatly improved the strenth of his reasoning. In other words his reasoning is presented more precisely, more elequently, more forcefully then Mr Ibn Uthaymeen did. - [2] If he affirms Prophet-hood or God-hood with his tongue and it is not impliedfrom his actions then such a person is Kafir, otherwise such a person is heretic of worst kind. - [3] Ibn Uthaymeen wrote:” Since this innovator who innovated a matter into the religion of Allah (azza wa jal) which is not from the religion of Allah (azza wa jal) is saying silently that the religion has not been completed because this matter which was left out, and which he innovated, can be used to draw closer to Allah (azza wa jal).” Based on this statement of Ibn Uthaymeen, one is forced to conclude that Mr Ibn Uthaymeen’s regarding Hadhrat Umar and Hadhrat Abu Bakr position would be they were completing/perfecting Quran which was left uncomplete/imperfect by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and by His Messenger Muhammad (sallallahu alayh wa aalihi was’sallam).
  9. Introduction: According to the principles of Ahle Sunnat Wal Jammat innovative practices which are based on Sunnahs of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) are praiseworthy innovations for which there will be reward from Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) if they are followed by people. Especially if the innovative practices are combinations of acts of worship[1], combines acts of charity[2] and serves as a means of spreading Islamic knowledge. The Khawarij and those influenced by Kharijite definition of innovation, oppose the Muslims and hold to position; every practice, festivity, custom, which was [not mentioned explicitly by name and method of enacting it was not taught and] not sanctioned by Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) is [reprehensible] innovation. Every Innovation Is Misguidance They Say: Commonly the following Ahadith are quoted by opponents to refute position of Ahle Sunnat, the Ahadith: “Avoid novelties, for every novelty is an innovation, and every innovation is an error." [Ref: Abu Dawood, B40, H4590] “And the most evil affairs are the innovations; and every innovation is error." [Ref: Muslim, B4, H1885] From lingustic point of view anything which did not exist in the time of RasoolAllah (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) would be innovation. From Shar’i perspective innovation is everything which contradicts principles of deen and which is not sanctioned by deen, Ahadith establish this: “He who did any act for which there is no sanction from our behalf, that is to be rejected.” [Ref: Muslim, B18, H4267] "If somebody innovates something which is not in harmony with the principles of our religion, that thing is rejected." [Ref: Bukhari B49, H861] “He who innovates things in our affairs for which there is no valid (reason) and these are to be rejected.” [Ref: Muslim, B18, H4266] Therefore from Shar’i perspective innovation is every newly-invented belief, action, object which goes against the principles of Deen and is not in harmony with teaching of Deen. Hence every such novelty is innovation and every such innovation is an misguidance, and every such misguidance takes to hellfire. To argue every innovation is misguidances without restricting ‘every’ to specific type of innovation [which I have defined above] would establish contradiction between the Ahadith of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam). Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) has reportedly said: “He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.”[Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] “He who called (people) to righteous (i.e. innovation), there would be reward (assured) for him like the rewards of those who adhered to it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6470] If every innovation was misguidance which took to hell then why would he inform the companions of reward for introducing good practices in Islam! This evidence supports the understanding that ‘every’ is not unrestricted but restricted to particular type of innovation [which contradicts the principles of Deen and which has no sanction in Deen]. Therefore the understanding of Ahle Sunnat Wal Jammat about the newly-invented practices is correct because neither of these practices in reality and in essence contradict any aspect of Deen. Instead these customs, practices, festivities, in essence contained acts of worship, charity, and serve as platform for spread of Islamic knowledge hence they accord the Prophetic guidelines. Heretics Advance A New Argument: The opponents of Ahle Sunnat Wal Jammat have advanced a new argument; there is no good innovation even if the people something good in some innovative custom, practice or festivity. There this argument is based on th following Hadith: “Abdullaah Ibn 'Umar (radi allahu anhu) said, "Every innovation is misguidance, even if the people see it as something good."[3] Presenting their position in bit more detail; any innovated festivity, custom, practice, even if it contains acts of worship, charity, and is source of Islamic education, even then it is still a innovation. Despite all these it is without any goodness it and is misguidance which takes to hell fire. The simple response to this argument is; innovation in Shari’a is defined as acts, beliefs or activities which contradicts and go against the principles of Deen, and which has no sanction in deen, therefore such innovations are misguidance even if the people see good in them. Hadhrat Abu Bakr Disagrees And Then Agrees With Hadhrat Umar: After the death of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) there was mass apostasy from Islam. Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radiallah ta’ala anhu) decided to take action against the apostates. The result was numerous battles fought in Arabian Peninsula which are now known as ‘Apostasy Wars’. During one such battle the Muslim army fighting Musailma the Liar had suffered major causualties including seventy companions who had memorized the Quran. After this battle Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) visited Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radiallah ta’ala anhu) and said: "Casualties were heavy among the Qurra' of the! Qur'an (i.e. those who knew the Qur'an by heart) on the day of the Battle of Yalmama, and I am afraid that more heavy casualties may take place among the Qurra' on other battlefields, whereby a large part of the Qur'an may be lost. Therefore I suggest, you (Abu Bakr) order that the Qur'an be collected." In response to this suggestion Hadhrat Abu Bakr said: “Umar, "How can you do something which Allah's Apostle did not do?" Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) responded by saying: "By Allah, that is a good project.” The Hadith continues to narrate words of Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radiallah ta’ala anhu): "`Umar kept on urging me to accept his proposal till Allah opened my chest for it and I began to realize the good in the idea which `Umar had realized." Upon realizing the importance of preserving the Quranic script Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radiallah ta’ala anhu) called Hadhrat Zaid bin Thabit (radiallah ta’ala anhu). After narrating the discussion between him and Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) he said to him: “You are a wise young man and we do not have any suspicion about you, and you used to write the Divine Inspiration for Allah's Messenger. So you should search for (the fragmentary scripts of) the Qur'an and collect it in one book.” Hadhrat Zaid bin Thabit (radiallah ta’ala anhu) then said to Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radiallah ta’ala anhu): "How will you do something which Allah's Messenger did not do?" Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radiallah ta’ala anhu) replied to him by saying: "By Allah, it is a good project.” Hadhrat Zaid bin Thabit (radiallah ta’ala anhu) further narrated: “Abu Bakr kept on urging me to accept his idea until Allah opened my chest for what He had opened the chests of Abu Bakr and `Umar.”[4] Investigating The Incident In Light Of Teaching Of Islam: Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radiallah ta’ala anhu) refused to carry out something which Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) did not do himself, citing the very same reason. Why would Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radiallah ta’ala anhu) refused to collect the Quranic script? Was the mentioned reason: “Umar, "How can you do something which Allah's Apostle did not do?" the only reason on basis of which he refused or is there more to it? There is more going then what meets the eye. Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radiallah ta’ala anhu) must have been aware of the following Hadith of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam): “It was narrated from Abdullah bin Mas'ud that the Messenger of Allah said: "Verily there are two things - words and guidance. The best words are the words of Allah, and the best guidance in the guidance of Muhammad. Beware of newly-invented matters, for every newly-invented matter is an innovation and every innovation is a going-stray.” [Ref: Ibn Majah, B1, H46] And the following Hadith specificly refers to leaders of Muslims: “It was narrated from ‘Abdullah bin Mas’ud that the Prophet said: “Among those in charge of you, after I am gone, will be men who extinguish the Sunnah and follow innovation. They will delay the prayer from its proper time.” I said: “O Messenger of Allah, if I live to see them, what should I do?” He said: “You ask me, O Ibn ‘Abd, what you should do? There is no obedience to one who disobeys Allah.” [Ref: Ibn Majah, B24, H2865] Hence his reluctance was based on the understanding that if he collects the Quran in a book format then he would be introducing a reprehensible innovation.[5] Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) was aware of the Ahadith known to Hadrat Abu Bakr (radiallah ta’ala anhu) and he also knew that Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radiallah ta’ala anhu) is also familiar with the following Hadith: "The Messenger of Allah said: 'Whoever introduces a good practice that is followed, he will receive its reward and a reward equivalent to that of those who follow it, without that detracting from their reward in their slightest. And whoever introduces a bad practice that is followed, he will receive its sin and a burden of sin equivalent to that of those who follow it, without that detracting from their burden in the slightest.'" [Ref: Ibn Majah, B1, H203] Hence he responded to Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radiallah ta’ala anhu) by saying: "By Allah, that is a good project.” [Ref: Bukhari, B61, H509] Afterwards Hadhrat Zaid bin Thabit (radiallah ta’ala anhu) questioned the collection of Quran and after much effort he was convinced that collection of Quran into book format was a good act. Responding To - Every Innovation Misguidance Even If Good: Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radiallah ta’ala anhu), Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) and Hadhrat Zaid bin Thabit (radiallah ta’ala anhu) agreed to do something which Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) did not instruct or himself did. They saw good in collecting the Quran into book format after initial resistance. After realizing the suggestion of Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) is a good suggestion and collection of Quran as a book is a good thing both companions agreed to carry out this task. If the following Hadith is taken literally then collection of Quran was misguidance even though three companions saw good in it : "Every innovation is misguidance, even if the people see it as something good." Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) restarted a practice which all the companions stopped because Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) stopped it. Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) collected all the people in Masjid under one Qari and remarked: “… 'Umar remarked, 'What an excellent innovation this is; but the prayer which they do not perform, …”[6] This indicates Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) introduced a innovation. Now if it is accepted that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) had performed Taraweeh prayers and Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) was merely reviving the Sunnah of Taraweeh prayers. Then the innovation is reintroducing something which Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) stopped (– i.e. Taraweeh under one Imam). Based on the literalism of the Hadith if every innovation is misguidance despite one seeing goodness it the innovation then Hadhrat Umar’s (radiallah ta’ala anhu) excellent innovation was misguidance. A Fair Argument Against Injustice Of Heretics: If a innovation is good by its nature even though Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) did not do and which companions did not do then that innovation will remain a good innovation even if the people don’t see good in it. Especially if the innovation is based on the principle of worship and principle of charitiable deeds. The goodness of acts, beliefs, practices, customs, festivities, is judged on the criteria if the asal (i.e. foundation) is found in Quran/Sunnah. The praiseworthy innovations which Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) suggested he will be rewareded, according to following Hadith: : “He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.”[Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] The misguidance of acts, beliefs, practices, customs, festivities, is determined by if the activities/beliefs contradict the Quran and Sunnah. If a festivity, custom, practice, act is against the explicit Shar’i injunctions then such will remain misguidance even if the people see good in it. To sum it all, any innovation which contradicts any principle or teaching of Islam, a act which was not sanctioned in deen, and for which there was no valid reason then such innovations are misguidance even if the people see something good in them. Conclusion: Every innovation is not evil because Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) has informed of reward for those who innovate good practices. Secondly if every innovation was misguidance or error even if the people see something good in it then compilation of Quran and Hadhrat Umars’s (radiallah ta’ala anhu) collecting the people of Masjid under one Qari would be without any good and a misguidance. Not just the literalist understanding of the Hadith contradicts another Hadith which states one who innovates praiseworthy practice for him there is reward and those who follow the invented practice get equale amount of reward. Hence the meaning of Hadith is; every innovation which contradicts principles of Islam and contains acts which are not from Sunnah nor does it have a valid reason then such innovation is misguidance and without goodness. This explanation of the Hadith in the light of other Ahadith detracts nothing from position of Ahle Sunnat but rather defends and supports it. Wama alayna ilal balaghul mubeen. Muhammed Ali Razavi. Footnotes: - [1] Such as performing of Nawafil, recitation of Quran, invoking Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) in dua. - [2] Such as inviting the poor as well as family members and then for sake of Allah’s (subhanahu wa ta’ala) pleasure provide them with food. - [3] Related: by Ad-Darimee, Abu Shamaah (no. 39), Ibn Nasr in as-Sunnah (no. 82), al-Laalikaa'ee in Sharh Usoolul-Ftiqaad (no. 126) & Sharh I'tiqad Ahl as-Sunnah (1/92), and by al-Bayhaqee in al-Madkhal (no. 191). Its authentic; Ahkaam al-Janaa'iz (258) and Islah al-Masajid (13). Salim Al-Hilaali said: "Its isnaad (chain of narration) is as authentic as the sun!" - [4] “Narrated Zaid bin Thabit: Abu Bakr As-Siddiq sent for me when the people! of Yamama had been killed (i.e., a number of the Prophet's Companions who fought against Musailama). (I went to him) and found `Umar bin Al- Khattab sitting with him. Abu Bakr then said (to me), "`Umar has come to me and said: "Casualties were heavy among the Qurra' of the! Qur'an (i.e. those who knew the Qur'an by heart) on the day of the Battle of Yalmama, and I am afraid that more heavy casualties may take place among the Qurra' on other battlefields, whereby a large part of the Qur'an may be lost. Therefore I suggest, you (Abu Bakr) order that the Qur'an be collected." I said to `Umar, "How can you do something which Allah's Apostle did not do?" `Umar said, "By Allah, that is a good project. "Umar kept on urging me to accept his proposal till Allah opened my chest for it and I began to realize the good in the idea which `Umar had realized." Then Abu Bakr said (to me). 'You are a wise young man and we do not have any suspicion about you, and you used to write the Divine Inspiration for Allah's Messenger. So you should search for (the fragmentary scripts of) the Qur'an and collect it in one book)." By Allah If they had ordered me to shift one of the mountains, it would not have been heavier for me than this ordering me to collect the Qur'an. Then I said to Abu Bakr, "How will you do something which Allah's Messenger did not do?" Abu Bakr replied, "By Allah, it is a good project." Abu Bakr kept on urging me to accept his idea until Allah opened my chest for what He had opened the chests of Abu Bakr and `Umar. So I started looking for the Qur'an and collecting it from (what was written on) palmed stalks, thin white stones and also from the men who knew it by heart, till I found the last Verse of Surat at-Tauba (Repentance) with Abi Khuza`ima Al-Ansari, and I did not find it with anybody other than him. The Verse is: 'Verily there has come unto you an Apostle (Muhammad) from amongst yourselves. It grieves him that you should receive any injury or difficulty..(till the end of Surat-Baraa' (at-Tauba) (9.128-129) Then the complete manuscripts (copy) of the Qur'an remained with Abu Bakr till he died, then with `Umar till the end of his life, and then with Hafsa, the daughter of `Umar.” [Ref: Bukhari, B61, H509] - [5] There can be absolutely no other reason to refuse to collect the Quran in a single book format apart from being responsible for introducing a reprehensible innovation. There could be no other motive for Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radiallah ta’ala anhu) and Hadhrat Zaid bin Thabit (radiallah ta’ala anhu) to question and argue against the suggestion. If they didn’t fear introducing innovation then did they fear the kids will learn the Quran? Or did they fear that by making the Quran available in written form will result in education of everyone? Common sense dictates their fears was that they may be guilty of introducing innovation into deen and their reasoning was simple; Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) did not do it so why should I/we? I can almost hear Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radiallah ta’ala anhu) and Hadhrat Zaid bin Thabit (radiallah ta’ala anhu) saying to Hadhrat Umar(radiallah ta’ala anhu); if there was any goodness in it then Messenger (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) would have instructed us to carry out the task in his life time. - [6] “Abdur Rahman bin 'Abdul Qari said: "I went out in the company of 'Umar bin Al-Khattab one night in Ramadan to the mosque and found the people praying in different groups. A man praying alone or a man praying with a little group behind him. So, 'Umar said, 'In my opinion I would better collect these (people) under the leadership of one Qari (Reciter) (i.e. let them pray in congregation!)'. So, he made up his mind to congregate them behind Ubai bin Ka'b. Then on another night I went again in his company and the people were praying behind their reciter. On that, 'Umar remarked, 'What an excellent Bid'a (i.e. innovation in religion) this is; but the prayer which they do not perform, but sleep at its time is better than the one they are offering.' He meant the prayer in the last part of the night. (In those days) people used to pray in the early part of the night." [Ref: Bukhari, B32, H227]