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      IslamiMehfil Rules (Please Must Read, Before You Post Anything)   04/09/2017

        فورم کےعمومی قوانین آخری ترمیم: ۱۰ اپریل ۲۰۱۷ ۔۔۔عمومی فورم رول نمبر ۱۵ ایڈ کیا گیا ،جو نیچے آخر میںبولڈ فونٹ میں موجود ہے۔ فورم کی انتظامیہ کی طرف سے تمام ارکان کو خوش آمدید! پوسٹ ارسال کرنے سے پہلے تمام اراکین کو تاکید کی جاتی ہے کہ وہ مندرجہ ذیل قواعد و ضوابط کا مطالعہ کر لیں تا کہ مستقبل میں کسی قسم کا کوئی ابہام پیدا نہ ہو۔ اگر کوئی پوسٹ یا ٹاپکس فورم رولز کے خلاف نظر آئے تو تمام ممبرز سے گزارش ہے کہ رپورٹ کا بٹن استعمال کرکے انتظامیہ کی مدد کریں۔ ۱- اسلامی محفل ایک مکمل اسلامی سنی حنفی بریلوی مسلک سے منسلک فارم ہے جس میں کسی قسم کی غیر اسلامی و غیر اخلاقی پوسٹ کرنے کی اجازت نہیں ہے۔
      کسی قسم کی غلط پوسٹ کسی ممبر کو فارم پر نظر آئے تو رپورٹ بٹن کو استعمال کر کے انتظامیہ کو اطلاع کریں۔ اپنی طرف سے کسی ممبر پر نقطہ چینی کرنے کی اجازت نہیں۔

      ۲- اس فورم یا منتظمین کے متعلق کوئی شکوہ یا شکایت یا اعتراض واضح طور پر کسی بھی سیکشن میں بیان نہیں کرسکتے۔ اور شکوہ شکایت وغیرہ کرنے کیلئے ایڈمن سے براہ راست رابطہ کریں

      ۳- فورم میں دستخط استعمال کرنے کیلئے صرف ایک تصویر اور اس کی ازحد چوڑائی550پکسلز اور اونچائی145پکسلزسے زیادہ نہ ہو۔اور ساتھ میں کچھ لنکس کی اجازت ہے۔ سیگنیچر امیج میں یا لنکس میں کسی بد مذہب سائٹ کا لنک یا قابل اعتراض مواد پوسٹ کرنے کی اجازت نہیں۔

      ۴- کسی جاری گفتگو کے دوران ایسے روابط ارسال کرنے سے پرہیز کریں جن کا گفتگو سے تعلق نہ ہو۔

      ۵- بحث برائے بحث سے بچنے کی حتی الامکان کوشش کریں

      ۶۔ فورمز کی انتظامیہ آپ کو ہدایت کرتی ہے کہ براہ کرم کسی قسم کی ذاتی معلومات جیسے کہ اپنا پتا یا فون نمبر ارسال مت کریں جس سے تمام لوگوں کی اس تک رسائی ممکن ہو سکے۔ان معلومات کا غلط استعمال کیا جا سکتا ہے۔ اس لیے ہر ممکن طور پر ، اگر آپ اپنی معلومات کا تبادلہ کسی دوسرے رکن کے ساتھ کرنا چاہتے ہیں تو ذاتی پیغامات کا استعمال کریں۔ ۷۔ ٹاپک کے لئے مناسب ،موضوع سے متعلق ٹائٹل استعمال کریں۔  need answer,  jawab dejiye, please read it, must reply وغیرہ جیسے غیر موضوع ٹائٹل استعمال نہ کریں. ٹائٹل کی ایک بہتر مثال یہ ہے۔
      "A good example: "Help: I need "This" Book Scan
      "A bad example: "PLZZ HEEEEELP ۸۔ سرکار مدینہ صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم کا مبارک نام جہاں بھی استعمال کریں۔ درود شریف ضرور لکھیں۔ درود شریف والا ایموٹیکن بھی استعمال کرسکتے ہیں۔ (s.a.w) یا (pbuh) وغیرہ لکھنے کی اجازت نہیں۔ ۹۔ سنیوں کے آپسی اختلافات میں فورم کا *رجحان جمہور اور جید علماء کی طرف ہوگا۔ اس لئے ان موضوعات پر طویل بحث ممنوع ہے۔
      مثلاً...پیر کرم شاہ صاحب والا موضوع۔۔۔ اس جیسے موضوعات پر فورم کا رخ جید علماء اور جمہور علماء کی طرف ہوگا۔ دوسرا یعنی ویڈیو کا مسئلہ یا اسپیکر پر نمازوغیرہ کا مسئلہ(فروعی مسائل) ۔
      اس جیسے مسائل کو بنیاد کو بنا کر علماء کو برا بھلا کہنا ہرگز ممنوع ہےاور بلا وجہ بحث بھی ممنوع ہے۔ فروعی مسائل میں فورم کا رجحان بعض اوقات کسی عالم کی طرف یا بعض اوقات غیر جانبدار بھی ہوسکتا ہے۔

      ۱۰۔ غیر اخلاقی پوسٹ کرنے پر وارننگ یا بین کیا جا سکتا ہے۔

      ۱۱۔ کسی بھی عالم چاہے بد مذہبوں کا ہو ان کی بگاڑ کر تصویر شئیر کرنا منع ہے۔

      ۱۲۔ انگلش سیکشن کے علاوہ کسی بھی سیکشن میں انگلش پوسٹ کرنا منع ہے۔

      ۱۳۔ پوسٹ کو متعلقہ سیکشن میں کریں غیر متعلقہ سکیشن میں پوسٹ کرنے پر آپ کی پوسٹ کو موو (move) کر دیا جائے گا۔ ۱۴۔ عورتوں کی تصاویر ویڈیوز وغیرہ شئیر کرنا منع ہے۔ ۱۵۔ یہ فورم آپ کی سائیٹس کی تشہیر، بیک لنکنگ یا گوگل رینکنگ بڑھانے کے لئے نہیں ہے۔ جو بھی اسلامی مواد پوسٹ کریں اللہ اور اس کے حبیب صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم کی رضا کیلئے پوسٹ کریں۔ غیر متعلقہ لنکس ٹاپکس سے حذف کر دیے جائیں گے۔اگر کسی اسلامی سنی ویب سائیٹ کا لنک آپ پوسٹ کرنا چاہتے ہیں تاکہ دیگر ممبرز مستفید ہوں، تو سنی سائیٹس کے متعلقہ سیکشن میں نیا ٹاپک ویب سائیٹ ٹائٹل ہیڈنگ کے ساتھ  پوسٹ کریں۔

        مناظرہ سیکشن کے قوانین

      ۱۔ تمام ممبرز (خصوصاً سُنی ممبرز) مناظرہ سیکشن میں غلط زُبان کا استعمال نہ کریں اور اَدب کے دائرے میں رہ کر اعتراض کریں یا جواب دیں۔ غلط زبان استعمال کرنے پر آپکی پوسٹ میں ترمیم یا پوسٹ کو ڈیلیٹ کیا جاسکتا ہے۔ اور بار بار کرنے پر وارن یا بین بھی کیا جا سکتا ہے۔

      ۲۔ اگر کسی ممبر کے ایک موضوع پر دو مختلف ٹاپکس نظر آئے تو ایک ٹاپک بغیر اطلاع کے لاک یا ڈیلیٹ کیا جا سکتا ہے۔

      ۳۔ جن موضوعات سے متعلق پہلے سے ٹاپکس موجود ہیں، اپنا سوال،اعتراض یا جواب اُسی ٹاپک میں پوسٹ کریں۔ اگر الگ سے ٹاپک بنا کر پوسٹ کیا تو آپکے ٹاپک کو بند، ضائع یا دوسرے ٹاپک کے ساتھ یکجا کیا جاسکتا ہے۔

      ۴۔ مناظرہ سیکشن بحث برائے بحث کیلئے نہیں ہے۔ اگر کوئی پوسٹ بحث برائے بحث یا موضوع سے ہٹ کر محسوس ہوئی تو بغیر اطلاع کئے ڈیلیٹ کر دی جائے گی۔ بار بار ایسا کرنے پر وارن کیا جا سکتا ہے۔اور بین بھی کیا جاسکتا ہے۔

      ۵۔ ایسی سائٹ جن کا تعلق بد مذہبوں سے ہو یا ان سائٹ پر بد مذہبوں کا کوئی مواد موجود ہو ان کی کسی بھی قسم کی تشہیر کسی پوسٹ میں ان کا لنک وغیرہ شئیر کرنا پوسٹ کرنا سخت منع ہے ۔خلاف ورزی پر پوسٹ ڈیلیٹ یا ایڈیٹ کی جاسکتی ہے۔

      ۶۔ بدمذہبوں کی ویڈیوز شئیر کرنا منع ہے اگر کسی اعتراض کا جواب درکار ہو تو اس ویڈیو کا سکرین شاٹ لے کر بد مذہبوں کی سائٹ کا لنک ریمو کر کے امیج کی صورت میں پوسٹ کریں۔

      کسی سنی عالم کی تضحیک سخت منع ہے۔

      ۷۔ اگر کو ئی اعترض بھی ہو جس میں سنی عالم کے خلاف غلط زبان استعمال کی گئی ہو تو اس میں سے غلط زبان کو ریمو کر کے اعتراض پوسٹ کیا جائے۔

      ۸۔ صرف وہی سائٹ شئیر کی جائیں جو سنیوں کی ہوں صلح کلی مکتب فکر کی سائٹ بھی شئیر کرنا منع ہے۔

      ۹۔ اسلامی محفل کے کسی بھی ٹیم ممبر یا سینئر ممبر سے بدتمیزی ناقابل برداشت ہوگی اور بین بھی کیا جاسکتا ہے۔ ٹیم ممبرز بھی حدود کے دائرے میں رہ کر جواب دینے کے مجاز ہیں۔

      ۱۰۔ انتظامیہ کا فیصلہ حتمی ہے۔ اگر آپ کو کسی نقطے پر اعتراض ہے تو مناظرہ سیکشن میں پوسٹنگ کرکے اپنا اور ہمارا وقت ضائع نہ کریں۔ کسی بھی ممبر کو رولز کے خلاف کوئی پوسٹ نظر آئے تو فوراً رپورٹ کے بٹن سے ہمیں آگاہ کریں۔
         

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  1. Introduction: Two principles were derived in an attempt to explain what would be linguistic and what would be legal innovation in an article responding to argument; Ibn Umars (radiallah ta’ala anhu) made statements, Salat ad-Duha is excellent/fine innovation, in linguistic sense, here. And it was argued that Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) did not believe Salat ad-Duha was Prophetic Sunnah hence he made the statements in legal (i.e. Shar’ri sense). Later after careful consideration it was realised these statement, Salat ad-Duha is fine/excellent innovation, was made in context of Salat ad-Duha of congregation. And this prompted me to rectify my understanding, here. My opponent in the light of lattest readjustment has responded to me in the hope of refuting Islamic position – Islam has made provisions via which good innovations can be made part of Islam. An Email Arguing Against Islamic Position: In your lattest post you have acknowledged statements of Abdullah Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) regarding Salat ad-Duha are in context of congregation, in Masjid other than Haram/Quba, and a day on another than Saturday. This means you take the Ahadith in which Salat ad-Duha has been stated to be good/fine innovation and dear innovation to be referring to performing of Salat ad-Duha in congregation, in Masjid other than Haram/Quba, and a day on another than Saturday. And this implies you believe Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) performed Salat ad-Duha in congregation and Abdullah Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) was unaware of this. Your admission changes the dimensions of the discussion because it is stated in Hadith that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) performed Salat ad-Duha in congregation: “Bilal replied in the affirmative. I said, 'Where)?' He replied: 'Between these two pillars and then he came out and offered a two rak`at prayer in front of the Ka`ba.' "Abu `Abdullah said: Abu Huraira said, "The Prophet advised me to offer two rak`at of Duha prayer. " Itban (bin Malik) said, "Allah's Messenger and Abu Bakr, came to me after sunrise and we aligned behind the Prophet and offered two rak`at."[1] [Ref: Bukhari, B21, H268] And your own principle states: “Knowing y is Quranic/Prophetic teaching but despite this saying y is excellent/fine innovation. In this context, the y practice which is being called innovation is in Lughvi (i.e. linguistic) sense.” This establishes that Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) deemed Salat ad-Duha in congregation to be linguistic innovation. All I demand is, you to establish that Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) was unaware of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) performing Salat ad-Duha in Masjid, in congregation, and in public. If this is established by you my argument [against Islam allowing good innovations] stands refuted and if you fail your argument [of Islam permitting good/fine innovations] stands refuted. Assumption – He Was Aware Of ad-Duha In Congregation Is Prophetic Sunnah: It is heart warming to see you employ my own principle to refute Islamic arguments and this points you have granted the principle a degree of credibility. The problematic aspect is that you have assumed Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) was aware of Salat ad-Duha performed in congregation is Prophetic Sunnah and despite having this knowledge he went on to Salat ad-Duha in congregation is excellent/fine innovation.You have claimed my principle substantiates your position; Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) made the statement Salat ad-Duha in congregation being linguistic innovation. For your argument to be valid you must establish Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) was aware of Salat ad-Duha in congregation being prophetic Sunnah. Merely establishing it is Prophetic Sunnah cannot proof of, and is not proof, Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) being aware of Salat ad-Duha in congregation being Prophetic Sunnah. Ibn Umar Wasn’t Aware Of It Being Prophetic Sunnah: The notion that Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) was aware of Salat ad-Duha in congregation being Prophetic Sunnah is senseless. The evidence establishes; Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) did not perform Salat ad-Duha which he termed innovation: “Narrated Muwarriq: I asked Ibn `Umar: "Do you offer the Duha prayer ?" He replied in the negative. I further asked …" [Ref: Bukhari, B21, H27] And he believed Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and his first two Khulafah did not perform it: “. I further asked, "Did `Umar use to pray it?" He (Ibn `Umar) replied in the negative. I again asked, "Did Abu Bakr use to pray it?" He replied in the negative." [Ref: Bukhari, B21, H27] Naturally Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) would and will have no reason to object to or to not to perform Salat ad-Duha in congregation if he believed it was Prophetic Sunnah. And if he believed it was Prophetic Sunnah why would he say it was not performed by Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam)! And why would he himself not perform it if he believed it was Prophetic Sunnah? Considering The Impossible – He Was Aware Of It Being Sunnah: Here we suppose he was aware that Salat ad-Duha in congregation was Prophetic Sunnah. Will this establish his statements about Salat ad-Duha being excellent/fine innovation were made in linguistic sense? One word answer: No! Hadith of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) not performing and his first two Khulafah not performing Salat ad-Duha would go on to force conclusion that the scholarly opinion about Ibn Umar’s (radiallah ta’ala anhu) statements (i.e. Salat ad-Duha is excellent/fine innovation are with regards to Salat ad-Duha of congregation) is incorrect. The reason being for this is; otherwise if the Ahadith are understood in context of Salat ad-Duha of congregation than Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) is made to say a Prophetic Sunnah was not performed by two Khulafa and himself, and by Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam), which would be complete non-sense. And this contradictory non-sense naturally would force the scholarship to reconcile the difficulty by forming another opinion which would lead to conclusion that Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) was reffering to another aspect of Salat ad-Duha as excellent/fine innovation – not Salat ad-Duha of congregation. Alhasil there is no way out of Islamic position. Only slight modification - such as Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala ahu) deemed xyz aspect of Salat ad-Duha to be fine/excellent innovation [and believed Salat ad ad-Duha of congregation to be Sunnah] would result in refutation of your position. Hence it would be in your interest to conform to following the majority aspect of Prophetic teaching because there is no alternative way out of Islamic position – i.e. Islam allows good innovations to be made part of it. Islamic Scholarship Said Ahadith Are About Ad-Duha Of Congregation: You have stated for me to refute your position all needs to be established is that Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) was unaware of Salat ad-Duha in congregation being Prophetic Sunnah. Note Islamic scholarship has stated that Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) made the following statements about Salat ad-Duha performed in congregation [with two other reasons]: “Narrated Muwarriq: I asked Ibn `Umar: "Do you offer the Duha prayer [in congregation]?" He replied in the negative. I further asked, "Did `Umar use to pray it [in congregation]?" He (Ibn `Umar) replied in the negative. I again asked, "Did Abu Bakr use to pray it [in congregation]?" He replied in the negative. I again asked, "Did the Prophet use to pray it [in congregation]?" Ibn `Umar replied, "I don't think he did." [Ref: Bukhari, B21, H27]“Narrated Mujahid: Urwa bin Az-Zubair and I entered the Mosque (of the Prophet) and saw Abdullah bin Umar sitting near the dwelling place of Aisha and some people were offering the Duha prayer [in congregation]. We asked him about their prayer and he replied that it [in congregation] was an innovation.” [Ref: Bukhari, B27, H4] "It is an innovation [in congregation] and what a fine innovation it is [in congregation]!" [Ref: Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah, Kitab Of Prayer – Salat ad-Duha, 3] "At the time Uthman was killed no-one considered it desirable and the people did not innovate anything that is dearer to me than that prayer [in congregation]." [Ref: Musannaf Abd Razzaq, Vol3, Pages 78/79] If understanding of Islamic scholarship is correct and your position; Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) was aware of Salat ad-Duha in congregation being Prophetic Sunnah than there is contradiction between what you assert and what is established from these Ahadith. And based on the Prophetic teaching of following Jamhoor (i.e. majority), and Sawad al Azam (i.e. group of great majority) these Ahadith are proofs as requested and they refute your position. If He Was Unaware Of It Being Prophetic Sunnah: He is reported to have stated; he does not perform Salat ad-Duha, nor did Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam), nor did Abu Bakr (radiallah ta’ala anhu) and not his father – Umar Ibn al-Khattab (radiallah ta’ala anhu) performed Salat ad-Duha. And if he made this statement about Salat ad-Duha in congregation than why would he consider it Prophetic Sunnah? Do you believe Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) will state a Prophetic Sunnah was not acted on by Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) when he is all too well informed that it is indeed a Prophetic Sunnah? He is a Sahabi and not a Wahhabi that he will lie or distort his religion. He is from the best of Ummah and by Ijmah of Jammah of Muslims a righteous Muslim and he is above such deception. Therefore only logical conclusion can be that he genuinely did not believe Salat ad-Duha of congregation as Prophetic Sunnah. He Learnt It Was Sunnah Latter In Life: You may attempt to argue; he deemed it Salat ad-Duha of congregation as fine/excellent innovation at one stage but later learnt it was Prophetic Sunnah. Even though the assertion that Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) during later period of life found out Salat ad-Duha of congregation is Prophetic Sunnah, is unestablished but I feel compelled to address it. Even if this was true you cannot interpret his earlier period position with latter awareness. Suppose a child at the age of three believed Santa Claus was real but later in his teenage years realised it wasn’t the case. Would it be correct to reinterpret his three years of age’s understanding in light of when he was fifteen? Point being made is that if Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) believed in his latter life, it was Prophetic Sunnah, even then his early lifes statements cannot be reinterpreted to conform to his latter lifes understanding. Rather those statements should be and would be understood in context of his knowledge/belief when he made the statements. In other words Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) statement, Salat ad-Duha is excellent/fine innovation, will be interpreted in his early lifes understanding when he made them. And if he was unaware of them being Prophetic Sunnah than as per the principle his statement was made in Shar’ri sense. Instructs Earlier Statements To Be Interpreted In Light Of Latter: Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) was unaware and then learnt Salat ad-Duha of congregation was Prophetic Sunnah latter in his life. And he changed his position and he then instructs everyone: Interpret my earlier statements in such a way that they conform to my latter position. This is hypothetical scenario. Will this mean Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) does not believe in Islam permitting good innovations, or Islam allowing innovation to be introduced into it? Ofcourse not because he has retracted from his erroneous position regarding Salat ad-Duha and has not rejected, disowned the basis (i.e. Islam has created room to allow good innovations to be made part of) on which he made the judgment regarding Salat ad-Duha in congregation being good innovation. Interpreting The Statements In light Of Earlier And Latter Position: Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) said regarding Salat ad-Duha of congregation that it is fine/excellent innovation: “Ibn Ulayyah narrated to us, Jarir narrated, al-Hakim bin A'raj narrated; I asked Muhammad about Salat ad-Duha, while he was sitting near the house of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). He said: It is an innovation and what a fine innovation it is!" [Ref: Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah, Kitab Of Prayer – Salat ad-Duha, 3] And out of all the innovations which originated Salat ad-Duha was most beloved to him: "At the time Uthman was killed no-one considered it desirable and the people did not innovate anything that is dearer to me than that prayer [of Salat ad-Duha in congregation]." [Ref: Musannaf Abd Razzaq, Vol3, Pages 78/79] If his statements are interpreted in light of latter life and his instruction, which I hypothised, then his statements would be in linguistic sense in light of my principle: “Knowing y is Quranic/Prophetic teaching but despite this saying y is excellent/fine innovation. In this context, the y practice which is being called innovation is in Lughvi (i.e. linguistic) sense.” And if his statements are interpreted in light of ealier life during which he believed Salat ad-Duha was not Prophetic Sunnah then it was Shar’ri judgment and this would be in accordance with my other principle: “Believing y is not Prophetic Sunnah and then termining it a good innovation is legal ruling [or in other words, Shar’ri judgment] about an innovation.” And fact is that Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) changing his position would not refute the Islamic understanding because it merely establishes he rectified his erroneous which he had about Salat ad-Duha. In other words he still held to the notion Islam allows good innovations to be incorporated into it. And even if he had disavowed the notion that Islam allows good innovation he cannot overrule the Prophetic teaching in this regard:“He who introduces a good Sunnah in Islam, there is a reward for him for this and reward of that also who acted according to it subsequently, without any deduction from their rewards …” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] Conclusion: It is not logical to assume, Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) was aware Salat ad-Duha is Prophetic Sunnah, when there is no evidence to establish it and the only ‘evidence’ on which is is assumed establishes nothing other than; it is Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). If Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) had changed his opinion later in his life regarding Salat ad-Duha of congregation not being innovation even then his earlier judgment would be based on Islamic understanding; Islam allows and has introduced provisions to incorporate good innovations into it. And there was/is no evidence that he disavowed this teaching of Islam. And if the, impossible, strikes than the Prophetic principle telling of reward for introducing good Sunnah in Islam is suffient proof against him. Wama alayna ilal balaghul mubeen. Muhammed Ali Razavi Footnote: - [1] “Narrated Mujahid: Somebody came to the house of Ibn Umar and told him that Allah's Messenger had entered the Ka`ba. Ibn Umar said, "I went in front of the Ka`ba and found that Allah's Messenger had come out of the Ka`ba and I saw Bilal standing by the side of the gate of the Ka`ba. I said: 'O Bilal! Has Allah's Apostle prayed inside the Ka`ba?' Bilal replied in the affirmative. I said: 'Where?' He replied: 'Between these two pillars and then he came out and offered a two rak`at prayer in front of the Ka`ba.' "Abu Abdullah said: Abu Huraira said: "The Prophet advised me to offer two rak`at of Duha prayer." Itban (bin Malik) said: "Allah's Messenger and Abu Bakr came to me after sunrise and we aligned behind the Prophet and offered two rak`at." [Ref: Bukhari, B21, H268]
  2. Introduction: Majority of Islamic scholarship holds to definition of innovation which recognises, good [Shar’ri] innovations and evil [Shar’ri] innovations. A minority holds to a definition which is simplistic. According to which everything termed as Shar’ri innovation is evil/sinful and misguiding. And all evidence in Ahadith which refutes this simple definition of innovation is glossed with Taweel: This statement was made in linguistic sense. Praise be to Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala), already an article was written refuting this poorly thought-out excuse, here. And it is a decisive argument against Khawarij. This article will address the linguistic innovation claim from different perspective. And also go on to establish the definition of innovation which Abdullah Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) held to. Simplistic, which is now championed by Khawarij of Najd, or comprehensive which is held by majority of Islamic scholarship. The Understanding Of Innovation By Majority Of Islamic Scholarship: Majority of Islamic scholarship believes in comprehensive definition of innovation according to which, any non-prophetic practice with Asal from Quran and Sunnah it is good innovation in sense of Shari’ah. And any non-prophetic practice which is without Asal from Quran and Sunnah is an evil innovation in sense of Shari’ah. And according to this majority an innovated practice with explicit or implicit Shar’ri evidence can be termed non-prophetic good Shar’ri Sunnah, or alternatively good Shar’ri innovation. And any innovated practice without explicit or implicit evidence from Quran and Sunnah, and composed of sinful activities can be termed non-prophetic evil Shar’ri Sunnah, or alternatively evil Shar’ri innovation. Note the words Shar’ri are dropped from usage when writing about Shar’ri innovations. Instead of good Shar’ri innovation words good innovation, or good Sunnah are used and same applies to evil Shar’ri innovation and evil Shar’ri Sunnah. Innovation According To Shaykh Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali (rahimullah alayhi ta’ala): Shaykh Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali (rahimullah) holds to simple definition of innovation. According to Shaykh Ibn Rajab (rahimullah alayhi ta’ala) innovation is; any practice, or activity, or custom, which without Asal (i.e. Foundation) of Shari’ah. In other words; any practice which is without Asal of Quran and Sunnah is [Shar’ri] innovation. In Shaykh Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali’s definition of innovation, anything which is termed/judged as ‘innovation’ or ‘Shar’ri innovation’ is unIslamic and sinful action or practice. And a ‘reprehensible innovation’ in definition of majority of Islamic scholarship. Also according to Shaykh Rajab’s definition any practice which is not Prophetic Sunnah but for it there is Asal (i.e. Foundation) in Shari’ah then it is not innovation but a Sunnah. Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) On Salat ad-Duha: In the following Hadith it is established; Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) was asked if Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was'sallam), Abu Bakr (radiallah ta’ala anhu), Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) performed Salat ad-Duha and he responded in negative: “I further asked, "Did `Umar use to pray it?" He (Ibn `Umar) replied in the negative. I again asked, "Did Abu Bakr use to pray it?" He replied in the negative. I again asked, "Did the Prophet use to pray it?" Ibn `Umar replied, "I don't think he did." In the same Hadith Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) was asked if he performs Salat ad-Duha and he responded in negative: “Narrated Muwarriq: I asked Ibn `Umar "Do you offer the Duha prayer?" He replied in the negative.” [Ref: Bukhari, B21, H27] And this was because he deemed it innovation on the account, that he believed neither Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam), nor his first to Caliphs performed Salat ad-Duha. Of course this is implied from the Hadith but it is also established from clear text of following Hadith: “… and I entered the Mosque (of the Prophet) and saw Abdullah bin Umar sitting near the dwelling place of Aisha and some people were offering the Duha prayer. We asked him about their prayer and he replied that it was an innovation.” [Ref: Bukhari, B27, H4] About Salat ad-Duha he also said: "At the time Uthman was killed no-one considered it desirable and the people did not innovate anything that is dearer to me than that prayer." [Ref: Musannaf Abd Razzaq, Vol3, Pages 78/79] This establishes Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) considered Salat ad-Duha to be an innovation and a good innovation at that. And in following Hadith he deemed Salat ad-Duha to be a good innovation: "It is an innovation and what a fine innovation it is!" [Ref: Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah, Kitab Of Prayer – Salat ad-Duha, 3] This establishes the Islamic belief that companions accepted good innovations into Islam a belief which is challenged by proponents new brand of Kharijis. And they have attempted to protect their misguidance with innovative arguments and an example of which will follow. Shaykh Aymen And Salat ad-Duha Being Linguistic Innovation: Shaykh Aymen adheres to, and esteems Shaykh Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali’s (rahimullah alayhi ta’ala) definition of innovation, and judges the following statement of Abdullah Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) regarding Salat ad-Duha in its context: "It is an innovation and what a fine innovation it is!" Shaykh Aymen interpreted the statement of Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) and explained it as: “He did not know that the Prophet prayed it before. He approved it because it is a Nafliah like any other Nafila that is allowed to be prayed at anytime. He said it is Bida'a in its linguistisc meaning. Wallahu A'lam” [Ref: AhlalHdeeth, by Ayman Bin Khaled, post 5] Shaykh Aymen said, statement of Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) was made in linguistic usage of word innovation based on Ibn Rajab’s definition of innovation. Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) did not actually hold to Shaykh Ibn Rajab’ (rahimullah alayhi ta’ala) definition of innovation. If Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) had made the statement with the thought that Salat ad-Duha is from Nafliah worship he would not have declared it to be an innovation. Instead he would have said, it is a Prophetic Sunnah, and this verdict would have been in accordance with Shaykh Ibn Rajab’s definition of innovation. But the clear evidence establishes Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) believed Salat ad-Duha was an innovation because he had stated Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam), Abu Bakr (radiallah ta’ala anhu) and his father Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu), and he himself does not perform Salat ad-Duha. It is evident from Ahadith that Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) deemed Salat ad-Duha to be fine/good innovation. And if he had held to Shaykh Ibn Rajab’s (rahimullah) definitions of innovation he would have believed all innovations are evil as Shaykh Ibn Rajab’s (rahimullah) definition establishes. And therefore would not have remarked that Salat ad-Duha is fine innovation. Refuting Shaykh Aymen’s Claim Of Linguistic Innovation: To defend Shaykh Ibn Rajab’s (rahimullah alayhi ta’ala) definition of innovation Khawarij can argue that he intended the usage of word innovation in linguistic sense and not in Shar’ri sense therefore he could have used Shaykh Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali’s understanding of innovation. In other words they could argue; Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) deemed Salat ad-Duha to be a form of Nafliah worship for which permissibility is generally granted except the forbidden times – sunrise and sunset -: "I do only what my companions used to do and I don't forbid anybody to pray at any time during the day or night except that one should not intend to pray at sunrise or sunset." [Ref: Bukhari, B21, H283] Alhasil, Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) judged it to be linguistic innovation, while believing that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) did not perform it, but he deemed it permissible based on general permissibility for Nawafil. We the Muslims say, if Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) judged permissibility of Salat ad-Duha based on general permissibility of Nawafil then he made a Shar’ri judgment to deem it permissible -: Nawafil are permissible at all times except sun rising and sun setting times and Salat ad-Duha is performed during time of Duha (i.e. forenoon) therefore it is permissible. From this it is evident Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) did not judge Salat ad-Duha to be fine innovation in linguistic sense but good/fine innovation in Shar’ri sense because judgment he made is based on general permissibility of Nawafil. And Shar’ri judgement of permissibility about an innovative practice can only be made by him if believes there exits a provision within Islam permitting innovations. If it is proven there is Shar’ri acceptance of good innovations in Islam then it will establish; Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) did not hold to Shaykh Ibn Rajab’s definition of innovation but to definition of majority of Islamic scholarship. Also this would prove that Shaykh Aymen Bin Khaled would be incorrect in his saying that Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) made the following statement in linguistic sense: "It is an innovation and what a fine innovation it is!" Following section will establish that Islam recognises and permits good innovations and considers them reward worthy. And deems evil innovations to be sinful and hence prohibits them by default. Shari’ah The Islamic Law Derived From Islam: Innovation in linguistic sense is something new, something which already did not exist. And in Shar’ri sense it means something which already did not exist in Islam. In the following Ahadith Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) tells the Muslim about reward for introducing/innovating goods Sunnahs in Islam which were not already part of Islam: “He who introduced some good Sunnah in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466]“The Messenger of Allah said: 'Whoever sets a good precedent in Islam, he will have the reward for that, and the reward of those who acted in accordance with it, without that detracting from their reward in the slightest.” [Ref: Nisa’i, B23, H2555] Note Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has told; the one who introduces/sets a good Sunnah in Islam for him and those who emulate his innovated good Sunnah there is reward. If a good Sunnah is already is part of Islam and person acts on it then nothing is introduced into Islam. And the quoted Ahadith tell of reward for introducing good Sunnahs into Islam. In the following portion of Ahadith Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) informs the Muslim who introduces/innovates an evil Sunnah in Islam about the burden of sin and those who follow him: “And he who introduced some evil Sunnah in Islam which had been followed subsequently (by others), he would be required to bear the burden like that of one who followed this (evil practice) without theirs being diminished in any respect.” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] “And whoever sets an evil precedent in Islam, he will have a burden of sin for that, and the burden of those who acted in accordance with it, without that detracting from their burden in the slightest."' [Ref: Nisa’i, B23, H2555] And meaning of this Hadith is same as the following: "And whoever starts an erroneous Biddah (i.e. ابْتَدَعَ بِدْعَةَ ضَلاَلَةٍ) with which Allah is not pleased nor His Messenger then he shall receive sins similar to whoever acts upon it without that diminishing anything from the sins of the people.” [Ref: Tirmadhi, B29, H2677] Alhasil meaning of introducing good Sunnah in Islam and evil Sunnah in Islam is good/evil innovations in Islam. And this establishes that Islam/Shari’ah recognises concept of good/evil innovation and tells of reward and sin for introducing each. Conclusion: Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) did not believe in Shaykh Ibn Rajab’s (rahimullah) definition of innovation. Had he believed in this definition of innovation or one remotely resembling it in detail then he would not have stated Salat ad-Duha is fine innovation. But in fact his statement reveals that it was based on the understanding of Hadith; one who introduces good Sunnah in Islam for him and the one who adheres to the Sunnah will equally be rewarded without reward being reduced. Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) believed Islam grants permission to Muslims to invent and incorporate good Sunnahs in Islam. Hence he could not have made the statement in linguistic sense but rather he judged it to be good/fine innovation in sense of Islamic canonical law (i.e. Shari’ah) whose source is Quran and teaching of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). Thus the Islamic definition of innovation – good/evil innovated Sunnahs - stands established and excuse if linguistic innovation refuted. Wama alayna ilal balaghul mubeen. Muhammed Ali Razavi
  3. Introduction: This article has been written in form of question and answer. These questions are product of my Wahhabi mind. Questions are fairly basic and get complex as the article progresses. After question nine Wahhabi side in me kicked in and asked really tough questions and Sunni side replied with best of my knowledge and ability. Objective was that someone with basic knowledge of subject of innovation can read this and use it as a spring board for further study into subject. Question And Answer Session: Q1: What is innovation? Answer: Linguistically anything newly invented is innovation. Technically anything not explicitly stated by name/label in neither Quran nor it was by taught by Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is innovation. Q2: Is there a Shar’ri definition of innovation as opposed to linguistic definition of innovation? Answer: Yes, there are Shar’ri definitions of innovations but these definitions depend on type of innovation. Q3: How many types of innovations are there? Answer: Islam divides innovations into two major categories; i) praiseworthy ii) and blameworthy. Praiseworthy innovation is permissible and blameworthy is prohibited. Q4: What are the definitions of these two types of innovations? Answer: The definition of praiseworthy innovation is as follows: Any innovated practice/custom which has implicit evidence from Quran/Hadith. Other side of praiseworthy innovation is: Any innovated practice/custom which is composed of acts of worship, charity, preaching, and other Sunnahs of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is praiseworthy innovation. Definition of blameworthy innovation is as follows: Anything innovated which does not have implicit evidence from Quran/Hadith. Other side of reprehensible innovation is: Any innovated practice/custom which is composed of Shirk, or Kufr, or engaging in Haram, or eating Haram, or any sinful activity is blameworthy innovation. Q5: What is implicit/indirect evidence in context of subject of innovation? Answer: Implicit/Indirect evidence fundamentally is corroborating activities in a custom/practice from Quran and Hadith. A properly corroborated practice/custom will be amalgamation of various Islamicly sanctioned practices. Q6: What type innovation is permissible? Answer: If an innovated practice is composed of, acts of worship, charity and other Islamicly sanctioned activities then it is permissible Q7: What type of innovation is prohibited? Answer: If an innovated practice is composed of acts which lead to Shirk/Kufr, engaging in or eating Haram and other sinful activities then the innovation is reprehensible. Q8: Will there be reward for engaging in praiseworthy innovations and punishment for blameworthy? Answer: Yes, there will be reward from Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) for engaging in praiseworthy innovations and punishment for acting upon blameworthy innovations. Q9: If an innovation is composed of islamicly sanctioned activities and Islamicly condemned activities then what would be the judgment regarding the innovation? Answer: The polytheists of Makkah performed Tawaf of Kabah naked and chanted a polytheistic Talbiyah. Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) instructed the companions to perform Tawaf with Ihram and corrected the Talbiyah to conform to Tawheed. Hence it would be appropriate to remove the aspects which contradict teaching of Islam and practice it with aspects which conform to teaching of Islam. Q10: Hadith indicates; every innovation is misguidance, [1] therefore Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) will not reward innovations/misguidance. Question is how can there be reward for [praiseworthy] innovation? Answer: Hadith of every innovation is misguidance is in context of misguiding innovation.[2] Misguiding innovations are those which contradicts teaching of Islam and every innovation which is composed of polytheistic, sinful, activities is [evil, reprehensible, blameworthy, erroneous, and] misguiding innovation. Reward is not based on the name of innovation but based on what it is composed of. Praiseworthy innovations are composed of Islamicly sanctioned activities such as Dua (i.e. supplication), Nawafil (i.e. optional prayers), Tilawah (i.e. recitation of Quran), Sadqah (i.e. optional charity), Bayanaat (i.e. speeches), and distribution of food to poor, family and friends. These are practices which are Sunnahs of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) hence reward is guaranteed. Engaging in these Sunnahs under a new name (i.e. Urs, Milad, and Khatam) does not make the practice of them a sinful activity. Q11: You have restricted the application of every invention is innovation [and] every innovation is misguidance, in context of blameworthy innovation. Is there any evidence for this interpretation of Hadith? Answer: The evidence for this Takhsees/interpretation is found in another Hadith where Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is reported to have said: “And whoever introduces a سُنَّةً سَيِّئَةً (i.e. reprehensible practice) that is followed, he will receive its sin and a burden of sin equivalent to that of those who follow it, without that detracting from their burden in the slightest.'" [Ref: Ibn Majah, B1, H203] In another Hadith the word innovation (i.e. bidda) is used: "And whoever introduces an ضَلاَلَةٍ بِدْعَةَ (i.e. reprehensible innovation) with which Allah is not pleased nor His Messenger then he shall receive sins similar to whoever acts upon it without that diminishing anything from the sins of the people.” [Ref: Tirmadhi, B29, H2677] Based on these Ahadith it is clear that Islam recognises blameworthy innovations/practices. Hence in the Hadith of every invention is innovation, every innovation is misguidance, Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) was stating about innovations which are Dhalalah/Say’yah. Only reprehensible innovations which are composed of Shirki/Kufri or sinful activities can earn displeasure of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and take the practitioner to hellfire. Q12: Is there evidence for the concept of ‘good innovation’ in religion of Islam? Answer: It has been narrated that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) said: "Whoever introduces a good Sunnah (i.e. practice) that is followed, he will receive its reward and a reward equivalent to that of those who follow it, without that detracting from their reward in their slightest.” [Ref: Ibn Majah, B1, H203/209] In the Hadith recorded in Sahih Muslim Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is reported to have explicitly stated that one who introduces good Sunnah into religion of Islam, hadith: “He who introduced some good Sunnah (i.e. practice) in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] Note that in the above two Ahadith word Sunnah has been used but the meaning in context is obvious of innovation. To put it simply the Hadith means; he who introduced some good innovation into religion of Islam then the innovator and the followers would earn equal reward without their rewards being diminished in any way. There is Hadith in which Hazrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) gathered the companions under leadership of one Qari and remarked this was an excellent innovation: "I went out in the company of 'Umar bin Al-Khattab one night in Ramadan to the mosque and found the people praying in different groups. A man praying individually, or a man (i.e. Imam) praying with a small group behind him. So Umar said, in my opinion I would better collect these [people] under the leadership of one Qari. So, he made up his mind to congregate them behind Ubai bin Ka'b. Then on another night I went again in his company and the people were praying behind their reciter. On that, 'Umar remarked: هَذِهِ الْبِدْعَةُ نِعْمَ عُمَرُ قَالَ (i.e. What an excellent innovation this is) but the prayer which they do not perform, but sleep at its time is better than the one they are offering.' He meant the prayer in the last part of the night. [in those days] people used to pray in the early part of the night." [Ref: Bukhari, B32, H227] This statement of Hazrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) goes to establish that religion of Islam has place for praiseworthy innovations on basis of which he declared his innovation as excellent. Q13: Hadith records Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) stated regarding newly invented innovations: « من أحدث في أمرنا هذا ما ليس منه فهو ردٌّ» Translation: "Whoever innovates something in this matter of ours (i.e. Allah and RasoolAllah) that is not part of it, will have it rejected." [Ref: Muslim, B18, H4266] In another Hadith it is stated: « وَمَنْ عَمِلَ عَمَلًا لَيْسَ عَلَيْهِ أَمْرُنَا فَهُوَ رَدٌّ » Translation: “He who does an act which we (i.e. Allah and RasoolAllah) have not commanded, will have it rejected (by Allah).” [Ref: Muslim, B18, H4267] It is apparent from both these Ahadith that all ‘praiseworthy’ innovated practices will be rejected by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) yet you say they will be rewarded. Could you explain this contradiction? Answer: You have misunderstood the Ahadith of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). Suppose Yoga is made part of Islam as means of worshipping Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Would this be valid form of worship in religion of Islam? Will Yoga be accepted by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and rewarded? Yoga is not Islamicly accepted mode of worship nor it was sanctioned by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and whosoever worships Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) employing it, will have his worship rejected. Rejected on the basis that Yoga is not from the Sunnahs of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) nor it is from commandments of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Regarding which is not from commandments of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) nor from not his Sunnahs, Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has said: “He who does an act which we (i.e. Allah and RasoolAllah) have not commanded, will have it rejected (by Allah).” [Ref: Muslim, B18, H4267] "Whoever innovates something in this matter of ours (i.e. Allah and RasoolAllah) that is not part of it, will have it rejected." [Ref: Muslim, B18, H4266] Now coming to the praiseworthy innovated practices, as stated earlier are composed of acts of worship such as performing of optional prayers, recitation of Quran, supplication, and fasting. In addition, they consist of acts of charity, distribution of food, and are educational. All this is established from the Quran and Hadith, and many are Sunnahs of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) hence they will not be rejected and will be rewarded because these are good deeds. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) says: “Indeed, this Qur'an guides to that which is most suitable and gives good tidings to the believers who do righteous deeds that they will have a great reward.” [Ref: 17:9] “They believe in Allah and the Last Day, and they enjoin what is right and forbid what is wrong and hasten to good deeds. And those are among the righteous.” [Ref: 3:114] The Saliheen (i.e. righteous) are told of good return from Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala): “Those who have believed and done righteous deeds - a good state is theirs and a good return.” [Ref: 13:29] Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) states those who do good Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) will not darken their faces nor they will be humiliated and they are people of paradise: “For them who have done good is the best [reward] and extra. No darkness will cover their faces, nor humiliation. Those are companions of paradise; they will abide therein eternally.” [Ref: 10:26] The reward on good deeds is promised by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and he has promised entry into paradise for those who do good. The innovations which are composed of acts of worship, charity, Islamic education are good deeds and will be rewarded and will be accepted in light of Quranic teaching. Q14: If one abstains from praiseworthy innovated practices is one sinful? Answer: The innovated practices such as celebration of birthday of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam), wide range of Esal Al Sawab (i.e. sending of reward) practices, under various names/labels, all are optional. If one does not take part in them there is no blame of sin upon an individual. Q15: If one believes the indicated innovated practices are reprehensible is this sinful? Answer: Islam judges based on content and not on the label. These practices are made up of worship, charity and various other Sunnahs. Therefore to consider these practices sinful/blameworthy is to consider the Islamic acts of worship, charity and Sunnahs of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) as sinful/blameworthy. If one consider these innovated practices reprehensible/sinful due to his ignorance and lack of knowledge, without understanding what the implications of his belief are then one is heretic. If one fully understands the implications of his belief and deems the entire praiseworthy innovation as blameworthy/sinful. Including name and the components which make praiseworthy innovation as whole, such as acts of worship, charity and Sunnahs of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) then the person is guilty of disbelief, which invalidates belief in Islam. Q16: Salafism judges on label and based on the contents of practice. Both the name and components of practice have to be explicitly stated for it to be permissible. Hence if the name of practice is not found in the Quran and Hadith then according to Salafi methodology the practice is [reprehensible] innovation. How do you respond to this line of argument? Answer: Technically permissibility is not judged on explicit mention of name and methodology of an innovated practice. Explicit name and methodology of a practice is requested when one has to establish if a practice is Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) or not. Anyone asking for explicit evidence of name as well as methodology of an innovated practice to establish permissibility is foolish and unqualified to issue a judgment on aspects related to Islam. If permissibility is established based on name and the content then note that name of Sahih of Imam Bukhari (rahimullah alayhi ta’ala) has not been mentioned in Quran or in any Hadith and nor there is any explicit named reference for any other Hadith book. Should we prohibit the reading of Ahadith books because these collections are [reprehensible] innovations and warn people against reading these Ahadith books just on the basis that names of these Ahadith collections have not been stated in Ahadith of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam)? [3] The label in Islam is not essential for establishing permissibility but the components which make a practice are essential for permissibility. Moving on, Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) states in Quran regarding the Christian monks that they invented monasticism: “Then We sent following their footsteps Our messengers and followed [them] with Jesus, the son of Mary, and gave him the Gospel. And We placed in the hearts of those who followed him compassion and mercy, and monasticism which they innovated We did not prescribe it for them except [that they did so] seeking the approval of Allah. But they did not observe it with due observance. So We gave the ones who believed among them their reward, but many of them are defiantly disobedient.” [Ref: 57:27] Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) goes on to state, the monks invented it to please Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) but they did not act upon their innovation as they should have. From among those who practiced monasticism and believed in the message of Prophet Isa (alayhis salaam) were rewarded by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). This interpretation is supported by Hadhrat Ibn Abbas (radiallah ta’ala anhu): “(Then We caused Our messengers) one after the other (to follow in their footsteps) to follow Noah and Abraham from their respective offspring; (and We caused Jesus, son of Mary, to follow) these Messengers, (and gave him the Gospel, and placed compassion and mercy) towards each other (in the hearts of those who followed him). (But monasticism they invented) they built monasteries and cloisters to escape the sedition of Paul, the Jew. (We ordained it not for them) We did not enjoin monasticism upon them. (Only seeking Allah's pleasure) they did not invent it except to seek Allah's good pleasure, (and) had We enjoined it upon them (they observed it not with right observance) they would not have given it its right due. (So We give those of them who believe) among the monks (their reward) double for their faith and worship; these are the ones who did not contravene against the religion of Jesus. 24 among these were in the Yemen and when they heard of the Prophet (pbuh) they believed in him and joined his religion, (but many of them) of the monks (are evil-livers) disbelievers, these are the ones who went against the religion of Jesus.” [Ref: Tafsir Ibn Abbas, 57:27] This goes on to establish that the name and the practice of monasticism was innovated by the followers of Prophet Isa (alayhis salaam) but Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) still rewarded those who engaged in monasticism and still believed in teaching of Prophet Isa (alayhis salaam). Here we have approval of a practice which was not taught by Prophet Isa (alayhis salaam) with name or by method and yet those who adhered to it were rewarded. So based on this precedent we can judge that teaching of a practice by name is not fundamental to establish legitimacy. The verse establishes that if a practice (i.e. monasticism) is not taught [by name or methodology] neither prohibited [by name or methodology] and it is invented to please Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and observed correctly the reward will be granted by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Q17: Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has stated the religion of Islam has been completed: “This day I have perfected for you your religion and completed My favor upon you and have approved for you Islam as religion. But whoever is forced by severe hunger with no inclination to sin - then indeed, Allah is Forgiving and Merciful.” [Ref: 5:3] Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has stated: "Whoever innovates something in this matter (i.e. religion) of ours (i.e. Allah and RasoolAllah) that is not part of it, will have it rejected." [Ref: Muslim, B18, H4266] The religion of Islam has been perfected and this means nothing else is required for guidance other than what is revealed by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has informed that innovation would be rejected. Considering this evidence, how can it be correct to believe that one can introduce a practice into Islam which would be rewarded? Answer: Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has stated: “He who introduced some good Sunnah (i.e. practice) in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] Therefore one cannot negate the permissibility of reward worthy innovations into Islam and to negate it is heretical and an innovation. Indeed the religion of Islam has been perfected and completed. One must understand that religion of Islam was perfected and completed with the Hadith which states an individual who introduces into Islam a good Sunnah will earn equal reward to those who follow his innovation. The perfection of Islam is not harmed by introduction of good Sunnahs into Islam and if it was affected in any way then the Messenger of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) would not have stated contrary to it. Innovations are recognized as later additions and it known that they were/are not part fundamental Islam which Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) taught in his life time. It is also understood that these are not compulsory nor Sunnahs of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). Q18: Now question is, why are they said to be part of Islam when it is given that they are not part of [fundamental teaching of] Islam which Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) taught? Answer: Answer to this question has got to do with [logical] semantics therefore it is important one understands the forthcoming point properly. In Arabic language if something (i.e. y) attaches to a part then y would be referred as the part with which it is attached. As an example, Arabs say, his head turned grey, and by this the implied meaning is, his hair turned grey. Even Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) used this method. A sign of judgment day is that thigh/leg would speak to a person. Note: the mobile phone is placed in trouser pockets hence it refers to it. Wahhabi sect’s true followers known as ISIS have called their Khariji state as an Islamic state. Question is why have they named it Islamic state? Did Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) label it ISIS in His book? Or did Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) permit the bloodshed, rape, pillage and destruction of lands of Muslims in His book? Or did Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) appoint Abu Bakr Al Baghdadi as Khalifah in His book? So why is it labelled Islamic State of Iraq and Syria? What is Islamic about it? A supporter of these people would argue it is called Islamic because it is based on precepts of Islam. [4] Demonstration of this principle is also obvious in regards to Qadiyanism also known as Ahmadiyyah. Qadiyaniyyah believe in Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (lanatulillah) as Prophet and therefore are out of fold of Islam. Technically Qadiyanism is an independent religion. Yet they are counted amongst the deviants sects of Islam and example of this is at IslamQA Wahhabi website. From these examples we have a principle, y which is connected to or based on z is considered part of z. Using the principle we come to understanding that, innovations are said to be part of Islam because they are based on teaching of Islam and connected to teaching of Islam due to practices which make up an innovation. Hence it is clear that praiseworthy innovations are not part of fundamental Islam which Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) taught but are said to be part of Islam because the foundation of activities is from Islam. Hence these innovated practices do not go against the belief that Islam is perfected and completed. Q19: And what need is there for [praiseworthy] innovations when all that we need to enter paradise is what Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) taught? Answer: It must be said that the book of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and the Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is enough for guidance and success in this earthly life and in hereafter. Q20: So then there is no need for [praiseworthy] innovations, is it? Answer: Note, all praiseworthy innovations are composed of Sunnahs of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). Sunnahs of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) are an example of good deed which he has set to follow, and evidence of this is: "Indeed, in the Messenger of Allah, a good example [of deeds] has been set for the one who seeks Allah, and the Last Day, and [for one who] thinks constantly about Allah." [Ref: 33:21] Emulating Sunnahs of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) itself is a good deed and Sunnahs of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) are good deeds with which Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is pleased with. Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has stated that Muslims should do good deeds properly, sincerely and moderately, evidence of it is this: “Narrated Aisha: The Prophet said, "Do good deeds properly, sincerely and moderately, and receive good news, because one's good deeds will not make him enter Paradise." [Ref: Bukhari, B76, H474] Also in another Hadith he instructed to do good deeds within ones capacity because Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) rewards without tiring, and following Hadith is evidence: “Do [good] deeds within your capacity because Allah never gets tired of giving rewards till you get tired of doing good deeds." [Ref: Bukhari, B21, H251] Sunnahs of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) are part of praiseworthy innovations and his Sunnahs are examples of good deeds, and we are instructed to do good deeds. There is no fundamental need for praiseworthy innovations but these innovations serve an important purpose and that is of accumulating good deeds. Q21: Is there a Shar’ri obligation to act on these [praiseworthy] innovations? Answer: There is absolutely no Shar’ri obligation upon any Muslim to take part in praiseworthy innovations. These praiseworthy innovations are optional practices if practiced then praiseworthy innovations bring reward if avoided bring no blame. Q22: So when there is no need for praiseworthy innovations, nor there is any Shar’ri obligation to act on them, and we can go to paradise without engaging in these [praiseworthy] innovations then why should we create them and why would Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) create room for[praiseworthy] innovations? Answer: I will begin by answering your last question first. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and his beloved Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) were aware that no religion remains pure and eventually the teachings of Prophets are distorted as time progresses. As such principles were introduced into Islam and part of these principles is principle of good innovation in Islam being rewarded, and bad innovations being sinful. Based on which his followers can take part in reward worthy practices that emerge after him and discard the sinful innovations. Coming to your first question, even though Muslims do recognize the concept of introducing praiseworthy innovations into Islam yet we do not introduce praiseworthy innovations into Islam at will. If we acted on the principle as given by Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) then there would have been countless praiseworthy innovations composed of Sunnahs of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). So even we the Muslims recognize the need to holding to Islam which Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) taught in his life time and understand there is no need for praiseworthy innovations. Incase a praiseworthy innovation is introduced we judge based on the principle which Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) taught and as a matter of principle we do not reject praiseworthy innovations because Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has told of reward for engaging in them. In short, we should not introduce praiseworthy innovations and our focus should be the fundamental Islam which Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) taught. If a praiseworthy innovations is introduced then as Muslims we should not oppose it because as told by Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam), it is reward worthy. Q23: Coming to those [praiseworthy] innovations which have been passed on by our ancestors such as celebrating the birthday of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). Why is so much emphasis put on these [praiseworthy] innovations? Answer: The Khawarij oppose the Muslims because they deem the praiseworthy innovations to be reprehensible innovations and tell Muslims that if they engage in the praiseworthy innovations they will burn in hell. Yet Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has told of equal reward for the one who introduces and those who follow his footsteps. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) states: “You are the best nation produced [as an example] for mankind. You enjoin what is right and forbid what is wrong and believe in Allah.” [Ref: 3:110] One can forbid wrong in three ways, use physical force, speak out against it, or declare it in heart to be wrong. Note, the Khawarij prohibit praiseworthy innovations and declare them as sinful and this is wrong because they oppose what Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) taught.[5] We are obliged by the verse of Quran to forbid the Khawarij from declaring something good to be sinful. So we the Muslims speak out against the heretical methodology of Khawarij and their heretical understandings. Sign of best nation from mankind is that they enjoin what is good and we also partake in the right/good innovations because taking part in such innovations also a form of opposition to the Khawarij. Q24: How can the dispute about [praiseworthy] innovations be resolved in your understanding? Answer: Idealistic absolute reconciliation is not possible between the Muslims and Khawarij due to fundamental differences in methodology. If Khawarij accept that the words of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) have jawami al kalim (i.e. short phrase bearing widest meanings) nature and if their understanding of Ahadith on subject of innovation is corrected then the dispute with Khawarij can be resolved in favor of Muslims. Q25: You don’t believe the definitions of innovation have something to do with the differences? Answer: The Muslims divide innovation into two major categories: praiseworthy and blameworthy. Praiseworthy is which is based on teaching of Quran and Sunnah, and blameworthy is which contradicts the teaching of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and RasoolAllah (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). Muslim scholars also purposed the definition of innovation which now is bench mark of Khawarij. In this methodology of innovation anything which is not supported from teaching of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) with explicit or implied evidence was an innovation. Note in their terminology when a practice is declared as an innovation, it means reprehensible innovation, and praiseworthy innovations were declared as Sunnahs in this methodology.[6] The Khawarij removed condition of implicit evidence (i.e. Ijthadi evidence) and made explicit evidence as the criteria for judging permissibility especially against Muslims. Therefore with minor adjustments this definition can be reconciled with Islamic methodology but in Khariji belief system there is no room for introducing good Sunnah into Islam hence the definition will not be altered to conform to definition of early Islamic scholarship. The difference in definitions of innovations by itself is really significant. The understanding of Ahadith relating to subject of innovation is cause of these definitions and depending on how Ahadith are understood the definition and principles surrounding are derived. So for correct definition the proper understanding of Ahadith relating to subject of innovation is fundamental requirement. Wama alayna ilal balaghul mubeen. Muhammed Ali Razavi Footnotes: - [1] “Jabir b. Abdullah said: When Allah's Messenger (may peace he upon him) delivered the sermon, his eyes became red, his voice rose, and his anger increased so that he was like one giving a warning against the enemy and saying: "The enemy has made a morning attack on you and in the evening too." He would also say: "The Last Hour and I have been sent like these two." And he would join his forefinger and middle finger; and would further say: "The best of the speech is embodied in the Book of Allah, and the best of the guidance is the guidance given by Muhammad. And the most evil affairs are their innovations; and every innovation is misguidance." He would further say: I am more dear to a Muslim even than his self; and he who left behind property that is for his family; and he who dies under debt or leaves children (in helplessness), the responsibility (of paying his debt and bringing up his children) lies on me." [Ref: Muslim, B4, H1885] - [2] "And whoever introduces an ضَلاَلَةٍ بِدْعَةَ (i.e. reprehensible innovation) with which Allah is not pleased nor His Messenger then he shall receive sins similar to whoever acts upon it without that diminishing anything from the sins of the people.” [Ref: Tirmadhi, B29, H2677] - [3] Please note, permissibility is stated to be only established if name and content both are stated if one of the two is missing then according to Salafi methodology the innovated practice is [reprehensible] innovation. - [4] Note, these people have nothing do with religion of Islam. Wahhabi’s are all upon the methodology of Khawarij and about Khawarij Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) said they are people of Kufr. - [5] “That is because they opposed Allah and His Messenger. And whoever opposes Allah - then indeed, Allah is severe in penalty.” [Ref: 59:4] “Do they not know that whoever opposes Allah and His Messenger - that for him is the fire of Hell, wherein he will abide eternally? That is the great disgrace.” [Ref: 9:63] - [6] Not Sunnah in meaning of Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) but Sunnah in meaning of good reward worthy Sunnah: “He who introduced some good Sunnah (i.e. practice) in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466]
  4. Salam Alayqum In your following article; ‘Refuting Heretical Argument - Innovated Practices Are Innovations …’, under the heading following heading: ‘1.3 - Reprehensible Innovations Are Misguidance.’, you presented following Ahadith - every newly invented matter/affair is innovation and every innovation is misguidance: “And the most evil affairs are the innovations; and every innovation is misguidance." [Ref: Muslim, B4, H1885] “Avoid novelties, every novelty is an innovation and every innovation is misguidance." [Ref: Abu Dawood, B40, H4590] Anyone who reads these two Ahadith would note; the content of these to Ahadith belies your heading. Also the following Hadith records clearly states every innovation is misguidance even if people see good in it: “Abdullaah Ibn 'Umar (radiallah ta'ala anhu) said, "Every innovation is misguidance, even if the people see it as something good." [Ref: Darimi, B1, H96, Urdu Version] Clearly these Ahadith mean to say ‘every innovation is misguidance’ and not ‘every reprehensible innovation is misguidance’. There is no proof for your Takhsees and you should fear Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). You’re distorting the words of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) to misguide people. Saeed Imtiaz The Evidence For Takhsees and Explaining The Evidence Of Takhsees: First of all the evidence on which Takhsees was made based was quoted in following section: ‘1.2 - Prophetic Criterion Of Determining A [Reprehensible] Innovation.’ Unfortunately you did not contemplate on the previous section or at least not deep enough hence you did not realize the evidence. Assuming you did read the following Hadith but ignored it: “Whoever introduces an evil Sunnah that is followed after him, will bear the burden of sin for that and the equivalent of their burden of sin, without that detracting from their burden in the slightest.” [Ref: Ibn Majah, B1, H207] In the quoted Hadith word Sunnah has been used to mean innovation. Also the following Hadith was quoted: "And whoever introduces an erroneous Biddah with which Allah is not pleased nor His Messenger then he shall receive sins similar to whoever acts upon it without that diminishing anything from the sins of the people.” [Ref: Tirmadhi, B29, H2677] This part of the Hadith: “…whoever introduces an erroneous Biddah …” is evidence for Takhsees of reprehensible innovation and the following part goes on to educate how to recognize a erroneous innovation: ”… with which Allah is not pleased nor His Messenger …” In other words the Hadith of Tirmadhi and the words of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) establish; concept of reprehensible innovation is valid and it was due to it Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) pointed how reprehensible innovation is to be recognized – i.e. which does not please Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) are pleased with acts which involve, worship, charity, encouraging good and forbidding wrong, hence anything composed of these cannot be reprehensible innovation. Coming back to the subject, the words: “… with which Allah is not pleased nor His Messenger …” are extra addition and are not fundamental part of Hadith. At the fundamental level the Hadith is stating: "And whoever introduces an erroneous Biddah then he shall receive sins similar to whoever acts upon it without that diminishing anything from the sins of the people.” This is in accordance with Hadith of Ibn Majah already quoted and in also with the following: “And whoever introduces a bad Sunnah that is followed, he will receive its sin and a burden of sin equivalent to that of those who follow it, without that detracting from their burden in the slightest.'" [Ref: Ibn Majah, B1, H203] Hence it is correct to conclude; religiously the concept of reprehensible innovation is valid. ‘Every Innovation’ In Context Of ‘Whoever Introduces An Erroneous Innovation’: It is narrated that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) said: "And whoever introduces an erroneous Biddah … then he shall receive sins similar to whoever acts upon it without that diminishing anything from the sins of the people.” [Ref: Tirmadhi, B29, H2677] According to this Hadith it is clearly established; according to Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) erroneous/reprehensible innovation is sinful and not just any/every innovation and reprehensible innovation is one which does not please Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). Hence it is only correct to interpret the words of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) according to his own words and based on this correct understanding of Ahadith you quoted would be: “And the most evil affairs are the [erroneous] innovations; and every [erroneous] innovation is misguidance." [Ref: Muslim, B4, H1885] The Hadith of avoiding novelties is to be understood with similar insertion: “Avoid [erroneous] novelties, every [erroneous] novelty is an [erroneous] innovation and every [erroneous] innovation is misguidance." [Ref: Abu Dawood, B40, H4590] Coming to the Hadith of Abdullah Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) in which he is reported to have said, every innovation is misguidance even if the people see good in the innovation, this Hadith should be understood exactly the same way: “Abdullah Ibn Umar said, "Every [erroneous] innovation is misguidance, even if the people see it as something good ." [Ref: Darimi, B1, H96, Urdu Version] Conclusion: The Ahadith of every innovation are about reprehensible innovation and reprehensible innovation is innovation which does not please Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and such innovation is misguidance and sinful and therefore it should be avoided and remains misguidance even if people see good in it. The position of Ahle Sunnat is established from Ahadith which has been explained in detail. Wama alayna ilal balaghul mubeen. Muhammed Ali Razavi
  5. Introduction: Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has reportedly stated, one who introduces into Islam a good Sunnah he/she will be rewarded and those who act on this good Sunnah will also receive equal reward, Hadith: “He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] From the literal reading of the words of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) it is clear that it is permissible to introduce into Islam good Sunnahs/Biddahs and to follow them. If it was impermissible to introduce good Sunnahs/Biddahs into Islam then Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) would not have told of reward. The Muslims believe the literal implications of this Hadith and accept all interpretations that can be derived according to historical context. Prophetic teaching is that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has been granted ‘Jawami Al Kalim’ meaning the ability to express vast meanings in few sentences. Hence the multiple interpretations of this Hadith are in agreement with this nature of prophetic words hence all are valid. Now, the opponents of religion of Islam argue against the literal implications and interpret the Hadith in historical context in order to negate the understanding of Muslims. Their understanding is; in a gathering where people are reluctant to give charity, one who gives charity and those who follow his example all will receive equal reward. Readers should note, this is article is continuation of response given to brother Sa’id Imtiaz, here and here. Evidence For Validity Of Holding To Literal Meaning Of Prophetic Words: Hadith records Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) gave following instruction to a group of Sahabah after returning from the battle of Al Ahzab: “None of you Muslims should offer the Asr prayer but at Banu Quraiza's place.” While they were travelling toward the tribe of Quraiza the Hadith records: “The Asr prayer became due for some of them on the way.” This divided the companions into two groups, one group said: “We will not offer it till we reach it, the place of Banu Quraiza.” While the other group said: “No, we will pray at this spot, for the Prophet did not mean that for us.” The Hadith goes on to record that the difference of opinion was brought to attention of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) who did not rebuke either group: “Later on it was mentioned to the Prophet and he did not berate any of the two groups.” [Ref: Bukhari, B59, H445] Position Of Both Group Of Companions On This Matter: The first group acted on the literal instructions of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and did not perform Asr prayer. They second group of companions via Ijtihad came to conclusion that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) was not preventing them from performing Asr prayer on the way but he was instructing them to travel quickly and reach the destination before Asr prayer and then perform the Asr prayer. So they realized they will not reach destination before the Asr prayer time expires and worship of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is more important then reaching a destination quickly hence they decided to perform the prayers on the way: “… (Some) people being afraid that the time for prayer would expire, said their prayers before reaching the street of Banu Quraiza.” [Ref: Muslim, B19, H4374] The other group they said: “We will not offer it till we reach it, the place of Banu Quraiza.” [Ref: Bukhari, B59, H445] “We will not say our prayer except where the Messenger of Allah has ordered us to say it even if the time expires.” [Ref: Muslim, B19, H4374] This establishes one group of companions held to literal instructions and made no Ijtihad hence did not perform prayers on the way to destination and also establishes one group of companions did engage in Ijtihad and performed prayers on the way to said destination. Reaction Of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) To This Difference: Hadith of Bukhari and Muslim record the following words regarding this difference of opinion between the companions: ”When he learned of the difference in the view of the two groups of the people, the Messenger of Allah did not blame anyone from the two groups.” [Ref: Muslim, B19, H4374] “Later on it was mentioned to the Prophet and he did not berate any of the two groups.” [Ref: Bukhari, B59, H445] Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) not correcting any group indicates both groups of companions were correct in their approach because Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is reported to have said: “Whoever among you sees an evil action, and he is able to change it with his hand, then change it with his hand (by taking action); if he cannot, (do so) with his tongue then with his tongue (by speaking out); and if he cannot then with his heart (by hating it and feeling that it is wrong), and that is the weakest of faith.” [Ref: Ibn Majah, B5, H1275] Disobedience to command of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is form of Munkir (i.e. evil/wrong) hence Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) would have clearly pointed out the error of Ijtihad if there was any. Therefore the conclusion both groups were correct in their understanding is established. The Principle Derived From Incident Of Banu Quraiza: From this historical event it is established; literal implications of prophetic words and interpreted implications derived using tool of Ijtihad are both be correct. If any of the two interpretations of prophetic words was in contradiction with Prophet’s (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) teaching he would have corrected the wrong party. An important point, both groups were correct hence Prophet’s (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) methodology is of literal and reinterpretation. Hadith Of Good Sunnah In Light Of Approved Methodologies: Understanding the prophetic words literally and acting upon them as Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) instructed is established. Also reinterpreting the words of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) in light of other evidence is also established. The following prophetic words now can be understood according Prophet’s (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) approved methodologies: “He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] The literal reading of Hadith establishes reward for introducing good Sunnahs/Biddahs into Islam and which is akin to establishing permissibility of introducing good Sunnahs/Biddah into Islam. The reinterpreting methodology establishes reward for engaging in prophetic Sunnahs which people are reluctant to practice and this is akin to granting permission for engaging in prophetic Sunnahs which people are reluctant to engage. Conclusion: Prophetic words are according to ‘Jawami Al Kalim’ nature hence they can be interpreted differently depending on the evidence. From the Hadith of Bani Quraiza it was deduced that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) approved the actions of two groups of companions who differed over the meaning of prophetic words. One group held to the literal meaning of words while the other reinterpreted the words and came to different understanding. As a result one group did not perform their prayers until they reached their destination while the other performed it on the way to destination. In context of objective of this article it is important to point out; the Muslims in regards to the Hadith of good Sunnah hold to the literal meaning and consider it permissible to create good Sunnah/Biddahs and introduce them into Islam with hope of gaining reward from Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala), while accepting the interpretation presented by opponents of Islam. It is important to point out, we the Muslims accept the interpretation of Hadith in discussion but not their understanding of; it is not permitted to introduce good innovations into Islam.
  6. Introduction: This response is continuation of dialogue with Wahhabi brother Sa’id Imtiaz and this is previous exchange has been responded to, here. His methodology is to attempt to undermine with principles what has been established clear evidence from Quran/Hadith. He does not respond to evidences used to establish arguments against his sectarian belief rather attempts to present his position while ignoring all that is piled against his position. This was the first time he actually replied to my evidence and attempted to justify his position and find fault in Islamic position. It is strongly advised that readers acquaint themselves with earlier exchange and note your own thoughts and then compare the noted thoughts as you progress through each exchange. Key Points Of Email Received From Brother Sa’id Imtiaz: While I was researching on the subject of innovation and how innovations are identified I had sought help of a student which caused the delay in response. The gist of his response is; fixing date or time or day for a particular practice and repeatedly engaging in the practice on the fixed date, time and day, causes the practice to become [reprehensible] innovation. Also if any innovated practice is performed believing that it will earn reward from Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) then it is also innovation. Based on these two principles many if not all Barelwi innovated practices/customs become innovations. Coming to the words of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam); one who introduces into Islam a good Sunnah for him there is reward and for those who follow it, does not refer to innovations. Sheikh Muhammad Salih Al-Munajjid has alluded to the correct understanding of Hadith on IslamQA website and it was explained emphatically by Sheikh Abu Rumaysah on MuslimConverts website.[1] Their explanation in nutshell is that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam)in the context of historical event was informing the companions; the Ansari man initiated [prophetic] Sunnah [of giving charity] and gave charity in the gathering for him and those who contributed following his example will be rewarded equally without their rewards being diminished. So in reality Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) did not permit introduction of good innovation in religion of Islam but he merely told of reward for engaging in his Sunnah of giving charity. The Destiny Of Ahle Sunnat Is To Dominate And Conquer: The religion of Islam and the State of Islam are destined to dominate, evidence: “It is He who sent His Messenger with guidance and the religion of truth to manifest it over all religion. And sufficient is Allah as Witness.” [Ref: 48:28] Those who establish the superiority of Islam and its state are Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jammah. They will remain the champions of Islam and spread the authority of Islamic state on earth, evidence: “A group of people from my Ummah will continue to fight in defense of truth and remain triumphant until the Day of judgment.” [Ref: Muslim, B20, N4718] In one Hadith it is stated: “The people of the West will continue to triumphantly follow the truth until the Hour is established.” [Ref: Muslim, B20, H4722] “The callousness of heart and sternness is in the East (i.e. Najd) and faith is among the people of the Hijaz (i.e. it is located in West of Najd).” [Ref: Muslim, B1, H95] The Ahle Sunnat adheres to understandings of people of Hijaz and our creed is of people of Hijaz and truth of Islam is evident over falsehood of your sect. Hence even if all of the minions of Iblees of Najd were to conspire against the truth of Islam they cannot produce a worthy substitute to replace guidance of Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). Therefore it really does not matter whose help you solicit to respond to what is presented to you and it would be better if you keep your sources private. Just refer to me the relevant information which is connected with the issue and avoid mentioning issues which are unrelated to religion. Also as a matter of principle when you dispute you are instructed to refer to Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and the Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam), evidence: “O you, who have believed, obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those in authority among you. And if you disagree over anything, refer it to Allah and the Messenger, if you should believe in Allah and the Last Day. That is the best [way] and best in result.” [Ref: 4:59] Yet you referred to a student who presented you with innovated principles. 1.0 - The Issue Of Fixing Time, Day And Date Of For Innovative Practices: You stated, fixing of time, or day, or date, for an innovative practice and then consistently engaging in the innovative practice on the fixed time, or day, or date causes it to be deemed as [reprehensible] innovation. Factually, there is absolutely no basis and no evidence in Quran/Hadith where this has been stated as a criterion of determining a [reprehensible] innovation. Saying it explicitly, neither Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) nor the Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has stated; fixing a time, or day, or date to engage in a newly invented practice/custom makes it a reprehensible Biddah/Sunnah. The criterion of determining innovation is not established with evidence from Quran/Hadith therefore it cannot be used as a criterion in regards to determining innovations. 1.1 - In Dispute Refer To Allah And His Messenger: Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has stated in Quran: “O you who have believed, obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those in authority among you. And if you disagree over anything, refer it to Allah and the Messenger, if you should believe in Allah and the Last Day. That is the best [way] and best in result.” [Ref: 4:59] Therefore it is expected from a proponent of the mentioned criteria to provide evidence to establish legality of this criterion within Islam.[2] A companion is reported to have said: “No people introduce an innovation into their religion, except that its like from the Sunnah is raised from them and it does not return to the people till the judgment day.” [Ref: Darimi, B1, H99, Urdu Version] Judging on this Hadith the criterion of determining [reprehensible] innovation itself is a newly invented reprehensible innovation which has raised a Sunnah criterion of determining [reprehensible] innovation from amongst Wahhabi’s. 1.2 - Prophetic Criterion Of Determining A [Reprehensible] Innovation: It is recorded that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) said: “He who innovates things in our affairs for which there is no valid (reason) and these are to be rejected.” [Ref: Muslim, B18, H4266] Another translation of same Hadith is: "If somebody innovates something which is not in harmony with the principles of our religion, that thing is rejected." [Ref: Bukhari B49, H861] Similar type Hadith records: “He who did any act for which there is no sanction from our behalf that is to be rejected.” [Ref: Muslim, B18, H4267] A Hadith records: "And whoever introduces an erroneous innovation with which Allah is not pleased nor His Messenger then he shall receive sins similar to whoever acts upon it without that diminishing anything from the sins of the people.”[3] [Ref: Tirmadhi, B29, H2677] From these Ahadith we understand that any action not established from Quran/Hadith and not in harmony with spirit of Islam and not sanctioned by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) or Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and which does not please Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam), it is to be rejected/discarded. The reason of rejection is that it will be deemed as a evil/reprehensible innovation and about which Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has said: “Whoever introduces an evil Sunnah that is followed after him, will bear the burden of sin for that and the equivalent of their burden of sin, without that detracting from their burden in the slightest.” [Ref: Ibn Majah, B1, H207] 1.3 - Reprehensible Innovations Are Misguidance: We have established an innovation which does not please Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and does not agree with spirit of Islam is misguidance. Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is reported to have said: “And the most evil affairs are the innovations; and every innovation is misguidance." [Ref: Muslim, B4, H1885] In another similar Hadith instruction of avoiding newly invented practices is given along with mention of novelties being [reprehensible] innovations and being misguidance: “Avoid novelties, every novelty is an innovation and every innovation is misguidance." [Ref: Abu Dawood, B40, H4590] A Hadith records: “Abdullaah Ibn 'Umar (radiallah ta'ala anhu) said, "Every innovation is misguidance, even if the people see it as something good." [Ref: Darimi, B1, H96, Urdu Version] Incorporating the understanding from the previous section in here leads to the conclusion; every innovative Sunnah/Biddah which does not please Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and has not been sanctioned and goes against the spirit of Islam is misguidance. 1.4 - Innovated Principle Of Wahhabis And Correct Judgment Regarding It: Biddahs/Sunnahs which are composed of acts of worship such as; supplication, non-obligatory prayers (i.e. Nawafil), recitation of Quran, and fasting. Or composed of acts of charity or have objective of providing Islamic education are in no way opposed to Islamic teachings nor customs/practices composed of these can be source of gaining displeasure of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) or RasoolAllah (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). Any act which contradicts the sanctioned teaching of Islam such as engaging in impermissible activities (i.e. Haram) or polytheistic activities (i.e. Shirk) or encouraging evil and forbidding good will gain one wrath of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and displeasure of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). Recitation of Quran or performing of non-obligatory prayers or engaging in supplication before or after the Adhan/Janazah, or fixing a time, or date, or day, to engage Islamicly sanctioned acts of worship (i.e. Dua, Nawafil, Tilawat) which are not explicitly established for that time, or day, or date, as Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) cannot be termed as [reprehensible] innovations on the basis that a time, a date, a day, was fixed for it to be performed. In Islam reprehensible of actions, or customs, or practices, is judged based on if they contradict the teaching of Islam and not on fixing of time, or date, or day. Yet the Wahhabi principle deems actions performed on a particular time, or date or day continuously deems it to be innovation just on the basis of fixing of time, date, and day even if these customs are Islamicly sanctioned acts of worship. 2.0 - The Hell Earned By Engaging In Islamic Acts Of Worship: Consider this scenario, a believer after performing Fajr prayers waits fifteen minutes and then recites the first chapter of Quran and recites Surah Ikhlas then raises his hands in supplication and just recites the first chapter of Quran and ends it with, Ameen! This believer engages in this practice/custom all his life knowing well that it is not Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) but his own practice. Do you think this person has been committing a major sin for which he will be punished and all his good actions be rejected? Or has been engaged in worshiping Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) via his supplication and for which he will be rewarded on judgment day? According to Wahhabism, just because he engaged in worshipping Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) on a fixed time and performed it regularly this person has committed a crime serious enough to go to hell while having all good actions rejected – all for supplicating to Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) on a fix time. 2.1 - Mentioned Scenario According To Prophetic Principles Of Determining Innovation: Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has been reported to have stated; any act for which there is no sanction from Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) or Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) it is to be rejected. Based on this principle, supplication has been sanctioned and is Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) instructed and Prophet’s (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) taught method of worship. Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is reported to have said; if something innovated is not in harmony with spirit of Islam it is to be rejected. Considering this, engaging in supplication [which essentially is worship of Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala] is perfectly in accordance with spirit of Islam so is recitation of Quran. Another states; anything for which there is not valid reason it is to be rejected. Is worship of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and gaining His pleasure and wanting to engage in non-obligatory acts of worship not valid reason enough? A literal translation, if anyone innovates into our affairs what is not from it, it is rejected. Is not worship of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) from Islam? Then how can it be deemed as a [reprehensible] innovation? Is not invocation religiously sanctioned form of worship? 2.2 - Silence Of Allah And Prophet On Issue Of Fixing Of Time, Day, Date: From all angles the mentioned scenario is a invented Sunnah/Biddah composed of acts of worship therefore it is not [reprehensible] Biddah/Sunnah and it will not be rejected nor be cause of displeasure of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) or Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). We have instructions of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) which help us identify [reprehensible] innovations and he has not stipulated fixing of time, day, and date has a principle to determine innovations. Judging according to the prophetic principles of innovation the person who supplicates to Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) on fixed time, day and date on regular or irregular basis is not engaging in an innovation which conflicts with prophetic principles hence the innovated practice/custom cannot be [reprehensible] innovation and cannot be rejected. We find that Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) are silent on the fixing of time, date, and day. We find no explicit evidence where Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has permitted fixing of day, or date, or time to engage in a act of worship nor we find any prohibition for such fixing of days, dates, or time but Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is silent. This silence is very important for establishing permissibility of fixing time, or day, or date. 2.3 - The Verdict On Fixing Of Time, Date, Day Based On Prophetic Teaching: Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is reported to have said, lawful has been declared haram has been declared and on matters which Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is silent it is excused, meaning one will not be questioned regarding it, Hadith: “The lawful is what Allah made lawful in His Book, the unlawful is what Allah made unlawful in his Book, and what He was silent about; then it is among that for which He has pardoned." [Ref: Tirmadhi, B22, H1726] The underlined part is better explained in the following Hadith: “What Allah has made lawful in His Book is halal and what He has forbidden is haram, and that concerning which He is silent is allowed as His favor. So accept from Allah His favor, for Allah is not forgetful of anything. He then recited, "And thy Lord is not forgetful." [Ref: Musnad Al Bazzar] Due to silence of Quran/Hadith on the issue of fixing of time, or day, or date we can confidently say as per the teaching of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam); it is permissible to fix days, time, and date to engage in acts of worship. Those who say contrary they must establish the prohibition from Quran/Hadith for fixing of time, date, and day. In contrast to prophetic guidance, we have Wahhabi principle which deems acts of worship performed on fixed time, date, and day as [reprehensible] Sunnah/Biddah. We Muslims are told: “Narrated Tariq: Abdullah said, "The best talk is Allah's Book (Qur'an), and the best guidance is the guidance of Muhammad." [Ref: Bukhari, B73, H120] And we choose and follow the best of guidance and reject the [reprehensible] innovation of heretics. We reject the principle which demonizes a practice/custom as [reprehensible] innovation which prophetic principle determined to be praise worthy Sunnah/Biddah. 3.0 - Reasons For Fixing Of Days And Time And Dates For Innovated Sunnahs/Biddah: Commonly a time, date, and day are fixed for religious conventions. Order is fixed, a will speak after whom b will deliver speech and then c will speak on this topic. All this is done for organizational purposes. It makes it easier for those who wish to participate to gather for the event. If it was un announced or if announced but announced as; hello people, we will randomly choose a day for religious convention and randomly grab someone to deliver a speech on random topic in random order at a randomly selected mosque in a random country and in a random city on a random time, please people ensure you all come. With this type of creating awareness for a religious convention we might avoid Wahhabi [reprehensible] Biddah charge but practically it is the stupidest invitation to join a religious convention. Who would want to come to such stupid and unplanned event and who will be able to make it even if they decide to actually attend it. Hajj is performed on every tenth of month of Hajj or at least that is the idea. What is so special about 10th of Islamic month of Hajj? Does Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) get weak on that day and Hajj strengthens Him? Its purpose is to organize to fix so all Muslims from all over the world know that we will perform Hajj as an Ummah. Prayer times are fixed and for organizational purposes all stand in row and face direction of Qibla. Alhasil the fixing of times, or day, and dates for innovated Sunnahs/Biddahs is strictly for purpose of organization. It allows people to know where the event is taking place, what date and day it has been organized and on what time it will begin and end. Knowledge of which will enable people to decide to attend. 3.1 - Performing Good Acts Regular On Fixed Times, Days, And Dates: Hadith records, mother of believers Umm Salamah (radiallah ta’ala anha) said: “And the dearest of the actions to him was the righteous action that the person does regularly, even if it were a little.” [Ref: Ibn Majah, B5, H1225] Same Hadith has been narrated by mother of believers Hadhrat Aysha (radiallah ta’ala anha), she said: “The most beloved action to Allah's Messenger was that whose doer did it continuously and regularly.” [Ref: Bukhari, B76, H469] This establishes that actions done regularly are pleasing to Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). Action can be regular in meaning of, daily on fixed time of day, or after a certain act, or fixed month, or fixed date of a month, or fixed day of week, or fixed to perform once in a year. As long as the aspect was fixed and regularly performed on fixed then it would be pleasing to Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). 3.2 - Fixing Of All Types Established From Sunnah Of Prophet and Companions: Hadith records that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) travelled on Thursday, Hadith: “Narrated Ka`b bin Malik: The Prophet set out on Thursday for the Ghazwa of Tabuk and he used to prefer to set out on Thursdays.” [Ref: Bukhari, B52, H199] And another Hadith establishes; deviation from the travel norm was a rare event: “Ka`b bin Malik used to say: "Scarcely did Allah's Messenger set out for a journey on a day other than Thursday." [Ref: Bukhari, B52, H198] It would be safe to conclude that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) had fixed Thursday to travel and only on absolutely essential like Hajj or emergency cases would travel on any other day. Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) had made routine for visiting Masjid Quba, Hadith: “Narrated Ibn `Umar: The Prophet used to go to the Quba' mosque, sometimes walking, sometimes riding.” [Ref: Bukhari, B92, H427] And the it was established this was every Saturday, Hadith: “Narrated Abdullah bin Dinar: Ibn Umar said, "The Prophet used to go to the Mosque of Quba every Saturday (sometimes) walking and (sometimes) riding." Abdullah (Ibn Umar) used to do the same.”[4] [Ref: Bukhari, B21, H284] Another Hadith records; upon reaching Masjid Quba Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) used to perform two Rakat Salat ad-Duha non-obligatory prayer.[5] Hadhrat Bilal (radiallah ta’ala anhu) routinely performed Nawafil (i.e. Tahhayyatul Wudhu) each time he performed Wudhu and Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) enquired from him, Hadith: “Narrated Abu Hurairah: At the time of the Fajr prayer the Prophet asked Bilal, "Tell me of the best deed you did after embracing Islam, for I heard your footsteps in front of me in Paradise." Bilal replied, "I did not do anything worth mentioning except that whenever I performed ablution during the day or night, I prayed after that ablution as much as was written for me." [Ref: Bukhari, B21, H250] Cutting the long Hadith short, quoting: “They said: 'A man from the Ummah of Muhammad. So I said: 'I am Muhammad, whose palace is this?' They said: ''Umar bin Al-Khattab's.' So Bilal said: 'O Allah's Messenger! I have never called the Adhan except that I prayed two Rak'ah, and I never committed Hadath (an act which invalidates ablution i.e. breaking wind) except that I performed Wudu upon that, and I considered that I owed Allah two Rak'ah. So the Messenger of Allah said: 'For those two.'" [Ref: Tirmadhi, B49, H4053] From Hadith of Tirmadhi it becomes apparent that Hadhrat Bilal (radiallah ta’ala anhu) performed two Nawafil each time he had completed Wudhu. A Hadith narrates that women requested Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) to devote a day for them where they can come and ask questions about Islam, Hadith: “Narrated Abu Sa`id: The women requested the Prophet: "Please fix a day for us." So the Prophet preached to them and said: "A woman whose three children died would be screened from the Hell Fire by them." Hearing that, a woman asked: "If two died?" The Prophet replied, "Even two (would screen her from the Fire." And Abu Hurairah added: "Those children should be below the age of puberty.” [Ref: Bukhari, B23, H341] This establishes even Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) fixed days/time to engage in religious activities. 3.3 – Concluding The Discussion On Fixing Of Days, Time And Dates: It has been established; Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) had fixed days and even particular days of week/month to engage in a particular actions. The companions of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) following the footsteps also followed the prophetic examples and in some cases fixed a time and day to engage in acts of worship. Hence fixing of time, day and date or to perform an action, after a certain action, or to engage it on a particular day, on a particular place, at a particular time, of a particular month, in particular order, has got nothing to do with an action/custom or act of worship/charity becoming [reprehensible] innovation. 3.4 – True Criteria Of Determining [Reprehensible] Innovation: As a matter of fact [reprehensible] innovation is created, if one engages in an act which is against the spirit of Islam and against the teaching of worship and charity. Also if it goes against the good of Islam and consists of engaging in activities contrary to Islam [think along the lines of disco nights, plus free mixing and alcoholic drinks] then the creator of reprehensible practice is sinful. If a newly invented practice/custom is followed by others then he has created an innovation into deen of Islam[6] even though it was not intended to be made part of Islam.[7] The good/evil of innovation is determined based on what the innovation is composed of. If it was composed of dancing, consuming alcoholic beverages, free mixing of males/females, music, drugs and other unislamic activities then clubbing is Haram – because it is composed of all Haram. On other hand if the innovation is composed of recitation of Quran and other forms of worship such as Nawafil or any other permissible Islamic teaching then it is permissible. 4.0 - Invented Sunnah/Biddah Performed For Sake Of Reward Is Not [Reprehensible] Innovation: You stated: “Also if any innovated practice is performed believing that it will earn reward from Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) then it is also innovation.” It is worth noting; reward for innovated Sunnahs/Biddahs depends on what it is composed of. If the innovated Sunnah/Biddah is composed of acts of worship such a Nawafil, engaging in invocation and composed of charitable gifts and providing education about Islam then the reward gained will be based on these acts. Therefore the principle of: any innovated act performed for reward from Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is [reprehensible] innovation, is not valid. Nor it is correct to employ this principle because it deems a praiseworthy Biddah/Sunnah as a reprehensible Sunnah/Biddah. And the principle and the results this principle produces are contrary to explicit teaching of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) because he said: “He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] If the innovated Sunnah/Biddah is composed of acts which Islam has sanctioned and told of reward then reward for innovated Sunnahs is established from Hadith of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and believing contrary to this is misguidance which takes to hell-fire. 5.0 – Heretical Position -Introducing Of Sunnah Does Not Mean Innovating Sunnahs/Biddahs: You presented the following defense for your sectarian position: “… Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam)in the context of historical event was informing the companions; the Ansari man initiated [prophetic] Sunnah [of giving charity] and gave charity in the gathering for him and those who contributed following his example will be rewarded equally without their rewards being diminished. So in reality Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) did not permit introduction of good innovation in religion of Islam but he merely told of reward for engaging in his Sunnah of giving charity.” Not surprisingly this is nothing new and it has been comprehensively addressed in my numerous articles on understanding of this genre of Ahadith. The claim that the word Sunnah used in the Hadith does not mean Biddah has been addressed, here. Wahhabi argument that here reward being told is for reviving a forgotten Sunnah and your above position falls into this category and this has been addressed, here. Historical events became reasons on which the injunctions of Quran/Hadith were revealed yet the interpretation of Quran/Hadith is not limited restricted according to the context of the events. It is principle that a Mutliq (i.e. general) statement will remain general even though if it can and is interpreted specifically in light of another piece of evidence. The position of Muslims in regards to this genre of Ahadith is; the words of these Ahadith are Mutliq and any Takhseesi (i.e. specific) interpretation cannot abrogate the generality of these statements. Many Ahadith provide guiding principles which are based in a specific context but the principles are not limited and restricted to a particular context or era but their generality is not challenged nor restricted to context. The evidence for this position of Muslims and double standard employed by the opponents of Islam is established, here. The nature of Prophetic words is shortest expression bearing widest meanings and how this establishes the position of Muslims and refutes Wahhabi understanding is explained, here. The following article completely takes the sting out of Wahhabi position; guiding principle is to be understood according to the context and its generality is specific due to its context, here. And the finale article puts the Hadith of good/bad Sunnah in context of other Ahadith about [reprehensible] innovations. It also establishes how the Ahadith are connected, here. 5.2 – Principle Given In Particular Context Is Not Limited To The Context: The interpretation of event in the light of principle told by Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is valid but the principle cannot be restricted to a context of event. Just as the interpretation of verses of Quran revealed in particular historical context cannot be restricted to that particular context only. If Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) was merely informing the companions; “…the Ansari man initiated [prophetic] Sunnah [of giving charity] and gave charity in the gathering for him and those who contributed following his example will be rewarded equally without their rewards being diminished …” then he would have expressed that in similar wording. Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) would have been more specific and would not have made general statement which can be given dual interpretation. Note, the statement is general in a specific context, which gives a specific meaning in its context, but the generality of the statement remains. Scenario, ten friends none of them performed prayers, then one starts five prayers, other nine fallow him and begin to perform the five obligatory prayers. Now the question is, Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has stated: “He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.” And based on this statement, the one who started performing the obligatory prayers and those who imitated him and those who imitate them will they gain reward without their reward being diminished? 5.3 – The Islamic Verdict And Verdict Of Heretics: Well according to the Wahhabi position of interpreting the Hadith according to strict historical context the answer is, no and yes. No, due to the fact; context of Hadith is about charity and here the context on which the Hadith is applied is prayers. Yes, due to a Wahhabi generalizing the teaching and judging on this principle: any Prophetic-Sunnah/Islamic-Teaching if followed by one and others follow his example, all will earn equal reward. Truly, the answer depends on which type of Wahhabi you encounter. One high on Biddah, Shirk, Kafir, Mushrik, it is permissible to kill you, will likely say no. One slightly more awake intellectually and scripturally will say yes. The no-type has held to the principle context is not same therefore no reward. The yes-type has left the historical context and has invented a principle based on that context and now judges based on that principle. He is no different from Muslims in adopting a non-contextual position but has invented a principle to maintain the status quo sectarian belief. The Islamic answer is, yes [based on yes-type Wahhabi principle] they all will be rewarded. The Muslims [and the yes-type Wahhabis] have understood from this Hadith; the principle is given in a context but not made specific to the context. 5.4 - Clear Evidence The Prophetic Principle Is Not Limited To The Context: Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) said after the companions had collectively gave charitable donations for the poor Muslims: “He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] The Muslims believe this is a general principle and it permits creation of praise worthy Sunnahs/Biddahs into Islam. The opponents of Muslims argue: nope, the principle is to be interpreted in its historical context. Ignoring the disputed part of the Hadith it would be better to move on to none disputed part of Hadith: “And he who introduced some evil practice in Islam which had been followed subsequently (by others), he would be required to bear the burden like that of one who followed this (evil practice) without their being diminished in any respect.” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] Question for the opponent of Islam is; what connection does this part of the Hadith have with the historical events? The Ansari companion, who initiated giving of charity, and those who followed his example, will they all bear the sin of equally? If not, then this establishes; the first and the last part of Hadith were not restricted to the context but were provided as a general rule. 5.5 – The General Rule And Its Application At Present: There has been plenty of discussion on good Sunnah part of the Hadith and it is important that evil Sunnah part of the Hadith is discussed a little. Scenario, five boys decide to go out every Saturday at night and engage in listening to music, drink all types of alcoholic drinks, dance up close and personnel with girls who are Ghair-Mehram, get all touchy feely with them and bring home one whore each from that club and they call it ‘Boys Saturday Night Out’. What does Islam say about BSNO? Simple answer is nothing, no verse of Quran or Hadith says anything about BSNO. Is it permissible to engage in BSNO? If you looking for explicit evidence then; no! Go on and knock your self out engaging in BSNO Islam didn’t prohibit it. Permissibility/Impermissibility is not established on clear/explicit evidence but the question: is it part of core Islamic teaching this is settled on clear/explicit evidence. The permissibility is settled on: is it composed of Islamicly sanctioned activities. The impermissibility is decided on: does it contradict Islamic teaching in part or whole? BSNO, contradicts numerous teachings of Islam because it is composed of Haram activities. Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) stated regarding such innovated evil practices: “And he who introduced some evil practice in Islam which had been followed subsequently (by others), he would be required to bear the burden like that of one who followed this (evil practice) without their being diminished in any respect.” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] 5.6 – If Sanctioned Sunnahs Earn Reward Then Sanction Haram Earns Sin: Now if the following part of Hadith was for Islamicly sanctioned Sunnahs[8] and cannot be used to justifying legality of praiseworthy innovations: “He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] Then the following part of Hadith was for Islamicly prohibited activities[9] and cannot be used to justifying impermissibility of practices which Islam hasn’t sanctioned as Haram: “And he who introduced some evil practice in Islam which had been followed subsequently (by others), he would be required to bear the burden like that of one who followed this (evil practice) without their being diminished in any respect.” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] Therefore any practice which Islam hasn’t explicitly declared Haram cannot be declared Haram. What about watching a stripper dance naked on a pole? What is the verdict on those who follow the example of y and go to watch a stripper dance? Do they engage in Islamicly sanctioned Haram? If yes, then please quote me a verse or Hadith in which it is stated: watching strippers get naked and dance on pole is Haram and those who follow y’s example all will earn equal sin.[10] 5.7 – The Islamic Position On Innovations Composed Of Islamic/Unislamic Activities: Islamic position is; any practice composed of Islamicly sanctioned Haram even if the practice has not been mentioned by name in Quran/Hadith is Haram and anyone who follows this evil Sunnah will all earn equal sin and punishment. Similarly any practice composed of Islam sanctioned acts even if the practice is not mentioned by name in Quran/Hadith it is good Sunnah and will earn reward from Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). This establishes the Islamic position which is contested by Wahhabis and that Islamic position is; the good Sunnah [and the evil Sunnah] of Hadith are general principle[s] and not specific to an era and time or to a context. 6.0 – A Muslim Innovates A Practice - All Earn Reward By Following Him: Scenario, a Muslim daily recites Surah YaSin after completing Isha prayers and then performs four Nawafil prayers and ends with invocation. According to following Hadith of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) his act is most pleasing to Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) because it is being performed regularly and continuously: “The most beloved action to Allah's Messenger was that whose doer did it continuously and regularly.” [Ref: Bukhari, B76, H469] Another Muslim joins this Muslim and like the first one completes Isha prayers and recites Surah YaSin and performs four Nawafil prayers and ends with the invocation. This becomes a daily routine of all the members of family and they give this practice a name ‘daily & continuously’ and gradually the practice of ‘daily & continuously’ spreads in the community. 6.1 – The Practice Of Daily & Continuously Islamic And Wahhabi Verdicts: Note in the previous scenario it was unlikely any sane heretic would say; those who performed the five prayers imitating another person’s example will not earn reward. In this scenario from the Wahhabi side there is only one verdict; the person engages in [reprehensible] innovation and he along those who follow his practice are sinful. Even though this position goes completely against following Wahhabi principle: any Prophetic-Sunnah/Islamic-Teaching if followed by one and others follow his example, all will earn equal reward. Here it is likely that a heretic may argue; Salah is established from Islamic teaching. It is commanded by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and instructed by Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) but the practice of ‘daily & continuously’ was neither commanded nor instructed to Muslims.[11] Due to this reason it is a [reprehensible] innovation which is sin and takes to hell-fire. According to Muslims engaging in ‘daily & continuously’ is reward worthy because the practice of ‘daily & continuously’ is composed of prophetic Sunnahs and Islamic teachings and it is composed of acts of worship. Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has stated: “He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.” Nothing can be better then worship of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) hence the reward for those who engage in this practice are established. 6.2 – The Lesson Derived From This Discussion: The following derived principle: any Prophetic-Sunnah/Islamic-Teaching if followed by one and others follow his example, all will earn equal reward, is correct but the heretic’s selectively would employ it to judge issues which their hearts agree with and withdraw it from which their hearts are blackened. Even more importantly it establishes that the following words of Hadith: “He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.” are not restricted to the historical events in which it was given. It is to be applied generally and evidence of this application is forming of general underlined principle to judge if one will earn reward if others follow one performing explicitly sanctioned acts of Islam. 7.0– Explaining The Islamic Principle With Examples From Ahadith: In the following parts of article the Wahhabi principle of; interpret guiding principles in light of the context, will be criticized and its error established. Also the Islamic principle; a general statement in a specific context remains general and does not become specific due to the context, will be explained with same Ahadith, so the truth of Islam remains dominant over the falsehood of heretics. 7.1 – Stopping Wrong With Hand, Speaking Against it And Hating It In Heart: Hadith from Sahih Muslim records that: “He who amongst you sees something abominable should modify it with the help of his hand; and if he has not strength enough to do it, then he should do it with his tongue, and if he has not strength enough to do it, (even) then he should (abhor it) from his heart, and that is the least of faith.” [Ref: Muslim, B1, H79] All factions, the Muslims, Wahhabi’s, Deobandi’s, and to some degree even the Shia believe; if someone is engaged in ANY unislamic activity the best course is to physically stop it, speak out against it, or at the very least affirm its being wrong in the heart. Now chucking spanner into works come's Wahhabi methodology – interpret the Hadith in the context and limit its understanding according to it. The context is as it follows: “It is narrated on the authority of Tariq bin Shihab: It was Marwan who initiated (the practice) of delivering Khutbah before the prayer on the Eid day. A man stood up and said: Prayer should precede khutbah. He (Marwan) remarked, This (practice) has been done away with. Upon this Abu Sa'id remarked: This man has performed (his duty) laid on him.”[12] Abu Sa’id (radiallah ta’ala anhu) continued: “I heard the Messenger of Allah as saying: He who amongst you sees something abominable should modify it with the help of his hand; and if he has not strength enough to do it, then he should do it with his tongue, and if he has not strength enough to do it, (even) then he should (abhor it) from his heart, and that is the least of faith.” [Ref: Muslim, B1, H79] According to the context in which the companion quoted the last part of Hadith, the Wahhabi methodology leads one to conclude that anyone giving Khutbah before the Eid prayer is the abominable act against which one should physically prevent, speak out against or detest it in heart and nothing else. Anyone insane enough to actually believe; the instruction given by Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is only specific to the context in which the companion narrated it and does not refer to other wrongs? The Islamic understanding is that the context is specific but the teaching last part of Hadith applies to all unislamic activities. In other words, Islamicly we are instructed to physically stop all unislamic wrong, or to speak out against it, or detest it in our hearts. 7.2 – Death Of Two/Three Children Will Save Mother From Fire: It is recorded in the Hadith that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) stated: "A woman whose three children died would be screened from the Hell Fire by them." Hearing that, a woman asked: "If two died?" The Prophet replied, "Even two (would screen her from the Fire)!" Should we interpret this Hadith according to Wahhabi methodology of, interpreting in the context of the women gathered on that day or should we understand; this Hadith is not specific to a group of women, in a particular era, in a gathering, in a city, in a country, but it applies to all Muslim women in all eras? Before one decides to answer this question please read the context: “Narrated Abu Sa`id: The women requested the Prophet: "Please fix a day for us." So the Prophet preached to them and said: "A woman whose three children died would be screened from the Hell Fire by them." Hearing that, a woman asked: "If two died?" The Prophet replied, "Even two (would screen her from the Fire)!" And Abu Hurairah added: "Those children should be below the age of puberty.” [Ref: Bukhari, B23, H341] According to the methodology employed by Wahhabi Sheikh’s – interpret in the context, only the women gathered and the one who asked about the death of two children will be screen from the fire everyone else, gets no exemption. We Muslims know that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is Prophet sent to mankind hence his teachings are not limited and restricted to a nation, era, or group of women. Hence this teaching even though has a relevance to the women gathered and era of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) its implications and exemption isn’t just for them. What has been established here is that a teaching in particular context applies to all Ummah and its implications/meanings are not restricted to a context. 7.3– Refuting The Heretics And Summing Up Of Discussion On This Matter: The valid methodology is of Muslims – interpreting Hadith in a particular context and holding to its literal reading. Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is reported to have said; he has been given [ability] short expression with vast meanings and his statements are in keeping with short expression but vast meanings and the Hadith in discussion – introduction of praiseworthy Sunnahs and reward of it, contains vast meanings. Nor it could not be expected from Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) that he did not know the implications of his statements. As a Muslim one is to believe that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) provided the best of guidance. Part of his guidance is the following statement: “He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.” Is the generality of statement part of best of guidance and according to jawami al kalim nature of his speech or those born fourteen centuries after know better then Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam)? If the intended meaning was only what you referred to[ then would it be hard for Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) to express this in emphatic words? If one consistently adheres to principle of interpreting the general of statements according to their historical context then all guiding principles given become irrelevant to other contexts and this has been demonstrated in 7.1 and 7.2. Therefore the generality of a prophetic statement cannot become specific but only specific interpretation can be derived from it using a specific piece of evidence. One cannot legitimately abrogate the generality of statement by giving it a specific interpretation. Specific interpretations based on valid evidence are acceptable and the interpretation of Muslims is based on the words of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and no contradiction between it and Quran/Hadith has been established by the opponents of Muslims. Conclusion: The following principle of: The gist of his response is; fixing date or time or day for a particular practice and repeatedly engaging in the practice on the fixed date, time and day, causes the practice to become [reprehensible] innovation.”, presented by you is baseless for two reasons, it does not have valid Shar’ri evidence and it deems something reprehensible something which prophetic principles of judge to be innocent. In light of other teachings of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) innovations in discussion are praiseworthy the principle presented by you deems these praiseworthy acts to be reprehensible, hence it cannot be valid. Engaging in innovated acts for sake of rewards is established from explicit evidence of Hadith and this is sufficient refutation of your belief. The meaning of Hadith has been established and the generality of words of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) cannot be abrogated with a contextual interpretation. Words of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) are shortest expression with widest meanings and the interpretation given by Muslims to refute Wahhabi heresy is valid and according to his speech containing widest of meanings. And I end with the words of Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) whose teaching is the best of guidance: “He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.” Wama alayna ilal balaghul mubeen. Muhammed Ali Razavi Footnotes: - [1] “The context of the hadith states that a group of poor people came to the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) so he asked those around him to give charity, but no one came forward - so much so that signs of anger could be discerned on the face of RasoolAllah (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) so one of the companions stepped forward and gave charity, so the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) said the above Hadith. [...] Secondly, this action the companion did was not something new in Islaam, since giving charity was already legislated from the very first days of Islaam; rather he was simply implementing it, so the statement of the Prophet sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam "a good sunnah" was said at a time when the people were reluctant to give charity, so one man started to give the charity and others followed him in it. Thus, he revived a Sunnah at a time when the people were reluctant to practice it, and this is the meaning of "a good sunnah." Hence, in the early works of 'aqeedah, this hadith was included under the chapter headings, "The reward of the one who renews the Sunnah." <For example Sharh Usool I'tiqaad 1/50> [Ref: MuslimConverts, Argument Of Innovators, Point 3] - [2] As a former Wahhabi and a peddler of this criterion, and now better educated and more in tune with book of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and Sunnah of RasoolAllah (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) would like to say; there is no such evidence if there was then there would have not been change of side on my part. It would be my pleasure and fortunes to be proven wrong in this regard. - [3] “Kathir bin Abdullah narrated from his father, that his grandfather said: "I heard the Messenger of Allah say: 'Whoever revives a Sunnah of mine that dies out after I am gone, he will have a reward equivalent to that of those among the people who act upon it, without that detracting from their reward in the slightest. Whoever introduces an innovation with which Allah and his Messenger are not pleased, he will have a (burden of) sin equivalent to that of those among the people who act upon it, without that detracting from their sins in the slightest.'" [Ref: Ibn Majah, B1, H210] - [4] Abdullah Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) also visited Masjid Quba on every Saturday by walking/riding and performed Nawafil in the Masjid. - [5] “Narrated Nafi: Ibn Umar never offered the Duha prayer except on two occasions: Whenever he reached Mecca; and he always used to reach Mecca in the forenoon. He would perform Tawaf round the Ka`ba and then offer two Rak`at at the rear of Maqam Ibrahim. Whenever he visited Quba, for he used to visit it every Saturday. When he entered the Mosque, he disliked to leave it without offering a prayer. Ibn `Umar narrated that Allah's Messenger used to visit the Mosque of Quba (sometime) walking and (sometime) riding. And he used to say, "I do only what my companions used to do and I don't forbid anybody to pray at any time during the day or night except that one should not intend to pray at sunrise or sunset." [Ref: Bukhari, B21, H283] - [6] For which he will be blamed and punished as well as those who emulated his [reprehensible] Sunnah without the punishment and the sin being reduced in anyway. - [7] Good/Bad actions and any custom/festivity compromised of these actions are by default part of Islam. The following Ahadith reveals this principle, sinful acts become reprehensible innovations into Islam: “And he who introduced some evil practice in Islam which had been followed subsequently (by others), he would be required to bear the burden like that of one who followed this (evil practice) without their being diminished in any respect.” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] “Whoever introduces an evil Sunnah that is followed after him, will bear the burden of sin for that and the equivalent of their burden of sin, without that detracting from their burden in the slightest.” [Ref: Ibn Majah, B1, H207] Now try to understand why Hadhrat Adam’s (alayhis salaam) son will be responsible for every murder, Hadith "Narrated Abdullah: Allah's Messenger said, "Whenever a person is murdered unjustly, there is a share from the burden of the crime on the first son of Adam for he was the first to start the tradition of murdering." [Ref: Bukhari, B55, H552] No evidence to establish he intended his action to be part of Islam. This points to the default rule; every action is part of Islam may it be good/bad. Judging on this rule establishes how Prophet Adam’s (alayhis salaam) son’s action was judged to be part of Islam. - [8] As an example, one who feeds a poor person and those who follow his example and also feed a poor person then he and all those who followed him earn equal reward. One who fasts in the month of Ramdhan and those who follow him will all earn equal reward. Putting it simply anyone being the cause of reviving a neglected Sunnah and others following him after he establishes it with his action then they all will earn equal reward. - [9] The Shaykh of heretics Abu Rumaysah agrees with us Muslims that the second part of ‘evil Sunnah’ refers is about Islam sanctioned Haram activities and I quote: “The meaning of "a bad sunnah" is similar. It is renewing or starting something that the [Islamic] Shari’ah has already declared to be bad and the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) gave the example of the two sons of Adam (alayhis salaam wa 'alaa nabiyina), one killing the other. So upon the murderer was the sin of the killing and the sin of all those that killed after him, without their sins being reduced.” - [10] Part One: The heretic Shaykh Abu Ruymaysah and his co-religionists are likely to argue using option1, BSNO is composed of all activities which are against the clear teaching of Islam hence it is Haram. Or they are likely to argue with option2; we do not accept the existence of BSNO as a practice but we judge each individual act and based on all these individual acts we say these boys are engaging in sinful activities and if they are followed by others will earn them equal sin and punishment. Part Two: It doesn’t really matter what their line of argument is because the outcome is predetermined. If option1 is employed then note the principle employed by heretic is: practices which are composed of Haram activities are Haram. The opposite of this principle is: practices which are composed of Halal activities are Halal. Therefore the counter response in context of good Sunnah would be: ‘daily & continuously’ and other innovated practices are composed of acts of worship hence they are permissible. If option2 is employed then the heretic has employed: a practice not established in from Quran/Hadith is not recognized by me. This is attitude is foolishness because Islam does recognize the existence of [reprehensible] innovations but does not legitimize these innovations. Where as Mr. Idiot has climbed the high horse of: ‘I am so conscious of purity of Islam that I refuse to even entertain Islam recognizing conceptual existence of [reprehensible] innovations.’ Frankly such an individual is waste of precious minerals and chemicals with which he is made. As a intelligent man/woman one cannot acknowledge the existence of such people, therefore you must close your eyes/ears and say: Mr. Idiot doesn’t really exist, even though you should know Mr. Idiot exists. Mr. Idiot should be reminded, you don’t acknowledge existence of innovations and you judge each individual action in those ‘innovations’ individually. Now we would like you to judge each action individually in ‘daily & continuously’ and tell us your verdict and also the verdict on those who follow it. If he is bit of lesser Mr. Idiot he will be consistent with his methodology and spill the beans: we do not accept the existence of ‘daily & continuously’ as a practice but we judge each individual act and based on all these individual acts we say these people are engaging in good activities and if they are followed by others will earn them equal reward. - [11] In a nutshell, such Wahhabi is saying, Salah is explicitly established as part of [core teaching] Islam and the practice of ‘daily & continuously’ is not therefore it is innovation. To refute such foolishness you enquire from him; are the following activities explicitly established from Islam: Nawafil, recitation of Quran and invocation? Now ask him did not the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) state; a practice engaged continuously and routinely is most pleasing to him. Then how can something which pleases Allah’s Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) be sinful and be punishable by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala)? Only activities which displease Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and His Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) are sinful and punishable, evidence: "And whoever introduces an erroneous innovation with which Allah is not pleased nor His Messenger then he shall receive sins similar to whoever acts upon it without that diminishing anything from the sins of the people.” [Ref: Tirmadhi, B29, H2677] The people engage in daily & continuously following the good example of another Muslim and they like the originator of this practice perform it daily and continuously hence they all please Messenger of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Anyone from them with insight and wisdom will accept the Islamic verdict and only the foolish will continue to argue against Islamic position. - [12] He could be saying, Marwan done the duty entrusted upon him by removing the practice of Khutbah before Eid prayers. Or he could be saying the man has fulfilled the duty to speak out against an activity which is not established from Prophetic Sunnah. As the information stands, Marwan and the man both performed according to the Prophetic standard.
  7. Introduction: Already an article has been written to refute Ibn Uthaymeen’s (lanatu lillah) mutilation of religion of Islam. With mercy of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) it was established the true innovator and defacer of perfection/completion of Islam was Ibn Uthaymeen (lanatu lillah). He is the undeclared prophet and undeclared god of those who follow his reprehensible innovative methodology. For us Muslims, there is no law giving God but Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and there is no law giving prophet after Prophet and the Messenger Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). 1.0 - Quote From Ibn Uthaymeen’s Book: “My brothers, now that this matter has been settled, did the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) die while something from the religion which draws one closer to Allah the Exalted remained which he did not explain? Never! Since the Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) explained the whole of the religion either by his speech, his action or his (silent) approval, whether that was initiated of his own accord or whether it was due to a response to a question. Sometimes Allah would send a Bedouin from the furthest region of the desert in order to ask the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) a thing from among the matters of the religion which the Companions, who stuck by the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) did not ask him. This is why they used to rejoice when a Bedouin would come and ask the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) about certain affairs. That the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) did not leave anything which the people are in need of in their worship, their dealings with one another and their livelihood without having explained it is proven to you by His speech, the Exalted: “This day have I perfected for you your religion and have completed My favor upon you and have chosen for you Islam as a religion.” When this matter has been explained [that Islam is perfected/completed then] - O Muslim - know that every one who innovates something in the religion of Allah (azza wa jal) even if it is with a good intention, then his innovation, along with it being misguidance, will be considered a defamation of the religion of Allah (azza wa jal) and will be considered a denial and rejection of Allah (azza wa jal) the Exalted in His speech: “This day have I perfected for you your religion …” Since this innovator who innovated a matter into the religion of Allah (azza wa jal) which is not from the religion of Allah (azza wa jal) is saying silently that the religion has not been completed because this matter which was left out, and which he innovated, can be used to draw closer to Allah (azza wa jal).” [Ref: Innovations In The Light Of Perfection Of Shari’ah, Pages 3/4, by Muhammad bin Salih Al Uthaymeen] 1.1 - Salih Al Uthaymeen’s Position In My Own Words: Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) taught all aspects of the religion of Islam. Even the minute details were taught and religion of Islam was completed, perfected, with all these fine details. Comprehensiveness of Islamic teaching is detailed in Quran and Hadith therefore there is no room for praiseworthy innovations in religion of Islam. And one who innovates into religion of Islam anything which was not taught by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) or the Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) insinuates indirectly; Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) did not perfect/complete the religion of Islam because x, y, z matters were not made part of Islamic teaching which should have been part of Islam. As such, this innovator is a heretic and his deeds will be rejected and will end in hell fire. 1.2 - The Heretical Argument Summed By Wahhabi Side Of Me: There is no need for innovations in Islam even if they are introduced for the purpose; 1) of improving Islam, 2) propagating Islam, 3) assisting Islam, 4) sending reward of good deeds to the deceased.[1] The religion of Islam was comprehensively explained by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) in minute detail. All improvements were made until Islam reached perfection/completion in the life time of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). All that was required to spread Islam, assist Islam was taught by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). Hence every newly introduced matter in the religion of Islam is [reprehensible] innovation, a misguidance and takes to hell fire even if the people see goodness in it. 2.0 - The Straight Path And Straight To Hell Path: Islam being perfected and completed and every aspect of Islam being taught by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has absolutely no consequence to introduction of praiseworthy Biddahs/Sunnahs into religion of Islam. Rather the comprehensiveness of Islam is being misused by Khariji fringe elements to support predetermined heretical belief. If one does not accept the Shar’ri legality of introducing praiseworthy Sunnahs/Biddahs into religion of Islam then such a person should in principle not accept praiseworthy innovations which became backbone of Islam. 3.0 - Jihad Example Of Exhaustive Prophetic Teaching: Jihad is important part of Islamic teaching. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) gave direct instruction to Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) to engage in Jihad: “O Prophet, fight against the disbelievers and the hypocrites and be harsh upon them. And their refuge is Hell, and wretched is the destination.” [Ref: 9:73] He engaged in Jihad against the hypocrites and disbelievers as instructed by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). The Sunnah weaponry employed by Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) was sword, spear, shield, bow and arrow. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) instructs the believers: “And make ready against them all you can of power, including steeds of war (tanks, planes, missiles, artillery) to threaten the enemy of Allah and your enemy, and others besides whom, you may not know but whom Allah does know.“ [Ref: 8:60] Note, Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) instructs the Muslims to prepare all the means of war in power and then instructs the Muslims to prepare the war horses to threaten the enemy of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). The means of war are explained by the Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) – sword, spear, bow and arrow, etc. 3.1 - Miswak Demonstration Of Comprehensiveness Of Islam: Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) explained the following verse: “The nature made by Allah in which He has created men there is no altering of Allah's creation; that is the right religion", with words: “There is none born but is created to his true nature (i.e. Islam). It is his parents who make him a Jew or a Christian or a Magian. Quite like beasts produce their young with their limbs perfect.”[2] In other words every child born is born on the religion of Islam but the parents alter this natural inclination according to their own world view. Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has reported to have said: “Narrated 'Aishah, that the Prophet said: "Ten are from the Fitrah: Paring the mustache, leaving the beard to grow, Siwak, cleaning the nose with water, paring the fingernails, washing the knuckles, plucking the underarm hair, shaving the pubic hairs, and Intiqas with water." [Ref: Tirmadhi, B41, H2757] Note, Islam is religion of Fitrah or accurately the pure human Fitrah is fundamentally Islam and therefore use of Miswak/Siwak is part of Fitrah/Islam. Hence Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) routinely used Siwak before performing Tahajjud prayers: “Narrated Hudhaifa: Whenever the Prophet got up for Tahajjud prayer he used to clean his mouth (and teeth) with Siwak.” [Ref: Bukhari, B21, H237] He is reported to have said: “Abu Hurairah narrated; Allah's Messenger said: "If it were not that it would be difficult on my nation, then I would have ordered them to use the Siwak for each prayer." [Ref: Tirmadhi, B1, H22] 4.0 – Biddah Weapons And Sunnah Weapons And Heretical Methodology: Religion of Islam was completed/perfected and detailed guidance on every aspect of religion of Islam was provided by Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). As evidence establishes Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) engaged in Jihad against the disbelievers and demonstrated the type of weapons to be employed. These weapons are part of Islam and are part of perfected/completed and detailed guidance on Jihad. To employ any other weapon not established from the Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is adding to already perfected/completed religion of Islam.[3] It is akin to saying; Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala), Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) did not know about the AK47, RPG, MG’s, HG’s but we know better what weapons are better for Jihad in the way of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and we have to improve Islam and their short comings by introducing Biddah weapons into battle field.[4] Also it is akin to saying; religion of Islam was not completed/perfected and the micro-guidance of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and his beloved Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) was not enough hence these Biddah weapons are better substitute in modern battlefield then the Sunnah weapons. 4.1 - Biddah Tooth Brush/Paste And Sunnah Miswak And Heretical Methodology: Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is to use Miswak to clean his teeth and use of Miswak is part of completion/perfection of religion of Islam and part of micro-guidance from Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). This Sunnah Miswak has been replaced by Biddah brushes/pastes and heretics especially use Colgate brushes/pastes.[5] Use of these Biddah brushes/pastes is equal to believing that Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) did not know better then the disbelievers about oral hygiene and what the disbelievers invented is better replacement to Miswak.[6] One who leaves the guidance of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) for the tooth brushes/pastes of what the disbelievers invented believes Islam was incomplete and imperfect and the guidance of beloved Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) regarding oral hygiene was insufficient. If Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala), the knower of unseen and apparent, willed for the Muslims to use tooth pastes/brushes he would have revealed a verse in Quran saying when it is invented then use it. Or Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) to whom the news of unseen arrived would have told us about tooth pastes/brushes. 4.2 – Biddah Bukhari/Muslim And Heretical Methodology: Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) revealed and explained the Quran to Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and he explained it to his followers. Deen of Islam was completed/perfected and we find absolutely no instruction from Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) or Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) about Hadith collections called Bukhari/Muslim. If Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) completed and perfected the religion of Islam and provided micro-guidance without employing Bukhari/Muslim then what need is there for Bukhari/Muslim? Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) did not employ Bukhari/Muslim in his sermons and there is no record of his saying; in Bukhari/Muslim it is written, yet he was means of completion/perfection of Islam. Then question worth asking is, what need is there for Bukhari/Muslim? If Islam was perfected/completed without Bukhari/Muslim then question is; can Islam be perfection/completed without Bukhari/Muslim? Is Bukhari/Muslim essential part of Islam and part perfection/completion of Islam? Can Biddahs be part of perfection/completion of Islam? Are not the Biddahs misguidance even if the people see goodness in them? Do you see goodness in Bukhari/Muslim? You distort the perfection/completion of Islam by introducing Biddahs of Bukhari/Muslim into Islam. Your adherence to these Biddahs is proof that you believe Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) did not provide comprehensive guidance in religion of Islam and Quran is not enough for guidance. Neither Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) nor his beloved Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) left any instruction compile Bukhari/Muslim or any Hadith book for that matter nor they gave instructions regarding employing these two Biddahs. 5.0 – Putting Everything In Perspective Of Heretical Methodology: In parts 3.0, it was established that Jihad is essential part of Islam. Also the weapons used by Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and his companions were declared. Using this as a base, in part 4.0 a heretical argument against the heretics was advanced, using their own methodology to establish for them the fault of their own methodology. In part 3.1 and part 4.1 exact methodology was employed for the same purpose. In part 4.2, purpose was to demonstrate how a member of anti-Hadith sect can use the very same argument of Ibn Uthaymeen against books of Ahadith. Heretical methodology was employed for sole purpose of showing these heretics the mirror so they see the ugliness of Wahhabism. In the hope they would realize the heretical nature of their understandings which stem from their heretical methodology of – every innovation of evil/sinful even if people see goodness in it. 5.1 – Exposing The Heretical Methodology Of Wahhabism From Sunnah: Heretics have not believed in Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) when he said: “It was narrated that Abu Juhaifah said: "The Messenger of Allah said: 'Whoever introduces a good practice that is followed after him, will have a reward for that and the equivalent of their reward, without that detracting from their reward in the slightest. Whoever introduces an evil practice that is followed after him, will bear the burden of sin for …" [Ref: Ibn Majah, B1, H207] We Muslims are instructed by Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) in Hadith Qawli; “I enjoin you to fear Allah, and to hear and obey even if it be an Abyssinian slave, for those of you who live after me will see great disagreement. You must then follow my sunnah and that of the rightly-guided caliphs.” [Ref: Abu Dawood, B41, H4590] We follow his Sunnah because Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has explained: “Narrated `Abdullah: The best speech is Allah's book, and the best guidance is the guidance of Muhammad, and the worst are newly-invented matters, and whatever you have been promised will surely come to pass, and you cannot escape (it).” [Ref: Bukhari, B73, H120] This also attested by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) in the Quran: “There is indeed the best example for you to follow, in the Messenger of Allah, for every such person looks forward to Allah and the Last Day, and remembers Allah much.” [Ref: 33:21] Hence the best of guidance on Sunnahs/Biddahs which are good is of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). We the Muslims reject and disbelieve the minions of Satan from Najd and reject their heretical methodology which contradicts teaching of Islam. We believe in the Prophet of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) who has informed us of reward for praiseworthy Sunnahs/Biddahs. 6.0 - Muslim Perspective On Comprehensiveness Of Islam: Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) revealed the Quran to his beloved Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and explained all aspects of religion of Islam to him. He taught worship, types of worship, time of worship, actions in worship, what to say in worship, number of time one should worship, and times on which one should worship. Wudhu is ritual washing of hands, mouth, cleaning nose, washing face, elbows, and feet. Prophetic tradition provides absolute guidance on how to perform Wudhu, when to perform Wudhu and how Wudhu is invalidated. Quran/Hadith detail almost every aspect of Islam and human life and give verdict on it and this is part of comprehensiveness of Islamic teaching. Another part to comprehensiveness of Islamic teaching is, Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and his beloved Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) provided principles to judge matters/practices which would arise after completion of Islam. Part of these principles is the teaching; if one introduces a praiseworthy Sunnah into Islam and it is followed by the people the reward will be equal to one who acts on the innovated Sunnah.[7] The second principle in context of innovated practice states; one who innovates a reprehensible Sunnah into religion of Islam, he will be sinful for it, and those who will follow the reprehensible Sunnah they will receive equal amount of sin.[8] Without these principles and without teachings of Ijtihad - the comprehensiveness of Islamic teaching would be limited to a particular era and Islam would have been unable evolve to withstand the ideological and social challenges faced in past and faces at present. These principles and the teaching about Ijtihad ensure that core of Islam remains static yet the Muslims are empowered to judge worldly and religious innovations in the light of Quran/Hadith.[9] 6.1 - Later Innovations Into Islam According To Methodology Of Muslims: Starting with modern weapons, even though there is no explicit evidence which establishes that these weapons are established from the Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) but their use allows the believers to fulfill a command of religion. Therefore there use is permissible and there use in Jihad comes into category of good Sunnah/Biddah and it is reward worthy. Tooth brushes/pastes are not Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and Miswak is Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). Despite this the use of tooth brush/paste is permissible in Islam because it helps to achieve a objective of deen – oral hygiene. The first Muslim to employ it for purpose of oral hygiene will be rewarded because those who followed him achieved a religious objective via tooth paste/brush. These modern inventions are not replacement for the Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) but the permissibility is established. Coming to Bukhari/Muslim, indeed they are later innovations and they are essential part of religion of Islam and without these the perfection/completion of Islam would not be appreciated. Even though names of these books are not mentioned in Quran/Ahadith these books contain essential knowledge of Islam and are fundamental to understanding Quran. They are indeed later Biddahs/Sunnahs but they are good and reward worthy because they contain Sunnahs of beloved Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) which explain Quran. Conclusion: Ibn Uthaymeen’s position; Islam was completed and perfected and Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) provided micro-guidance on affairs of religion hence one who introduces Biddah/Sunnah into Islam has defaced the perfection/completion of Islam, is a poor excuse to justify his this heretical belief. If is accepted and employed fairly without bias it could even eradicate the basis for Quran because neither Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) nor the Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) left instruction to compile the Quran into one book format. Based on this fact it can be argued, if Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) perfected religion of Islam and provided complete guidance on everything but did not consider it important to leave instructions for compiling Quran in single book format nor did his Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was aalihi was’sallam) then what need is of it? O senseless Ibn Uthaymeen, isn’t this akin to insinuating Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) did not perfect/complete Quran good enough and their guidance wasn’t complete enough? Quran is complete/perfect and the guidance of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is perfect guidance. Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has told of reward for introducing into Islam good Sunnah/Biddah and for those who follow the good Biddah/Sunnah. Those who support the evil/sin of Ibn Uthaymeen they will bear the burden of it and he will be their leader in hell-fire. Wama alayna ilal balaghul mubeen. Muhammed Ali Razavi Footnotes: - [1] Heretics understand the following Hadith literally, it states; every newly introduced matter is innovation, and matter of fact is that his [praiseworthy] innovations fall into these four categories. Hence the detail was incorporated into summing up of Wahhabi position because when they state EVERY innovation is MISGUIDANCE then they declare all FOUR types of [praiseworthy] innovations as MISGUIDANCE. No sane heretic would ever dare to actually negate all FOUR types of [praiseworthy] innovations. - [2] “There is none born but is created to his true nature (i.e. Islam). It is his parents who make him a Jew or a Christian or a Magian quite as beasts produce their young with their limbs perfect. Do you see anything deficient in them? Then he quoted the Qur'an., The nature made by Allah in which He has created men there is no altering of Allah's creation; that is the right religion" [Ref: Muslim, B33, H6423] - [3] Sunnahs of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) are of four types; 1) Qawli (i.e. speech), Fehli (i.e. actions), Taqreeri (i.e. tacitly approved), and Wasfi (i.e. quality). - [4] No it is not akin to saying anything; it is me being [stupid] Wahhabi and being Ibn Uthaymeen (lanatu lillah). Belief is in Islam is what you affirm with tongue and confirm within your heart. - [5] Use of Colgate is for dramatic effect, trying to be like all knowing Wahhabi, who knows everything about the intentions and reasons and nothing is concealed from him when he writes something to refute his opponent. I do not have any idea what the Wahhabi’s actually use but rest assured they have replaced the Miswak with some modern tooth paste/brush and the Miswak is used before Friday prayers. So point is, they use tooth pastes/brushes and the brand, you can ask your closest Wahhabi. - [6] Read footnote #4, it explains the intention behind it. - [7]“He who introduced some good Sunnah in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] - [8] “And whoever introduces a bad practice that is followed, he will receive its sin and a burden of sin equivalent to that of those who follow it, without that detracting from their burden in the slightest." [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6470] - [9] Core of Islam – here means fundamental teaching of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). Core of Islam is, Islam without additions made after the death of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). Core without Biddahs/Sunnahs of companions, generations succeeding companions and the generation succeeding the second generation and core without all types Sunnahs/Biddahs that Muslims introduced thereafter.
  8. Introduction: Recently during discussions with a Salafi about the nature of innovations in Islam. The Salafi ‘student of knowledge’ presented me translation of Ibn Uthaymeen’s small pamphlet size MSWord format copy of a Arabic work. He requested me to read and think about the contents and note the strenth of Ibn Uthaymeen’s reasoning against the legitimacy of praiseworthy innovations. He was convinced, once his this booklet was understood by me, it would be impossible for me to hold to the position of Ahle Sunnat Wal Jammat. Instead it will force me to back-track into Salafism. In this word format he highlighted a certain [portion which will be quoted below] and requested that special attention needs to be paid to it. After reading the entire treaty and much mulling over its line of reasoning and understanding the in-between the line material it was decided best response would be in a written format. Below is the written response which al hamdu lillah demolished the castle of Wahhabiyyah. 1.0 - Salih Al Uthaymeen’s Position In His Own Words: “That the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) did not leave anything which the people are in need of in their worship, their dealings with one another and their livelihood without having explained it is proven to you by His speech, the Exalted: “This day have I perfected for you your religion and have completed My favour upon you and have chosen for you Islaam as a religion.” When this matter has been explained [that Islam is perfected/completed then] - O muslim - know that every one who innovates something in the religion of Allah (azza wa jal) even if it is with a good intention, then his innovation, along with it being misguidance, will be considered a defamation of the religion of Allah (azza wa jal) and will be considered a denial and rejection of Allah (azza wa jal) the Exalted in His speech: “This day have I perfected for you your religion …” Since this innovator who innovated a matter into the religion of Allah (azza wa jal) which is not from the religion of Allah (azza wa jal) is saying silently that the religion has not been completed because this matter which was left out, and which he innovated, can be used to draw closer to Allah (azza wa jal).” [Ref: Innovations In The Light Of Perfection Of Shari’ah, by Muhammad bin Salih Al Uthaymeen] 1.1 - Salih Al Uthaymeen’s Position In My Own Words: Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is the source of perfection/completion which is beyond improvement. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) perfected/completed the religion of Islam and any additions or alterations to perfection/compeletion of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) cannot be praiseworthy. This is the reason Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi wa’sallam) told any/every innovation made part of Islam [after completion/perfection of Islam] is misguidance which takes to hellfire. Hence, there can be no and there is no, valid basis for praiseworthy innovations in Islam. By introducing ‘praiseworthy’ innovations into Islam one is negating the completion/perfection of Islam and improving upon what Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and his Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) left us with and is implying that Islam was not perfected/completed.[1] 2.1 - Islam Is The Perfection/Completion Of Islams: Religion of Prophet Musa (alayhis salam) and his followers, Prophet Isa (alayhis salam) and his followers was Islam: “And Moses said: ‘O my people! If you have believed in Allah, then put your trust in Him if you are Muslims.’” [Ref: 10:84] “And when I Allah inspired the disciples [of Jesus] to believe in Me and My Messenger, they said: ‘We believe. And bear witness that we are Muslims.” [Ref: 5:111] It is recorded in the Hadith that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) stated that the religion of all Prophets was Islam: "I am most akin to Jesus Christ among the whole of mankind, and all the Prophets are of different mothers but belong to one religion and no Prophet was raised between me and Jesus." [Ref: Muslim, B30, H5835] Their versions of Islam were suitable for their immediate evoriments but the Islam given to our Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) is a continuation of previous versions of Islam and perfection/completion of all those religions of Islam and is a universal message. Hence to argue on basis; our Islam is perfection/compeletion of previous versions of Islams therefore one cannot introduce praiseworthy innovations into our Islam, is utterly useless reasoning, because perfection/compeletion of older versions does not rule out praiseworthy innovations via Ijtihad. 2.2 - Islam Is Perfection/Compeletion In Itself: Improvements are made by Prophets/Messengers and there is no Prophet/Messenger with revelation after Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam): “Muhammad is not the father of [any] one of your men, but [he is] the Messenger of Allah and last of the prophets. And ever is Allah, of all things, Knowing.” [Ref: 33:40] Hence the version of Islam given to our Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is perfect/complete and beyond any need of improvements - Islam is perfection/compeletion in itself but this does not mean praiseworthy innovations cannot be made part of Islam via Ijtihad. 2.3 - Allowing Innovated Practices Is Part Of Perfection/Compeletion Of Islam: Part of compeletion/perfection of Islam that it incorporates teachings which enable the Muslims to incorporate new practices into Islam via Ijtihad. Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is reported to have said in numerous Ahadith: “He who introduced some good Sunnah in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] As long as the newly introduced Sunnahs/Biddahs agree with fundamental principles of Islamic worship, charity, enjoining good, prohibiting wrong and we do not invent a new act of worship but we assemble the Sunnah of Prophet (sallallalu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) under various names, we inroduce good Sunnah. For which there will be reward one who invents it and those who adhere to it and those who call to it: “He who called (people) to righteousness/guidance, there would be reward (assured) for him like the rewards of those who adhered to it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6470] 2.4 – Perserving The Compeletion/Perfection Of Islam: Shara’i evidence firmly established new praiseworthy Biddah/Sunnah can be introduced into Islam and it would be permissible to act on them and acting on these praiseworthy Sunnahs/Biddahs will earn reward from Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Islam was perfected/completed but in this perfected/completed Islam room was created for incorporation of praiseworthy Sunnahs/Biddahs. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has stated: “We have, without doubt, sent down the Reminder (i.e. the Quran); and We will assuredly guard it (i.e. from corruption).” [Ref: 15:9] Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has promised to protect the completion/perfection of Islam from corruption and if introducing praiseworthy innovations into Islam was corruption of Islam then Allah’s Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) would not have created the room for them. Therefore the perfection/completion of Islam will not be effect by newly introduced praiseworthy Sunnahs/Biddahs into religion of Islam. 3.1 - Distorting The Perfection/Compeletion Of Islam: As Muslims we cannot nor we can believe that a Prophet can come after our Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and abrogate or subsitute or add or ommit or alter any thing that has been taught by Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). We must adhere to the Islam taught by Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) without engaging in mentioned to maintain perfection/compeletion of Islam. If one engages in abrogation of matters in Ayaat/Ahadith without valid proof, or alters a method taught in Quran/Hadith, or subsitutes a action/belief by another not established with Quranic/Hadith evidence, or adds to a ritual practice or Quranic text which was not part of it, then such person engages in mutilation of Islam. He/She defaces the perfection of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and his beloved Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and it is akin to indirectly claiming God-hood or Prophet-hood.[2] As Muslims we have ensured the teaching of Islam are protected from corruption and we have not made anything part of Islam which defaced Islam. 3.2 - Those Who Defaced Their Versions Of Islam: The Yahood/Nasara defaced the Islams given to them by their respective Prophets and took their innovative religions as the Islams of Prophets Musa/Isa (alayhis salam). In short they alterted the Islams and made them into monsteracities which they are recognized by at present. The message and teaching of Quran are still preserved and easily accessible. There has been no alteration, addition, ommition and abrogation of Quranic message of Islam in the Ummah of RasoolAllah (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) like it happened to the religions of previous Prophets. Therefore the completion, the perfection of Islam is preserved and nothing of Islam has been defaced, or removed, or omitted, or abrogated, or altered. 3.3 – True Act Of Defacing Of Islam: True defamation of Islam would be, if one engages in altering the order of actions performed in prayers. One starts his prayers with prostration and ends it with standing or recites Surah Fatihah in prostration three times and recites twenty hail Mary’s (i.e. Ave Maria). Another example would be to believe that some parts of Quran have been omitted/deleted by Muslims. Or to add another verse to the end of Surah Fatiha, such as; lana tulillahi alal kazibeen, and believe it is part of Quran. Or altering the confession of Tawheedi creed to; there is no god except three in the One god and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah. These are examples of improvements/innovations which in reality deface Islam not praiseworthy innovations. A praiseworthy innovation introduced into Islam via Ijtihad and which was not and is not believed to be Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and it accords with teaching of Islam, does not effect the compeletion/perfection of Islam, rather it compliments it. 4.1 – Innovated Sunnah In Line With Perfection/Completion Of Islam: During the Khilafat of Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radiallah ta’ala anhu) Musailamah claimed Prophet-hood. Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radiallah ta’ala anhu) sent armies to eliminate this Dajjal. At the end of wars some seventy Hufadh had fallen in the way of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) realized if the Hufadh continue to receive matyrdom at this rate sooner or later Quran will be lost, so he visited Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radiallah ta’ala anhu). He said to Hadhrat Abu Bakr (subhanahu wa ta’ala): "Casualties were heavy among the Qurra' of the! Qur'an (i.e. those who knew the Qur'an by heart) on the day of the Battle of Yalmama, and I am afraid that more heavy casualties may take place among the Qurra' on other battlefields, whereby a large part of the Qur'an may be lost. Therefore I suggest, you (Abu Bakr) order that the Qur'an be collected." At this point one can say, Hadhrat Abu Bakr (subhanahu wa ta’ala) was opinion that collection of Quran as a single book format is a innovation which will deface the perfection/completion of Islam, so he said: "How can you do something which Allah's Apostle did not do?" Hadhrat Umar (subhanahu wa ta’ala) trys to convince him that it is a good Sunnah which does not effect the perfection/completion of Islam by saying: "By Allah, that is a good project.” Hadhrat Abu Bakr (subhanahu wa ta’ala) continues saying: "Umar kept on urging me to accept his proposal till Allah opened my chest for it and I began to realize the good in the idea which `Umar had realized." [Ref: Bukhari, B61, H509] Hadhrat Abu Bakr (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is now convinced that compiling Quran in a book is a praiseworthy innovation which even Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) did not engage in nor instructed. He also understood that religion of Islam was complete and all that was part of fundamental teaching Islam has been made part of Islam by Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). He also realized that the perfection/completion of Islam is not effected by a innovative praiseworthy Sunnah and nor do the praiseworthy innovations deface the perfection/completion of Islam. He also understood, by compiling Quran in a single book it does not amount to him ordering completion/perfection of Islam after Islam was perfected/completed.[3] 4.2 – Khalifah Gives Instructions To Engage In Praiseworthy Innovation: Hadhrat Abu Bakr (subhanahu wa ta’ala) says to a Sahabi: “You are a wise young man and we do not have any suspicion about you, and you used to write the Divine Inspiration for Allah's Messenger. So you should search for (the fragmentary scripts of) the Qur'an and collect it in one book)." The Sahabi narrator added: “By Allah If they had ordered me to shift one of the mountains, it would not have been heavier for me than this ordering me to collect the Qur'an.” Then he said to Hadhrat Abu Bakr (subhanahu wa ta’ala) what Hadhrat Abu Bakr (subhanahu wa ta’ala) said to Hadhrat Umar (subhanahu wa ta’ala) when he had suggested compiling Quran in single book format: "How will you do something which Allah's Messenger did not do?" The Hadith continues: "By Allah, it is a good project." Abu Bakr kept on urging me to accept his idea until Allah opened my chest for what He had opened the chests of Abu Bakr and `Umar.” [Ref: Bukhari, B61, H509] Once the companion realized the goodness in this praiseworthy Biddah/Sunnah and just like Hadhrat Abu Bakr realized it does not amount to blameworthy innovation [which disfigures the perfection/completion of Islam] he began gathering and compiling Quran into single book format and the result was Quran in our possesion today. 5.1 - The Destroyer of Perfection/Completion Of Islam: The Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) explained all essentials of religion of Islam. He explained the concept of worship, types of worship, the method of worship and when to worship. He explained Zakat, Sadqa, Khayrat, and all issues connected with charity. He taught how to perform Ghusul and when to perform Ghusul. He taught the method of Wudhu and when to perform Wudhu. In short he taught all aspects of daily life and this is completion/perfection of Quran and Islam, stated: “This day have I perfected for you your religion and have completed My favour upon you and have chosen for you Islaam as a religion.” [Ref: 5:3] Islam is religion of micro-guidance, it aims to guides/manage all affairs. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) made Islam for mankind and for those who will come till the judgment day. Our Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) explained the affairs which were happening in his time but left principles via aid of which we will be able to judge matters to arise after, and part of these principles the teaching is: “He who introduced some good Sunnah in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] Therefore Muslims know that praiseworthy Sunnahs/Biddahs are part of perfection/compeletion of Islam. One who argues against and believes; praiseworthy Sunnahs/Biddahs are against the teaching of Islam is guilty of innovation. He refutes/rejects a teaching of Islam, which daringly can be said to be established by Tawatir. Even though one has good intentions his innovation is misguidance and is a distortion of perfection/completion of Islam – the religion approved by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). The innovator of reprehensible innovation is indirectly claiming the right of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) for himself – claims to have the right to legislate religion. Or he is claiming to be spokes person of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) after it has been clearly stated there is no Nabi/Messenger with Shari’a after our beloved Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). Allah’s Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has reported to have said: “Aishah reported the Messenger of Allah as saying: if any one introduces into this affair of ours anything which does not belong to it, it is rejected. Ibn Isa said: the prophet said: if anyone practices any action in away other than our practice, it is rejected.” [Ref: Dawood, B41, H4589] O Muslims, therefore believe in Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) as your God and believe in His beloved Messenger Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) as the last/final Prophet. O Muslims, reject those who exercise the right of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and exercise the right of a Prophet to disfigure the perfection/completion of Islam and reject their reprehensible innovations. They oppose Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and His beloved Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). O Muslims, you oppose such a individual and his party and believe what is taught by Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). If you do not then know in sight of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) the only acceptable religion is of Islam and you will be amongst the loosers in day of judgment: “And whoever seeks a religion other than Islam, it will never be accepted of him, and in the Hereafter he will be one of the losers.” [Ref: 3:85] This is Islam is composed of teaching of Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and if you leave him and obey the rival and enemy of Allah’s Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi wa’sallam) then you have preffered for your self religion other then perfected/compeleted religion of Islam. You have chosen for your self; the religion of Shaytan, the religion of Ibn Uthaymeen but not the religion of Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). O heretics, you be to your religion and know that we believed in Islam and we believed in our Nabi Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) when he said: “Whoever introduces a good practice that is followed, he will receive its reward and a reward equivalent to that of those who follow it, without that detracting from their reward in their slightest. And whoever introduces a bad practice that is followed, he will receive its sin and a burden of sin equivalent to that of those who follow it, without that detracting from their burden in the slightest." [Ref: Ibn Majah, B1, H203] This the best of guidance of Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and what opposes his teaching is innovation and every teaching which opposes and disfigures the perfection/completion of Islam takes to hellfire. 5.2– Blameworthy Innovations Harm Perfection/Completion Of Islam: Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is reported to have said: “The best of the speech is embodied in the Book of Allah, and the best of the guidance is the guidance given by Muhammad. And the most evil affairs are their innovations; and every innovation is error." [Ref: Bukhari, B4, H1885] and in another Hadith Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is reported to have said: “The worst of things are those that are newly invented; every newly-invented thing is an innovation and every innovation is going astray, and every going astray is in the Fire.” [Ref: Sunan Nisa’I, B19, H1579] It is established Ibn Uthaymeen the chief of group of Satan, the leader of the Khawarij, opposed Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) in regards to introducing praiseworthy Sunnahs/Biddahs into Islam, hence he introduced a blameworthy innovation into Islam. Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) stated: “He who enacted any act for which there is no sanction from our behalf, that is to be rejected.” [Ref: Muslim, B18, H4267] "If somebody innovates something which is not in harmony with the principles of our affair religion, that thing is rejected." [Ref: Bukhari, B49, H861] In obedience to Allah’s Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) we reject Ibn Uthaymeen’s innovation which defaced the perfected/completed Islam. Conclusion: Religion of Islam is has been completed and perfected by Allah’s (subhanahu wa ta’ala) last and finale Prophet – Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). The beloved Prophet and the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) informed one who introduces praiseworthy Biddah/Sunnah into Islam which is followed after him it will be rewarded by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and those who call toward such praisworthy Sunnahs/Biddahs they will also be rewarded like the ones who act upon it. The teaching which permit introduction of praiseworthy Sunnahs/Biddahs into Islam is part of perfection/compeletion of Islam and as long as the innovated practice is in accordance with the teaching of Islam and does not contradict the teaching of worship, charity, encouraging good, forbidding evil, and it aids Islam, then it is a good Sunnah/Biddah. The real true enemy of Islam, the destroyer and negater of perfection/completion of Islam is Ibn Uthaymeen the enemy of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). He has censored praiseworthy Biddah/Sunnah which Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) permitted and about which Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) told of reward – for one who innovates and one who practices it. Ibn Uthaymeen and the Khariji minions of Iblees from Najd have found fault in the perfection/completion of Islam. Hence they have rejected the conceptual validity of introducing praiseworthy Sunnahs/Biddahs into Islam. The Khariji’s reject this teaching of Islam and the fruits of this teaching. Therefore the innovation and the distortion of perfection/completion of Islam is from Khawarij and their scholars, and in this context Ibn Uthaymeen the cursed. Wama alayna ilal balaghul mubeen. Muhammed Ali Razavi Footnotes: - [1] If anyone is unhappy about my presentation of Ibn Uthaymeen’s reasoning then please be my guest and present his position from his own work better then my representation. Rest assured I have greatly improved the strenth of his reasoning. In other words his reasoning is presented more precisely, more elequently, more forcefully then Mr Ibn Uthaymeen did. - [2] If he affirms Prophet-hood or God-hood with his tongue and it is not impliedfrom his actions then such a person is Kafir, otherwise such a person is heretic of worst kind. - [3] Ibn Uthaymeen wrote:” Since this innovator who innovated a matter into the religion of Allah (azza wa jal) which is not from the religion of Allah (azza wa jal) is saying silently that the religion has not been completed because this matter which was left out, and which he innovated, can be used to draw closer to Allah (azza wa jal).” Based on this statement of Ibn Uthaymeen, one is forced to conclude that Mr Ibn Uthaymeen’s regarding Hadhrat Umar and Hadhrat Abu Bakr position would be they were completing/perfecting Quran which was left uncomplete/imperfect by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and by His Messenger Muhammad (sallallahu alayh wa aalihi was’sallam).
  9. Introduction: According to the principles of Ahle Sunnat Wal Jammat innovative practices which are based on Sunnahs of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) are praiseworthy innovations for which there will be reward from Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) if they are followed by people. Especially if the innovative practices are combinations of acts of worship[1], combines acts of charity[2] and serves as a means of spreading Islamic knowledge. The Khawarij and those influenced by Kharijite definition of innovation, oppose the Muslims and hold to position; every practice, festivity, custom, which was [not mentioned explicitly by name and method of enacting it was not taught and] not sanctioned by Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) is [reprehensible] innovation. Every Innovation Is Misguidance They Say: Commonly the following Ahadith are quoted by opponents to refute position of Ahle Sunnat, the Ahadith: “Avoid novelties, for every novelty is an innovation, and every innovation is an error." [Ref: Abu Dawood, B40, H4590] “And the most evil affairs are the innovations; and every innovation is error." [Ref: Muslim, B4, H1885] From lingustic point of view anything which did not exist in the time of RasoolAllah (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) would be innovation. From Shar’i perspective innovation is everything which contradicts principles of deen and which is not sanctioned by deen, Ahadith establish this: “He who did any act for which there is no sanction from our behalf, that is to be rejected.” [Ref: Muslim, B18, H4267] "If somebody innovates something which is not in harmony with the principles of our religion, that thing is rejected." [Ref: Bukhari B49, H861] “He who innovates things in our affairs for which there is no valid (reason) and these are to be rejected.” [Ref: Muslim, B18, H4266] Therefore from Shar’i perspective innovation is every newly-invented belief, action, object which goes against the principles of Deen and is not in harmony with teaching of Deen. Hence every such novelty is innovation and every such innovation is an misguidance, and every such misguidance takes to hellfire. To argue every innovation is misguidances without restricting ‘every’ to specific type of innovation [which I have defined above] would establish contradiction between the Ahadith of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam). Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) has reportedly said: “He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.”[Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] “He who called (people) to righteous (i.e. innovation), there would be reward (assured) for him like the rewards of those who adhered to it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6470] If every innovation was misguidance which took to hell then why would he inform the companions of reward for introducing good practices in Islam! This evidence supports the understanding that ‘every’ is not unrestricted but restricted to particular type of innovation [which contradicts the principles of Deen and which has no sanction in Deen]. Therefore the understanding of Ahle Sunnat Wal Jammat about the newly-invented practices is correct because neither of these practices in reality and in essence contradict any aspect of Deen. Instead these customs, practices, festivities, in essence contained acts of worship, charity, and serve as platform for spread of Islamic knowledge hence they accord the Prophetic guidelines. Heretics Advance A New Argument: The opponents of Ahle Sunnat Wal Jammat have advanced a new argument; there is no good innovation even if the people something good in some innovative custom, practice or festivity. There this argument is based on th following Hadith: “Abdullaah Ibn 'Umar (radi allahu anhu) said, "Every innovation is misguidance, even if the people see it as something good."[3] Presenting their position in bit more detail; any innovated festivity, custom, practice, even if it contains acts of worship, charity, and is source of Islamic education, even then it is still a innovation. Despite all these it is without any goodness it and is misguidance which takes to hell fire. The simple response to this argument is; innovation in Shari’a is defined as acts, beliefs or activities which contradicts and go against the principles of Deen, and which has no sanction in deen, therefore such innovations are misguidance even if the people see good in them. Hadhrat Abu Bakr Disagrees And Then Agrees With Hadhrat Umar: After the death of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) there was mass apostasy from Islam. Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radiallah ta’ala anhu) decided to take action against the apostates. The result was numerous battles fought in Arabian Peninsula which are now known as ‘Apostasy Wars’. During one such battle the Muslim army fighting Musailma the Liar had suffered major causualties including seventy companions who had memorized the Quran. After this battle Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) visited Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radiallah ta’ala anhu) and said: "Casualties were heavy among the Qurra' of the! Qur'an (i.e. those who knew the Qur'an by heart) on the day of the Battle of Yalmama, and I am afraid that more heavy casualties may take place among the Qurra' on other battlefields, whereby a large part of the Qur'an may be lost. Therefore I suggest, you (Abu Bakr) order that the Qur'an be collected." In response to this suggestion Hadhrat Abu Bakr said: “Umar, "How can you do something which Allah's Apostle did not do?" Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) responded by saying: "By Allah, that is a good project.” The Hadith continues to narrate words of Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radiallah ta’ala anhu): "`Umar kept on urging me to accept his proposal till Allah opened my chest for it and I began to realize the good in the idea which `Umar had realized." Upon realizing the importance of preserving the Quranic script Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radiallah ta’ala anhu) called Hadhrat Zaid bin Thabit (radiallah ta’ala anhu). After narrating the discussion between him and Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) he said to him: “You are a wise young man and we do not have any suspicion about you, and you used to write the Divine Inspiration for Allah's Messenger. So you should search for (the fragmentary scripts of) the Qur'an and collect it in one book.” Hadhrat Zaid bin Thabit (radiallah ta’ala anhu) then said to Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radiallah ta’ala anhu): "How will you do something which Allah's Messenger did not do?" Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radiallah ta’ala anhu) replied to him by saying: "By Allah, it is a good project.” Hadhrat Zaid bin Thabit (radiallah ta’ala anhu) further narrated: “Abu Bakr kept on urging me to accept his idea until Allah opened my chest for what He had opened the chests of Abu Bakr and `Umar.”[4] Investigating The Incident In Light Of Teaching Of Islam: Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radiallah ta’ala anhu) refused to carry out something which Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) did not do himself, citing the very same reason. Why would Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radiallah ta’ala anhu) refused to collect the Quranic script? Was the mentioned reason: “Umar, "How can you do something which Allah's Apostle did not do?" the only reason on basis of which he refused or is there more to it? There is more going then what meets the eye. Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radiallah ta’ala anhu) must have been aware of the following Hadith of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam): “It was narrated from Abdullah bin Mas'ud that the Messenger of Allah said: "Verily there are two things - words and guidance. The best words are the words of Allah, and the best guidance in the guidance of Muhammad. Beware of newly-invented matters, for every newly-invented matter is an innovation and every innovation is a going-stray.” [Ref: Ibn Majah, B1, H46] And the following Hadith specificly refers to leaders of Muslims: “It was narrated from ‘Abdullah bin Mas’ud that the Prophet said: “Among those in charge of you, after I am gone, will be men who extinguish the Sunnah and follow innovation. They will delay the prayer from its proper time.” I said: “O Messenger of Allah, if I live to see them, what should I do?” He said: “You ask me, O Ibn ‘Abd, what you should do? There is no obedience to one who disobeys Allah.” [Ref: Ibn Majah, B24, H2865] Hence his reluctance was based on the understanding that if he collects the Quran in a book format then he would be introducing a reprehensible innovation.[5] Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) was aware of the Ahadith known to Hadrat Abu Bakr (radiallah ta’ala anhu) and he also knew that Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radiallah ta’ala anhu) is also familiar with the following Hadith: "The Messenger of Allah said: 'Whoever introduces a good practice that is followed, he will receive its reward and a reward equivalent to that of those who follow it, without that detracting from their reward in their slightest. And whoever introduces a bad practice that is followed, he will receive its sin and a burden of sin equivalent to that of those who follow it, without that detracting from their burden in the slightest.'" [Ref: Ibn Majah, B1, H203] Hence he responded to Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radiallah ta’ala anhu) by saying: "By Allah, that is a good project.” [Ref: Bukhari, B61, H509] Afterwards Hadhrat Zaid bin Thabit (radiallah ta’ala anhu) questioned the collection of Quran and after much effort he was convinced that collection of Quran into book format was a good act. Responding To - Every Innovation Misguidance Even If Good: Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radiallah ta’ala anhu), Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) and Hadhrat Zaid bin Thabit (radiallah ta’ala anhu) agreed to do something which Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) did not instruct or himself did. They saw good in collecting the Quran into book format after initial resistance. After realizing the suggestion of Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) is a good suggestion and collection of Quran as a book is a good thing both companions agreed to carry out this task. If the following Hadith is taken literally then collection of Quran was misguidance even though three companions saw good in it : "Every innovation is misguidance, even if the people see it as something good." Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) restarted a practice which all the companions stopped because Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) stopped it. Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) collected all the people in Masjid under one Qari and remarked: “… 'Umar remarked, 'What an excellent innovation this is; but the prayer which they do not perform, …”[6] This indicates Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) introduced a innovation. Now if it is accepted that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) had performed Taraweeh prayers and Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) was merely reviving the Sunnah of Taraweeh prayers. Then the innovation is reintroducing something which Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) stopped (– i.e. Taraweeh under one Imam). Based on the literalism of the Hadith if every innovation is misguidance despite one seeing goodness it the innovation then Hadhrat Umar’s (radiallah ta’ala anhu) excellent innovation was misguidance. A Fair Argument Against Injustice Of Heretics: If a innovation is good by its nature even though Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) did not do and which companions did not do then that innovation will remain a good innovation even if the people don’t see good in it. Especially if the innovation is based on the principle of worship and principle of charitiable deeds. The goodness of acts, beliefs, practices, customs, festivities, is judged on the criteria if the asal (i.e. foundation) is found in Quran/Sunnah. The praiseworthy innovations which Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) suggested he will be rewareded, according to following Hadith: : “He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.”[Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] The misguidance of acts, beliefs, practices, customs, festivities, is determined by if the activities/beliefs contradict the Quran and Sunnah. If a festivity, custom, practice, act is against the explicit Shar’i injunctions then such will remain misguidance even if the people see good in it. To sum it all, any innovation which contradicts any principle or teaching of Islam, a act which was not sanctioned in deen, and for which there was no valid reason then such innovations are misguidance even if the people see something good in them. Conclusion: Every innovation is not evil because Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) has informed of reward for those who innovate good practices. Secondly if every innovation was misguidance or error even if the people see something good in it then compilation of Quran and Hadhrat Umars’s (radiallah ta’ala anhu) collecting the people of Masjid under one Qari would be without any good and a misguidance. Not just the literalist understanding of the Hadith contradicts another Hadith which states one who innovates praiseworthy practice for him there is reward and those who follow the invented practice get equale amount of reward. Hence the meaning of Hadith is; every innovation which contradicts principles of Islam and contains acts which are not from Sunnah nor does it have a valid reason then such innovation is misguidance and without goodness. This explanation of the Hadith in the light of other Ahadith detracts nothing from position of Ahle Sunnat but rather defends and supports it. Wama alayna ilal balaghul mubeen. Muhammed Ali Razavi. Footnotes: - [1] Such as performing of Nawafil, recitation of Quran, invoking Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) in dua. - [2] Such as inviting the poor as well as family members and then for sake of Allah’s (subhanahu wa ta’ala) pleasure provide them with food. - [3] Related: by Ad-Darimee, Abu Shamaah (no. 39), Ibn Nasr in as-Sunnah (no. 82), al-Laalikaa'ee in Sharh Usoolul-Ftiqaad (no. 126) & Sharh I'tiqad Ahl as-Sunnah (1/92), and by al-Bayhaqee in al-Madkhal (no. 191). Its authentic; Ahkaam al-Janaa'iz (258) and Islah al-Masajid (13). Salim Al-Hilaali said: "Its isnaad (chain of narration) is as authentic as the sun!" - [4] “Narrated Zaid bin Thabit: Abu Bakr As-Siddiq sent for me when the people! of Yamama had been killed (i.e., a number of the Prophet's Companions who fought against Musailama). (I went to him) and found `Umar bin Al- Khattab sitting with him. Abu Bakr then said (to me), "`Umar has come to me and said: "Casualties were heavy among the Qurra' of the! Qur'an (i.e. those who knew the Qur'an by heart) on the day of the Battle of Yalmama, and I am afraid that more heavy casualties may take place among the Qurra' on other battlefields, whereby a large part of the Qur'an may be lost. Therefore I suggest, you (Abu Bakr) order that the Qur'an be collected." I said to `Umar, "How can you do something which Allah's Apostle did not do?" `Umar said, "By Allah, that is a good project. "Umar kept on urging me to accept his proposal till Allah opened my chest for it and I began to realize the good in the idea which `Umar had realized." Then Abu Bakr said (to me). 'You are a wise young man and we do not have any suspicion about you, and you used to write the Divine Inspiration for Allah's Messenger. So you should search for (the fragmentary scripts of) the Qur'an and collect it in one book)." By Allah If they had ordered me to shift one of the mountains, it would not have been heavier for me than this ordering me to collect the Qur'an. Then I said to Abu Bakr, "How will you do something which Allah's Messenger did not do?" Abu Bakr replied, "By Allah, it is a good project." Abu Bakr kept on urging me to accept his idea until Allah opened my chest for what He had opened the chests of Abu Bakr and `Umar. So I started looking for the Qur'an and collecting it from (what was written on) palmed stalks, thin white stones and also from the men who knew it by heart, till I found the last Verse of Surat at-Tauba (Repentance) with Abi Khuza`ima Al-Ansari, and I did not find it with anybody other than him. The Verse is: 'Verily there has come unto you an Apostle (Muhammad) from amongst yourselves. It grieves him that you should receive any injury or difficulty..(till the end of Surat-Baraa' (at-Tauba) (9.128-129) Then the complete manuscripts (copy) of the Qur'an remained with Abu Bakr till he died, then with `Umar till the end of his life, and then with Hafsa, the daughter of `Umar.” [Ref: Bukhari, B61, H509] - [5] There can be absolutely no other reason to refuse to collect the Quran in a single book format apart from being responsible for introducing a reprehensible innovation. There could be no other motive for Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radiallah ta’ala anhu) and Hadhrat Zaid bin Thabit (radiallah ta’ala anhu) to question and argue against the suggestion. If they didn’t fear introducing innovation then did they fear the kids will learn the Quran? Or did they fear that by making the Quran available in written form will result in education of everyone? Common sense dictates their fears was that they may be guilty of introducing innovation into deen and their reasoning was simple; Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) did not do it so why should I/we? I can almost hear Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radiallah ta’ala anhu) and Hadhrat Zaid bin Thabit (radiallah ta’ala anhu) saying to Hadhrat Umar(radiallah ta’ala anhu); if there was any goodness in it then Messenger (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) would have instructed us to carry out the task in his life time. - [6] “Abdur Rahman bin 'Abdul Qari said: "I went out in the company of 'Umar bin Al-Khattab one night in Ramadan to the mosque and found the people praying in different groups. A man praying alone or a man praying with a little group behind him. So, 'Umar said, 'In my opinion I would better collect these (people) under the leadership of one Qari (Reciter) (i.e. let them pray in congregation!)'. So, he made up his mind to congregate them behind Ubai bin Ka'b. Then on another night I went again in his company and the people were praying behind their reciter. On that, 'Umar remarked, 'What an excellent Bid'a (i.e. innovation in religion) this is; but the prayer which they do not perform, but sleep at its time is better than the one they are offering.' He meant the prayer in the last part of the night. (In those days) people used to pray in the early part of the night." [Ref: Bukhari, B32, H227]