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Clarifying: Linguistic Innovations Become ['shara'ee'] Innovations When Made Part Of Deen.


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Clarifying: Linguistic Innovations Become ['Shara'ee'] Innovations When Made Part Of Deen.

 

Introduction:

 

- The prevalent understanding among the ahlul bidda, the Wahabiyah and Deobandiyah is that any act or belief which does not have explicit proof from Quran, Sunnah is [reprehensible][1] innovation. And this is the yardstick which is used by these heretics to demonize the praiseworthy innovations which have sprung up after the time of Sahabah, Tabi'un, generation succeeding the Tabi'un, as [reprehensible] innovations.

 

When it is pointed out to them, there are many praiseworthy innovations after the time of first three generations (i.e. Bukhari, Muslim, etc ...) which have no explicit evidence from Quran, and Sunnah[2]they reply:

 

These Are Innovations In Linguistic Sense, They Will Only Be [reprehensible] Innovations In Terms Of Sharia When They Are Made Part Of Deen.

 

Meaning Of 'Part Of Islam':

 

- There are three ways in which actions, beliefs can be part of Islam:

 

* Teaching Found In Quran

* Sunnah of RasoolAllah

* Ijtihad

 

- The Sunnah of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) found in ahadith is part of Islam because Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) said:

 

Surah An'Najm (53) Verse 3: “Nor does he speak from [his own] inclination. (4) It is not but a revelation revealed.”

 

Apart from the actions of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) which Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) rectified via revelation or Messenger (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) himself declared that they are not based on revelation all the rest are wahi.

 

- About ijtihadi innovations into Islam Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) stated in Sahih Ahadith:

 

Sahih Muslim, Book 034, Number 6466: “... on his (sacred) face. Thereupon Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect. And he who introduced some evil practice in Islam which had been followed subsequently (by others), he would be required to bear the burden."

 

Sahih Muslim Shareef, Book 034, Number 6470:"Abu Huraira reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: He who called (people) to righteous (i.e. innovation), there would be reward (assured) for him like the rewards of those who adhered to it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect. And he who called (people) to error, he shall have to carry (the burden) of its sin, like those who committed it, without their sins being diminished in any respect."

 

Praiseworthy & Reprehensible Innovations In Islam:

 

- The praiseworthy innovations which the Wahabi/Deobandi declare has [reprehensible] innovations are collections of Sunnahs of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) practiced under various names. And these praiseworthy innovations are in part or as whole based on worship of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala), recitation of Quran, preaching of Islam, therefore the practice (i.e. Milad Un Nabi, Fatiha, Chehlam) as whole may not be supported but their individual practices are either Sunnahs, Farahid (i.e. compulsory practices), Wajibaat (i.e. recommended practices) with abundant evidence from Quran and Sunnah. And these ijtihadi innovative practices are not part of Islam in the sense that they have been commanded by Allah subhana wa ta'ala, or they are Sunnahs, but they are considered part of Islam because these are Sunnahs compiled together under a name.

 

- About Ijtihadi innovations into Islam beloved Prophet of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) stated that who ever innovates a praiseworthy custom in Islam there is reward for him, and those who fallow this new innovation:

 

Sahih Muslim, Book 34, Number 6466: “...He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.

 

Sahih Muslim, Book 34, Hadith 6468: Jarir b. 'Abdullah reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: The servant does not introduce good practice which is followed after him[3] (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.

 

Sahih Muslim Shareef, Book 34, Number 6470: "Abu Huraira reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: He who called (people) to righteous [i.e. innovation], there would be reward (assured) for him like the rewards of those who adhered to it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.

 

And those who innovate a evil practice into Islam there is punishment for them, and those who fallow them:

 

Sahih Muslim, Book 34, Number 6466: “...And he who introduced some evil practice in Islam which had been followed subsequently (by others), he would be required to bear the burden."

 

Sahih Muslim, Book 34, Hadith 6468:[3] “... And he who introduced some evil practice in Islam which had been followed subsequently (by others), he would be required to bear the burden like that of one who followed this (evil practice) without theirs being diminished in any respect.

 

Sahih Muslim Shareef, Book 34, Number 6470: And he who called (people) to error, he shall have to carry (the burden) of its sin, like those who committed it, without their sins being diminished in any respect."

 

Readers should note the fact that Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) stated that praiseworthy innovations in Islam will be rewarded, and only those innovations in Islam which are evil will be punished. This proves that Islam is not a static religion, but innovations in Islam depending on their natures will be rewarded and punished, and this proves that additions in Islam can be made, but these additions have to be according to the rules laid down by Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'salam):

 

Sahih Muslim, Book 18, Number 4267: “... and then said: 'A'isha informed me that Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: He who did any act for which there is no sanction from our behalf, that is to be rejected.”

 

Sahih Bukhari Book 49, Hadith 861: Narrated Aisha: Allah's Apostle said, "If somebody innovates something which is not in harmony with the principles of our religion, that thing is rejected."

 

Sahih Muslim, Book 18, Number 4266: 'A'isha reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: He who innovates things in our affairs for which there is no valid (reason) (commits sin) and these are to be rejected.”

 

If someone innovates something which is in harmony with the principles of Islam, and for which there is valid reason, and there is sanction in Sharia that innovation is to be accepted in Islam, and if a practice violates any of the above mentioned in the ahadith then it will be rejected because it will be deemed as evil innovation in Islam for which there is punishment.

 

- Wahabi's point was that when a linguistic innovation is made part of deen then it automaticaly becomes [reprehensible] innovation of Sharia, which now stands refuted because there is praiseworthy innovation in Islam, and Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) told of reward for those who make praiseworthy innovations in Islam. Also servant established that linguistic innovation does not become [reprehensible] innovation of Sharia until the nature of innovation is evil, until its not in harmony with principles of deen, and until there is no valid reason for the innovation, and it does not automatically become [reprehensible] innovation when its made part of Islam.

 

Ijtihad issues which are neither mentioned in Quran, or part of Sunnah of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) have to be judged according to the rules, regulations of Quran, and Sunnah. Due to modern technological advances its possible to transfer organs of a person to another, but for a Muslim question is also: “Is it permissible in sharia to transfer the organ of a deceased to another?” This is how modern Ijtihadi issues become part of deen, not as Fard (i.e. compulsory), Aqeedah (i.e. belief) or Sunnah of Messenger of Allah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) but simply due to its question of permissibility/impermisibility in deen. The issue is judged according to Quran, Sunnah; therefore the issue and the ijtihadi judgment is part of Islam. Do we take drugs, can we conduct Jihad with modern weapons, which modern weapons we can't use in battle field, etc … all of these are part of Islam, and one does not have to explicitly declare that he considers them part of Islam for them to be considered innovation in Sharia. The judgment about these modern issues and many others in light of Quran, Sunnah, makes them part of Islam, might not be considered part of Islam as explicit teaching of Quran, or Sunnah, but they are part of Islam in sense of Ijtihad.

 

A pious believers every action is done in light of Quran, Sunnah, he abstains from taking drugs, pornography, not because they are innovations into Islam, but there is circumstantial evidence which prohibits indulging in such acts. There are many things which were not sanctioned by Messenger (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) but Sahabah (radiallah ta'ala anhuma ajma'een) innovated them in his life time, and he approved those innovations as part of Islam, and others were innovated after he departed for his heavenly abode but they are considered part of Islam. The point is linguistic innovations are governed by rules of Sharia which determine permissibility/impermissible of actions/customs/objects/ according to the spirit of Islam, and making of a actions/custom/object part of Islam does not make it [reprehensible] innovation.

 

Simple Refutation To Wahabi Point:

 

- Wahabi's have simple form of definition of innovation:

 

* Linguistical Innovation

* Shara'ee Innovation

 

[Shara'ee/reprehensible] 'Innovation', in terminology of Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jammah its termed as 'Reprehensible Innovation' and in the context of this article what the Wahabi's/Deobandi's termed as 'Linguistical Innovation' in terminology of Ahlus Sunnah its 'Praiseworthy Innovation'. Therefore the statement: “These (Sahih; Bukhari, Muslim) Are Innovations In Linguistic Sense, They Will Only Be [reprehensible/shara'ee] 'Innovations' In Terms Of Sharia When They Are Made Part Of Deen.” is non-sense because the statement in reality means: “These (Sahih; Bukhari, Muslim) Are praiseworthy Innovations, They Will Only Be [reprehensible/shara'ee] 'Innovations' In Terms Of Sharia When They Are Made Part Of Deen.” Sahih al Bukhari, Sahih al Muslim, and all the other Ahadith collections are part of deen and one who considers these sources to be not part of deen is a fool and supporter of munkireen e hadith, and not a Muslim. The only point worth answering was about when a linguistical innovation is made part of deen it becomes a [reprehensible/Shara'ee] innovation, which from the evidence is clear that it isn’t the case.

 

According X's naming system a eagle is what in my naming system is vulture, we may never agree on the our names, but one thing we both will agree that we are referring, we mean the same bird. In the same manner there are two definitions referring to same objects, one considers them praiseworthy innovations, other linguistical innovations, just different labels.

 

Muhammed Ali Razvi

--------------

FootNotes:

 

- [1] Sufi's may read sentence with word 'reprehensible'.

- [2] No verse of Quran, or Hadith explicitly directs toward Sahih Bukhari, Sahih Muslim.

- [3] Originally written as: Jarir b. 'Abdullah reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: The servant does not introduce good practice which is followed after him ... The rest of the hadith is the same.”

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