MuhammedAli

Praiseworthy & Reprehensible Sunnah Understood According To Sunnah Of Rasoolallah ﷺ

3 posts in this topic

Introduction:

 

Hadith narrated by Hadhrat Jabir (radiallah ta'ala anh) records a guiding principle given by Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'salam):

 

“Jabir (Allah be pleased with him) reported that Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) visited Umm Mubashshir al-Ansariya at her orchard of date-palms and said to her: Who has planted these trees of dates-a Muslim or a non-Musim? She said: A Muslim, of course, whereupon he said: Never a Muslim plants, or cultivates a land, and it out of that men eat, or the animals eat, or anything else eats, but that becomes charity on his (planter's) behalf.” [Ref: Muslim, Book 10, Hadith 3765]

 

Many such guiding principles are recorded in ahadith of beloved Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) which can be taken out of the context completely and they will still be source of legislation because the nature of language used is as such. And as a result of this numerous such statements can be found in the books of ahadith which are stripped from their original context.[1] In their context these guiding principles may have some contextual relevance, or absolute relevance to context, or have absolutely no relevance to its context. And their partial or absolute contextual relevance does not restrict the implications of these guiding principles to a particular person or era or meaning, rather these guiding principles remain universal and serve as rules for Ummah of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) can judge.

 

Hadith of Praiseworthy & Reprehensible Sunnah:

 

Sahih Muslim, Book 034, Number 6466: "Jarir b. Abdullah reported that some desert Arabs clad in woolen clothes came to Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him). He saw them in sad plight as they had been hard pressed by need. He (the Holy Prophet) exhorted people to give charity, but they showed some reluctance until (signs) of anger could be seen on his face. Then a person from the Ansar came with a purse containing silver. Then came another person and then other persons followed them in succession until signs of happiness could be seen on his (sacred) face. Thereupon Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect. And he who introduced some evil practice in Islam which had been followed subsequently (by others), he would be required to bear the burden like that of one who followed this (evil practice) without theirs being diminished in any respect."

 

The Dispute Between Ahle Sunnat & Wahhabi's:

 

The Wahhabis hold to the belief that this hadith is in specific meaning of; companion in the gathering who initiated giving of Sadqa to the poor Bedouins and those who fallowed him, for all of them there will be equal reward, therefore it can not be used to substantiate category of 'Praiseworthy Innovation' as well as the innovations. The Sunnis hold to the belief that this statement of beloved Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) can be stripped completely independent of it's context and still serve as a source of guidance. Therefore this hadith is evidence for category of 'Praiseworthy Innovation' and a justification for praiseworthy innovations.

 

The aim of this article is to explain the hadith of praiseworthy and blameworthy Sunnah in light of Sunnah of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam).[2] Also to validate the contention of Ahle Sunnat Wal Jammat that it is Sunnah of beloved Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) to give guiding principles to his followers on which we can judge the right, wrong, permissible and prohibited. And the belief of Wahhabis that this hadith is only restricted to its context is heretical and blameworthy innovation.

 

Analysis Of Hadith Sunnah Sai'yah & Hasanah:

 

The complete statement does not fit the context of event because a blameworthy Sunnah in Islam was practiced presence of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam). Therefore the beloved Prophet's (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) saying: “And he who introduced some evil practice in Islam which had been followed subsequently (by others), he would be required to bear the burden like that of one who followed this (evil practice) without theirs being diminished in any respect." is not according to the context. And due to fact that there is no mention of blameworthy Sunnah[3] being made part of Islam by companions. It would be safe to conclude that this entire statement of beloved Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam), from: “He who introduced some good practice ...” to end of: “And he who introduced some evil practice ...” was given as guiding principles to encourage good and forbid the evil by him. So the companions can act on the verse of “... amr bil maroof wan'nahuna a'nil munkir ...”[4] and by extension of us being Ummatis the verse refers to us the Muslims. So we also use these guiding principles to encourage good which is part of deen as Fard and Sunnah as well as invite to good which is determined by Ijtihad. Forbid the evil which was declared by Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) as evil and his beloved Messenger (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) in Quran and Sunnah. As well as discourage the Muslims from taking part in modern evil practices which were not explicitly declared to be evil yet due to Ijtihadi evidence it can be established that these are against the spirit of Islam therefore evil.

 

Hadith Of Intentions:

 

Sahih Bukhari, Book 1, Hadith 1: “Narrated 'Umar bin Al-Khattab: I heard Allah's Apostle saying: "The reward of deeds depends upon the intentions and every person will get the reward according to what he has intended.” So whoever emigrated for worldly benefits or for a woman to marry, his emigration was for what he emigrated for."

 

Sahih Bukhari, Book 86, Hadith 85: “Narrated 'Umar bin Al-Khattab: The Prophet said: “O people! The reward of deeds depends upon the intentions, and every person will get the reward according to what he has intended.” So, whoever emigrated for Allah and His Apostle, then his emigration was for Allah and His Apostle, and whoever emigrated to take worldly benefit or for a woman to marry, then his emigration was for what he emigrated for."

 

Point One:

 

Beloved Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) said: "The reward of deeds depends upon the intentions and every person will get the reward according to what he has intended.” and then he went to give examples to explain his rule/principle with words: “So whoever emigrated for worldly benefits or for a woman to marry, his emigration was for what he emigrated for." In another hadith it is reported Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) gave the same rule/principle but explained it slightly differently: So, whoever emigrated for Allah and His Apostle, then his emigration was for Allah and His Apostle, and whoever emigrated to take worldly benefit or for a woman to marry, then his emigration was for what he emigrated for." Based on this one can not argue that since the rule/principle is given in a specific context marriage and migration[5] the meaning of it is restricted to that context only. And based on this conclude that a believer does not have to intend to do everything for sake of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) to be rewarded by Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) because the context was of marriage and emigration.

 

Point Two:

 

The aim of the statement: "The reward of deeds depends upon the intentions and every person will get the reward according to what he has intended.” is to let people know that if action is done with intention of worldly gain it will be judged as that and it will not earn reward, and reward of deeds done for worldly gain and show off, is punishment. This principle is in general meaning explained in a specific context to educate that any act done for worldly intentions will be judged and rewarded as such. To teach if you intend to worship Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) your actions of worship will earn you reward. If you give Zakat, and Sadqa with intention of pleasing Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) then the reward of this is with Allah (subhana wa ta'ala). If you was to marry for sake of protecting your self from adultery out of fear of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) or to marry with intention to have children who would fight for the cause of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) then the good intention will earn reward. And to teach that if a action is done for worldly intentions and without the intention of pleasing Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) then on the day of judgment it will be judged as that and will earn its doer no reward.

 

Fighting In Allah's Cause:

 

Sahih Muslim, Book 53, Hadith 355: “Narrated Abu Musa Al-Ashari: A Bedouin asked the Prophet, "A man may fight for the sake of booty, and another may fight so that he may be mentioned by the people, and a third may fight to show his position (i.e. bravery); which of these regarded as fighting in Allah's Cause?" The Prophet said: "He who fights so that Allah's Word (i.e. Islam) should be superior, fights for Allah's Cause."

 

Sahih Bukhari, Book 3, Hadith 125: “Narrated Abu Musa: A man came to the Prophet and asked, "O Allah's Apostle! What kind of fighting is in Allah's cause? (I ask this), for some of us fight because of being enraged and angry and some for the sake of his pride and haughtiness." The Prophet raised his head (as the questioner was standing) and said: "He who fights so that Allah's Word (Islam) should be superior, then he fights in Allah's cause."

 

Point One:

 

A Bedouin came to Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) and said: "A man may fight for the sake of booty, and another may fight so that he may be mentioned by the people, and a third may fight to show his position (i.e. bravery); which of these regarded as fighting in Allah's Cause?" in another hadith which is also narrated by Abu Musa Al-Ashari (rahimullah alayhi ta'ala): "O Allah's Apostle! What kind of fighting is in Allah's cause?” The answer given by beloved Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) is: "He who fights so that Allah's Word (i.e. Islam) should be superior, fights for Allah's Cause.”

 

Point Two:

 

The context reveals questioner pacifically mentioned fighting in rage, fighting for pride, fight for haughtiness, fight for spoils of war, and then asked the question: “O Allah's Apostle! What kind of fighting is in Allah's cause?” The answer given was that one who fights so Allah's (subhana wa ta'ala) word should be superior he fights for the cause of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala). From this context can we correctly conclude that one who fights for pride, spoils of war, haughtiness, so deen of Allah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) is superior is fighting in cause of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala)? Or is he fighting for Allah's (subhana wa ta'ala) cause one who fights so Word of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) is superior over its enemies? One who fights so Allah's (subhana wa ta'ala) word is superior over its enemies is fighting in the cause of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala).[6] This demonstrates that a guiding principle can be in a particular context yet its meaning can absolutely be absolutely independent from it's context.

 

Paying Debt Handsomely:

 

Sahih Bukhari, Book 38, Hadith 502: “Narrated Abu Huraira: A man came to the Prophet demanding his debts and behaved rudely. The companions of the Prophet intended to harm him, but Allah's Apostle said (to them), "Leave him, for the creditor (i.e. owner of a right) has the right to speak." Allah's Apostle then said, "Give him a camel of the same age as that of his." The people said, "O Allah's Apostle! There is only a camel that is older than his." Allah's Apostle said, "Give (it to) him, for the best amongst you is he who pays the rights of others handsomely."

 

Sahih Bukhari, Book 41, Hadith 578: Narrated Abu Huraira: The Prophet owed a camel of a certain age to a man who came to demand it back. The Prophet ordered his companions to give him. They looked for a camel of the same age but found nothing but a camel one year older. The Prophet told them to give it to him. The man said, "You have paid me in full, and may Allah pay you in full." The Prophet said, "The best amongst you is he who pays his debts in the most handsome manner."

 

Point One:

 

Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) owed debt to a man who was rude to Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) when he came to demand from Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) his debt. The companions of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) did not tolerate disrespect of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam), not even slight disrespect. So they wanted to harmed him (i.e. kill him)[7] but Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) prevented them. By saying: "Leave him, for the creditor (i.e. owner of a right) has the right to speak." Based on the context: “A man came to the Prophet demanding his debts and behaved rudely.” will one argue that Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) granted him permission to speak therefore Prophet of Allah (Sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) gave him permission to be rude to him![8] Of course not, the permission to speak was to demand the debt back from one who owes the debt to creditor and not to be rude to him.

 

Point Two:

 

RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) ordered that a camel be given to creditor: "Give him a camel of the same age as that of his." so the companions of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) searched for a same age camel to give to the creditor: “... but found nothing but a camel one year older.” So they informed Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) of the situation: “The Prophet told them to give it to him.” and then said: "The best amongst you is he who pays his debts in the most handsome manner." From the context it can be said that Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) is saying that he is the best amongst the Sahabah (alayhi ridwan). And clearly from hadith the lesson we learn, the guiding principle for us is to judge anyone who pays his debts handsomely as having characteristic of best of Muslims. It would be foolish to assume that this hadith was specific for Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) and it can not be used for guidance for Ummah of beloved Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam). This exercise demonstrates that a guiding principle may have partial relevance to the context but ultimately its purpose is to be source of guidance for all Muslims belonging to any era.

 

Reprehensible Deeds In Jahilliyah:

 

Sahih Muslim, Book 1, Hadith 217: “It is narrated on the authority of Abdullah b. Mas'ud that some people said to the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him): Messenger of Allah, would we be held responsible for our deeds committed in the state of ignorance (before embracing Islam)?[9] Upon his he (the Holy Prophet) remarked: He who amongst you performed good deeds in Islam, He would not be held responsible for them. And he who committed evil (even after embracing Islam) would be held responsible or his misdeeds that he committed in the state of ignorance as well as in that of Islam.”

 

Sahih Muslim, Book 1, Hadith 218: “It is narrated on the authority of Abdullah b. Mas'ud: We once said: Messenger of Allah, would we be held responsible for our deeds committed in the state of ignorance? He (the Holy Prophet) observed: He who did good deeds in Islam would not be held responsible for what he did in the state of ignorance, but he who committed evil (after having come within the fold of Islam) would be held responsible for his previous and later deeds.”

 

Point One:

 

Some people said to Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) that would they be held responsible on the day of judgment for the sinful deed they committed before coming to Islam. Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) replied:He who amongst you performed good deeds in Islam He would not be held responsible for them.” And about munafiqeen (i.e. hypocrites): “And he who committed evil (even after embracing Islam) would be held responsible or his misdeeds that he committed in the state of ignorance as well as in that of Islam.” Based on the context of question, and the answer is it possible to safely conclude that those who asked beloved Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) about the deeds of pre-jahiliyah period were pious and sinful! Of course not only a ignominious illiterate would come to such conclusion because there is indication in this hadith that only Sahabah (alayhi ridwan) asked.[10]

 

Point Two:

 

Sahih Muslim, Book 1, Hadith 222: “Hakim b. Hizam reported to 'Urwa b. Zubair that he said to the Messenger of Allah: Do you think that there is any thing for me (of he reward with the Lord) for the deed of religious purification that I did in the state of ignorance? Upon this he (the Apostle of Allah) said to him: You accepted Islam with all the previous virtues that you practiced.”

 

Sahih Muslim, Book 1, Hadith 218: “It is narrated on the authority of Abdullah b. Mas'ud, We once said: Messenger of Allah, would we be held responsible for our deeds committed in the state of ignorance? He (the Holy Prophet) observed: He who did good deeds in Islam would not be held responsible for what he did in the state of ignorance, but he who committed evil (after having come within the fold of Islam) would be held responsible for his previous and later deeds.”

 

Devils may deceive people and the people may deceive themselves and conclude that the Munafiqeen as well as Sahabah (alayhi ridwan) asked beloved (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) about their deeds of pre-conversion era. But it is clear from the ahadith that Hadhrat Hakim bin Hizam (radiallah ta'ala anh), Hadhrat Abdullah bin Mas'ud (radiallah ta'ala anh) as well as the other Sahabah had asked the question about deeds of pre-conversion era.

 

Point Three:

 

Importantly these ahadith are hope to anyone who converts to Islam, news to them that if they act piously adhere to deen of Islam, practice the deen as it is supposed to, then for them there will be reward for the good deeds done prior to being Muslim and while being part of Ummah. This hadith also serves as warning to new converts that if you convert but continue to sin without restrain and repentance then you will be punished with your sins done while being Muslim as well as in period prior to Islam.

 

It would be illogical, irrational, to assume that this guiding principle news was limited to the persons involved, or restricted to companions only. This leads to the conclusion that guiding principles can have partial relevance to it's context but not absolute relevance and if a senseless shaytaan argues that this Hadith has absolute relevance to the people involved then there is defect in his aqeedah regarding beloved Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) and about Sahabah (alayhi ridwan).[11]

 

Usurping Land Wrongfully:

 

Sahih Muslim, Book 1, Hadith 256: “Ibn Mas'ud says: I heard the Messenger of Allah observing: He who took an oath on the property of a Muslim without legitimate right would meet Allah and He would be angry, with him. Then the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) in support of his contention recited the verse: "Verily those who barter Allah's covenant and their oaths at a small price.”

 

Sahih Muslim, Book 1, Hadith 258: “Wa'il reported it on the authority of his father Hujr: I was with the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) that two men came there disputing over a piece of land. One of them said: Messenger of Allah, this man appropriated my land without justification in the days of ignorance. The (claimant) was Imru'l-Qais b. 'Abis al-Kindi and his opponent was Rabi'a b. 'Iban He (the Holy Prophet) said (to the claimant): Have you evidence (to substantiate your claim)? He replied: I have no evidence. Upon this he (the Messenger of Allah) remarked: Then his (that is of the defendant) is the oath. He (the claimant) said: In this case he (the defendant) would appropriate this (the property). He (the Holy Prophet) said: There is than no other way left for you but this. He (the narrator) said: When he (the defendant) stood up to take oath, the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: He who appropriated the land wrongfully would meet Allah in a state that He would be angry with him. Ishaq in his narration mentions Rabi'a b. 'Aidan (instead of Rabi'a b. 'Ibdan).”

 

Point One:

 

Imrul Qais bin Abis Al Khindi (radia'allah ta'ala anh) as well as Rabi'a bin Iban (radia'allah ta'ala anh) came to Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) regarding a dispute about land. It was said to him: Messenger of Allah, this man appropriated my land without justification in the days of ignorance.” Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) said to Imrul Qais (radia'allah ta'ala anh): “Have you evidence (to substantiate your claim)?” To which he said no he doesn’t then Prophet instructed the defendant to take a oath and said: “He who appropriated the land wrongfully would meet Allah in a state that He would be angry with him.” as well as recited the verse: “Verily those who barter Allah's covenant and their oaths at a small price.”

 

From the statement of Imrul Qais's statement: “In this case he (the defendant) would appropriate this (the property).” and the verse of Quran can we conclude that Rabi'a bin Iban (radia'allah ta'ala anh) was being revealed as one who sold his iman for sake of land? Or can we conclude that the verse of the Quran due to the context of the dispute regarding land in fact was revealed about land?

 

Answer for both is no, and no; because this recitation of the verse of Quran: “Behold, those who barter away their bond with God and their own pledges for a trifling gain – they shall not partake in the blessings of the life to come; and God will neither speak unto them nor look upon them on the Day of Resurrection, nor will He cleanse them of their sins; and grievous suffering awaits them.” [ref: Surah 3:77] was to remind the companion that Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) does not approve of those who sell their iman, piety for worldly gains: “Nor sell the covenant of Allah for a miserable price: for with Allah is (a prize) far better for you, if ye only knew.” [ref: Surah 16:95] And in no way the quotation of verse can be righteously be used to attack the any of the two pious companions.[12] And no the verse is not about land but its about Allah's (subhana wa ta'ala) covenant which he made the with people of the books and their selling covenant and oaths for small price means they alter the books, conceal, distort what was revealed in the earlier books for worldly gains.[13]

 

Point Two:

 

Three essential lessons to be learned from this, one, the guiding principle: “He who appropriated the land wrongfully would meet Allah in a state that He would be angry with him.” does have some relevance to the dispute of land but not absolute. Therefore there is no blame upon any of the companions of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam). Two, even though the verse does not indicate anything about land Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) quoted it to warn the believers of danger of usurping ones land unjustly. This establishes the principle that verse of Quran can be used out of its context if the language permits, such usage is permissible especially if it's about characteristics of man or about mankind generally. Lastly Allah's (subhana wa ta'ala) states that in the stories of past nations there are lessons, instructions of guidance: “There is, in their stories, instruction for men endued with understanding.” [ref: Surah 12:111] and we the Muslims have to be men of understanding to learn lessons and take instructions from the stories of companions which are recorded as ahadith. And the guiding principle is warning of what to stay away from, therefore it is according to Allah's (subhana wa ta'ala) statement: “Verily in this is an instructive warning for whosoever feareth (i.e. Allah).” [ref: Surah 79:26]

 

Conclusion:

 

In the light of discussion questions needs to be asked, should these guiding principles only be understood in the light of context of Hadith or can they be stripped from their context and applied generally? Answer, Sunnah of beloved RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) is to give guiding principles in context of a event or to give a guiding principle in historical context and then explain that guiding principle with examples. Therefore the guiding principles can be stripped from their historical context and be applied to life of Muslims where ever they maybe and who ever they maybe. Also note that these guiding principles were given in historical context because Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) sent revelation (which became hadith) on basis of the necessity and RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) guided the Muslims with rules/principles so Muslims judge according to what Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) has revealed and know the limits which His beloved Messengers (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) had set.

 

The Quran was revealed in specific context of Arabia, its religions, customs, but we do not restrict the understanding of it to only what what Quran and Sunnah explicitly establish. Rather we use Quran and Ahadith to meet the challenges of modern tribulations, and refute associating of partners with Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) may it be the Greek mythology or Chinese or Indian. And this can only be done if the verses of Quran are stripped from their historical context and used as guiding principles against these polytheistic creeds. The language of the Quran as well as statements of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) allow a broader interpretation. Therefore to restrict the meaning of a verse/statement (i.e. guiding principle) of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) to a specific context is dangerous. In fact so dangerous that it will eliminate the very basis of Ijtihad because the tribulations in modern times as well as religions which were not mentioned nor their beliefs discussed in Qur’an, their refutation depends on Ijtihadi evidence.[14]

 

On the basis of analysis of Sunnah of Messenger (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) we can conclude that he gave rules/guiding-principles in context of events which happened around him and this indeed is also Sunnah of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala).[15] Therefore Prophet's (sallalahu alyhi was'sallam) saying: “He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.” and his saying: And he who introduced some evil practice in Islam which had been followed subsequently (by others), he would be required to bear the burden like that of one who followed this (evil practice) without theirs being diminished in any respect." are to be understood as guiding principles given in specific context which have relevance to the historical event, as well as a guiding principles for Muslims in his time and those who come after the him and after the three generations.

 

Our deduction is also based on the fact that Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) has stated; stories in revelation are narrated so the ulil albab (i.e. men of understanding) learn lessons from them. Therefore the guiding principle: He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.” is valid source to perform ijtihad on to support the existence, the creation, of praiseworthy innovations in deen of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam). With certainty that one who innovates a ijtihadi praiseworthy innovation for him there is reward as well as equal reward for those who fallow his praise worthy innovation.

 

Wama alayna ilal balaghul mubeen.

Muhammed Ali Razavi

 

Footnotes:

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- [1] Reports like these are too numerous to list all: “... Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: He who died knowing (fully well) that there is no god but Allah entered Paradise.” [ref: Muslim, B1, H39] and “... the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) observed: he who as in his heart the weight of a mustard seed of pride shall not enter Paradise.” [ref: Muslim, B1, H166] Existence of such reports is also proof that Sahabah (alayhi ridwan) stripped such ahadith from their historical context to educate people.

 

- [2] We have been commanded to obey Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) and Messenger (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) and prohibited from falling into disputes: “And obey Allah and His Messenger, and do not dispute and [thus] lose courage and [then] your strength would depart; and ...” [ref: Surah 8:46] the reality is that we have fallen into disputes on all sorts of issues including religion and considering the nature of man Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) instructed the best course of action if we do fall into dispute: “O ye who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those charged with authority among you. If ye differ in anything among yourselves, refer it to Allah and His Messenger, if ye do believe in Allah and the Last Day: ...” [ref: Surah 4:59] Note in disputes we are only instructed to refer to Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) and RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam). We have to probe why did Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) not say refer to ulil amr (i.e. ones with authority)! Reason, It is entirely possible for the ulil amr to fall into dispute on a matter of deen, and we have plenty of evidence in ahadith to substantiate this. We are instructed to obey the ulil amr on matters which there is no dispute, and we are instructed to obey Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) as well as Messenger (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) in all matters disputed or in agreement. As a matter of principle we first seek guidance in Quran (i.e. Allah subhana wa ta'ala) if we fail to find evidence for a matter in Quran then we seek guidance from Sunnah (i.e. Prophet sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) because: “He who obeys the Messenger has obeyed Allah ; but those who turn away ...” [ref: Surah 4:80] Even then if we do not find guidance on a matter then we are permitted to practice Ijtihad (i.e. striving to achieve a objective independently) in light of Quran and Ahadith.

 

- [3] Wahhabis may be tempted by the shaytaan to say that reprehensible Sunnah of companions in the context of hadith was that they were reluctant to give sadqa. Explanation of their reluctance has to be understood in light of Prophet's (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) saying: “... Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) having said this: The most excellent Sadaqa or the best of Sadaqa is that after giving which the (giver) remains rich and the upper hand is better than the lower hand, and begin from the members of your household.” [ref: Bukhari, B5, H2254] Their reluctance was due to desire to practice sadqa in secret but when they saw signs of displeasure after Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) they realized that exhortation to give sadqa was for the poor Bedouins then they came forward until he was pleased. Therefore a cursed apostate Wahhabi would dare to accuse the companions of beloved Messenger (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) of introducing reprehensible Sunnah into religion of Islam.

 

- [4] “[such believers are] the repentant, the worshipers, the praisers [of Allah ], the travelers [for His cause], those who bow and prostrate [in prayer], those who enjoin what is right and forbid what is wrong, and those who observe the limits [set by] Allah. And give good tidings to the believers.” [ref: Surah 9:112]

 

- [5] Context of marriage and migration: 'The reward of deeds of migration as well as marriage depends upon the intentions, and every person will get the reward according to what he has intended.'

 

- [6] The cause of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala), the aim, objective of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) is to make Islam dominant over its adversaries: “It is He Who hath sent His Messenger with guidance and the Religion of Truth, to over-come it over all religion, even though the Pagans may detest (it).” [ref: Surah 9:33, Surah 48:28, Surah 61:9] and therefore who fights Jihad in the way of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) with right intention he fights for cause of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala).

 

- [7] The companions of beloved Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) would have killed him because this is the Sunnah of Sahabah for those who disrespect Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) and this is proven from: “... While we were with Allah's Apostle who was distributing (i.e. some property), there came Dhu-l-Khuwaisira, a man from the tribe of Bani Tamim and said, "O Allah's Apostle! Do Justice." The Prophet said, "Woe to you! Who could do justice if I did not? I would be a desperate loser if I did not do justice." 'Umar said, "O Allah's Apostle! Allow me to chop his head off." ...” [ref: Bukhari, B56, H807] in another hadith its reported: “Somebody who, I think was Khalid bin Al-Walid, requested the Prophet to let him chop that man's head off, but he prevented him.” [ref: Bukhari, B55, H558]

 

- [8] Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) has prohibited it raising of voice over the voice of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) and talking to him in a manner in which we talk among our selves: O ye who believe! Raise not your voices above the voice of the Prophet, nor speak aloud to him in talk, as ye may speak aloud to one another, lest your deeds become vain and ye perceive not.” [ref: Surah 49:2] Raising voice over the voice of another is disrespectful and one we talk freely to are often the ones we have no respect for. And also when people converse with each other they use derogatory nicknames or use words which show lack of respect, therefore common manners are prohibited for RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam). In another verse Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) has prohibited the believers: “O you who believe! do not say “Raina” and say “Unzurna” and listen, and for the unbelievers there is a painful chastisement.” [ref: Surah 2:104] 'Ra'ina' literally means 'listen to us' in Arabic, this word was used by companions to imply repeat what Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) said if they missed something. The Jews taking advantage of similarity of Hebrew and Arabic languages used to pronounce 'ra'ina' with twist of tonge: “Among the Jews are those who distort words from their [proper] usages and say … "Ra'ina," twisting their tongues and defaming the religion.” [ref: Surah 4:46] to make it sound like the Hebrew word which had derogatory meaning. On the basis of the Jews having malicious intentions Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) forbade the believers from using this word and instructed that companions use 'unzurna' (i.e. look at us). Beloved Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) was embodiment of Quran it could not be expected him to encourage evil (i.e. being rude to him) because Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) had prohibited it.

 

- [9] Period of ignorance technically implies 'period of ignorance of Islam and lived in kuffr/shirk', and in this hadith the term is used to mean period of kuffr/shirk before converting to Islam.

 

- [10] It is factually possible that among the Muslims in the time of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) there were people (i.e. munafiqeen) who practiced evil deeds even after converting to Islam and they will be punished for their sinful deeds of pre-conversion era and post conversion era. But it is impossible due to the nature of question because it reveals that one who has inquired is concerned about his deeds of pre-islamic era and a munafiq was/is never concerned about what he has done in past or is doing at the moment. And if a munafiq shows concern its only for sake of pride, salvaging prestige honor, and for fear of retribution. The Sahabah intended good for deen, and practiced good in deen and prohibited evil, abstained from evil, and were concerned about the evil deeds regardless of when they committed them due to fear of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala). The Munafiqeen had no interest in deen, their practice of deen (i.e. prayers etc ..) was simply a show and Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) said about them: “To the Hypocrites give the glad tidings that there is for them (but) a grievous penalty.” [ref: Surah 4:138] The penalty is explained in another verse: The Hypocrites will be in the lowest depths of the Fire: no helper wilt thou find for them.” [ref: Surah 4:145] Therefore if the Munafiqeen were asking about what the good/evil deeds Prophet of Allah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) would have quoted the verses and answered their question.

 

- [11] Defect in aqeeda regarding Sahabah (alayhi ridwan) because Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) has promised in the Quran to not to punish them but to grant then paradise: “The vanguard (of Islam) - the first of those who migrated (i.e. Muhajireen) and of those who gave them aid (i.e. Ansar), and (also) those who follow them in (all) good deeds,- well pleased is Allah with them, as are they with Him: for them hath He prepared gardens under which rivers flow, to dwell therein for ever: that is the supreme felicity.” [ref: Surah 9:100] To say that the guiding principle mentioned has absolute relevance to Sahabah is to argue that Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) frightened the Sahabah (radiallah ta'ala) about a matter which Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) had already decided and informed the Sahabah (radia'allah ta'ala anh) of paradise.

 

- [12] The reason anyone of these two companions can not be said to be under wrath of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) is simple because Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) has forgiven their mistakes, sins of all companions: “To those who believe and do deeds of righteousness hath Allah promised forgiveness and a great reward.” [ref: Surah 5:9] forgiveness for their sins and reward unconditionally which has Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) promised in this verse to Sahabah (alayhi ridwan): “... to all has Allah promised a goodly (reward). And Allah is well acquainted with all that ye do.” [ref: Surah 57:10] The promise of reward, and forgiveness of their sins/mistakes itself is proof that Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) did not give this principle for the two companions. One who ignorant of Quran and Sunnah may argue this was given in time when RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) did not know about what Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) will do with the companions so he could have intended it for them. Response, revelation received by Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) was of two types one which became Quran, and one which was Hadith. Allah (subhana a ta'ala) does not forget what He has instructed nor does he contradict Himself. Hence the understanding that this principle, in fact any principle which is given in context of where it points negatively to a companion has to be understood for the rest of Ummah which isn’t protected from misguidance. With this the harmony between wahi of Quran and wahi of Hadith is remains intact, and Allah's (subhana wa ta'ala) challenge of no contradiction in his guidance remains legitimately uncontested.

 

- [13] Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) has stated: “And, behold, there are indeed some among them who distort the Book with their tongues, so as to make you think that [what they say] is from the Book, the while it is not from the Book; and who say, "This is from God," the while it is not from God: and thus do they tell a lie about God, being well aware [that it is a lie]” [ref: Surah 3:78] about such people Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) says: “Behold, those who barter away their bond with God and their own pledges for a trifling gain – they shall not partake in the blessings of the life to come; and God will neither speak unto them nor look upon them on the Day of Resurrection, nor will He cleanse them of their sins; and grievous suffering awaits them.” [ref: Surah 3:77] in another verse Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) states about people of book: “Then woe to those who write the Book with their own hands, and then say:"This is from Allah," to traffic with it for miserable price!- Woe to them for what their hands do write, and for the gain they make thereby.” [ref: Surah 2:79]

 

- [14] Evidence which is not explicit but is implicit and based on analogy.

 

- [15] Allah's (subhana wa ta'ala) Sunnah is to send revelation when there is a justified cause for revelation. And that cause can be anything; someone attributing sons to Allah (subhana wa ta'ala), or attributing daughters to Allah (subhana wa ta'ala).

 

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