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MuhammedAli

Allah's Wa'ad, Wa'eed, Kizb In Light Of Qur’An & Sunnah.

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Introduction:

The belief of imqaan al kidhb was coined by Ismail ad'Dehalvi about 150 years ago in his book: Yaq Rozi. Since then this concept has been cause of division, dispute, between scholar of Ahle Sunnat and Ahlul Biddah (i.e. Deobandi's Hanbali Wahhabi's, Pakistani Wahhabi's). At present due to atmosphere to abandonment of learning of religious knowledge the common folk are unable to decide between the two parties and this short essay will shed some light on the basic, the fundamental aspects of the issue without which can not understand the ikhtilaf., and can not figure out the right from the wrong.

Part One: Meaning Of Terms.

Q1:
What is meaning of 'imqaan e kizb' linguistically?

In Urdu/Arabic 'imqaan' means 'possibility'[1] and 'kizb' means 'lie' therefore 'imqaan e kizb' means 'possibility of lie'.

Q2: What is meaning of 'khalf e wa'eed' linguistically?

Urdu 'khalf' from which the word 'khilaaf' is derived and both mean 'against'. 'Wa'eed' is a Arabic/Urdu word which means 'threat'[2], and based on this 'khalf e wa'eed' means 'against threat' or 'against the threat'.

Q3: What is meaning of 'khalf e wa'ad' linguistically?

'Wa'ad' is a Arabic word from which the Urdu word 'wa'adah' is derived and both mean 'promise', hence it means 'against promise' or 'against the promise'.

Part Two: Meanings In Relation To Allah (subhana wa ta'ala).

Q4:
What is meaning of 'imqaan e kizb' technically in relation to Allah (subhana wa ta'ala)?

It means that there is possibility that Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) may tell a lie.

Q5: What is meaning of 'khalf e wa'eed' technically in relation to Allah (subhana wa ta'ala)?

Allah's (subhana wa ta'ala) wa'eed (i.e. threat) is the promise of punishment of the munafiqeen and disbelievers in hellfire: “Allah hath promised the Hypocrites men and women, and the rejecters, of Faith, the fire of Hell: Therein shall they dwell: Sufficient is it for them: for them is the curse of Allah, and an enduring punishment.” [Ref: Surah 9:68] in another place Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) has stated: “Know they not that for those who oppose Allah and His Messenger, is the Fire of Hell?- wherein they shall dwell. That is the supreme disgrace.” [Ref: Surah 9:63] Therefore 'against the threat' would be Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) sending a disbeliever, or a munafiq to paradise by forgiving the kuffr as well as sins of a kuffaar and munafiqeen without their repentance from kuffr, without them doing good deeds.

Q6: What is meaning of 'khalf e wa'ad' technically in relation to Allah (subhana wa ta'ala)?

Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) has promised the believers of reward: “But give glad tidings to those who believe and work righteousness, that their portion is Gardens, beneath which rivers flow. Every time they are fed with fruits there from, they say: ...” [Ref: Surah 2:25] in another place Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) states: “As to those who believe and work righteousness, Allah will pay them (in full) their reward;...." [Ref: Surah 3:75] Hence the meaning of 'khalf e wa'ad' would be acting against what Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) has promised of the rewards to the pious believers and instead punishing them.

Part Three: Possibility of Kizb, Wa'ad, Wa'eed

Q7:
Is there 'imqaan' of 'khalf e wa'eed'?

Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) states: “Those who reject (Truth), among the People of the Book and among the Polytheists, will be in Hell-Fire, to dwell therein (for aye). They are the worst of creatures.” [Ref: Surah 98:6] in another verse Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) makes four promises: “To Him will be your return- of all of you. The promise of Allah is true and sure. It is He Who beginneth the process of creation, and repeateth it, that He may reward with justice those who believe and work righteousness; but those who reject Him will have draughts of boiling fluids, and a penalty grievous, because they did reject Him.” [Ref: Surah 10:4] One of them is the promise of fullfilling the threat of punishment and from this we can deduce that there is no imqaan of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) acting against his threat by sending the people of hell to paradise.

Q8: Is there 'imqaan' of 'khalf e wa'ad'?

Based on this verse of Qur’an: “... that which hath been revealed unto thee from thy Lord is the truth; but most men believe not.” [Ref: Surah 13:1] everything revealed in the Qur’an is truth hence there is no imqaan of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) doing against his promise of reward by sending people of paradise to hellfire. Which he made to righteous believers because He has stated: “But those who believe and do deeds of righteousness, We shall soon admit to Gardens, with rivers flowing beneath,- their eternal home: Therein shall they have companions pure and holy: We shall admit them to shades, cool and ever deepening.” [Ref: Surah 4:57] In another verse Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) states: “But those who believe and work righteousness,- no burden do We place on any soul, but that which it can bear,- they will be Companions of the Garden, therein to dwell (for ever).” [Ref: Surah 7:42]

Q9: Is there 'imqaan' of 'kizb?

There is no possibility (i.e. imqaan) of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) telling a lie because He is not Al Kazzab (i.e. the Liar) but He is al Haq (i.e. the Truth) and He only does according to His attributes. Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) states: “That is because Allah - He is the Haq; and those besides Him whom they invoke,- they are but vain Falsehood: ...” [Ref: Surah 22:62] Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) was al Haq from pre-eternity therefore there was no imqaan of His lying then, and there is no imqaan of His lying now.


Part Four: Happening Of Kizb, Wa'ad, Wa'eed.

Q10:
Is there possibility of 'wuqu' (i.e. happening) of 'kizb'?

Kizb is not qadeem and Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) is qadeem. What is qadeem is attribute of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala), and what is not attribute of Allah is Haadis, and creation can not be part of qadeem. Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) does according to His attributes, for Him to lie or have ability (i.e. Qudrah) to lie He must be al Kazzab (i.e. the Liar) from Qadeem. The opposite of kizb is Haq, and he was Al Haq from qadeem therefore He only is what he was from Qadeem (i.e. Al Haq) hence there is no possibility of happening of kizb, meaning there is no possibility of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) actually lying.

Q11: Is there possibility of 'wuqu' (i.e. happening) of 'khalf al wa'eed'?

There is no imqaan of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) actually, in reality, acting against his wa'eed (i.e. forgiving the Mushrikeen and sending them to paradise) because he has stated: “But those who reject (Allah) - for them will be the Fire of Hell: No term shall be determined for them, so they should die, nor shall its Penalty be lightened for them. Thus do We reward every ungrateful one!” [Ref: Surah 35:36] and in another verse: "Unless I proclaim what I receive from Allah and His Messages: for any that disobey Allah and His Messenger,- for them is Hell: they shall dwell therein for ever." [Ref: Surah 72:23] therefore the wuqu of khalf e wa'eed is not in imqaan.

Q12: Is there possibility of 'wuqu' (i.e. happening) of 'khalf al wa'ad'?

Nor there is imqaan of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) in reality acting against his wa'ad (i.e. punishing the pious by sending them to hellfire) because he has explicitly stated in Qur’an al kareem: “ (8) Verily those who believe and do righteous good deeds for them are Gardens of Delight. (9) To dwell therein. The promise of Allah is true: and He is Exalted in Power, Wise.” [Ref: Surah 31] and in another verse Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) informs the pious believers: “But it is for those who fear their Lord. That lofty mansions, one above another, have been built: beneath them flow rivers (of delight): (such is) the promise of Allah. never doth Allah fail in (His) promise.” [Ref: Surah 39:20] and about Sahabah (alayhi ridwan) Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) states: “Muhammad is the apostle of Allah. and those who are with him are strong against Unbelievers, (but) compassionate amongst each other. Thou wilt see them bow and prostrate themselves (in prayer), seeking Grace from Allah and (His) Good Pleasure. On their faces are their marks, (being) the traces of their prostration. ... Allah has promised those among them who believe and do righteous deeds forgiveness, and a great Reward.” [Ref: Surah 48:29] These verses of Qur’an lead to sound conclusion that there is no imqaan of wuqu of khalf e wa'ad.

Part Five: Power of Kizb, Wa'eed, Wa'ad.

Q13:
Does Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) have Qudrah (i.e. ability, power) of kizb?

- His asma (i.e. names) are described as: “The most beautiful names belong to Allah. so call on him by them; but ...” [Ref: Surah 7:180] in another verse: “Say: "Call upon Allah, or call upon Rahman: by whatever name ye call upon Him, (it is well): for to Him belong the Most Beautiful Names. Neither ...” [Ref: Surah 17:110] and in another verses: “Allah, there is no god but He! To Him belong the most Beautiful Names.” [Ref: Surah 20:8] “He is Allah, the Creator, the Evolver, the Bestower of Forms (or Colours). To Him belong the Most Beautiful Names: ...”

- His names known/unknown are beautiful none of them is ugly, defective, degrading therefore he does not posses asma which are not alhusna (i.e. beautiful, elegant, noble, perfect) without possessing the attributes of defect (i.e. al Kadhab, al kadhib), defect (i.e. lying) is not possible for Him. Just as without material hand slap isn't possible for Allah (subhana wa ta'ala), without sexual organ isn't possible for Allah (subhana wa ta'ala), without eyes of creation seeing with sight of creation isn't possible for Allah (subhana wa ta'ala), without having defect attribute (i.e. the Liar), lying isn't possible for Allah (subhana wa ta'ala). In short the possibility (i.e. imqaan) can only be when there is ability/power (i.e. Qudrah), and His ability is according to His attributes and his Dhaat. His attributes are elegant, beautiful, perfect, hence His having of power/ability of al Kadhaab, al Khadib, is impossible.

Q14: Does Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) have Qudrah (i.e. ability, power) of khalf e wa'eed?

- Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) says: “And your Allah is One Allah. There is no god but He, Most Gracious, Most Merciful (i.e. ar'Raheem).” [Ref: Surah 2:163] in another verse Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) says Qur’an is: “A Revelation from Most Gracious, Most Merciful (i.e. ar'Raheem).” [Ref: Surah 41:2] Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) has ability/power to do against His threat of punishment, in other words forgive the people of fire and send them to paradise but imqaan (i.e. possibility) of this happening is nil because He has declared it so, therefore to believe in imqaan of it is disbelief because it amounts to rejection of Qur'anic ayaat.

- Also note forgiving of the faults of pious believers is connected to mercy of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) and Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) has promised to the momineen, the pious believers who commit sins and then seek forgiveness for them there is forgiveness: “To those who believe and do deeds of righteousness hath Allah promised forgiveness and a great reward.” [Ref: Surah 5:9] in another verse: “The Evil one threatens you with poverty and bids you to conduct unseemly. Allah promiseth you His forgiveness and bounties. And Allah careth for all and He knoweth all things.” [Ref: Surah 2:268] Fallowing Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) is means to gaining mercy of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) only then: “... Allah will love you and forgive you your sins: For Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful." [Ref: Surah 3:31][3] His forgiveness is His Mercy, His granting of paradise is His mercy.

Q15: Does Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) have Qudrah (i.e. ability, power) of khalf e wa'ad?

- Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) has ability/power to act against his promise of reward, in other words send the ahlul jannah (i.e. people of paradise) to fire of hell because this is related to His Justice (i.e. al Adl, al A'adil) but Imqaan of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) enacting against His promise of reward is non-existent. His Justice is according to the verse that whosoever opposes with actions/belief: “... Allah and His Messenger, the Fire of Hell is wherein they shall dwell. That is the supreme disgrace.” [Ref: Surah 9:63] “The word of thy Lord doth find its fulfillment in truth and in justice: None can change His words: …” [Ref: Surah 6:115].

- The heretic[4] argued: 'Sahabah (alayhi ridwan) did not do as Prophet of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) instructed and opposed his instructions.[5] These are disobedience which are ghair-Shar'aee in one aspect and can be justified reasons for Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) doing against His promise of paradise for companions of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam). And this is justification for Allah's (subhana wa ta'ala) imqaan e khalf e wa'ad, because there is reason and there is His Qudrah. Due to His Mercy He will forgive such acts of disobedience which were commited with pious intentions of adab (i.e. respect) and deep hub (i.e. love) for Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) which these companions had for RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam).'[6]

- And response is: Honoring of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) is instructed: “... So it is those who believe in him, honor him, help him, and follow the light which is sent down with him,- it is they who will prosper." [Ref: Surah 7:157] The forgiveness for these companions of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) is His mercy, and it was earned by honoring of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) because of His saying: “But those who believe and do deeds of righteousness, - We shall soon admit them to gardens, with rivers flowing beneath, to dwell therein for ever. Allah's promise is the Truth, and whose word can be truer than Allah's?” [Ref: Surah 4:122] and the deed of honoring Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) was righteousness in sight of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala). This declaration: “... Not equal among you are those who spent (freely) and fought, before the Victory, (with those who did so later). Those are higher in rank than those who spent (freely) and fought afterwards. But to all has Allah promised a goodly (reward). And Allah is well acquainted with all that ye do. [Ref: Surah 57:10] Therefore one can not argue that there is imqaan (i.e. possibility) of Khalf e Wa'ad (i.e. sending of these two companions to hellfire) because their forgiveness is promise of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala). To remove all doubts Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) had informed Hadhrat Abu Bakr as'Sadeeq (radiallah ta'ala anh), as well as Hadhrat Ali (radiallah ta'ala anh) of paradise in their life times: “... The Prophet said to me, "Open the gate for him and give him the glad tidings that he will enter paradise." I opened (the gate) for him, and behold! It was Abu Bakr. I informed him of the glad tidings the Prophet had said, and he praised Allah.” [Ref: Bukhari, B57, H42] in another hadith: “The Prophet (peace_be_upon_him) will go to Paradise, Abu Bakr will go to Paradise, Umar will go to Paradise, Uthman will go to Paradise, Ali will go to Paradise, ...” [Ref: S.Dawud, B40, H4632] and Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) has declared in Qur’an: “He does not speak out of his own desire. It is naught but revelation that is revealed.” [Ref: Surah 5:4-5] Therefore there is no imqaan of khalf e 'wa'ad because Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) has already promised them two paradise in life and Messenger of Allah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) who only speaks what Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) instructs him has affirmed it.

Conclusion:

Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) has explicitly stated that He will punish the munafiqeen and kuffar in hellfire. And reward those who believe as well as act righteously (i.e. act according to Qur’an Sunnah). Even after the emphatic declarations in the Qur’an one believes in wuqu of khalf e wa'eed/wa'ad as well as imqaan of khalf e wa'eed/wa'ad or believes in imqaan of kizb or wuqu of kizb after the revelation of Qur’an has been explained to him such a person has commited disbelief. He has left Islam for abyss of kuffr. A state which judges according to Allah's revelation as well as Prophet's Sunnah is bound by Law to arrest him and if he refuses hujjah then execute him.

Wama alayna ilal balaghul mubeen.
Muhammed Ali Razavi
=================

Footnotes:
========


- [1] Some people due to ignorance assume it means ability, power, (i.e. Qudra)

- [2] Due to threat being a type of warning some of the intellectual class have wispered it means 'Warning' (i.e. Arabic Tahzeer).

- [3] Note that Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) forgiving the pious believers is not proof of khalf e wa'eed because the forgiveness was promised to them. Khalf e wa'eed would be only proven if the pious believers were also threatened with punishment for their sins and we know Allah had promised the pious believers forgiveness. Hence this is not khalf e wa'eed but it is fulfilling of promise which Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) had promised them in Qur’an.

- [4] I am not familiar with anyone else linking this point with belief that there is possibility of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) lying. Singular 'heretic' is reference to myself when I was from amongst the heretics and this was one reason I supported the belief of 'imqaan e kizb' with regards to Allah (subhana wa ta'ala), but Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) guided me.

- [5] Hadhrat Abu Bakr as'Sadeeq (radiallah ta'ala anh) disobeyed direct order of Prophet when he was leading the prayers: “… but when Abu Bakr observed that the clapping was not coming to an end, he looked and saw the Prophet standing behind him. The Prophet beckoned him to carry on by waving his hand. Abu Bakr stood there for a while, thanking Allah for the saying of the Prophet and then he retreated, taking his steps backwards. When the Prophet saw that, he went ahead and led the people in prayer. ...” [Ref: Bukhari, B89, H300] This is against what Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) instructed in the Qur’an; obey Allah, the Messenger. Hadhrat Ali (radiallah ta'ala anh) refused to omit: “... Muhammedur rasoolullah.” from the treaty of Hudaibiyah: “... Ali bin Abu Talib wrote the document and he mentioned in it, "Muhammad, Allah's Apostle ." The pagans said, "Don't write: 'Muhammad, Allah's Apostle', for if you were an apostle we would not fight with you." Allah's Apostle asked Ali to rub it out, but Ali said, "I will not be the person to rub it out." Allah's Apostle rubbed it out and made peace with them ...” [Ref: Bukhari, B49, H862]

- [6] If Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) wills, khadim will write why these two actions of companions arn't disobedience in reality but enactment of Allah's (subhana wa ta'ala) will. So the neo-Kharijites can not attack Hadhrat Ali (radiallah ta'ala anh) and the ugly Rawafiz can not attack Hadhrat Abu Bakr as'Sadeeq (radiallah ta'ala anh).

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