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MuhammedAli

Studying Phrase Of Hadith; O Lord My Companions! It Will Be Said: They Introduced New Things Into Religion After You.

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Introduction:

Rawafiz have employed the of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) to alledge the companions of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) created innovations into deen and therefore they will be turned away from the fount of al Kauthar. Consiquently as a result they will be taken to hellfire. Position of Ahle Sunnat is; the ahadith employed by Rawafiz are taken out of the context to defame and slander the pious companions of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam). Praiseworthy innovations/practices introduced into deen by companions are reward worthy as stated by Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam). The companions of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) will enter paradise as promised by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala).

Shia Allegation In Perspective Of Evidence:

Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) stated: “There will come to me some people whom I know and they know me, and then a barrier will be set up between me and them." Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) continued: "I will say those people are from me.” In response to Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) will say: “You do not know what changes and new things they did after you.” [Ref: Bukhari, B88, H174] Another version of the hadith narrates the words of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam): “… and some men amongst you will be brought to me, and when I will try to hand them some water, they will be pulled away from me by force whereupon I will say, 'O Lord, my companions! In response to which Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) will say: “You do not know what they did after you left, they introduced new things into the religion after you.”  [Ref: Bukhari, B88, H173] Based on the use of ‘ashabi’ the Rawafiz Shia argue that companions of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) were lead astray and on the day of judgment Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) will disown them due to their misguidance. Generally all the companions are target of Rawafiz but in particular Hadhrat Abu Bakr as-Sadeeq (radiallah ta’ala anhu), Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu), Hadhrat Usman (radiallah ta’ala anhu), Hadhrat Aysha (radiallah ta’ala anha), Hadhrat Hafsa (radiallah ta’ala anha), and Hadhrat Amir Muawiyah (radiallah ta’ala anhu) are target of Rawafiz Shia.

Method Of Resolving The Conflict:

To refute the allegation against the companions it is important to explain linguistic and shar’rai definition of  Sahabi. Point out how a word maybe used in everday use and how the meaning of word can change in different contexts. This will be followed by explaination of the ahadith in context of statements of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) where these words are clearly connected with heretics and apostates who emerged after the death of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam). The first of apostate groups which emerged after the death of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) was of Musailmah bin Kazzab followed by Khawarij and thereafter heretical groups continued to appear until present. Very briefly the type of innovations which which are reprehensible and the type which are praiseworthy will be adressed. To point out that those who introduced reprehensible innovations into Islam will be disowned and those who introduced praiseworthy innovations will be rewarded.  And when all the pieces are in place then the proper explaination of the word Ashabi will be given which will fit the context of the all availabe ahadith on this subject. Then piety, righteous, position of companions of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was’sallam) will be established in the light of Quran.

Understanding Of Word Sahabi:

The word Sahabi is used in two meanings; linguistical and shar’raee. In linguistical meaning it means a companion, associate. In terms of Shar’ria the word Sahabi means a associate, a companion of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) who has met Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) in his life time. And believed in the message of Quran as a pious Muslim should believe and acted on injunctions of Quran as a pious Muslim should act.

Usage Of Words:

In formal English the word bad could mean evil, obcene, sinful, poor, unpleasent,  but informal use the word means good, and great. The word hand in English, yad in Arabic means a part of body consisting of four fingers, a thumb, palm, all comprimising of bones, muscles, blood vessels, nails, sensory nerves etc. Same word has been used for Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) in Quran. Do we assume the same meaning for the yad of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) as we attribute it for our self or do we follow clear verses of Quran and take the safe path by make taweel or take the safest path by practicing tafweed? The word Rabb is used for Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) in formal/Shar’rai use but in linguistic sense the word rabb has been used for a king by Prophet Yusuf (alayhis salam)[1]: “And he said to the one whom he knew to be saved: "Mention me to your lord (i.e. rabbi)." But Shaitan (Satan) made him forget to mention it to his lord (rabbi). So stayed in prison a few (more) years.” [Ref: 12:42] Suppose a Aalim states; by law we have to perform abolution before performing Salah otherwise the Salah is to be repeated with abolution. Here the word law has been used to mean Islamic law and not law of the resident country. Now a police officer in Scotland Yard states; it is essential that all criminals are prosecuted and convicted acording to the guidelines set by law. Here the word law will be understood to mean British law and not Islamic law. Point is words are not always used in same meanings. Sometimes the word maybe same but the meaning has to be determined depending on for whom the word is used, by whom it was used, and in what context it was used. All these factors contribute to correct understanding of commonly used words.

The Ashab Will Be Apostates:

At lake fount a group of people will approach Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) and Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) will attempt to hand them water to drink. They will be pushed away from Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) toward the left side.[2] On this Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) will remonstrate with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala): “O Lord, my companions!”Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) will reply: “You do not know what they did after you left, they introduced new things into the religion after you.”  [Ref: Bukhari, B88, H173] Then Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) will go on to say in humility and glorification of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) the words of Prophet Isa (alayhis salam) : “And I was a witness over them while I dwelt amongst them; when You did take me up, You were the Watcher over them, and You are a witness to all things. If You punish them, they are Your slaves, and if you forgive them, You, only You are the All-Mighty the All-Wise.” [Ref: Bukhari, B55, H656] “Then it will be said that those people (relegated from Islam, that is) kept on turning on their heels (deserted Islam).” [Ref: Bukhari, B76, H533] “They renegade from Islam after you left them.” [Ref: Bukhari, B55, H568] Another hadith explains who Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) remonstrated for: "Those were the apostates who renegade from Islam during the Caliphate of Abu Bakr who fought them.” [Ref: Bukhari, B55, H656] Upon realizing that it was the apostates Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) will say to these people: “Far removed (from mercy), far removed (from mercy), those who changed  after me!" [Ref: Bukhari, B88, H174]

Apostates After Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam):

Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) was making dua: "O Allah! Bestow Your blessings on our Sham! O Allah! Bestow Your blessings on our Yemen." People of Najd said: "And also on our Najd."  Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) ignored their request to make dua for Najd and repeated again: "O Allah! Bestow Your blessings on our Sham (north)! O Allah! Bestow Your blessings on our Yemen." This time again someone requested dua to be made for Najd: "O Allah's Apostle! And also on our Najd." Narrator thinks it was third time when Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) said: "There (in Najd) is the place of earthquakes and afflictions and from there comes out the side of the group of Satan." [Ref: Bukhari, Book 88, Number 214] Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) pointing toward Najd the direction of sunrise said:“The Prophet stood up beside the pulpit  and said, "Afflictions are there! Afflictions are there, from the side where group of Satan will come out," or said, "..the side of the sun.." [Ref: Bukhari, B88, H212] Rises from East and the hadith means group of Shaytaan (i.e. Khawarij) will emerge from the East of Madinah ash-Sharif. This deduction is confirmed in another hadith:“I heard Allah's Apostle while he was facing the East, saying, "Verily! Afflictions are there, from the side where group of Satan will come out." [Ref: Bukhari, B88, H213] In light of the evidence it can be said that the doctrinal breeding ground for Khawarij was Najd.[3] Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) said:  "The main source of disbelief is in the east. Pride and arrogance are characteristics of the owners of horses and camels..." [Ref: Bukhari, B54, H520] Another version of the hadith records: "Faith is Yemeni and disbelief is from the direction of the east. Tranquility is for the people of sheep, …” [Ref: Tirmadhi, B7, H2243] “The summit of unbelief is towards the East and the pride and conceitedness is found among the owners of horses and camels who are rude and uncivil ,...” [Ref: Muslim, B1, H87] The apostasy of Khawarij is affirmed explicitly in a hadith: "(The Khawarij) are the worst of the slain who are killed under heaven, and the best of the slain are those who were killed by them. Those (Khawarij) are the dogs of Hell. Those people were Muslims but they became disbelievers." I said: "O Abu Umamah, is that your opinion?" He said: "Rather I heard it from the Messenger of Allah." [Ref: Ibn Majah, B1, H176] Even before Khawarij another  group of people had become apostates. They emerged from Saudi central region of Najd and to be precise hisotrical Al Yamama. Musailmah Al Kadhab[4] claimed to be Messenger of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) in the Khilafat of Hadhrat Abu Bakr as-Sadiq (radiallah ta’ala anhu). Musailmah was killed along with his followers: "The battle of Bir Ma'una took place during the lifetime of Allah's Apostle and the battle of Al-yamama, during the caliphate of Abu Bakr, and it was the day when Musailamah Al-Kadhdhab was killed." [Ref: Bukhari, B59, H405] In this period many wars in Arabian Peninsula were waged to subjugate apostate tribes.

The Ashab Will Be Inventors Of Reprehensible Innovations:

Statements of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) by their nature are short but express wide meanings. When the people aproach the al Kauthar will be pushed away Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) will say: “My companions!” In response to this it will be said: “You do not know what they innovated (new things) in the religion after you." [Ref: Bukhari, B76, H584] “You don't know what innovations they made after you?” [Ref: Muslim, B30, H5690] Note the words indicate; those who will be pushed away from al Kauthar will be inventors of innovations, the creators of innovations, the leaders of people of innovation: “You don't know what innovations they made after you?” [Ref: Muslim, B30, H5686] Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) foretold details about the leaders of tribulation: “I swear by Allah, I do not know whether my companions have forgotten or have pretended to forgot. I swear by Allah that the Apostle of Allah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) did not omit a leader of a wrong belief (fitnah)--up to the end of the world--whose followers reach the number of three hundred and upwards but he mentioned to us his name, his father's name and the name of his tribe.” [Ref: Abu Dawood, B35, H4231] When these leaders of tribulation reach lake al Kauthar the angles will push them toward the left side of al Kauthar to take them to hellfire.

Reprehensible Innovation Takes To Hellfire:

Hadith mentions: “He added, "The first to be dressed on the Day of Resurrection, will be Abraham, and  some of my companions will be taken towards the left side, and I will say: 'My companions! My companions!' It will be said:…” [Ref: Bukhari, B55, H568] Those pushed toward the left side are being taken toward the fire of hell for their apostasy and kufri innovations: “You do not know what they did after you left, they introduced new things into the religion after you.”  [Ref: Bukhari, B88, H173] Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) said about innovations: “The worst of things are those that are newly invented; every newly-invented thing is an innovation and every innovation is misguidance and every misguidance leads to the fire. Then he said …” [Ref: Nisai, Chap 22, H1579] In another hadith Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) said: “And He who introduced some evil practice in Islam which had been followed subsequently (by others), he would be required to bear the burden like that of one who followed this (evil practice) without theirs being diminished in any respect.” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] The result of innovation will be hellfire for the one who innovates it and those who follow the innovation. Those who follow the innovation, their sin will also be added to the burden of who invetned the innovation.

We have acertained the innovators will be guilty of innovations which will take them into hellfire. It is essential to establish which type of innovations will be taking them to hellfire. Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam):“He who did any act for which there is no sanction from our behalf, that is to be rejected.” [Ref: Muslim, B18, H4267] In another hadith it is recorded: “He who innovates things in our affairs for which there is no valid (reason) and these are to be rejected.” [Ref: Muslim, B18, H4266] "If somebody innovates something which is not in harmony with the principles of our religion, that thing is rejected." [Ref: Bukhari B49, H861] Another hadith records the words of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam): "That indeed whoever revives a Sunnah from my Sunnah which has died after me, then for him is a reward similar to whoever acts upon it without diminishing anything from their rewards. And whoever introduces an erroneous innovation which Allah is not pleased with, nor His Messenger, then he shall receive sins similar to whoever acts upon it, without that diminishing anything from the sins of the people.” [Ref: Tirmadhi, Book 39, Hadith 2677] Innovations which are without sanction, without a just reason, which contradiction the principles of Islam and innovations which do not please Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and RasoolAllah (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) are rejected type of innovations.  And those who create such type of innovations as well as those who follow such innovations they are misguided and they will be in hellfire.

The The Bedouins & The Companions:

The bedouin Arabs who apostasized after the death of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) were not companions in Shar’rai terms. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) states about them: “And among the bedouins around you some are hypocrites, and so are some among the people of Al-Madinah who persist in hypocrisy; you know them not, We know them.” [Ref: 9:101] These bedouins are refered as munafiqeen which implies they outwardly professed to be Muslims either due to fear or due to gaining material wealth. Another verse of the Quran states that bedouin Arabs think of their spending in the way of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) as a fine: “And of the bedouins there are some who look upon what they spend (in Allah's Cause) as a fine and watch for calamities for you, on them be the calamity of evil. And Allah is All-Hearer, All-Knower.” [Ref: 9:98] It was these bedouins who refused to pay Zakat to Hadhrat Abu Bakr as-Sadiq and sided with Musailmah bin Kazzab in their apostasy believing in his false Messengership. Also these bedouins refused to fight in wars against the polytheists of Makkah: “And those who made excuses from the bedouins came asking your permission to exempt them (from the battle), and those who had lied to Allah and His Messenger sat at home (without asking the permission for it); a painful torment will seize those of them who disbelieve.” [Ref: 9:90] These bedouins were the ones who disbelieved in Prophet-hood of Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) and believed in Musailmah bin Kazzab as their Prophet. Therefore these bedouins Arabs who did not follow the injunctions of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) did not spend in the way of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) nor fought in the way of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) nor believed in the Prophet-hood of beloved Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) as they should have cannot be legitimately be termed as companions in shar’rai understanding. In contrast to these bedouin Arabs, Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) defines the who pious believers are: “Those who believe, and adopt exile, and fight for the Faith, in the cause of Allah as well as those who give asylum and aid,- these are truthful  believers (i.e. mominoon): for them is the forgiveness of sins and a provision most generous.” [Ref: 8:74] Further criteria has to be fullfilled to be a pious believer:“The pious believers are only those who, when Allah is mentioned, their hearts become fearful, and when His verses are recited to them, it increases them in faith; and upon their Lord they rely - The ones who establish prayer, and from what We have provided them, they spend. Those are the pious believers, truly. For them are degrees [of high position] with their Lord and forgiveness and noble provision.” [Ref: 8:2/4] Companions of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) fullfill these conditions for this reason Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has declared about them: “You are the best of Ummah evolved for mankind, enjoining what is right, forbidding what is wrong, and believing in Allah.” [Ref: 3:110] All individuals whom Ahle Sunnat consider to be companions in shar’rai terms were either Muhajiroon, Ansar, they fought and spent their wealth in the way of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala).

Summation Of Evidence:

The hadith states that reason for the people to be pushed away from the al Kauthar will be apostasy and their innovations. Innovation which takes to hellfire is reprehensible innovation and it is to be prohibited because it is amr munkir. Musailmah bin Kazzab and the Khawarij were Muslims in life time of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) but after the death of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) they became apostates.[5] It was these bedouins whom Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) reffered as “My companions!” In addition it is evident from hadith that whom the angles will push away from al Kauthar will be creators of innovations. Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) foretold the names of these people, their fathers names, their tribes names. So if these people were residents of Madinah as-Shareef they would be recognised in advance by companions of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam). Companions of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) are described as best of Ummah because they enjoin good and forbid munkir: “You are the best of Ummah evolved for mankind, enjoining what is right, forbidding what is wrong, and believing in Allah.” [Ref: 3:110] Reprehensible innovations which take to hellfire are amr munkir. It does not befit the status of Ummah khaira (i.e. best Ummah) to introduce reprehensible innovations, rather they introduced praiseworthy Sunnan into Islam for which there is reward.[6] Therefore to accuse companions of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) of reprehensible innovation is to disbelieve in the Quranic verse which is declaring them as Ummah khaira and this rejection is clear kufr.

Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) in his life time knew the apostates and leaders of apostates. He foretold details regarding them and he will recognise these people, these people will recognise him on the day of judgment: "There will come to me some people whom I will recognize,and they will recognize me, but a barrier will be placed between me and them." [Ref: Bukhari, B76, H585] Therefore he will not mistake them for his companions nor he was unaware of their apostasy but his mercy will over power and as a result he will remonstrate that these people are his companions. Upon being reminded who these people are Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) will regain his composure and then Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) will say: “Far removed (from mercy), far removed (from mercy), those who changed  after me!" [Ref: Bukhari, B88, H174] From the established evidence it has become clear that the words: “My companions!” were used for those apostates who were Muslim when Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) was alive but became apostates after his death. Therefore the words: “My companions!”, were used in linguistic sense and not in shar’rai sense. Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) used the word Sahabi for Abdullah bin Ubai bin Salul. He was the chief of hypocrites in Madinah and when Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) sought permission to kill him Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) refused to give permission by saying: "(No), lest the people should say that Muhammad used to kill his companions." [Ref: Bukhari, B56, H720]

Wama alayna ilal balaghul mubeen.
Muhammed Ali Razavi

Footnotes:

- [1] There maybe someone insane enough to imply the formal/Shar’rai usage of rabb and go on to accuse Prophet Yusuf (alayhis salam) of associating a human as a partner with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) just as the Rawafiz are insane enough to misconstrue the ahadith to attack companions of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam). In context of usage of rabb we will argue that the usage is in linguistic sense not like it has been used in Quran for Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala).

- [2] “He added, "The first to be dressed on the Day of Resurrection, will be Abraham, and  some of my companions will be taken towards the left side, and I will say: 'My companions! My companions!' It will be said: 'They renegade from Islam after you left them.” [Ref: Bukhari, B55, H568] They will be taken toward the left hand side. Quran states those who have disbelieved the verses of Quran are on the left hand side: “But those who disbelieved in Our verse they are those on the Left Hand.” [Ref: 90:19] The very next verses states: “The Fire will be shut over them.” [Ref: 90:20] This indicates the hellfire will be on the left side and the people whom the angles will push away will be taken toward fire of hell.

- [3] Via missionary activity they spread their doctrines far and wide in Arabian Peninsula. They assembled in Iraq to fight Hadhrat Ali (radiallah ta’ala anhu) from all over Arabian peninsula.

- [4] The addition of al Kadhab (i.e. the Liar) is made with his name because Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) said: The Last Hour would not come until there would arise about thirty impostors, liars, and each one of them would claim that he is a messenger of Allah.” [Ref: Muslim, B41, H6988]

- [5] The following two verses are about the bedouin Arabs of Najd and these bedouins apostasised from Islam after the death of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) and supported Musailmah bin Kazzab as well as the Khawarij: “The bedouins are the worst in disbelief and hypocrisy, and more likely to be in ignorance of the limits (Allah's Commandments and His Laws) which Allah has revealed to His Messenger. And Allah is All-Knower, All-Wise.” [Ref: 9:97] In another verse Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) informs about the state of emaan of bedouin Arabs: “The bedouins say: "We believe." Say: "You believe not but you only say, 'We have surrendered (in Islam),' for Faith has not yet entered your hearts. But if you obey Allah and His Messenger He will not decrease anything in reward for your deeds. Verily, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful." [Ref: 49:14]

- [6] Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) said: “The servant does not introduce good practice which is followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6468] Another narration in Sahih of Imam Muslim states the same as previous hadith: “He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.”  [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466]

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