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MuhammedAli

Critical Analysis Of First Principle Of Qawaid Al Arba.

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Introduction:

In Kitab at-Tawheed Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab argued; Muslims [of Arabian Peninsula] have fallen into major Shirk [for one or another reason] as a result killing and taking their property is lawful according to Islam. The main objective of this booklet titled Qawaid Al Arba[1] was to serve as an apologetic response to Ulamah of Ahle Sunnat who had refuted his teachings presented in Kitab at-Tawheed. In this small booklet Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab explains the concise justification of takfir as well as murder of Muslims. This booklet is studied by his followers along side Kitab at-Tawheed to properly understand Wahhabi methodology. The principles taught in this booklet are employed to make takfir of Muslims, to defend the takfir of Muslims and to justify killing of Muslims. The vast majority of terrorist activity in Muslim lands; such has bombing of mosques, schools, busses, markets, beheadings of Muslims, is carried out by Wahhabi’s.[2] Under the pretext that those being targeted are not Muslims but polytheists.[3] Considering the importance of this short booklet among Wahhabi circles and the purpose it serves. I believe it is essential that contents of this booklet are refuted comprehensively.

Muhammad Bin Abdul Wahhab’s First Principle:

“That you know the Kuffaar who the Messenger fought used to affirm that Allah Ta’aala, was the Creator and the Disposer of all the affairs[4]but that didn’t enter them into Islam and the proof is the saying of the Most High: ”Say: Who provides for you from the sky and from the earth? Or who owns hearing and sight? And Who brings out the living from the dead and brings out the dead from the living? They will say: “Allah”. Say: Will you not then be afraid of Allah’s punishment (i.e.-for setting up partners with Allah)?” (10:31)

Unravelling The First Principle:

Polytheists believed in Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) as a supreme God under whose authority are all other gods.[5] The verse of Quran employed by Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab builds on this belief of Polytheists because Polytheists believed Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) provides from the sky and earth. They also believed Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) owns the ability of hearing and seeing. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) brings out the living from the dead and the dead from the living. On basis of this Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab argued Polytheists believed Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) to be the Creator and the Disposer of all affairs. Question is; is this belief of Polytheists enough to conclude on their behalf that they believed in Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala)? In order to answer this question correctly, first step would be to answer the following question; did the Polytheists only took Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) as the Creator and the Disposer of affairs of creation or did they attribute certain powers to their gods as well? If they did attribute certain powers to their idol-gods then what does this imply? Then the verse which Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab quoted will be explained in the context of Quran. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) asked these questions and noted their answers because to initiate a dialogue with the Polytheists. The objective of this dialogue was to lead the reader to conclusion that idols have no ability and there is no justifiable reason to believe in them as gods or to worship them as such.[6] Therefore the Polytheists should believe in the One, the Only God and worship Him. In other words the correct interpretation will establish the main objective of these questions was to lead the polytheists into believing in Oneness of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). With the correct understanding of the verse the notion; polytheists believed in Oneness of Lordship’ will be refuted. [To fully understand the last point please  also refer to footnote 10, Part Two]

Part One – A: Polytheists Believed Their Gods Have Authority In Affairs Of Creation:

Polytheists believed in their gods having the ability to grant sustenance and sought sustenance from them. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) therefore prohibited them from invoking their gods for sustenance: “For you worship Idols besides Allah, and ye invent falsehood. The things that ye worship besides Allah (i.e. mindu'nillah) have no power to give you sustenance: …” Then urged them to seek sustenance from Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala): “… then seek ye sustenance from Allah, serve Him and be grateful to Him: to Him will be your return." [Ref: 29:17] Polytheists also believed their idol gods provide sustenance but they are dependent upon Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). In this context Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) questions them, implying a slave is not equal to the Master: “He sets forth for you a parable from your own-selves: Do you have partners among those whom your right hands possess (i.e. your slaves) to share as equals in the wealth? We have bestowed on you whom you fear as you fear each other? Thus do We explain the signs in detail to a people who have sense.” [Ref: 30:28] Implication is that, Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) who grants freely without restriction is better then the idol-gods who polytheists believe to be dependent and restricted to grant by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). In commentary of verse; “O mankind! Remember the Grace of Allah upon you! Is there any Creator other than Allah who provides for you from the sky (rain) and the earth? There is no God except He. How then are you turning away (from Him)?” [Ref: 35:3] Ibn Abbas (radiallah ta’ala anhu) has indicated the false belief of Polytheists; idol-gods provide sustenance: “(O mankind) O people of Mecca! (Remember Allah's grace towards you) in the form of rain, provision and well-being! (Is there any creator) any god (other than Allah who provideth for you from the sky) rain (and the earth) vegetation? (There is no God save Him) who provides you. (Whither then are ye turned) from whence do you lie and claim that your deities provide for you?”[7] [Ref: Tafsir Ibn Abbas, 35:3] Polytheists believed their gods possessed the ability to harm/punish those who revile or displease them and it was due to this particular belief the Polytheists tried to frightened Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) of their gods punishing him. In response to their attempt Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) revealed the following verse: “Is not Allah enough for his Servant? But they try to frighten thee with other (gods) besides Him! for such as Allah leaves to stray, there can be no guide.” [Ref: 39:36] Another verse quotes the words of Polytheists which they said to Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam): "We say nothing but that (perhaps) some of our gods may have seized thee with imbecility. “He said: "I call Allah to witness, and do ye bear witness, that I am free from the sin of ascribing, to Him." [Ref: 11:54] From this we gather that Polytheists believed in ability to inflict harm upon those who displease their gods. Polytheists believed their gods grant honor, power, glory: “And they have taken gods besides Allah that they might give them honor, power and glory.” [Ref: 19:81] All of these points establish that Polytheists believed their gods had some part to play in Rububiyyah of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala).

Part One – B: Polytheists Did Not Truly Believe In Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala):

Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) instructs the believers to not to abuse the idol-gods of Polytheists incase they resort to abusing Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala): “Revile not those unto whom they pray beside Allah lest they wrongfully revile Allah through ignorance. Thus unto every nation have We made their deed seem fair. Then unto their Lord is their return, and He will tell them what they used to do.” [Ref: 6:108] This begs the question, if Polytheists really believed in Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) would they abuse in their own? Common sense states if Polytheists believed in Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) truly and sincerely they would not resort to abusing Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) states that Polytheists disbelieved in ar-Rahman: “Thus have We sent you to a community before which [other] communities have passed on so you might recite to them that which We revealed to you, while they disbelieve in the Most Merciful.[8] Say, "He is my Lord; there is no deity except Him. Upon Him I rely, and to Him is my return." [Ref: 13:30] This disbelief of Polytheists is also stated in another verse of Quran: “And were it not that mankind would have become of one community We would have provided for those who disbelieve in the Most Gracious, silver roofs for their houses, and elevators whereby they ascend.” [Ref: 43:33] Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) questions the Polytheists: “How can you disbelieve in Allah; knowing that you were dead and He gave you life? Then He will give you death, then again will bring you to life and then unto Him you will return.” [Ref: 2:28] This disbelief of Polytheists is explained, when Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) states; Polytheists disbelieved in Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) was invoked but believed in when the idol-gods were invoked with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala): “It will be said: "This is because, when Allah Alone was invoked [in worship] you disbelieved but when partners were joined to Him, you believed! So the judgment is only with Allah, the Most High, the Most Great!" [Ref: 40:12] Polytheists asked Musa (alayhis salam) to associate god-partners with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and in response Musa (alayhis salam) said to the polytheists: "You invite me to disbelieve in Allah and to join partners with Him of which I have no knowledge; and I invite you to the All-Mighty, the Oft-Forgiving!” [Ref: 40:42] This indicates associating a god-partner with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) automatically implies disbelief in Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) instructs Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) to say that those who believe in idol-gods/al-Batil and disbelieve in Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) are the losers in this world and in hereafter: “Say: "Sufficient is Allah for a witness between me and you. He knows what is in the heavens and on earth." And those who believe in Batil[9] and disbelieve in Allah and it is they who are the losers. [Ref: 29:52] Again note; Polytheists nominally believed in Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) but they are being charged with disbelieving in Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala).

Part One –C: The Belief And Disbelief Of Polytheists:

From the presented evidence it is clear that Polytheists of Arabia believed in some ability for their idol gods and did not totally absolutely believe in Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) alone deals with affairs of the creation. They believed idol gods possessed ability to punish insubordination and ridicule. Out of the all affairs at least there is evidence for two affairs in which idol-gods were believed to be partners of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Polytheists also believed Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) having sons and daughters: “And say: "All the praises and thanks be to Allah, Who has not begotten a offspring (or a son), …” [Ref: 18:26] Putting it crudely, son/daughter of a donkey will be a donkey, son/daughter human will be human and son/daughter of a god or the God will be a god/God, son/daughter of Allah would be at least a lower case Allah if not upper case Allah.[10] Children with permission or without permission of parent/parents utilize the wealth and live life with certain responsibilities. Children partake in the affairs of father and if Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) had children they would be gods/goddesses type of sons and daughters.  Polytheists believed their idol-gods, the sons/daughters of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) will act in their favor if they are pleased with their devotion and grant their needs. The second reason for the worship of these idol-gods was that they believed worship of sons/daughters of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) will bring them closer to Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala): “Surely the religion is for Allah only. And those who take helpers besides Him: "We worship them only that they may bring us near to Allah." Verily Allah will judge between them concerning that wherein they differ. Truly, Allah guides not him who is a liar, and a disbeliever.” [Ref: 39:3] Their logic was just as a father/mother is happy with one who bestows gifts, demonstrates love, care, to their child Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) too will be pleased with the Polytheists. For these reasons Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) denies having children as well as anyone being partner in His rule: “And say: "All the praises and thanks be to Allah, Who has not begotten an offspring (or a son), and Who has no partner in (His) Dominion, nor He is low to have a helper. And magnify Him with all magnificence, Allah is the Most Great.” [Ref: 17:111] And the same is affirmed in another verse: “Say: "Allah knows best how long they stayed. With Him is (the knowledge of) the Unseen of the heavens and the earth. How clearly He sees, and hears (everything)! They have no Helper other than Him, and He makes none to share in His Decision and His Rule." [Ref: 18:26] This refutes those who believe Polytheists believed in ‘Tawheed Al Rububiyyah.’[11] In addition to this they took their idol-gods to be providers of sustenance and it was for this reason they were instructed in the Quran to invoke Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) alone for their need. It is apparent from the evidence that Polytheists did not believe in Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) as they should have. Therefore in reality they did not believe in Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) despite their claim that they do and their sayings about Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) were nothing more then mere lip service.

Part Two – A: Polytheists Believed In A Allah Which Allowed Shirk:

 

Polytheists of Makkah believed in Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) who had begotten daughters: “And they assign daughters unto Allah! - Glorified is He above all that they associate with Him! And unto themselves what they desire;” [Ref: 16:57] "Allah has begotten [daughters/sons]. And, verily, they are liars!” [Ref: 37:152].
Polytheists of Arabia disliked having daughters, they were deeply saddened by birth of a female child as a result some even buried their daughters alive: “And when the news of (the birth of) a female (child) is brought to any of them, his face becomes dark, and he is filled with inward grief!” [Ref: 16:58] To point the error of their belief in Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) having daughters Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) bases questions upon the dislike of Polytheists: “Has He (then) chosen daughters rather than sons?” [Ref: 37:153] “Or has He (Allah) only daughters and you have sons?” [Ref: 52:39] “Or has He taken daughters out of what He has created, and He has selected for you sons?” [Ref: 43:16] This question serves to establish in the minds of Polytheists that Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) took for himself what is disliked and granted them what is preferred by Polytheists. In another verse, Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) completely disowns all sorts of partners which the Polytheists in Arabia attributed to Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala): “Yet, they join the Jinn as partners in worship with Allah, though He has created them; and they attribute falsely without knowledge sons and [angles as] daughters[12] to Him. Be He Glorified and Exalted above all that they attribute to Him.” [Ref: 6:100] Polytheists believed that Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) had gods as His partners and when Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) taught Tawheed the Polytheists remarked: "Has he made the alihah (gods) (all) into one Ilah (God - Allah). Verily, this is a curious thing!" [Ref: 38:5] In refutation of their this belief Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) had god partners, it is stated in Quran: “There is no god except Him; He gives life and causes death. [He is] your Lord and the Lord of your first forefathers.” [Ref: 44:8]

Part Two – B: Muslims Believe In Allah Who Prohibits Shirks:

 

Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) states, those who say Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has got a son have lied: “And to warn those who say; "Allah has taken a son." They have no knowledge of it, nor had their fathers. Grave is the word that comes out of their mouths; they speak not except a lie.” [Ref: 18:4/5] These liars are told of the punishment on day judgment for their lie of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) having a son[/daughter]: “And on the Day of Resurrection you will see those who lied against Allah their faces will be black. Is there not in Hell an abode for the arrogant?” [Ref: 39:60] Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) informs the Polytheists about Himself so they have no doubt who Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is: “Say, ‘He is Allah , [who is] One. Allah the Eternal Refuge. He neither begets nor is born. Nor is there to Him any equivalent.’" [Ref: 112:1/4] Polytheists said, they worship the idols gods to get close to Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala): “Surely the religion is for Allah only. And those who take helpers besides Him: "We worship them only that they may bring us near to Allah." [Ref: 39:3] Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) informs the Polytheists: "You worship besides Allah only idols, and you only invent falsehood. Verily, those whom you worship besides Allah have no power to give you provision: so seek your provision from Allah (Alone), and worship Him and be grateful to Him. To Him (Alone) you will be brought back.” [Ref: 29:17] “And they were commanded not, but that they should worship Allah, and worship none but Him Alone and perform As-Salat and give Zakat, and that is the right religion.” [Ref: 98:5]

In another verse Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) instructs the Polytheists to worship Him and not associate partners with him: “Worship Allah and join none with Him and do good to parents, kinsfolk, orphans, the poor, the neighbor who is near of kin, the neighbor who is a stranger, …” [Ref: 4:36] Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) also refutes the belief that there are god-partners with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) by saying: “That is Allah, your Lord! there is no god but He, the Creator of all things: then worship ye Him: and He hath power to dispose of all affairs.” [Ref: 6:102] And states clearly that those who associate god partners with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) will enter hell fire: “That is from what your Lord has revealed to you, [O Muhammad], of wisdom. And, [O mankind], do not make [as equal] with Allah another god, lest you be thrown into Hell, blamed and banished.” [Ref: 17:39]

Part Two – C: Polytheists Believed In Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) With Shirk:

Evidence establishes that Polytheists believed in Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) who begot daughters and sons. They also believed Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) had taken gods as his partners and believed Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) permitted, accepted, tolerated, the worship of idols as well as Jinns. On the basis of this it would be safe to say that Polytheists believed Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala)  tolerates, accepts, promotes, all polytheistic practices and beliefs. In short their version of belief, Allah (subhanahu wa ta ta’ala) was in-with all the polytheism. In contrast the Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) of Islam is opposite of what Polytheists. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) prohibits associating idols as god-partners with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Rejects the notion of  having sons and daughters. Prohibits worship of idol-gods and warns of punishment to those who worship others beside Him. Instructs worship of Himself and informs of rewards for doing so. Knowing these two differing versions of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) explains why the Polytheists would abuse Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) if their idol-gods are reviled. The Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) which the Polytheists would be intending to revile, abuse would not be the Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) which promotes, permits, tolerates polytheism but the version of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) who prohibits, warns against, and tells of punishment for polytheism. In this context the question rises; did the Polytheists truly and sincerely believed in Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala)?[13] When Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) alone was invoked they disbelieved in Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and only believed in Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) when idol-gods were made partners with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala): “It will be said: "This is because, when Allah Alone was invoked [in worship] you disbelieved but when partners were joined to Him, you believed! So the judgment is only with Allah, the Most High, the Most Great!" [Ref: 40:12] Another verse of Quran states about inhabitants of Arabian Peninsula: “And most of them believed in Allah, but not without Shirk.” [Ref: 12:106] They did not believe in Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) as they should have therefore in reality their belief in Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) amounted to nothing, equaled to disbelief of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala): “Say: "Sufficient is Allah for a witness between me and you. He knows what is in the heavens and on earth." And those who believe in Batil and disbelieve in Allah and it is they who are the losers. [Ref: 29:52] Just as Christians believe in Prophet Isa (alayhis salam) but in reality have disbelieved in Prophet Isa (alayhis salam) by rejecting his teachings. In similar fashion Polytheists nominally believed in Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) but because they did not believe as they should have therefore their belief amounts to disbelief in Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala).

Part Three - A: Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) Is Creator And Provider:

Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) states: “Indeed, it is Allah who is the Provider, the firm possessor of strength.” [Ref: 51:58] Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) questions the Polytheists: ”Say: Who provides for you from the sky and from the earth? and then narrates their answer: “They will say: “Allah!” [Ref: 10:31] In a verse of Quran Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) questions the Polytheists: “O mankind! Remember the Grace of Allah upon you! Is there any Creator other than Allah who provides for you from the sky (rain) and the earth? There is no God except He. How then are you turning away (from Him)?” [Ref: 35:3] In another verse of Quran Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) questions the Polytheists: “Allah is the one who created you, then provided for you, then will cause you to die, and then will give you life. Are there any of your "partners" who does anything of that? Exalted is He and high above what they associate with Him.” [Ref: 30:40] Even though they believed Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) provides they sought the sustenance from their idols and Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) informs them: “For you worship Idols besides Allah, and ye invent falsehood. The things that ye worship besides Allah (i.e. mindu'nillah) have no power to give you sustenance: then seek ye sustenance from Allah, serve Him and be grateful to Him: to Him will be your return." [Ref: 29:17]The belief of Polytheists that Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) provides was nominal because they sought their provisions from their idol-gods. Based on nominal affirmation of belief in Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) being the only Creator and the Sustainer the Quranic argument is; if there is no Creator nor a Provider besides Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and there is no partner with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) in providing [from earth and skies]. Then there is no God except Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). If there was god besides Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) then this god must be a partner with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and this partner must be creator as well as a provider otherwise he/she is not god/goddess.[14] Polytheists believing contrary to these established concepts [i.e. believing that idols do not, provide, create, sustain] allowed Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) to refute their belief in many gods and establish the reason of Tawheed in the following verse: “O mankind! Remember the Grace of Allah upon you! Is there any Creator other than Allah who provides for you from the sky (rain) and the earth? [15] There is no God except He. How then are you turning away (from Him)?” [Ref: 35:3] Further in another verse of Quran Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) detailed the consequences if there were more then the One God: “!If there were, in the heavens and the earth, other gods besides Allah, there would have been confusion in both! but glory to Allah, the Lord of the Throne: (High is He) above what they attribute to Him!” [Ref: 21:22]

Part Three – B: Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) Owns Hearing And Seeing:

Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) states that He has created the hearing and seeing: “Say, "It is He who has produced you and made for you hearing and vision and hearts; little are you grateful." [Ref: 67:23] Polytheists affirmed that Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) owns the ability of hearing and seeing: “Or Who owns hearing and sight?” “They will say: “Allah!” [Ref: 10:31] Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) states: "The lightning almost snatches away their sight. Every time it lights [the way] for them, they walk therein; but when darkness comes over them, they stand [still]. And if Allah had willed, He could have taken away their hearing and their sight. Indeed, Allah is over all things competent." [Ref: 2:20] In another verse of Quran Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) poses the question, which god other than Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) will bring back the hearing and sight, if Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) decided to take it away from them: “Say, "Have you considered; if Allah should take away your hearing and your sight and set a seal upon your hearts, which god other than Allah could bring them [back] to you?" Look how we diversify the verses; then they [still] turn away.” [Ref: 6: 46] Implication of which is that there is no other God besides Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) who can grant and take the sight and hearing. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) states: Yet they have taken besides Him other gods who created nothing but are themselves created, and possess neither harm nor benefit for themselves, and possess no power death, nor life, nor of raising the dead.” [Ref: 25:3] Considering this fact that only Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) could bring back the sight, question to Polytheists is; "How do you worship besides Allah something which has no power either to harm or benefit you? But it is Allah Who is the All-Hearer, All-Knower." [Ref: 5:76] Implying; you have no justifiable reason to worship them because these idol-gods do not harm you or benefit you. If they could benefit they would prevent their sight being taken away in the first instance or at least be able to bring it back.  Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) had informed the polytheists: “And We sent not before you any messenger except that We revealed to him that, "There is no god except Me, so worship Me." [Ref: 21:25] and in another verse: That is Allah, your Lord! There is no god but He, the Creator of all things: then worship you Him: and He has power to dispose of all affairs.” [Ref: 6:102]

Part Three – C: Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) Brings Dead Out Of Living And Living Out Of Dead:

Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) questions the polytheists: “Who brings out the living from the dead and brings out the dead from the living?” A bit further in the verse their response is quoted: “They will say: Allah!” [Ref: 10:31] The polytheists affirm it is Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) who brings out the dead from the living and living from the dead. This is clearly stated in the following verse: “Indeed, Allah is the cleaver of grain and date seeds. He brings the living out of the dead and brings the dead out of the living. That is Allah; so how are you deluded?” [Ref: 6:95] How Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) brings out the living out of the dead is explained: He brings the living out of the dead and brings the dead out of the living and brings to life the earth after its lifelessness. And thus will you be brought out.” [Ref: 30:19] Let me give another example of how Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) brought the living from the dead and dead from living. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) brings the dead humans to life, he will cause them to die and will raise them again: “How can you disbelieve in Allah? Seeing that you were dead and He gave you life. Then He will give you death, then again will bring you to life (on the Day of Resurrection) and then unto Him you will return.” [Ref: 2:28] There are two types of deaths, one, period of none existence in which neither body existed nor soul. Second form of death is where soul is separated from body. In this sense, period before our birth is also death because soul exists without body. Our birth is first life and our death after birth is similar to type of death where soul exists separately from body. In other words period after creation of soul is same as period after soul is separated from body. Our second life will be when our bodies are united with the souls again for judgment. This establishes how Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) brings the living from dead and dead from the living. This is why the polytheists will say: “They will say, "Our Lord, You made us lifeless twice and gave us life twice, and we have confessed our sins. So is there to an exit any way?" [Ref: 40:11] Once Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) establishes from the mouths of polytheists that Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is the One who brings out the living from dead and dead from living then question is asked: “Or have they taken gods from the earth who raise the dead?” [Ref: 21:21] Indicating the gods which the polytheists believe are partners with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) are unable to create anything. Arguing their gods are unable to do anything: “Yet they have taken besides Him other gods who created nothing but are themselves created, and possess neither harm nor benefit for themselves, and possess no power (of causing) death, nor (of giving) life, nor of raising the dead.” [Ref: 25:3] Implication is that those whom you take as gods as partners with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) if they were really gods they would be able to do all which the One and the Only God is able to and their inability establishes the message of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam): “Say, [O Muhammad], "O mankind, indeed I am the Messenger of Allah to you all, [from Him] to whom belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth. There is no God except Him; He gives life and causes death." So believe in Allah and His Messenger, the unlettered prophet, who believes in Allah and His words, and follow him that you may be guided.” [Ref: 7:158]

Part Three – D: The Objective Behind Questioning Of Polytheists:

Verse quoted by Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab questions the polytheists and then records their answer. The objective of the verse was to establish a common ground between the Muslims and polytheists. Despite their belief in Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) being nominal and in reality they did not believe in Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) as they should have. The polytheists believed in Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) to be a God from many gods but who has authority over all other gods. Their version of Allah permitted all types of Shirk therefore they did not believe in haqiqi Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and is the reason why Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) states: “Thus have We sent you to a community before which [other] communities have passed on so you might recite to them that which We revealed to you, while they disbelieve in the Most Merciful. Say, "He is my Lord; there is no deity except Him. Upon Him I rely, and to Him is my return." [Ref: 13:30] Once a common ground was established Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) then built upon this common ground to establish with arguments the Oneness of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). To establish with reason and arguments; there is no God other then Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). If  there was a god or gods with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) then these gods would also be able provide from sky and earth. They will also be able to bring back the ability of hearing and seeing when Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) takes it away and bring the living from dead like Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) does so. The whole verse establishes a common ground between Muslims and polytheists. Then guide the discussion toward the Oneness of God as well as rejection/negation of the concept of One God being supreme ruler over less powerful gods.

Part Four – A: Ability Of Allah To Do Anything To The Govern Universe:

Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) states: If you asked them, "Who created the heavens and earth and subjected the sun and the moon?" they would surely say, " Allah ." Then how are they deluded?[16] [Ref: 29:61] On this topic of universe Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) also stated: “Allah is He Who raised the heavens without any pillars that you can see. Then, He [decided to] Istawa over the Throne. He has subjected the sun and the moon! Each running (its course) for a term appointed. He regulates all affairs, explaining the Ayat in detail, that you may believe with certainty in the meeting with your Lord.” [Ref: 13:2] And states that everything in universe is governed by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala): “He arranges [each] matter from the heaven to the earth; then it will ascend to Him in a Day, the extent of which is a thousand years of those which you count.” [Ref: 32:5] Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) asks another question from the Polytheists: “And if thou wert to ask them: Who causes water to come down from the sky, and therewith revives the earth after its death? They verily would say: Allah! Say: Praise be to Allah! But most of them have no sense.”[Ref: 29:63] Further Polytheists are asked: "...who is it that sustains you (in life) from the sky and from earth?” Or who is it that has power over hearing and sight? And who is it that brings the living from the dead and the dead from the living? And who is it that rules and regulates all affairs? They will quickly say: Allah! Say: Will you not then show piety to Him'' [Ref: 10:31] In another verse three questions are posed to Polytheists: “Say: Unto Whom (belongs) the earth and whosoever is therein, if you have knowledge? They will say: Allah! Say: Will ye not then remember? Say: Who is Lord of the seven heavens and Lord of the tremendous Arsh? They will say: Allah! Say: Will ye not then keep duty (unto Him)? Say: In Whose hand is the dominion over all things and He protects while against Him there is no protection, if you have knowledge? They will say: Allah!  Say: How then are ye bewitched?“ [Ref: 23:84-89] Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) demonstrates the inability of the idol-gods of Polytheists: "If indeed, you ask them who is it that created the heavens and the earth, they would be sure to say, Allah! Say : See you then the things that you invoke besides Allah? Can they, if Allah wills some penalty for me, remove His penalty? Or if He will some grace for me, can they keep back His grace?" [Ref: 39:38] In another verse Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) states that when Polytheists are under difficult situation they invoke Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala): “And when harm touches you upon the sea, those that you call upon besides Him are lost from you – except Him (Allah alone). But when He brings you safely to land, you turn away (from Him). And man is ever ungrateful.” [Ref: 17:67] When He removes the difficulty then they turn away a party from amongst them turns to other gods: And whatever you have of favor - it is from Allah . Then when adversity touches you, to Him you cry for help. Then when He removes the adversity from you, immediately a party of you associates others with their Lord.” [Ref: 16:53/54] In another verse Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) states most of residents of Arabian Peninsula did not believe in Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) without Shirk: “And most of them believed in Allah, but not without Shirk.” [Ref: 12:106]

Part Four – B: Inability Of Idols To Do Anything Within Creation:

Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) narrates what Prophet Ibrahim (alayhis salam) said to his uncle Azhar which was also relevant to the context of Arabian Peninsula: “When he said to his father: "O my father! Why do you worship that which hears not, sees not and cannot avail you in anything?” [Ref: 19:42] This process of questioning the polytheists continued in many verses of the Quran. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) questions the polytheists: “How can you worship other then Allah something which has no power either to harm or benefit you? But it is Allah Who is the All-Hearer, All-Knower." [Ref: 5:76] “And they worship besides Allah things that harm them not, nor profit them, and they say: "These are our intercessors with Allah." [Ref: 10:18] “Say: "Tell me, if Allah made day continuous for you till the Day of Resurrection. Who is the god besides Allah who could bring you night wherein you rest? Will you not then see?" [Ref: 28:72] “Have they taken others as intercessors besides Allah? Say: "Even if they [the gods] have power over nothing whatsoever and have no intelligence?" [Ref: 39:43] “Say: "Who can guard and protect you in the night or in the day from the (punishment of the) Most Gracious?" Nay, but they turn away from the remembrance of their Lord. Or have they gods who can guard them from Us? They have no power to help themselves, nor can they be protected from Us.” [Ref: 21:42/43] In the following verse Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) alludes to the destruction of idol-gods by Prophet Ibrahim (alayhis salam) establishing the lack of ability to defend themselves: “Do they attribute as partners to Allah those who created nothing but they themselves are created And they are unable to [give] them help, nor can they help themselves?” [Ref: 7:191/192] The objective of this questioning was to establish; the idol-gods of Polytheists are unable to do anything enquired about. Therefore Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) tells about the inability of idol-gods: “Yet they have taken besides Him other gods who created nothing but are themselves created, and possess neither harm nor benefit for themselves, and possess no power (of causing) death, nor (of giving) life, nor of raising the dead.” [Ref: 25:3] About the ability of creating anything Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) states regarding idol-gods: “Verily those on whom you call besides Allah, cannot create (even) a fly, even though they combine together for the purpose. And if the fly snatches away a thing from them, they will have no power to release it from the fly. So weak are (both) the seeker and the sought.” [Ref: 22:73] Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) tells why they are unable to create anything: “And those they invoke other than Allah create nothing, and they [themselves] are created. They are, [in fact], dead, not alive, and they do not perceive when they will be resurrected.”[Ref: 16:21/22] Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) questions the polytheists in another verse about their idol-gods: "If indeed, you ask them who is it that created the heavens and the earth, they would be sure to say: Allah!  Say: See you then the things that you invoke besides Allah? Can they, if Allah wills some penalty for me, remove His penalty? Or if He will some grace for me, can they keep back His grace?" [Ref: 39:38] The objective of this question is to make the polytheists realize the inability of their gods. The inability is due to being created by men out of earthly materials and having all features but no life in them: “Do they have feet by which they walk? Or do they have hands by which they strike? Or do they have eyes by which they see? Or do they have ears by which they hear? Say: "Call your 'partners' and then conspire against me and give me no respite.” [Ref: 7:195]

Part Four – C: Is There A God Other Then Allah:

Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) questioned the polytheists: “Is not He [better than your gods] Who guides you in the darkness of the land and the sea, and Who sends the winds as heralds of glad tidings, going before His Mercy (rain)? Is there any god with Allah? High Exalted be Allah above all that they associate as partners (to Him)!” [Ref: 27:63] In another verse Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) asks: “Is He [not best] who responds to the desperate one when he calls upon Him and removes evil and makes you inheritors of the earth? Is there a god with Allah? Little do you remember.” [Ref: 27:62]  Also Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) questions: “Is not He Who has made the earth as a fixed abode, and has placed rivers in its midst, and has placed firm mountains therein and has set a barrier between the two seas? Is there any god with Allah? Nay, but most of them know not!” [Ref: 27:61] “Is not He who originates creation, and shall thereafter repeat it and who provides for you from heaven and earth? Is there any god with Allah? Say: "Bring forth your proofs, if you are truthful." [Ref: 27:64] “Or have they an a god other than Allah? Glorified be Allah from all that they ascribe as partners (to Him).” [Ref: 52:43] “[More precisely], is He [not best] who created the heavens and the earth and sent down for you rain from the sky, causing to grow thereby gardens of joyful beauty which you could not [otherwise] have grown the trees thereof? Is there a deity with Allah? [No], but they are a people who ascribe equals [to Him].” [Ref: 27:60] These verses continued the theme of ability of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and the inability of idol-gods. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) continues to enquire from polytheists in order to further establish; inability of idol-gods. One who considers all the facts which Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has established, will affirm: “That is Allah, your Lord! There is no god but He, the Creator of all things: then worship ye Him: and He hath power to dispose of all affairs.” [Ref: 6:102] “There is no deity except Him; He gives life and causes death. [He is] your Lord and the Lord of your first forefathers.” [Ref: 44:8] “And your Allah is One Allah. There is no god but He, Most Gracious, Most Merciful.” [Ref: 2:163] And will censor as Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) censored: “And Allah has said: "Do not take for yourselves two deities.[17] He is but one God, so fear only Me." [Ref: 16:51] The inability of idol-gods substantiates the position of Oneness of God and establishes there is no god partner with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala).

Part Four – D: Why Establish Ability Of One God And Inability Of Idol-gods:

Polytheists believed Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is the Creator of heavens and earth. He is the sender of rain from clouds and with which dead earth is given life by Him. He has power over seeing, hearing and He alone regulates all the affairs in creation as a supreme Deity. They believed to Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) alone belongs all that is creation including subordinate gods and His is dominion over all things including subordinate gods. He protects all that is in creation and none can protect against Him. Not even their subordinate gods and the proof is when inflicted with adversity polytheists only invoked Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) because they believed Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) alone can avail from distress. Coming to the idol-gods Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) establishes that idols cannot see, hear, nor help anyone. Also lack the ability to benefit and harm themselves as well as others. Nor these idol-gods have any authority in the affairs of universe. If they did they would be able to bring night over day and day over night as they please. These idol-gods possess no intelligence and are unable to create anything. They are dead lifeless and they do not know when the dead people will be raised again.  Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) asks the polytheists a question knowing they cannot say their idol-gods are not better then Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala): “Say: "Praise and thanks be to Allah, and peace be on His slaves whom He has chosen! Is Allah better or (all) that you ascribe as partners (to Him)?" [Ref: 27:59] In short Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) established the absolute inability of idol-gods of polytheists. After establishing the characteristics of the One true and the Only God as well as the role this One God plays in His creation. Then Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) establishes the absolute inability of idol-gods to prove the those whom the polytheists have taken as gods are not gods. If they were gods they would be able to do all which Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) the One and the Only God can do and does. The inability of the idol-gods of polytheists established there is no other God with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala).

Part Five – A: Wrong Methodology Of Determining Kufr:

Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab wrote: “That you know the Kuffaar who the Messenger fought used to affirm that Allah Ta’aala, was the Creator and the Disposer of all the affairs but that didn’t enter them into Islam and the proof is the saying of the Most High: …” We know Christians believe in Prophet Isa (alayhis salaam). They believe he was born from virgin, an angel came to his mother, informed her of his birth, he is word of God. With affirming all this, just like Muslims, they remain disbelievers. The cause of their disbelief is they believe Prophet Isa (alayhis salaam) died on the cross. They also believe he was/is god, son of god, instructed and approved his own worship. Christians are disbelievers due to their rejection of teaching of Tawheed, Prophet-hood of Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam). as well as other Islamic essential teachings. Similarly the polytheists of Arabian Peninsula were deemed polytheists on the account of their beliefs which contradicted Tawheed. Such as taking idols as gods and worshiping them as gods while believing Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is supreme God. Their belief in some aspects of Rububiyyah for Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) does not mean they believed every aspect of Rububiyyah. There is no EXPLICIT verse of the Quran or hadith which confirms that polytheists believed in EVERY aspect of Rububiyyah of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). If one agrees with theory; polytheists did not associate partners with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) in Rububiyyah. Even then polytheists remain polytheists because they did not believe in Oneness of God. Therefore employing beliefs which are common between Muslims and non-Muslims to establish disbelief of Muslims is pure display of jahl. The correct methodology to establish Kufr of a person is to determine the belief and then find evidence from Quran/Sunnah, which establishes the belief as Shirk or Kufr.

Part Five – B: Polytheists Believed Some Aspects Of Tawheed:

Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab intended to establish; ‘affirming a aspect of Tawheed while negating others will not enter anyone into Islam.[18] Arab polytheists only affirmed a aspect of Tawheed therefore Arab polytheists were not Muslims and ‘Muslims’ like the polytheists believed in a aspect of Oneness of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) while negating others.’ The manner in which Tawheed Al Rububiyyah is defined by Wahhabiyyah to argue polytheists believed in Tawheed Al Rububiyyah has already been refuted with clear evidences in first part of the article. The polytheists believed their gods had powers to inflict harm: "We say nothing but that (perhaps) some of our gods may have seized thee with imbecility. “He said: "I call Allah to witness, and do ye bear witness, that I am free from the sin of ascribing, to Him." [Ref: 11:54] And they believed these gods can grant honor, power and glory: And they have taken gods besides Allah that they might give them honor, power and glory.” [Ref: 19:81] If this is not attributing partner with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) in Rububiyyah then what else is it! This proves polytheists did not believe in Tawheed Al Rububiyyah as defined by Wahhabiyyah. Polytheists did not believe in any aspect of Tawheed nor did they believe in Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) as they should have.  They attributed to Him daughters/sons and daughters/sons of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) would be Allah’s in their own right. They did not believe in Oneness of God because they attributed three-hundred-sixty plus gods as partners with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). For them to truly believe in Oneness of Lordship of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) it is fundamental that they affirm Oneness of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Without affirming Oneness and without disassociating all the partner-gods, they do not believe in Oneness. Polytheists only believed in Lordship of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) without the Oneness. Also their belief in Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) was nominal and if they were sincere they would not have resorted to abusing Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Their true and sincere belief was for their idol-gods but some did believe in Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) as they believed in their idol-gods. In contrast to polytheists the Ahle Sunnat have always believed in Tawheed of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) in all aspects[19] and refute and reject all types of Shirk[20]. Therefore drawing a parallel between a none existent connection and basing on this none existent connection the belief; ‘Muslims’ have fallen into major Shirk, results in returning the charge of major Shirk to one who levelled it.

Part Five – C: Wrong Method Of Figuring Out The Beliefs:

Saleh Ibn Fawzan’s explanation of first principle of Qawaid Al Arba indicates Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab intended to argue that  scholars of Ahle Sunnat only affirm Tawheed Al Rububiyyah and nothing more just like the polytheists of Makkah. Quoting a verse of Quran originally revealed for polytheists and then inferring the belief of Muslims from it, is pure foolishness. Belief of Muslims is what they affirm with tongue and confirm with heart. It is important to point out that no scholar of Ahle Sunnat ONLY believed in Tawheed Al Rububiyyah. Scholars of creed have written in numerous books the creed of Tawheed. They have classified Tawheed as explained in footnote ten, part four. I very much doubt Saleh Ibn Fawzan was ignorant of this fact and I believe he lied to cover–up the Khariji methodology of Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab. It is clear that Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab derived his understanding of what Muslims believe from the verse of Quran which was revealed for polytheists.  The verse establishes polytheists believed Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) controlled the affairs of universe. On basis of this Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab automatically assumed the ‘polytheists’ in his time also only believe in Rububiyyah so he could justify the takfir of Muslims. Even though the takfir of Muslims was based on creed which was derived from verses revealed for non-Muslims.

Part Five – C: The Worst From Among The Creation:

Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab employed a verse of the Quran which was revealed describing what the polytheists of Makah believed. Then based on this verse he alleged that his contemporary Muslims also believed in Tawheed al Rububiyyah while negating other aspects of Tawheed. Implying that his contemporary Muslims were not Muslims just like the polytheists of Makkah were not Muslims. The methodology on basis of which Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab deduce the belief of Muslims was also of Khawarij who were the earliest apostates of Islam. Abdullah Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) is recorded to have described these Khawarij and their methodology in a Hadith: “... And Ibn Umar used to consider them (the Khawarij and the Mulhidun) the worst of Allah's creatures and said: "These people took some verses that had been revealed concerning the disbelievers and interpreted them as describing the believers." [Ref: Bukhari, Vol 9, P49, Chap6] Those who abandon the way of Ahle Sunnah and choose for them the way of Ahlul Khawarij the earliest apostates they are one of them. We are the people who follow Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) and his methodology. We are the people who adhered to the methodology of Jammah of companions and Jammah of Muslims. Therefore we derive the beliefs of Muslims from what they affirm with tongue. Not by employing verses which were revealed regarding polytheists and then derive from these verses beliefs of Muslims. We thank Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) that we are Muslims.

Part Six – A: Why The First Principle:

Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab insinuated his belief about his contemporary Muslims in the form of this principle. He believed even though his contemporary Muslims affirmed belief in Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) they are not Muslim because they partly affirmed Tawheed and not entirely. Just as polytheists affirmed belief; Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) was the Creator and the Disposer of all the affairs, but still remained polytheistic disbelievers because they partly believed in Tawheed. The matter of fact is; his contemporary Muslims were fully conversant with Tawheed and possessed enough essential knowledge of Shirk to keep away from major Shirk. The polytheists of Makkah remained polytheists despite affirming some Quranic believes because they rejected the Unity, the Oneness of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Instead they believed that Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) who had god-partners and who like Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) deserved to be worshipped. In contrast to polytheists the Muslims believed and still believe in Oneness of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Without taking any creation of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) as a second god-partner of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) nor did/do the Muslims worship any other god except Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala).

Part Five - B: Teaching Of Prophet Muhammad bin Abdullah:

Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab accused his contemporary Muslims of worshiping Awliyah-Allah, graves of Saliheen etc. In a book, Kitab at-Tawheed, by Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab, he stated his belief; “Exaggeration in the graves of the righteous persons extends [/makes] them to become idols.” [Ref: Kitab at-Tawheed, Chap21, P86] In refutation of Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab’s charge and in support of Tawheed of Muslims please read words of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam): “The thing that I fear most for my nation is associating others with Allah. I do not say that they will worship the sun or the moon or idols, but deeds done for the sake of anyone other than Allah, and hidden desires.” [Ref: Ibn Majah, Vol.1 B37, H4205] Meaning Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) does not fear that his Ummah will take sun or moon or idols as gods and worship them but he feared the minor Shirk. Yet Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab charged the Ummah of RasoolAllah (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) of taking creation as gods and worshiping them.

Conclusion:

The verse employed by Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab to meet his evil desires in reality belongs to genre of verses which initiate a dialogue with polytheists. Purpose of which is to guide the polytheists to believe in Oneness of God. Polytheists did not believe in Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) as they should have instead their belief in Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) was nominal. They attributed partners to Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) in his Rububiyyah. Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab employing the methodology of the Khawarij, the worst in creation, interpreted the verse revealed about polytheists but interpreted it depicting the belief of Muslims. His errorneous interpretation allowed him to charge Muslims of worshiping idols but his allegation has been refuted by Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) who has informed that his Ummah will not worship idols.

Wama Alayna Ilal Balaghul Mubeen.
Muhammed Ali Razavi
Footnotes:

- [1] The Four Principles (Qawaid Al Arba), By Shaykh Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhab, Trans: Abu Nasir Ibn Abu Basheer, Source abdurrahman.org.

- [2] The image of tolerant, less-radical Wahhabi is propagated and adopted to spread the core believes of Wahhabism. Thumb rule; every Wahhabi is potential killer of Muslims and Wahhabi is only restrained by circumstances to hold the war. In the ideal circumstances; such as being a sizeable minority in a particular area, region, and being aware of Wahhabi teachings, weak central government, lawlessness, possession of weaponry by Wahhabis, support from Saudi State of Wahhabiyyah will always result in revolt against the established authority. The result is target killing of Muslims, scholars, destruction of graves of Muslims and Awliyah-Allah. Executions of inhabitants under their rule for petty offences or charges maybe serious but Shar’rai criteria’s for hadood will not be met but the capital punishment for the offence will be carried out. When it is pointed out that terrorists and terrorist sympathizers are Wahhabi’s in creed. The diplomatic and ‘tolerant‘, ‘less-radical’ Wahhabi’s will point out the differences between their belief and beliefs of terrorist Wahhabis to paint a flowery image of Wahhabism. Wahhabi’s go to lengths to distance their sect and their cherished scholars from such people by citing edicts of their scholars which excommunicate those who do not toe the Wahhabi orthodox line. Fact is there Wahhabism is fragmented into minor sects and one cannot deny this but to say they are not Wahhabi is foolish. There are many types of khanazir on earth each with each type with unique name and certain unique characteristics but despite their differences they are still khanazir.  Implications of this example can be best explained in the light of Khawarij and their sub sects. There were around thirty sub sects of Khawarij existence each with unique name and certain unique believes but despite their differences they were counted amongst the Khawarij. The reason for this is that any deviation from main sect while holding to central tenets of sect’s belief and methodology will create a sub sect. The Wahhabi’s are from Khawarij and the terrorists have branched from Wahhabism with their own kind of Wahhabism. These terrorist Wahhabi’s do exactly what the first group of Wahhabi’s did. The modern and the original Wahhabi’s kill/killed Muslims with impunity just as the original Kharijis did.

- [3] Grave worshiping polytheists [i.e. standing with respect near grave of a Wali or making invoking Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala facing the grave, kissing the grave is worship of the grave, do any of these will make you Mushrik according to Wahhabism], Kufr system supporting Polytheists [i.e. Pakistani constitution is ‘Kufr’ system according to these people therefore if you agree to have your court case judged by this ‘Kufr’ system you are Mushrik], Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) worshiping Polytheists [i.e. saying; as-salatu was salamu alaika ya RasoolAllah, is worship of Prophet sallallahu alayhi was’sallam, saying Ya RasoolAllah sallallahu alayhi was’sallam, or asking RasoolAllah sallallahu alayhi was’sallam to invoke Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala on your behalf will make you a Mushrik], Awliyah-Allah worshiping Polytheists, tree worshiping Polytheists, invoking the dead Polytheists. Point is everyone is Mushrik for one or another reason if you are not a Wahhabi.

- [4] Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab stated; “… know the Kuffaar, who the Messenger fought, used to affirm that Allah, Ta’aala, was the Creator and the Disposer of all the affairs, …” Considering the lack of evidence for his position one is compelled to conclude; Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab assumed his position based on the presented evidence. Please note, his assumption is established with evidence from Book of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and a detail list of evidence will be provided in Step Two - A. Where the verse will be put in perspective of genre of verses and explained in light of other verses of Quran.

- [5] “Here I am at Thy service; there is no associate with Thee.” The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: Woe be upon them, as they also said: “But one associate with Thee, you possess mastery over him, but he does not possess mastery (over you).” They used to say this and circumnavigate the Ka'ba.”[Ref: Muslim, B7, H2671]

- [6] The dialogue begins;”Say: who provides for you from the sky and from the earth? […] They will say: Allah!” [Ref: 10:31] “Is not He who originates creation, and shall thereafter repeat it and who provides for you from heaven and earth? Is there any god with Allah?" [Ref: 27:64] Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) asks: “Or who owns hearing and sight? […] They will say: Allah!” [Ref: 10:31] Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) further interrogates with another question: “Say: "Tell me, if Allah took away your hearing and your sight, and sealed up your hearts, who is there as a god other than Allah who could restore them to you?" [Ref: 6:46] The answer would be none of the gods which polytheists believed would be able to restore because they believed their gods are subordinate gods and these gods only do what the supreme God allows. This is why Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) gave following example: “Allah sets forth the Parable (of two men: one) a slave under the dominion of another; He has no power of any sort; and (the other) a man on whom We have bestowed goodly favors from Ourselves, and he spends thereof (freely), privately and publicly: are the two equal? (By no means) praise be to Allah. But most of them understand not.” [Ref: 16:75] ” And who brings out the living from the dead and brings out the dead from the living? They will say: Allah!” [Ref: 10:31]

- [7] This belief of polytheists regarding their idol gods has been refuted by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) in the Quran. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) question the Polytheists: “He sets forth for you a parable from your own-selves: Do you have partners among those whom your right hands possess (i.e. your slaves) to share as equals in the wealth? We have bestowed on you whom you fear as you fear each other? Thus do We explain the signs in detail to a people who have sense.” [Ref: 30:28] Did the Polytheists slave owners give their slaves free hand to be equal partners with them? The answers is no, instead the slaves of polytheists had strict control imposed on them and these slaves could not spend a dinar without permission and instruction of their master. The basic implication of the verse is; polytheists believed in their gods to be slaves or in other words subordinate gods, under authority of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). A deeper meaning is that these gods of Polytheists would be entirely dependent and restricted from utilizing the resources to provide sustenance if they existed.

- [8] When Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) instructed Ali (radiallah ta’ala anhu) to write; ‘In the name of Allah, the ar-Rahman, the ar-Raheem.’ Objection was raised by the representative of polytheists that words ar-Rahman and ar-Raheem are not known to them. They said; only Rahman we know of is Musailmah [the Liar] the ruler of Yamama therefore write with words; ‘In your name Allah.’ The Mufassireen have interpreted this verse in this particular context of Hudaibiya but there is a deeper meaning which is understood if the verse is interpreted in light of few others.

- [9] Polytheists invoked their idol-gods whom they believed as partners of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). In this context the statement whom they invoke besides Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is Batil implies idols: “That is because Allah - He is the Truth and what they invoke besides Him, it is Batil (falsehood). And verily, Allah - He is the Most High, the Most Great.” [Ref: 22:62]

- [10] Incase one challenge's the explanation that; the type of child is dependent upon parent hence Allah’s son/daughter would be Allah. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) states: “That is from what your Lord has revealed to you, [O Muhammad], of wisdom. And, [O mankind], do not make [as equal] with Allah another god, lest you be thrown into Hell, blamed and banished.” [Ref: 17:39] The next verse Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) enquires: “Then, has your Lord chosen you for [having] sons and taken from among the angels daughters? Indeed, you say a grave saying.” [Ref: 17:40] In the context the actual question is; has your God taken for himself as female-goddesses and for you sons? Note Polytheists believed in female deities: “They invoke nothing but female deities besides Him, and they invoke nothing but Satan a persistent rebel!” [Ref: 2:117] This firmly establishes that Quranicly to be son/daughter of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) means son/daughter is god/goddess.

- [11] Part One: Saleh Ibn Fawzan Al Fazwan, a prominent scholar of Wahhabi sect, member of permanent in his commentary of Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab’s Qawaid Al Arba, writes Polytheists believed in Tawheed Al Rububiyyah: “The disbelievers whom the Messenger fought affirmed Tawheed ar-Rububiyyah (Oneness of Allah's Lordship), yet their affirmation of Tawheed ar Rububiyyah did not enter them into Islam and did not sanctify their blood or wealth. This proves that Tawheed is not just the affirmation of Rububiyyah (Allah's Lordship) and Shirk is not just the Shirk in Rububiyyah (Allah's Lordship). Rather there has never been anyone who committed Shirk in Allah's Lordship except some strange amongst the creation. Otherwise, all the nations affirmed Tawheed ar-Rububiyyah (Allah's Lordship).[Ref: Four Foundations Of Shirk, Written by Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab, Explanation by Saleh Ibn Fawzan Al Fawzan, Translation by Shawana A.Aziz, Published by Quran Sunnah Education Programs, Page 30] Part Two: The Wahhabi category ‘Tawheed Al Rububiyyah’ implies that Polytheists believed in Oneness of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Quran clearly teaches against Polytheists believing in the Oneness of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and instead it teaches they believed in multitude of gods. Polytheists did not believe in Oneness of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) in any sense. Only Muslims [Muslim is inclusive of all Muslims; Wahhabi’s, Sunni’s, Deobandi’s, Ahle Hadith] believe in ‘Tawheed Al Rububiyyah’ because Muslims affirm the fundamental aspect the ‘Tawheed Al Ulluhiyyah/Zaat’. To be eligible for ‘Tawheed Al Rububiyyah’ the fundamental requirement is that one rejects every god except Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). In addition, person must believe in all things which Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) does in His creation and only then the person becomes eligible for ‘Tawheed Al Rububiyyah’. Polytheists only nominally believed in Rububiyyah of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and even in that they believed their idol-gods possessed some authority. On the basis of this to allege polytheists believed in ‘Tawheed Al Rububiyyah’ is extremely heretical. If one was to affirm explicitly that Polytheists believed in the ‘Tawheed Al Rububiyyah’ of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) while negating the belief of Polytheists believing in many gods. Then such a person has committed clear Kufr and has disbelieved in the Quran. In my judgment Saleh Ibn Fawzan Al Fawzan has not committed clear disbelief but he is guilty of heretical innovation into deen which leads to fire. If the Ulamah of Ahle Sunnat past or present have charged holder of such belief of Kufr then readers can decide between two positions on the balance of evidence. Part Three: Commonly the Wahhabi’s accuse the Ahle Sunnat of denying the ‘Tawheed Al Rububiyyah’. This is a grand lie, an evil accusation and it is result of lack of understanding of actual issue. Wahhabi’s generalize the denial of Ahle Sunnat to mean that the Ahle Sunnat absolutely reject ‘Tawheed Al Ulluhiyyah’. Ahle Sunnat’s rejection of ‘Tawheed Al Rububiyyah’ is in relationship to the belief of Polytheists and not in relationship to Muslims. In simple terms, the Ahle Sunnat reject the claim that Polytheists believed in ‘Tawheed Al Rububiyyah’. Any Muslim who denies Tawheed is Mushrik and any Muslim who disbelieves in Rububiyyah/Afaal [Lordship/Actions] of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has disbelieved in countless verses of Quran, therefore a Kafir. Part Four: Tawheed according to Ahle Sunnat is of one but it branches to two more in order to explain the One. ‘Tawheed Al Zaat’ [Unity Of Being] being the main objective. Tawheed Al Sifaat’ [Unity of Attributes] and ‘Tawheed Al Afaal’ [Unity Of Actions] are two sub divisions which explain ’Tawheed Al Zaat’. Classically the terminology of ‘Tawheed Al Ulluhiyyah’ [Unity of Godhood] is subcontinent equivalent of ‘Tawheed Al Zaat’. ‘Tawheed Al Afaal’ [Unity Of Actions] is same as ‘Tawheed Al Rububiyyah’. Please note that ‘Tawheed Al Ulluhiyyah’ of Wahhabiyyah is essentially Ubbudiyyah [Worship]. Meaning worshiping without associating partner with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). ‘Tawheed Al Ulluhiyyah’ of Ahle Sunnat is purely affirming the Oneness of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and negating/rejecting existence of any/every god except Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). According to Ahle Sunnat worship is of God only and rejection/negation of every/any another god except Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) automatically eliminates of Shirk in worship.

- [12] “Has then your Lord preferred for you sons and taken for Himself from among the angels daughters? Verily you indeed utter an awful saying.” [Re: 17:40]

- [13] Note how the verdict changed. When the question; ‘Did Polytheists believe in Allah?’ is asked in the context of beliefs of Polytheists which accord with teaching of Islam then answer is; yes they believed in Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). When the same question is asked in the context of their beliefs which contradict Quranic teaching then answer is in negative.

- [14] The rule that a god/goddess must be able to create and sustain what the god/goddess creates is established. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) states; if there were factually other gods with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) then every god (i.e. qullu Ilahi) would have [separated] what it created: “Allah has not taken any son, nor has there ever been with Him any god. [if there had been], then EVERY god would have taken what it created, and some of them would have sought to overcome others. Exalted is Allah above what they describe [concerning Him].” [Ref: 23:91] From this we learn, EVERY god must be able to create a creation and EVERY god must be able to sustain what it creates because separation implies independence from other gods.

- [15] Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) questions: “Is there any Creator other than Allah who provides for you from the sky (rain) and the earth?” Before one moves to the next part of the verse one must answer the question asked by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). The answer of polytheists based on what is established, would be: ‘There is no Creator who provides from the sky and earth except Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala).’ The proper understanding of the verse: “O mankind! Remember the Grace of Allah upon you! Is there any Creator other than Allah who provides for you from the sky (rain) and the earth? Mushrik answers; ‘There is no Creator who provides from the sky and earth except Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala).’ Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) replies back, then; “There is no God except He. How then are you turning away (from Him)?” [Ref: 35:3]

 

- [16] “And if (wa-la-in: the lām is for oaths) you were to ask them, namely, the disbelievers, ‘Who created the heavens and the earth and disposed the sun and the moon?’ They would assuredly say, ‘God!’ So how then are they turned away from affirming His Oneness after affirming that [God created them]? [Ref: 29:61, Tafsir Al Jalalayn]

 

- [17] Every polytheist believed in Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) as a supreme Deity and in a subordinate god. This second deity could have been a male deity of female deity and anyone of the three-hundred-sixty deities commonly believed in Arabian Peninsula.

- [18] Following this point to its logical end establishes how in Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab’s methodology all his contemporary Muslims were polytheists and are polytheists. Of course those who followed him in his apostasy would be free from major Shirk because they believed in his innovated Tawheed.

- [19] Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) states: “He is the First and the Last, and the Apparent and the Hidden, and He knows all things full well.” [Ref: 57:3] Allah is the First whom none preceded and the First without beginning. He is the Last without afterwards and the Last without an end. He is the Apparent undeniable and the Apparent without likeness [to His creation]. He is the Hidden to whom all points to and the Hidden without means to. The first who is preceded and is with a beginning. The last with afterwards and with end. The apparent deniable and with likeness. The hidden with leads to and means to is not Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) but His creation. From His creation: There is nothing like unto Him, and He is the All-Hearer and All-Seer.” [Ref: 42:11] “Say: He is Allah, [who is] One, Allah, the Eternal, Absolute; He begets not, nor was He begotten; And there is none co-equal [or comparable] unto Him." [Ref: 112:1/4] He is the One indivisible, the One un-increasable, the absolute, the perfect One. He is Eternal in meaning of; without beginning, without end. He was from eternity, is from eternity, will be to eternity. He was before creation. He is with creation and will be with creation after the day of judgment. He is not a male that He begets with female. He is not female that He begets with a male. He is was not begotten by another and there is none that can be like Him because: He is Allah, the One, the Subduer (of all).” [Ref: 39:4] In another verse Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) states: “Eyes cannot encompass Him but He encompasses all eyes. He is the Most Subtle, all Aware.” [Ref: 6:103] He is not a creation within His creation. He is not located in a place or situated toward a direction. Therefore vision of eyes cannot behold Him. As our vision beholds objects, humans, animals, birds from creation of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Creation sees with aid of eyes. As such our vision is restricted to a direction, limited due to weather, impaired vision, material obstructions. Eyes have inherent inability to see everything within creation. His vision beholds all for He is not like His creation. He sees all without eyes, without being subject to limitation and restrictions, which His creation is subjected to.

- [20] Polytheism Of Godhood: Polytheists believed in many gods as partners of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Members of Ahle Sunnat believe Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is One God with whom there is no other god. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is the One without partner.  Without mother and father, without brother and sister, without son and daughter. Polytheism Of Actions: Polytheists believe gods control affairs of creation i.e. rain, thunder, growing of crops etc. Members of Ahle Sunnat believe Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has not appointed a god as a partner to regulate any affair of universe. He alone regulates all the affairs of universe as a God. We also believe Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has appointed angels to carry out duties within His creation but not as gods but as created servants. Polytheism Of Attributes: [I have no knowledge of polytheists being guilty of Shirk in aspect .Please do inform me of evidence in this regard.] Those who adhere to teaching of Allah Sunnat believe; all attributes of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) are unique in meaning of; Zaati, Qadeemi, Qulli and Haqiqi. There is no one in creation who possesses any attribute equal to Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) or like Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Worship: Polytheists took their idols as gods therefore they worshipped them. Members of Ahle Sunnat believe in the One and the Only God and worship Him as such.

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