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MuhammedAli

The Objective Of Second Principle Of Qawa’Id Al Arba.

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Introduction:

This article is in-depth analysis of claim objective of Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab to denounce Tawassul of the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) and Awliyah-Allah to be Shirk. The discussion will revolve around determining what the Shirk of polytheists was and how would Muslims be guilty of Shirk as well as what the Muslims believe.

Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab’s Objective:

In the first principle Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab stated: “That you know the Kuffaar who the Messenger fought used to affirm that Allah Ta’aala, was the Creator and the Disposer of all the affairs but that didn’t enter them into Islam and…” In the second principle he gives reason why they were not Muslim. He states: “That they say: We do not call upon and turn towards them except to seek nearness and intercession.” Then quotes the verse to establish the Kufr/Shirk of polytheists: “And those who you take Awliyah besides Him (they say): ‘We worship them only that they may bring us near to Allah.” Verily, Allah will judge between them concerning that wherein they differ. Truly, Allah guides not him who is a liar and a disbeliever. [Ref: 39:3] According Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab’s teaching, the Shirk of Arabs was; polytheists of Arabian Peninsula worshipped (subhanahu wa ta’ala) Friends, Intercessors as means of nearness to Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) therefore they are disbelievers. His rationale is; Muslims worship Awliyah-Allah and take them as intercessors to gain nearness of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and argue with Wahhabi’s by saying; we [Sunni’s] do not call upon Awliyah-Allah and turn face them except to seek nearness and intercession to Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). From this he is arguing; the belief/action of polytheists and ‘Muslims’ is same therefore they commit Shirk/Kufr just as the polytheists committed Kufr/Shirk.

What Is Not Kufr/Shirk Of Polytheists:

Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab isolated the verse of Quran from other verses which truly point out the belief of polytheists to make a case of Kufr/Shirk against Muslims. Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab’s methodology is of employing the apparent to of verse to establish similarity between the beliefs of Muslims and then charge of Shirk. If his methodology is accepted then the very idea of believing in Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) and the pious Muslims being Awliyah as well as taking means to gain nearness of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) will be Shirk. Common sense dictates that believing creations of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) as Awliyah and taking means to Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) cannot be the reason of Shirk because it is common belief between Muslims and polytheists. Therefore the reasons of polytheists being polytheists are other then the established common facts.

Polytheists Were Guilty Of Shirk Due To Creed:

Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab the leader of minions of Shaytan believed; the Shirk of polytheist Arabs was that they worshipped their Awliyah/Intercessors. We the Muslims say; Shirk of polytheists of Arabia was not only this but they also attributed idol-god partners to Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). This is the main reason for which the polytheists were/are guilty of major Shirk. One who attributes a god-partner with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) he is a Mushrik and a Kafir even if he/she does not worship that idol-god. If Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab is believed then the polytheists of Arabia were only guilty of major Shirk when they worshiped their idol-gods. Yet according to principles of Muslims, the polytheists were upon major Shirk every second of life. Islamic principle is; primary cause of major Shirk is creed and once an individual is guilty of major Shirk in creed then every second of his life is upon major Shirk, even if one does not worship the idol-god. Please note the argument which establishes the principle of Muslims and refutes the principle of apostates. A man believes in an idol as a god but does not worship it. Instead the man spits on it, drags it in streets in hate and disgust. Question to the apostates is; is the man a Mushrik? If you deny his Kufr then know you’re Kafir like him and now you have no excuse. If you accept his Kufr, you destroy the foundation of Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab’s principle and you establish the principle of Muslims, which states creed determines Tawheed/Shirk of a individual not actions. With this we establish that polytheists of Arabia were guilty of taking gods beside Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and this was the primary cause of their Kufr/Shirk. To establish the validity of this statement further take note of following argument. We the Muslims reason; polytheists worshipped and then believed idols were their gods or did they believe idols were their gods and then worshipped them? Muslim knows the creed precedes action therefore the polytheists of Arabia believed their idol as gods and due to it worshipped them. Hence the primary Shirk and cause of them being polytheists was their belief that created being are gods and the secondary cause was the worship of these idol-gods.

Difference Between Belief & Practice Of Muslims & Polytheists:

The polytheists believe Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is supreme God with many gods as partners. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has got sons/daughters and god-partners who run the affairs of universe with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). In addition to this, the polytheists had taken idols as intercessors to Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) they believed them to be gods and worshipped them as such. Also believed worship of these god-partners of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) earns nearness of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). The Muslim believes all acts of worship are for only Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) because Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is the One without; mother or father, brother or sister, son or daughter, beginning or end. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is God without gods, a Creator without creators, a Sustainer without sustainers etc. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is the First without beginning and the Last without an end. He is the Apparent undeniable and the Hidden untraceable. The Muslims hold the belief the intercessors of believers will intercede as servants of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and not as gods etc. These intercessors are creation of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and also believe these intercessors will be granted the right of intercession on the judgment day. The first one to intercede will be our beloved Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) and others will follow. His intercession will be for those whom Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) will approve of and those whom he intercedes will be major sinners. Due to his intercession they will be allowed to enter paradise and they will be called ‘people of hell’.

Polytheistic Creed Primarily Invalidates Tawheed:

The polytheists worshiped their Awliyah i.e. idol-gods, to gain nearness of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala).[1] Even though these idol-gods possess no powers to provide help nor have life in them. The Awliyah-Allah and Shu’afa of Muslims are servants of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and due to their nearness to Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) the Muslims love and respect them but do not worship them. As Muslims we believe worship of anyone other then Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is major Shirk which invalidates belief in Islam. Hence Muslims worship Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) alone and associate none with Him in His worship to gain His nearness. We do not call upon the living or the dead for what is in their power or what is out of their power believing they are gods. Anyone who does so, commits major Shirk and is guilty of worshiping creation of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) even if one seeks a glass asks for glass of water from living or dead. The polytheists sought rizq from those whom they believed to be their idol-gods. Muslims call upon servants of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) with belief that created servants of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) will help. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) states, He along with Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) as well as pious are Wali of believers, Wali means; guardian, protector, supporter, helper: “Your Wali is none but Allah and His Messenger and those who have believed - those who establish prayer and give zakah, and they bow [in worship].” [Ref: 5:55] Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) has informed of servants of Allah helping in time of distress. These servants of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) possess miraculous powers of hearing, seeing, traveling, granting as stated in Hadith of Qudsi. Therefore they have the abilities granted to them by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) to grant help to a pious Muslims if their help is sought.

The Kufr/Shirk Of Polytheists:

The Shirk/Kufr of polytheists was that they took their idol-gods as Awliyah with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala), and this is affirmed in the following verse: “Then why did those they took besides Allah as gods by which to approach [Him] not aid them? But they had strayed from them. And that was their falsehood and what they were inventing.” [Ref: 46:28] The second Shirk/Kufr was that they worshipped these Awliyah idol-gods besides Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala), and this is affirmed in the following verses: “And those who you take Awliyah besides Him (they say): ‘We worship them only that they may bring us near to Allah.” [Ref: 39:3] “And they worship other than Allah that which neither harms them nor benefits them, and they say, "These are our intercessors with Allah." [Ref: 10:18]

Muslims Are Free From Kufr/Shirk Of Polytheists:

In contrast to the polytheists we the Muslims do not believe in any god other then Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) nor have we taken gods has Awliyah. We affirm what Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) stated: “… and that we associate no partners with Him, and that none of us shall take others as lords besides Allah. Then, if they turn away, say: "Bear witness that we are Muslims." [Ref: 3:64] “And your Allah is One Allah. There is no god but He, Most Gracious, Most Merciful.” [Ref: 2:163] We Muslims do not worship anyone other then Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Invoking of a god is worship and Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has prohibited worship of gods besides Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala): “Say, "Indeed, I have been forbidden to worship those you invoke besides Allah." Say, "I will not follow your desires, for I would then have gone astray, and I would not be of the [rightly] guided." [Ref: 6:56] In another place we the Muslims are instructed to say about our religion: “Say, "O people, if you are in doubt as to my religion - then I do not worship those which you worship besides Allah; but I worship Allah, who causes your death. And I have been commanded to be of the believers.” [Ref: 10:104]

The Awliyah-Allah Of Muslims & Polytheists:

We the Muslims believe Awliyah-Allah to be pious people from amongst Muslims. As such they are believed to be created servants of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) to whom Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has granted the ability to perform wondrous things due to their nearness to Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). This is attested by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) in a Hadith: “… and My slave keeps on coming closer to Me through performing Nawafil till I love him, so I become his sense of hearing with which he hears, and his sense of sight with which he sees, and his hand with which he grips, and his leg with which he walks; and if he asks Me, I will give him, and if he asks My protection, I will protect him; and I do not hesitate to do anything as I hesitate to take the soul of the believer, for he hates death, and I hate to disappoint him." [Ref: Bukhari, B76, H509] Despite their wondrous powers of Awliyah-Allah they are believed to be creation and not gods, nor parts of God, nor partners of God. In contrast to this the polytheists took idols as their Awliyah and believed them to be gods. They believed these gods were sons and daughters of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). These idol-gods rule over the universe with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) who is the supreme Ruler. With regards to the idol-gods, the Awliyah of polytheists, Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has stated that they, do not hear or see, harm or benefit, unable to reverse Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has done, unable to help themselves or anyone else, unable to raise the dead, unable to bring back what is snatched from them, they create nothing but are themselves created by polytheists.

Awliyah-Allah And Seeking Means To Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala):

Believing in Awliyah and taking means to Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) cannot Shirk because Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) stated: “Your Wali is none but Allah and His Messenger and those who have believed - those who establish prayer and give zakah, and they bow [in worship].” [Ref: 5:55] Wali is singular and Awliyah is plural. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) affirmed that the Awliyah of Muslims are Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala), Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) and the pious believers who act on deen. These Awliyah will be without fear on the judgment day: “Unquestionably, [for] the Awliyah of Allah there will be no fear concerning them, nor will they grieve.” [Ref: 10:62] If believing in Awliyah was Shirk Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) would not have established this and because it is established its proven believing in Awliyah is not Shirk. But it can be Shirk if belief is polluted with Shirk. Meaning taking all the mentioned as god partners of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) will warrant Shirk. Polytheists did pollute their belief in Awliyah with Shirk by taking idols as gods. So what really determines Shirk/Kufr; the belief in Awliyah or the belief in god-Awliyah? If taking means to gain nearness of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) was Shirk then the following would not be seeking means of nearness to approach Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala): “Those whom they invoke seek means of access to their Lord, [striving as to] which of them would be nearest, and they hope for His mercy and fear His punishment. Indeed, the punishment of your Lord is ever feared.” [Ref:  17:57] Also if seeking means of nearness to Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is Shirk then Allah would not have instructed seeking of means: “O you who have believed, fear Allah and seek the means [of nearness] to Him and strive in His cause that you may succeed.” [Ref:  5:35] Authentic Ahadith record that on the judgment day the Prophets will seek means of nearness, to approach and gain nearness of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). And the means of nearness to Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) will be Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam).

Conclusion:
The Awliyah of polytheists were their idol-gods and as a result of believing idols to be gods they worshiped these idol-gods to get near to Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). These two were the reasons for which they were guilty of Shirk. Also major Shirk which nullifies one’s Islam takes place when one’s creed changes and a creation [be it idol or human or anything else] is taken as a god partner of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). The Muslims to not believe in Awliyah-Allah as god-partners but we believe in them to be Allah’s (subhanahu wa ta’ala) servants whom Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has blessed with supernatural powers, attested in the Quran and numerous Ahadith.[2] Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) instructs the believers to seek means (i.e. literally Waseela) of getting closer to Him: “O you who have believed, fear Allah and seek the means [of nearness] to Him and strive in His cause that you may succeed.” [Ref:  5:35] As Muslims we are permitted to use Waseela/Tawassul and instructed to seek Waseela/Tawassul by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). In one verse of the Quran Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) instructs the sinners to seek Tawassul/Waseela of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) to gain His forgiveness: “And We did not send any messenger except to be obeyed by permission of Allah. And if, when they wronged themselves, they had come to you, [O Muhammad], and asked forgiveness of Allah and the Messenger had asked forgiveness for them, they would have found Allah Accepting of repentance and Merciful. [Ref: 4:64] Therefore to label Tawassul/Waseela of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) as Shirk is foolishness or worst kind.

Wama Alayna Ilal Balaghul Mubeen.
Muhammed Ali Razavi

Footnote:

- [1] Invoking of a human-god or idol-god is worship therefore invoking of gods is worship. If one argues invoking anyone other then Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is worship then reason with him employing the verse; Do not make [your] calling of the Messenger among yourselves as the call of one of you to another. Already Allah knows those of you who slip away, concealed by others. So let those beware who dissent from the Prophet's order, lest fitnah strike them or a painful punishment.” [Ref: 24:63] By saying; did the companions of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) worship Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam)? Individual would respond with either affirming or negating the worship of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam). If he affirms that companions of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) worshipped him. Then know that he has committed major disbelief by accusing the best of Ummah of worshiping Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam). Best course would be to exhort for repentance and if individual remain upon disbelief. Then know he/she has become apostate and it is permissible to slaughter him for pleasure of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). If he negates the worship of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) by companions then explain to him systematically. His negation implies that dua to creation is not always worship. If creation is believed to be servant, a creation and not god-partner of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) then dua to creation is not worship. If dua is to a creation, a servant, who is believed to be a human-god or idol-god then dua would be worship. Dua to Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) by companions was with belief that he is creation, a servant of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and not god therefore their calling/dua was not worship. Dua of polytheists was directed toward those whom they believed to be human-gods/idol-gods therefore their dua to these is worship. From this we establish that the position of Muslims regarding supplication of polytheists is correct.

- [2] Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) states: “And the most beloved things with which My slave comes nearer to Me, is what I have enjoined upon him; and My slave keeps on coming closer to Me through performing Nawafil till I love him, so I become his sense of hearing with which he hears, and his sense of sight with which he sees, and his hand with which he grips, and his leg with which he walks; and if he asks Me, I will give him, and if he asks My protection, I will protect him; and I do not hesitate to do anything as I hesitate to take the soul of the believer, for he hates death, and I hate to disappoint him." [Ref: Bukhari, B76, H509] Note, Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) does not become part of his pious slave –Wali but He grants His Wali supernatural abilities of seeing, hearing, granting, and travelling which no ordinary human is able to do. A excellent example of how Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) grants His servants the miraculous powers is in the following verses of Quran: “… and [remember] when I taught you writing and wisdom and the Torah and the Gospel; and when you designed from clay [what was] like the form of a bird with My permission, then you breathed into it, and it became a bird with My permission; and you healed the blind and the leper with My permission; and when you brought forth the dead with My permission; and when I restrained the Children of Israel from [killing] you when you came to them with clear proofs and ...." [Ref: 5:110]

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