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Brief Explanation Of Tawheedi Principles With Examples Of Monotheistic And Polytheistic Statements.

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This article explains the methodology of Ahle Sunnat on how to understand the attributes of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and His creation. Examples of monotheistic statements and principles which enable the readers to understand how Shirk will be warranted. Once properly understood the readers will be empowered to judge how Shirk in attributes can be warranted.

Categories Reserved For Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) And Creation:

Readers must bare in mind that Haqiqi, Qulli, Zaati, (etc) categories are only for Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala), and Majazi, Baaz, Atahi, (etc) categories are for the creation of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). If one attributes the attributes of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) to a creation, it is Shirk. It is also Shirk/Kufr if someone ascribes the attributes of creation of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) to Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Therefore every attribute of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has to be intepreted according to categories which befit His honorable status and attributes of creation have to be interpreted according to what is reserved for creation.

Real/True Attributes:

Real/True attributes, none can posses other then Allah (subhan wa ta’ala). All attributes of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) are true/real. True/Real in meaning of nothing like them, quantity is not limited/restricted, existed from eternity and will exist to eternity, they are pure and exist in real/true form in Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) without defect. His Sama’at (i.e. hearing) and Baseer’at (i.e. seeing), His Yad (i.e. hand) and Wajh (i.e. face) are real/true according to His befitting glorious majestay. His seeing/hearing is true/real but not like His creation. His Yad/Wajh is true/real but not like His creation. He alone possesses true/real qualities of all that exists and nothing is in control of creation.

Monotheistic Afirmation Of Real/True Attributes:

Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) who created the universe and He is the Haqiqi owner of paradise and the beauties which it contains. Existance of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is Haqiqi. These are some examples how the true/real and the purity of attributes of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) can be affirmed.

Linguistical Attributes:

Linguistical attributes are of creation of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). The attributes are said to be possessed by objects/beings but in reality Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) possesses them. It is said, knife cuts but cutting of knife is not real/true but true/real cutting is with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala), hence cutting is linguistical quality of knife because it is ‘said’ and not reality. It is said fire burns but burning of fire is not real/true quality of fire. The true/real quality of burning is in control of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala).

Monotheistic Affirmation of Linguistical Attributes:

Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is the real/true owner of what ever that exists within universe but due to His mercy, I was granted the ownership of the house. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has granted me the ownership of these animals out of his limitless treasures but He is the Haqiqi owner of everything that I own and of me.

What Warrants Shirk:

Believing a creation posseses y attribute in Haqiqi terms will warrant Shirk. Or believing Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) possesses all attributes in Haqiqi terms but n possesses a attribute or all the attributes like Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Believing in attributes of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) in linguistical meaning – as creation possesses them, is also Shirk. Denial of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) possessing Haqiqi attributes and denial of His Haqiqi managing of affairs of the universe is Kufr and ascribing a partner to Him in His Zaat, Sifaat, A’faal in Haqiqi meanings is Shirk.

Personal Attributes:

Personal attribute is which is one’s own and which is not confered to one by anyone else. Whatever has been granted to one cannot be personal. Allah’s (subhanahu wa ta’ala) existance and His attributes are all His personal. None has this quality other then Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). He is One who is not dependant upon anyone, He is self sufficent.

Monotheistic Affirmation Of Personal Attributes:

Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is living by His own Self, none as given Him life. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is all seeing by His own self, none as given Him sight. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is sustainer, by His on Self, none as given Him the means of sustaining, nor the right to sustain. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is all knowing by His self, none as told Him anything which He does not already know by His ownself.

Granted Attributes:

All attributes/characteristics of creation were granted by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Without Allah’s (subhanahu wa ta’ala) bestowal the creation would not possesse attributes nor exist. Creation is dependent upon Allah’s (subhanahu wa ta’ala) bestowal. The ability of seeing/hearing has been granted by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala).

Monotheistic Affirmation Of Personal Attributes:

Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) gave life to all living creatures, without his mercy no living creature would exist. Our non-existance will not harm Him nor benefit Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Our existance is his bestowal and dependant upon His existance. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala), gave us the ability to see, without His giving us this blessing neither we would see, nor we can make our self see, out of our own will. He has given us the right to sustain, and provided the means to sustain our selves. Without His granting of these rights and means we would not be able to sustain our selves, nor would we manage to sustain our selves.

What Warrants Shirk:

Believing attributes/bodies of creation are their own and not granted by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is Shirk because all creation possesses bodies/attributes by granting of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Following statements are Shirk; god does not grant to me anything instead I earn my living, or I know everything by myself god did not grant me this knowledg. Alternatively believing Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) was granted existance by another deity is also Shirk because existance and attributes of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) are His own.

Absolute Attributes:

Qulli here used in meaning of absolute also means total, complete, everything, all, and perfect [in quantity]. All attributes of Allah (subhanahu wa ta-ala) are perfect in quanity meaning none of them can be improved any futher then they already are. Improvement in attributes of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is impossible.

Monotheistic Affirmation Of Absolute Attributes:

Allah (subhanahu wa ta-ala) is all seeing and His vision encompasesses absolutely everything. Allah (subhanahu wa ta-ala) is all hearing and Allah (subhanahu wa ta-ala) hears everything, even their wispers, from the highest of heavens to the depths of earth, deepest of oceans no sound escapes Him. Allah’ s (subhanahu wa ta-ala) knowledge is complete and absolute. Allah’s knowledge is of all creation that was, is, and will be.

Partial Attributes:

All qualities and attributes of creation of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) are partial meaning uncomplete and some. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) does not have any attribute which falls into partial catergory, Allah’s (subhanahu wa ta’ala) attributes are absolute/complete.

Monotheistic Affirmation Of Partial Attributes:

Its the mercy of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) that He has granted me some vision with which I see the beauties of creation of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has granted me limited/some knowledge of the creation through the means of analysis, scientific research.

What Warrants Shirk:

Allah’s (subhanahu wa ta’ala) knowledge is absolute and none is capable of knowing as much as Him nor He has granted His absolute knowledge to anyone in creation. Al qalam (i.e. the pen) and al lawh wal mahfooz (i.e. the preserved tablet) are mere creations of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and the knowledge they have is in no way equale to Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). The knowledge granted to preserved tablet and the pen is not even a drop from the ocean of knolwedge of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). If it is beleived; Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) knows whats contained in the preserved tablet it will not mount to Shirk. Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) is a creation like preserved tablet and if it was Shirk to believe one creation possessing knowledge preserved tablet then it will be Shirk for all creations. Affirming Allah’s (subhanahu wa ta’ala) entire knowledge for any creation is Shirk. Or limiting Allah’s (subhanahu wa ta’ala) knowledge to a particular creation – such as preserved tablet or the pen is also Shirk. In principle, accrediting to a creation absolute attribute or attributes is making that creation as a partner of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) – which is Shirk.

Sorting Out What Might Confuse:

There is chance that some readers may confuse the categorization and brand others as polytheists for using words such as; zaati (i.e. personal), haqiqi (i.e. true/real) in their conversations for material possessions or qualities which they possess. Someone might say; this is my personnal (i.e. zaati) computer, or say; I am true/real owner of this house. The usage of these words in daily life will not mount to Shirk because person y is using the words in context of creation. Saying; this is my personal computer, belongs to me and not to any other individual/creation. There has to be explicit negation of Allah's (subhanahu wa ta’ala) bestowal for Shirk to be warranted, such as; Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) did not give me this knowledge. Otherwise all statements which indicate zaati/haqiqi [etc.] claim to a object or idea will be interpreted as linguistical statements. Linguistical statements cannot be taken to represent the true/real Tawheed belief of individual. The categories have to be interpreted technically to highlight Tawheed and reveal Shirk. One must not strip the techincal meaning of the words out of Tawheed/Shirk context. These words only carry the technical meaning attributed to them when they are used in the context of understanding attributes of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and His creation. When the words are used by a creation in relationship to another creation then the technical meaning does not apply rather the linguisitic use should be understood. Each termonology is with a unique explanation and what determines Shirk is the explanation and not the term itself. Therefore readers must ensure that they understand each termonology properly and know that Shirk is not warranted due to usage of a word but in what meaning the word is attributed to creation of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala).

Wama alayna ilal balaghul mubeen.
Muhammed Ali Razavi

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