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Refuting The Khariji Interpretation Of Ilah-Determining Principles And Interpreting Them According To Islamic Concept Of Tawheed.

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Refuting Khariji Interpretation Of Ilah-Determining Principles And Interpreting Them According To Thirteen Essential Concepts Of Tawheed.

Introduction:

Traditionally Muslims believe one who believes y is an Ilah (i.e. one deserving worship) then one has appointed for himself an Ilah. Alternatively if someone attributes Godly attributes to a creation’s Zaat (i.e. being) or to the attributes and actions of a creation then the creation has been elevated to status of one deserving of worship (i.e. Ilah). The attributes/actions accredited to the creation must be understood in same meaning and same finer details according to which it is believed for Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) only then one has elevated that creation to status of one deserving worship (i.e. Ilah). A mere Lafzi (i.e. linguistical) similarity is not sufficient to warrant the verdict elevating creation to status of an Ilah or of major Shirk. The Khawarij believe; the vast majorities of Muslims are polytheists[1] (i.e. worst type of disbelievers) and to support their belief they have invented a set of principles on which they judge how an Ilah is appointed. The aim of these Ilah-Determining principles is to [mis]guide the readers to believe that the over whelming majorities of Muslims are worst type of disbelievers [in fact worse then worse type of polytheists]. Zia Bashir joined Islamic forum and presented Ilah-Determining principles in order to charge the Muslims of being worse polytheists then disbelievers of prophetic times. Muslims resorted to pulling the carpet under his feet tactic and demonstrated the fruits which would even make him disbeliever according to his own principles.[*] These principles will be discussed in detail in this article and if Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) permits the inconsistencies and incompatibility of these Ilah-Determining principles with Islam will be highlighted.

0.0 – Terminology Of ‘Ma Teht Al Asbab’ And ‘Ma Fawq Al Asbab’ Specifics:

Sometimes the words ‘ma fawq al asbab’ (i.e. that which is out of means) and ‘ma teht al asbab’ (i.e. that which is according to means) is used to make a general into a specific. The phrase ‘ma fawq al asbab’ refers to all which is out of human’s natural ability, control, power and the phrase ‘ma teht al asbab’ refers to all which is in control, according to ability and power of a human being. Asking from a creation to grant you entry to paradise is termed as asking for something which is out of means of a creation because one is unable to do so. Asking for glass of water from your son/wife is according to means because the one being asked is able to do so. These two phrases are used by heretics to reinterpret their principles in response to criticism leveled against them.

0.1 – Principles Which Indicate Fundamental Differences Between Allah And His Creation:

Know that the being, attributes and actions of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) are Wajib Ul Wujud (i.e. fundamental existence). All attributes and actions of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) are to be understood according to the rule of: Zaati (i.e. personal), Qulli (i.e. total), Azli/Abdi (i.e. eternal), Haqiqi (i.e. real), Bi-Ghayr Izni (i.e. without permission), Ghair-Muntahai (i.e. unlimited), Ghayr Makhlooq (i.e. uncreated), Muhaal Al Fana (i.e. impossible to annihilate), Bi-Ghayr Misl (i.e. without comparison), and Khaliqi (i.e. Creator’s). In contrast to Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) His creation is Momkin Ul Wujud (i.e. possible existence) and all attributes and actions of creation are to be understood in the meaning of: Atahi (i.e. bestowed), Baaz (i.e. partial), Waqti (i.e. transient), Majazi (i.e. linguistical), Bi-Izni (i.e. with permission), Muntahai (i.e. limited), Makhlooq (i.e. created), Mumkin Al Fana (i.e. possible to annihilate), Bi-Misli (i.e. with comparison), and Makhlooqi (i.e. creations). These principles establish clear difference between Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and His creation. They are also foundation for correct understanding of Tawheed/Shirk and are essential to correct understanding of Zia Bashir’s principles.

0.2 – Important Point About Thirteen Concepts Essential For Understanding Tawheed:

In the forth coming writing occasionally a concept from essential concepts of Tawheed will be employed to illustrate a understanding. This is not to mean that only that particular concept applies to the Ilah-Determining principle. Rather all thirteen can be applied to every stated principle. Muslims are advised to widen their understanding by applying all thirteen essential concepts of Tawheed to each Ilah-Determining principle. These thirteen concepts are used by Muslims to understand the Zaat (i.e. the Being), the Sifaat (i.e. the Attributes) and the A’fal (i.e. the Actions) of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). If any of them is attributed to a creation’s Zaat, Sifaat or A’fal then it has been elevated to status of an Ilah partner of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala).

1.0 - Heretical Principles Of Determining An Ilah:

Zia Bashir joined the IslamiMehfil and presented the following Ilah-Determining principles in Urdu[3] on which he judged if a Muslim has taken another creation as an Ilah:

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Below English translation of these principles is being provided but in concise compounded paragraph possible.

1.1 - Translation Of Zia Bashir’s Urdu Principles:

To believe any being has control over benefit and harm, or can alleviate every type of hardship/upsetting [matter], or has the power in the kingdom of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) to utilize the means in the skies and earth (i.e. such as sends rain from clouds and grows crops from earth), is elevating the being to status of God. Or to believe a being grants sustenance, or is in charge of distributing sustenance and grants to which the being wills, or believing a being grants son/daughter, or a being is part of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) as son/daughter, is elevating the being to status of God. Worshiping the being in any way (i.e. invoking a being for help) or believing the being is acting attorney/disposer of all [affairs of creation] is elevating the being to status of God. To give life to the dead, to [breath] life into a clay figurine is in power of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala), life and death’s owner is only Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and to believe this power for anyone other then Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is elevating the being to status of god, it is polytheism.

1.2 - Fundamental Rule Explaining Each Ilah-Determining Principle:

At the back of each of these Ilah-Determining principles is the belief that only the Ilah, meaning Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is able to do this and actively engages in carrying these out. Therefore if Allah’s (subhanahu wa ta’ala) quality is attributed to creation then creation is made an Ilah-partner of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). A general principle which applies to all of the mentioned and absent Ilah-Determining principles is: Only Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) can […] and attributing this quality of […] to y is making y an equal partner with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) hence y is elevated to status of an Ilah.[2] All one has to do to understand the Khariji position is to insert the important details mentioned in the Ilah-Determining principles between the square brackets and it will explain why it is Shirk in Kharijism.

1.3 – The Agreed Upon Ilah-Determining Principles:

The Muslims and Khawarij are in agreement; to believe a creation is worthy of worship and to worship a creation instead of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) or as well as Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is to elevate the creation to status of an Ilah partner of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Further more if a creation is believed to be, father, mother, son, daughter, wife of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) then creation is elevated to the status of an Ilah. Due to agreement between the Muslims and Khawarij these aspects will not be discussed or criticized.

2.0 - Deconstructing Benefit And Harm Ilah-Determining Principle:

The following Ilah-Determining principle is erroneous if taken literally: ‘To believe any being has authority/control over benefit and harm that is elevating the being to status of Ilah.’ A creation can harm/benefit and a man has control/authority (i.e. Ikhtiyar) over benefit and harm. As result a creation can physically, materially and emotionally harm and benefit another. To deny the harm/benefit from one creation to another is utterly foolish but it would be appropriate to substantiate this from words of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is reported to have said: “If anyone harms (others), Allah will harm him, and if anyone shows hostility to others, Allah will show hostility to him.” [Ref: Abu Dawood, B24, H3628] The words of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) indicate a creation is able to harm another. Regarding benefit Hadhrat Ibn Abbas (radiallah ta’ala anhu) narrated: “The Prophet passed by a dead goat and said, "There is no harm if its owners benefit from its skin." [Ref: Bukhari, B67, H440] Note, if the skin of sheep can give benefit and in it there is benefit then how can the living not benefit/harm? Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) instructs: “Say: "I possess no power over benefit or harm to myself except as Allah wills. If I had the knowledge of the Ghayb (Unseen), I should have secured for myself an abundance of wealth, and no evil should have touched me. I am but a warner, and a bringer of glad tidings unto people who believe." [Ref: 7:188] This establishes creation of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is able to inflict harm and does benefit each other by the will of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). If one denies the harm/benefit of creation proceed to spark his/her lights out with a cracking upper-cut under the chin just when the tongue is between the teeth. Then enquire if you have harmed him if the answer is in affirmative then nicely help him/her to find his teeth and tongue. If his answer is in negative continue the assault until desired effect is achieved. If one affirms; creation has ability to harm/benefit one has elevated a creation to status of an Ilah according to his own principle and according to his/her own principle he/she is polytheist.

2.1 - Benefit And Harm Ilah-Determining Principle In Light Of Ma Fawq Al Asbab:

One may interpret the following Ilah-Determining principle with specific of ma fawq al asbab (i.e. that which is out of means) principle: ‘To believe any being has authority/control over benefit and harm that is elevating the being to status of Ilah.’ It would be reinterpreted to mean, to believe anyone has authority/control over harming or benefitting supernaturally is to elevate that being to status of Ilah. There are two important points to be made in this regard. First of all, heretic believes natural and supernatural harm/benefit is from Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and the creation is wasail (i.e. means) of harm/benefit. Therefore in heretics creed to believe a creation can harm/benefit supernaturally or naturally both should be cause of elevating a creation to status of an Ilah. Secondly, we the Muslims believe; creation of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is able to and does harm/benefit supernaturally [or in other words with ma fawq al asbab-ly] and the evidence of this is in Quran and Ahadith. Supernatural benefit is established from Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) healing the broken leg of companion who had gone avenged the honor of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and due to misjudgment fell and broke his leg.[4] Supernatural harm is proven from the magical spells, we believe people have ability to inflict harm to others via magic. Hence ma fawq al asbab and ma teht al asbab harm/benefit is possible and is established with evidence. By believing that creation of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is able to harm/benefit supernaturally are we elevating the creation of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) to status of an Ilah or not? A just and principled answer would be, yes we elevate y to status of an Ilah by believing in supernatural benefit/harm. By answering with affirmative one establishes that with and without Takhsees (i.e. specific) of Ilah-Determining principle, both establish a Muslim ends elevating a creation to status of an Ilah. If Ilah-Determining principle is Islamicly supported then all Muslims are polytheistic disbelievers and this cannot be correct.

2.2 - Understanding Benefit/Harm Ilah-Determining Principle In Light Of Tawheed:

Even though the Ilah-Determining principle is defective but it still can be interpreted correctly if the correct methodology is used to interpret it. If the principle is interpreted for Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) in the light of following thirteen concepts fundamental to understanding of Tawheed then indeed Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is the Only One able to and does harm/benefit: Wajib Ul Wujud (i.e. necessary existence), Zaati (i.e. personal), Qulli (i.e. total), Azli/Abdi (i.e. eternal), Haqiqi (i.e. real), Bi-Ghayr Izni (i.e. without permission), Ghair-Muntahai (i.e. unlimited), Ghayr Makhlooq (i.e. uncreated), Muhaal Al Fana (i.e. impossible to annihilate), Bi-Ghayr Misl (i.e. without comparison), and Khaliqi (i.e. Creator’s). And to believe anyone harms/benefits according to these thirteen Tawheedi concepts would amount to elevating the creation to status of an Ilah. Not if creation of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is believed to be able to and does harm/benefit with the following thirteen concepts then no doubt creation does harm/benefit: Momkin Ul Wujud (i.e. possible existence), Atahi (i.e. bestowed), Baaz (i.e. partial), Waqti (i.e. transient), Majazi (i.e. linguistical), Bi-Izni (i.e. with permission), Muntahai (i.e. limited), Makhlooq (i.e. created), Mumkin Al Fana (i.e. possible to annihilate), Bi-Misli (i.e. with comparison), and Makhlooqi (i.e. creations).

2.3 – Interpreting The Ilah-Determining Principle According To Islamic Tawheedi Concepts:

Now if Ilah-Determining principle is interpreted in light of these concepts then it means; ‘To believe any being possesses [Zaati] authority/control over benefit and harm that is elevating the being to status of Ilah.’ This insertion in square bracket means, to believe a creation has personal authority and control to harm/benefit and the creation has not been granted the authority/control by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) then that creation has been elevated to status of an Ilah. We Muslims believe our benefitting/harming is with Allah’s (subhanahu wa ta’ala) granted/bestowed power and abilities hence we are not making ourselves equal with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) in benefitting or harming. With this correct understanding one can attribute natural [ma teht al asbab] or supernatural [ma fawq al asbab] harm and benefit to creation of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) without elevating creation of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) to status of an Ilah and without warranting major Shirk. And we Muslims do believe in ma fawq al asbab benefit from Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and we do believe such type of harm from magic/sorcery but because these are believed to be granted by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) we are not elevating them to Ilahs.

2.4 – Concluding This Section Of Benefit And Harm:

It should be apparent to the reader that if the principle is literally interpreted in the light of Khariji methodology Muslim would be accused of elevating creation to status of an Ilah and if the principle is reinterpreted in light of ma fawq al asbab the end is exactly the same unless one chooses to deny verses of Quran and Ahadith which establish ma fawq al asbab benefit/harm. In case of denying Quranic verses and Mutawatir Ahadith then person commits Kufr which invalidates his belief in Islam. So there is no safe way out – hold to the principle then everyone including the principle presenter is polytheistic Kafir and rejects the evidences and principle presenter is still Kafir. The Islamic concepts of Tawheed on other hand support the teaching of Islam and do not make them Kufr or Shirk which the Khariji methodology establishes. If a Muslim believes, natural/supernatural harm and benefit is from Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and the creation benefits/harms by Allah’s (subhanahu wa ta’ala) given power/ability, then one does not elevate the creation to status of an Ilah. In short the Khariji methodology deems believing in established Islamic teachings as elevating a creation to status of an Ilah but the true Islamic concepts of Tawheed ensure those teaching are portrayed correctly – in accordance with Tawheed.

3.0 – Benefit And Harm Ilah-Determining Principle And Its Foundation:

Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has stated: “Say: "How do you worship besides Allah something which has no power either to harm or benefit you? But it is Allah Who is the All-Hearer, All-Knower." [Ref: 5:76] Other verses of Quran clearly establish Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is the One who harms and benefits: “And if Allah touches you with harm, there is none who can remove it but He, and if He intends any good for you, there is none who can repel His favor which He causes it to reach whomsoever of His slaves He wills. And He is the Oft-Forgiving, the Most Merciful.” [Ref: 6:17] “And if Allah touches you with harm, none can remove it but He, and if He touches you with good, then He is Able to do all things.” [Ref: 6:17] Based on the conclusion that none beside Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) can harm/benefit and only Allah is able to harm/benefit the following Ilah-Determining principle was invented: ‘To believe any being has authority/control over benefit and harm that is elevating the being to status of Ilah.’ This deduction is absolutely incorrect and against the teaching of Islam which is already been established in previous section.

3.1 – Explaining The Verse Of Harm And Benefit:

Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) says: “Say: "How do you worship besides Allah something which has no power either to harm or benefit you? But it is Allah Who is the All-Hearer, All-Knower." [Ref: 5:76] The verse insinuates, O polytheists how could you choose for your selves idols as worthy of worship when they have no power to harm/benefit? Implying they should consider the One Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) as worthy of worship because the ones they have chosen as Alihah possesses no ability to harm or benefit to their own selves therefore how can they harm benefit you: Yet they have taken besides Him other Alihah (i.e. Gods/Deities – as deserving of worship) who created nothing but are themselves created and possess neither harm nor benefit for themselves, and possess no power (of causing) death, nor (of giving) life, nor of raising the dead.” [Ref: 25:3] It is important to point that these Gods/Deities – deserving of worship are according to Quran. In the story of Prophet Ibrahim (alayhis salaam) these harmless/benefit-less Alihah have been revealed: “And recite to them the story of Ibrahim (Abraham). When he said to his father and his people: "What do you worship?" They said: "We worship idols, and to them we are ever devoted." He said: "Do they hear you, when you call on (them)? Or do they benefit you or do they harm (you)?" [Ref: 26:69/72] So those whom Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) declares are harmless/benefit-less are idol-Deities of polytheists. Therefore an Ilah-Determining principle based on these verses which is general and inclusive of all is heretical. The Ilah-Determining principle should be specific to Ilah-idol/Ilah-being and inclusive of all essential details especially when these verses are being used to support the principle.

3.2 – The Quran Supported Ilah-Determining Principle Of Benefit And Harm:

As it was established in the previous section that the verses are about idol-Deities of polytheists therefore the principle should be inclusive of all details: ‘To believe a idol/being is worthy of worship and possesses authority/control over benefit and harm that is elevating the being to status of Ilah.’ This scripturally supported Ilah-Determining principle is above any criticism and all criticism leveled against the Khariji’s derived principle in section 2.0 and 2.1 is obsolete. Further more this principle can be further refined according to the thirteen concepts which are fundamental part of Tawheed. One can insert any one of the thirteen concepts of essential for Tawheed between the square brackets as it is done in the following example: ‘To believe a idol/being is worthy of worship or/and possesses [Zaati] authority/control over benefit and harm that is elevating the being to status of Ilah.’ Correct interpretation from the previous section and this section have been brought together to perfect the Ilah-Determining principle.

4.0 – Ilah-Determining Principle Of Alleviating Every Difficulty And Hardship:

Following Ilah-Determining principle is inconsistent with teaching of Islam if it is taken on face value: To believe a being is able alleviate every hardship/difficulty that is elevating the being to status of Ilah.’ As Muslims we believe Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is the One who can do all and nothing is beyond His capability and this is attested in numerous verses of Quran: “We do not abrogate a verse or cause it to be forgotten except that We bring forth [one] better than it or similar to it. Do you not know that Allah is over all things competent?” [Ref: 2:106] Implication is, know that Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is able to do everything. Also this question has been answered another verse: “The lightning almost snatches away their sight. Every time it lights [the way] for them, they walk therein; but when darkness comes over them, they stand [still]. And if Allah had willed, He could have taken away their hearing and their sight. Indeed, Allah is over all things competent.” [Ref: 2:20] And those who have gained his pleasure such as Prophets/Saints are given supernatural powers with which they can perform wonders. Hadith records Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has said: “’I will declare war against him who shows hostility to a pious worshipper of Mine. And the most beloved things with which My slave comes nearer to Me, is what I have enjoined upon him; and My slave keeps on coming closer to Me through performing Nawafil till I love him, so …” Once the slave/servant of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) becomes beloved to Him then result is that Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) becomes eyes, ears, hands and legs of His servant: “… I become his sense of hearing with which he hears, and his sense of sight with which he sees, and his hand with which he grips, and his leg with which he walks; …” And the invocations of the beloved servant are answered: “… and if he asks Me, I will give him, and if he asks My protection (refuge), I will protect him and I do not hesitate to do anything as I hesitate to take the soul of the believer, for he hates death, and I hate to disappoint him." [Ref: Bukhari, B76, H509] Note Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) does not become actual hands, legs, eyes and ears of His servant/slave but it means Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) grants him supernatural powers. They are potentially able to alleviate every trouble and remove hardship because the source of their ability is Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Nothing is impossible for the Prophets/Saints because nothing is impossible for Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala).

4.1 – Examples Of Prophets And Saints Alleviating Difficulties:

Hadith records during a journey companions ran short of water Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) instructed them to bring him the remaining water and water poured from his fingers: “Once we were with Allah's Messenger on a journey, and we ran short of water. He said, "Bring the water remaining with you." The people brought a utensil containing a little water. He placed his hand in it and said, "Come to the blessed water, and the Blessing is from Allah." I saw the water flowing from among the fingers of Allah's Messenger and no doubt, we heard the meal glorifying Allah, when it was being eaten (by him). [Ref: Bukhari, B56, H779] Another Hadith records an incident where a companion had poor date harvest and his Jewish creditor was refusing to give extension for repaying the loan which companion owed to him. Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) requested him to extend the period for another year but he consistently refused. Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) walked in the date-garden of companion and told him to pluck the dates needed to repay the loan: "O Jabir! Pluck dates to repay your debt." The Jew remained with me while I was plucking the dates, till I paid him all his right, yet there remained extra quantity of dates. So I went out and preceded till I reached the Prophet and informed him of the good news, whereupon he said, "I testify that I am Allah's Messenger." [Ref: Bukhari, B65, H354] A Hadith records Hadhrat Abu Hurairah (radiallah ta’ala anhu) spent substantial time with Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) but he had difficulty in remembering the Hadith of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). He informed Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) of his problem saying: “I said to Allah's Messenger "I hear many Hadiths from you but I forget them." Allah's Apostle said, "Spread your Rida' (garment)." I did accordingly and then he moved his hands as if filling them with something and then said, "Take and wrap this sheet over your body." I did it and after that I never forgot any thing. Narrated Ibrahim bin Al-Mundhir: Ibn Abi Fudaik narrated the same as above but added that the Prophet had moved his hands as if filling them with something and then he emptied them in the Rida' of Abu Hurairah. [Ref: Bukhari, B3, H119] In Quran while narrating the story of Prophet Sulaiman (alayhis salaam) Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) narrates a supernatural ability of a companion who belonged to court of Prophet Sulaiman (alayhis salaam). Prophet Sulaiman (alayhis salaam) said: “He said: ‘O chiefs! Which of you can bring me her throne before they come to me surrendering them selves in obedience?” In response a Jinn said: “I will bring it to you before you rise from your place (council). And verily, I am indeed strong, and trustworthy for such work.” But another believer said he has ability to bring it in a blink of an eye: “One with whom was knowledge of the Scripture said: ‘I will bring it to you within the twinkling of an eye!’ Then when he saw it placed before him, he said: "This is by the Grace of my Lord - to test me whether I am grateful or ungrateful! And whoever is grateful, truly, his gratitude is for his own self; and whoever is ungrateful, (he is ungrateful only for the loss of his own self). Certainly my Lord is Rich, Bountiful.’” [Ref: 27:38/40] These are only few examples where the Prophets and Awliyah-Allah performed feats which are impossible for ordinary folk. These incidents are testimony to the principle nothing was impossible for the Prophets and nothing is impossible for the Awliyah-Allah and they can in principle alleviate all types of troubles people experience, be they ma fawq al asbab or ma teht al asbab. Considering the established facts from Quran and Hadith it is correct to say that the following principle is not in accordance with teaching of Islam: To believe a being is able alleviate every hardship/difficulty that is elevating the being to status of Ilah.’

4.3 – Deconstructing Every Difficulty And Hardship Ilah-Determining Principle:

If one considers the following principle to be valid: To believe a being is able alleviate every hardship/difficulty that is elevating the being to status of Ilah.’ And if Muslim believes a Prophet/Wali-Allah is able to resolve all difficulties with permission of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) then one would be accused of elevating a Prophet/Wali-Allah to status of an Ilah. Yet it is evident from previous two sections ma teht al asbab and ma fawq al asbab difficulties were alleviated and all such problems can be alleviated by beloved creations of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and this is indeed the belief of Muslims. Then questions is; are we elevating beloved creations of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) to status of Ilahs? As a Muslim one must answer it negatively because it is not possible to believe in Islamic teaching yet be guilty of elevating creation to status of Ilahs and be guilty of major Shirk? Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) said a Muslim is brother of another Muslim and if a Muslim meets the needs of another Muslim Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) will fulfill his greater needs. The part of Hadith relevant to our discussion continues from narrated: He should neither commit oppression upon him nor ruin him, and he who meets the need of a brother, Allah would meet big needs, and he who relieved a Muslim from hardship Allah would relieve him from the hardships to which he would be put on the Day of Resurrection …” [Ref: Muslim, B32, H6250] In short all types of hardships are alleviated by creation of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). The elect/elite from the Muslims meaning Prophets/Awliyah-Allah can meet alleviate all the hardships but the Awam (i.e. general public) also alleviates the hardships of one and another.

4.4 - Understanding Hardship/Difficulty Ilah-Determining Principle According To Tawheed:

This Ilah-Determining principle if it is understood according to the meaning of: Wajib Ul Wujud (i.e. necessary existence), Zaati (i.e. personal), Qulli (i.e. total), Azli/Abdi (i.e. eternal), Haqiqi (i.e. real), Bi-Ghayr Izni (i.e. without permission), Ghair-Muntahai (i.e. unlimited), Ghayr Makhlooq (i.e. uncreated), Muhaal Al Fana (i.e. impossible to annihilate), Bi-Ghayr Misl (i.e. without comparison), and Khaliqi (i.e. Creator’s), then only Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is able to alleviate all hardships and remove difficulties. Now if the creation is believed to be alleviating hardships and removing difficulties then it is according to the following concepts: Momkin Ul Wujud (i.e. possible existence), Atahi (i.e. bestowed), Baaz (i.e. partial), Waqti (i.e. transient), Majazi (i.e. linguistical), Bi-Izni (i.e. with permission), Muntahai (i.e. limited), Makhlooq (i.e. created), Mumkin Al Fana (i.e. possible to annihilate), Bi-Misli (i.e. with comparison), and Makhlooqi (i.e. creations). If a Muslim understands the Ilah-Determining principle according to these essential concepts then to believe that a creation alleviates ma fawq al asbab and ma teht al asbab hardships and difficulties, is blameless.

4.5 - Harmonizing Every Difficulty/Hardship Ilah-Determining Principle With Islam:

The following principle can be harmonized by inserting one of the thirteen concepts essential for correct understanding of Tawheed: To believe a being is able alleviate every hardship/difficulty [bi-Ghayr Iznillah] that is elevating the being to status of Ilah.’ The Ilah-Determining principle now means, to believe a being is able to alleviate every hardship/difficult without Allah’s (subhanahu wa ta’ala) permission then that being has been elevated to status of an Ilah partner of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). We the Muslims believe everything a being is, does and possesses is with permission of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and only Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is the One who is not subject to Izn of another superior because there is none over seeing His rule. The creation of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) alleviates every difficulty/hardship with permission of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and none can do anything in His creation without His permission (i.e. Izn).

5.0 – Evidence Related To Ilah-Determining Principle Of Hardship/Difficulty:

Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has stated in the Quran: And if Allah should touch you with adversity, there is no remover of it except Him; and if He intends for you good, then there is no repellent of His bounty. He causes it to reach that He wills of His servants. And He is the Forgiving, the Merciful.” [Ref: 10:107] The Khariji logic is, Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is able to remove/alleviate adversity and to believe a being other then Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is able to alleviate adversity is to attribute Godly power to that creation. Therefore the creation is made partner with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and partner of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is an Ilah. Hence the following Ilah-Determining principle is based on the quoted verses: To believe a being is able alleviate every hardship/difficulty that is elevating the being to status of Ilah.’

5.1 - Explaining The Verse Of Adversity In Light Of Quran:

Polytheists said to Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) due to his criticism of their deities: "We say nothing but that (perhaps) some of our gods may have seized thee with imbecility. “He said: "I call Allah to witness, and do ye bear witness, that I am free from the sin of ascribing, to Him." [Ref: 11:54] They also demanded that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) compromise Tawheed and take the Idols as partners of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Also the Arab polytheists believed Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is the Supreme Deity, a Deity above their Deities as such Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) instructs Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) to enquire from polytheists: “Should I take other than Him deities (while) if the Most Merciful intends for me some adversity, their intercession will not avail me at all, nor can they save me?” [Ref: 36:23]  “Say: "Call upon those - besides Him - whom you pretend. They have neither the power to remove the adversity from you nor even to shift it from you to another person."  [Ref: 17:56] And Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) also stated: And if Allah should touch you with adversity, there is no remover of it except Him; and if He intends for you good, then there is no repellent of His bounty. He causes it to reach that He wills of His servants. And He is the Forgiving, the Merciful.” [Ref: 10:107] Alhasil, the polytheists believed their deities had the ability to inflict harm and put people in difficulties/hardships and Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) states; their deities are unable to save their devotees from adversity/hardship and harm. This establishes that Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is stating in Quran; none from the Ilah of polytheists can alleviate any hardship/difficulty. The Ilah-idols of polytheists are unable to do anything nor could they benefit or harm themselves, nor they had power to move a affliction from one to another. Note, even though Prophet Isa (alayhis salaam) was/is believed to be a deity but he is recorded to have healed the blind, lepers, raised the dead, and breathed life into bird figurines. This establishes the inability to remove hardship/difficulty in the verses was not regarding humans but regarding the Ilah-Idols. Therefore the Ilah-Determining principle should not be general but specific to Ilah-idols or Ilah-beings.

5.2 – Quran Supported Ilah-Determining Principle Of Alleviating Hardship/Difficulty:

It was established in previous sections that Ilah-Idols of polytheists were unable to help and remove adversity from anyone and verses were connected to the Ilah-Idols of polytheists and not human. Hence the following principle accurately represents Islamic position: ‘To believe an idol/being is an Ilah and is able to alleviate every [or few, or one, or any] hardship/difficulty that is elevating the being to status of Ilah.” Just like the previous principle this one too can be expanded to incorporate wider dimension: ‘To believe an idol/being is an Ilah or/and is able to alleviate every [or few, or one, or any] hardship/difficulty [bi-Ghayr Iznillah] that is elevating the being to status of Ilah.” Note, if the principle is read as, to believe an idol/being is an Ilah and is able to alleviate every, or few, or one, or any hardship/difficulty, then bi-Ghayr Iznillah and bi-Iznillah attachments will not change the ruling of creation being elevated to status of an Ilah.

5.3 – Concluding Alleviating Hardship/Difficulty Ilah-Determining Principle:

The polytheists believed their inanimate Ilah-Idols had the ability to remove hardships and inflict harm upon those who displease them. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) states He alone removes difficulties as an Ilah. This was not to negate the human ability to alleviate hardships/difficulties to negate the abilities of idols of polytheists. Also Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) affirmed the ability to alleviate hardships/difficulties. He is our Ilah/Rabb as such possesses all capabilities to govern His kingdom and affirmation of His ability to alleviate hardships is according to the thirteen essential components of Tawheed. Hence if anyone is made partner in anyone of the thirteen components then such a being would be elevated to status of an Ilah. Considering all these details, the Ilah-Determining principle has been corrected.


[Continued ...]

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6.0 – Principle Of Excercising Authority On Earth And Universe:

The following Ilah determining principle contradicts fundamentals of Islam if it is understood literally: ‘To believe a being can exercise authority in the heavenly and earthly kingdom of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is elevating the being to status of Ilah.’ This principle is invalid because mankind excercises authority on property they own because mankind buys/sells their property and this is form of excercising authority. Whosoever is capabale of enacting something then such person has ikhtiyar (i.e. authority) over it. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has granted your soul authority over your body and due to it your soul excercises its authority over your body to engage in good/bad actions. Husband excercises his authority over his wife. Mother excercises her authority over the children. Leader of a country excercises authority entrusted to him over the subjects. In short entire system of world is runs of people excercising authority and to hold to the principle literally will be nothing but foolishness. As an example of creation excercising authority - Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) said to Iblees: "Certainly, you shall have no authority over My slaves, except those who follow you from the deviants.”  [Ref: 15:42] This establishes Iblees will not exercise authority over servants of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) but over deviants he will exercise authority.  His authority would be to invite mankind toward sinful deeds and he would continously misguide his followers until he completely leads them astray and into hell fire. Iblees will testify to this exercise of authority: “And Satan will say when the matter has been concluded, "Indeed, Allah had promised you the promise of truth. And I promised you, but I betrayed you. But I had no authority over you except that I invited you and you responded to me. So do not blame me; but blame yourselves. I cannot be called to your aid, nor can you be called to my aid. Indeed, I deny your association of me [with Allah ] before. Indeed, for the wrongdoers is a painful punishment." [Ref:  14:22] In other words Iblees is stating; my authority over you was to invite to [my misguidance] and you responded to it [by enacting it] and I excercised no other authority over you. Alhasil creation of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) excercising authority is over which Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has given them right is established therefore the principle cannot be reflecting Islamic teachings.

6.1 – Principle Of Excercising Authority In Light Of ‘Ma Fawq Al Asbab’ Principle:

It could be possible that a heretic may reinterpret the principle as such: ‘To believe a being can exercise authority to do ‘that which is out of means’ in the heavenly and earthly kingdom of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is elevating the being to status of Ilah.’ In this case what he is saying is; to believe a being can perform supernatural activities in kingdom of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is to elevate that creation to status of an Ilah. It is worth pointing out that whatsoever creation is capable of performing it is performed because Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has granted the right. Whenever a creation utilizes what it has right over it is demonstration of authority being excercised over what the creation has right over, be it natural or supernatural. Please take note of the mentioned point and keep it in mind because it is essential tool for understanding previous and following section.

6.2 – Dajjal Excercising Authority Over Super Natural:

It is reported in authentic Ahadith that Dajjal will be able to kill and bring the dead back to life and he will use this ability to put forward claim of Rabb beside Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala): “… the entrances of Medina. He will land in some of the salty barren areas (outside) Medina; on that day the best man or one of the best men will come up to him and say, 'I testify that you are the same Dajjal whose description was given to us by Allah's Messenger.' Ad-Dajjal will say to the people, 'If I kill this man and bring him back to life again, will you doubt my claim?' They will say, 'No.' Then Ad-Dajjal will kill that man and bring him back to life. That man will say, 'Now I know your reality better than before.' Ad-Dajjal will say, 'I want to kill him but I cannot.' " [Ref: Bukhari, B30, H106] One Hadith records the method which Dajjal will use to kill his antagonist: “Then the Dajjal would ask him: Don't you believe in me? He would say: You are a false Masih. He would then order him to be torn (into pieces) with a saw from the parting of his hair up to his legs. After that the Dajjal would walk between the two pieces. He would then say to him: Stand, and he would stand erect. He would then say to him: Don't you believe in me? And the person would say: It has only added to my insight concerning you (that you are really the Dajjal).” [Ref: Muslim, B41, H7019]  An Hadith from Sahih Muslim narrates the man killed by Dajjal will be Khidar (alayhis salaam) who is from the men of unseen (i.e. rijaal al ghayb).[5] Continuing the murder aspect, Hadith gives further detail to how Khidar (alayhis salaam) will be killed: “Then he will call a man brimming with youth and will strike him with a sword and cut him in two. He will put the two pieces as far apart as the distance between an archer and his target. Then he will call him and he will come with his face shining, laughing.” [Ref: Ibn Majah, B36, H4075] Hadith of Ibn Majah also states; Dajjal will be able to control the clouds and he will instruct the clouds to rain. He will instruct earth to produce vegetation and earth will do as he commands. He will inflict draught upon those who disbelieve in him and command the treasures of wasteland to come forth and treasures will follow him: “We said: 'How fast will he move through the earth?' He said: 'Like a rain cloud driving by the wind.' He said: 'He will come to some people and call them, and they will respond and believe in him. Then he will command the sky to rain and it will rain, and he will command the earth to produce vegetation and it will do so, and their flocks will come back in the evening with their humps taller, their udders fuller and their flanks fatter than they have ever been. Then he will come to some (other) people and call them, and they will reject him, so he will turn away from them and they will suffer drought and be left with nothing. Then he will pass through the wasteland and will say: "Bring forth your treasures," then go away, and its treasures will follow him like a swarm of bees. [Ref: Ibn Majah, B36, H4075] Note, Dajjal restoring the body and life, sending of rain and with-holding rain, instructing the earth to produce vegetation and instructing earth to yield its treasures all is proof of excercising authority over supernatural.

6.3 – Final Argument Against Principle Of Excercising Authority:

Now, if belief in creation engaging in supernatural activities is truly Islamic criteria of elevating a creation to status of an Ilah then the heretics must contend with fact that al Masih ad-Dajjal (i.e. the impostor Christ) will be able to exercise authority over supernatural. Based on their principle it is imperative; they believe in their false lord – al Masih ad-Dajjal as their Lord incarnate or repent from forwarding principles which depict Muslims as polytheists. This is true on two accounts; i) heretics employ this principle to accuse Muslims of taking Ilahs beside Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala), ii) and if the principle is true then Dajjal fulfills the criteria of being Lord as such Dajjal is the Lord of Muslims, Wahhabis, Shias and everyone else, even if we choose not to believe so. It is firmly established from Ahadith that Dajjal will be blind in one eye and words of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) are regarding Dajjal being the Lord: There is never a prophet who has not warned the Ummah of that one-eyed liar; behold he is one-eyed and your Lord is not one-eyed. On his forehead are the letters Kfr (i.e. Kafir, disbeliever).[Ref: Muslim, B41, H7007] Lord of universe is Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and there is nothing like Him in His creation: “[He is] Creator of the heavens and the earth. He has made for you from yourselves, mates, and among the cattle, mates; He multiplies you thereby. There is nothing like unto Him, and He is the Hearing, the Seeing.” [Ref: 42:11] Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is not one-eyed therefore He is not the impostor Christ and our Lord is not two-eyed therefore He is not a male or female, animal or insect, fish or a bird, but He is Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) without likeness to his creation. Hence when a principle justifies the Ilahiyyah of Dajjal and supports his claim of Rububiyyah then it cannot be Islamic principle.[6]

 

[Continued ...]

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Reconciling Principle Of Exercising Authority:

The heretical principle can be reconciled with Islamic teaching of Shirk if it is understood in the following fashion: ‘To believe a being can exercise [Ghayr Muntahai type of] authority in the heavenly and earthly kingdom of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is elevating the being to status of Ilah.’ This insertion produces the meaning that to believe a creation exercises authority over all universe [inanimate and animate] then the creation is being elevated to status of an Ilah. This insertion does not criminalize limited and restricted right of exercising authority over natural or supernatural. It is important to point out; if it is believed that a creation exercises ‘Ghayr Muntahai’ type of authority over that which comes under the category of ‘Ma Teht Al Asbab’ and with wasail (i.e. means) of ‘Ma Teht Al Asbab’ then it is still major Shirk. This establishes Wahhabi concepts of ‘Ma Teht Al Asbab’ and ‘Ma Fawq Al Asbab’ are inconsequential when it comes to determining Shirk because natural and supernatural takes place with asbab and wasail. Yet in methodology of heretics only if one exercises authority over ‘Ma Fawq Al Asbab’ then it is major Shirk but not over ‘Ma Teht Al Asbab’. Where as Islamicly if one of thirteen concepts is coupled with that which comes under the category of ‘Ma Teht Al Asbab’ then it also is major Shirk. Fundamentally, exercise of authority over ‘Ma Teht Al Asbab’ or ‘Ma Fawq Al Asbab’ is not valid basis for determining major Shirk. Rather the thirteen concepts and affirmation of Ilahiyyah are foundation for determining major Shirk.

Zia Bashir’s Evidence For Negating Creations Ability To Exercising Authority:

Zia Bashir discussed the issue of exercising authority in light of the following verses of Quran: “Say, "I possess not for myself any harm or benefit except what Allah should will. For every nation is a [specified] term. When their time has come, then they will not remain behind an hour, nor will they precede [it]." [Ref: 10:49] “Say: "I possess no power over benefit or harm to myself except as Allah wills. If I had the knowledge of the Ghayb (Unseen), I should have secured for myself an abundance of wealth, and no evil should have touched me. I am but a warner, and a bringer of glad tidings unto people who believe." [Ref: 7:188] From these two verses he wished to argue that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and generally all creation possessed absolutely no authority over benefit or harm. In post 76, Zia Bashir quoted the following verse: “Say: "How do you worship besides Allah something which has no power either to harm or benefit you? But it is Allah Who is the All-Hearer, All-Knower." [Ref: 5:76] To establish his claim that none has the right to exercise authority over benefit and harm.

Interpreting Verses To Establish Exercising Authority/Power Over Benefit And Harm:

Both verses of Quran begin with negation: "I possess not for myself any harm or benefit …” and second verse is translated as: "I possess no power over benefit or harm to myself …” Yet the last part portion of both verses affirm ability of harm and benefit: “… except what Allah should will.” and the other verse: “… except as Allah wills.” The rule is when negation is followed by affirmation then both negation and affirmation combine to negate and affirm something. As an example the following statement is negation: “I have nothing to eat …” and an affirmation to follow would be: “… except an apple and a banana.” This means one making the statement has nothing to eat apart from the two mentioned. Similarly, the verses of Quran are combination of negation and affirmation therefore harm/benefit is being negated and affirmed. In other words Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is instructed to say [as an act of humility] that I have absolutely no authority to harm and benefit myself other then the harm and benefit which I can bring to myself by will of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Finally I quote the words of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) to put the explanation into perspective: "I possess no power over benefit or harm to myself except [power/authority over benefit/harm to my self] as Allah wills.

Elect Of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) Exercising Authority/Power:

The proof of creation of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) having right to exercise authority [over supernatural to benefit] and benefitting is that Prophet Isa (alayhis salaam) said: “And will make him a Messenger to the Children of Israel (saying): "I have come to you with a sign from your Lord, that I design for you out of clay, a figure like that of a bird, and breathe into it, and it becomes a bird by Allah's Leave; and I heal him who was born blind, and the leper, and I bring the dead to life by Allah's Leave. And I inform you of what you eat ... by Allah’s permission.” [Ref: 3:49] It is recorded in a Hadith that water had ran short while Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) was on a journey, here: He said, "Bring the water remaining with you." The people brought a container which had little water left. He placed his hand in it and said, "Come to the blessed water, and the Blessing is from Allah." I saw the water flowing from among the fingers of Allah's Messenger, and no doubt, we heard the meal glorifying Allah, when it was being eaten (by him).” [Ref: Bukhari, B56, H779] This is proof of exercising authority over supernatural with permission of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and benefitting the people with water. Another Hadith records: “Once, on a dark night, two of the companions of the Prophet departed (after a meeting with the prophet) and were led by two lights like lamps (from the sky) lighting the road in front of them. And, when they parted (from each other), each of them was accompanied by one of these lights till he reached his house.” [Ref: Bukhari, B8, H454] If I recall correctly, the two companions were Imam Hassan (radiallah ta’ala anhu) and Hussain (radiallah ta’ala anhu). These Ahadith prove the elect of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) exercise authority over the supernatural and benefit. Yet all exercise of authority over natural and supernatural is with permission and will of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala).

The Genesis Of Innovation And Misguidance:

 

The heretical understanding; creation of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) cannot exercise authority over anything to benefit and harm another is based on the following verse which was specifically revealed regarding the idols of polytheists: “Say: "How do you worship besides Allah something which has no power either to harm or benefit you? But it is Allah Who is the All-Hearer, All-Knower." [Ref: 5:76] The heretics apply the verse upon Prophets and pious Muslims and argue based on this verse none can benefit and harm nor can exercise authority over it. Note, the verse says; “How do you worship beside Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) which has no power to harm or benefit you?” There is indication that the polytheists worshipped that which did not harm or benefit at all. Does this verse apply to Prophet Isa (alayhis salaam) who is worshipped by Christians? And is there proof that he benefited and harmed? Before answering the question read the following verse again: “And will make him a Messenger to the Children of Israel (saying): "I have come to you with a sign from your Lord, that I design for you out of clay, a figure like that of a bird, and breathe into it, and it becomes a bird by Allah's Leave; and I heal him who was born blind, and the leper, and I bring the dead to life by Allah's Leave. And I inform you of what you eat ... by Allah’s permission.” [Ref: 3:49] They worship him yet he did benefit the born blind and the lepers and the dead. Based on this, the verse 5:76 cannot be referring to a human being, specially a Nabi or Wali because the implication of the verse is; they worship which does not benefit/harm. Yet it has been established one worshiped besides Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is able to benefit [supernatural].

Interpreting The Verse 5:76 In Light Of Quran:

Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) states: “Say: "How do you worship besides Allah something which has no power either to harm or benefit you? But it is Allah Who is the All-Hearer, All-Knower." [Ref: 5:76] They worshiped idols: “You only worship, besides Allah, idols, and you produce a falsehood. Indeed, those you worship besides Allah do not possess for you [the power of] provision. So seek from Allah provision and worship Him and be grateful to Him. To Him you will be returned." [Ref: 29:17] This means Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) in verse 5:76 is stating; how do you worship besides Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) idols which have no power to harm or benefit you? This is also established from the following verse: “They said, "We worship idols and remain to them devoted. He said, "Do they hear you when you supplicate? Or do they benefit you, or do they harm?"  [Ref:  26:71] They worshiped the idols because they had taken them as Aaliha even though they were benefit-less/harmless: “Yet they have taken besides Him other alihah (gods) who created nothing but are themselves created, and possess neither harm nor benefit for themselves, and possess no power (of causing) death, nor (of giving) life, nor of raising the dead.” [Ref: 25:3]

Idols Have No Power To Exercise Authority What So Ever:

To establish lack of ability of idols over benefit and harm Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) questions the polytheists: “Do they have feet by which they walk? Or do they have hands by which they strike? Or do they have eyes by which they see? Or do they have ears by which they hear? Say, "Call your 'partners' and then conspire against me and give me no respite.” [Ref: 7:195] Point of the verses is, despite having hands, eyes, ears, feet, the idols possess no life and have no capacity to hear, see, hold/strike or walk. In short, idols possess no benefit or harm to anyone because these idols lack the basic requirement of benefit/harm – such has life. Rather then being any benefit/harm to others, these idols Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) are helpless if fly was to snatch something from them: “O people, an example is presented, so listen to it. Indeed, those you invoke besides Allah will never create [as much as] a fly, even if they gathered together for that purpose. And if the fly should steal away from them a [tiny] thing, they could not recover it from him. Weak are the pursuer and pursued.” [Ref: 22:73] The idol could not bring it back from the fly nor could it harm to prevent the fly from taking it. In the story of Ibrahim (alayhis salaam) it is mentioned that he broke the idols and which was to demonstrate the inability of idols to benefit/harm, here: “And [i swear] by Allah, I will surely plan against your idols after you have turned and gone away. So he made them into fragments, except a large one among them that they might return to it. They said, ‘Who has done this to our gods? Indeed, he is of the wrongdoers?’ They said, "We heard a young man mention them who is called Abraham." [Ref: 21:57/60] They bring Prophet Ibrahim (alayhis salaam) and question him about breaking the idols and he responds the biggest one out of the idols had done it and told them to ask the idol. They replied saying you know these idols don’t speak and in response to them Prophet Ibrahim (alayhis salaam) said: “He said, ‘Then do you worship instead of Allah that which does not benefit you at all or harm you?’” [Ref: 21:66] Once again, point is if the idols had life they would have had the authority over benefit/harm and would have harmed Ibrahim (alayhis salaam) to prevent him from breaking idols, thus benefiting themselves.

Right Concept Employed In Wrong Context For Wrong Reasons:

A verse which was used to establish that idols of polytheists could not benefit or harm whatsoever [neither natural nor supernatural] was applied upon the Ambiyah, Awliyah and Muslims to argue none but Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) exercises authority over benefit and harm. Yet it has been established; the verse was not for Ambiyah, Awliyah nor Muslims or even human beings and therefore the teaching it imparts cannot be applied to the mentioned. In contrast to inability of idols to exercise authority over harm/benefit it has been established the human beings exercise authority over natural benefit/harm and elect of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) have authority to over supernatural as well. Hence to apply its command upon all mentioned is trait of the worst of creatures (i.e. Khawarij/Wahhabi) and they are from them: “... and the Mulhidun (heretical) after the establishment of firm proof against them: “And the statement of Allah: 'Allah will not mislead a people after He has guided them, until He makes clear to them what to avoid.' [9:115] And Ibn Umar used to consider them worst of Allah's creatures and said: "These people took some verses that had been revealed concerning the disbelievers and interpreted them as describing the believers.” [Ref: Bukhari, Volume 9, Page 49, Chapter 6: Killing The Khawarij] Mr Zia Bashir like his entire Khariji ilk engaged in applying the verse and its command upon Muslims when in reality the verse was revealed regarding the disbelievers.

Ilah Determining Principle Of Exercising Authority In Light Of Quran/Sunnah:

It has been established from Quran/Sunnah that creation of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) depending upon their status exercise authority over natural or natural as well as supernatural and it is according to the will and permission of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). The polytheists took their idols as Aaliha (i.e. gods) and expected benefit/harm from these idols. In response to which Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has stated these idols have no power/authority, nor have capacity to benefit/harm anyone and if they did they would have benefited themselves and harmed those who intended to harm them and harmed them. In light of all the evidence, it would be appropriate to straighten the crooked path of Khawarij, with this amendment: ‘To believe a being can exercise authority [as an Ilah] in the heavenly and earthly kingdom of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is elevating the being to status of Ilah.’ A comprehensive form of this principle would be: ‘To believe a being can exercise [Muntahai or Ghayr Muntahai type of] authority [as an Ilah] in the heavenly and earthly kingdom of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is elevating the being to status of Ilah.’ With the principles of Ahle Sunnat it becomes apparent that exercising authority in heavenly or earthly kingdom of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is not the foundation which elevates the creation to status of an Ilah but the belief that a creation is Ilah does and which was affirmed by polytheists explicitly.


[Continued ...]

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Principle Of Granting Sustenance:

The following Khariji principle is three principle in one depending on how you interpret details: ‘To believe a being grants rizq (meaning, distribution of sustenance is the beings responsibility and grants to anyone anything the being desires) or grants son/daughter, is elevating the being to status of an Ilah.’ The first one is without the content in the brackets. If the main part is content out of bracket then it is as: ‘To believe a being distributes rizq is elevating the being to status of an Ilah.’ and content between the brackets before word: “… responsibility and grants …” supports this part (i.e. to believe, distribution of sustenance is a beings responsibility… is elevating the being to status of an Ilah.). Note, in this case use of word: “… responsibility and grants …” in the sentence is to join two sentences together – in other words to distinguish between two aspects of the principle. The second understanding is that writer is stating ‘To believe a being distributes to anyone anything the being desires is elevating the being to status of an Ilah.’ In the later version, if the word and in: “… responsibility and grants …” is understood as pointing to two aspects or elaborating further on the part before and, in both cases it gives the meaning presented. It is unclear which of the two he intended. Alternatively, it could be that Mr. Zia intended to convey both and both are consistent with the methodology he used and would be accurately representing his views. The last one is obvious and clearly has nothing to do with rizq therefore a separate principle: ‘To believe a being grants son/daughter is elevating the being to status of an Ilah.’

The Problem With Sustenance Distribution Principle:

To believe that a being distributes sustenance is not against the belief of Quran/Sunnah and most definitely not a crime, which elevates the being to status of an Ilah. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) distributes by: “And indeed We have distributed it amongst them in order that they may remember (the Grace of Allah,) but most men accept nothing but disbelief or ingratitude.” [Ref: 25:50] Rain is source of water and a form of sustenance. Generally, in reality, Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) distributes everything and the verse is evidence to that but in context verse could be interpreted to mean distribution of water: “And it is He who sends the winds as good tidings before His mercy, and We send down from the sky pure water. That We may bring to life thereby a dead land and give it as drink to those We created of numerous livestock and men.” [Ref: 25:48/49] So it is clear that Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) owns and grants Rizq but Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has appointed the angels the task of distributing: “And those (angels) who distribute by Command.” [Ref: 51:4] Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has been recorded to have said: “Abu Hurayra said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbade for someone to have both his name and his kunya. He said, 'I am Abu'l-Qasim. Allah gives and I distribute.'" [Ref: Adab Al Mufrad, B35, H844] Based on all this, it would be heretical even disbelief to negate the creation of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) distributing sustenance. Further evidence for the sustainers other then Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) comes from Quran itself where Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has stated: “But when they saw a transaction or a diversion, [O Muhammad], they rushed to it and left you standing. Say, "What is with Allah is better than diversion and than a transaction, and Allah is the best of providers." [Ref: 62:11] Revealing there are other sustainers but Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is best of Sustainer from amongst all.

Fault With Principle Of Being Distributing Anything To Anyone:

Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is reported to have said: "I have been sent with the shortest expression with the widest meaning and have been made victorious with awe, and while I was sleeping, I saw that the keys of the treasures of the world were placed in my hand." Abu Huraira added: Allah's Messenger has gone, and you people are utilizing those treasures, or digging those treasures out." or said a similar sentence.” [Ref: Bukhari, B92, H378] Same is narrated in another Hadith where Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is reported to have stated: "I shall be your predecessor and a witness on you, and I am really looking at my sacred Fount now, and no doubt, I have been given the keys of the treasures of the world. By Allah, I am not afraid that you will worship others along with Allah, but I am afraid that you will envy and fight one another for worldly fortunes." [Ref: Bukhari, B56, H795] Another Hadith records Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) being granted the station of Al Qasim by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala), Hadith: “For I am Al-Qasim (i.e. the distributor) and I distribute among you Allah's blessings." This narration has also come on the authority of Anas that the! Prophet said so." [Ref: Bukhari, B73, H216] Another version of the Hadith states: Give the name after my name, but do not give kunya, for I am Abu'l-Qasim (in the sense) that I distribute amongst you (the blessings of Allah) and disseminate the knowledge. [Ref: Bukhari, B25, H5319] The knowledge which Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) disseminates allowed and continues to allow humankind unearth the treasures of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala), which Abu Huraira (radiallah ta’ala anhu) indicated: “Abu Huraira added: Allah's Messenger has gone, and you people are utilizing those treasures, or digging those treasures out." or said a similar sentence.” [Ref: Bukhari, B92, H378] He distributes the treasures under the command of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala), here: “Abu Hurayra said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbade for someone to have both his name and his kunya. He said, 'I am Abu'l-Qasim. Allah gives and I distribute.'" [Ref: Adab Al Mufrad, B35, H844] The method of distributing these treasures is, disseminating the knowledge regarding these treasures. Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has been granted the treasures and knowledge and he distributes both therefore the principle; to believe a being can distribute anything to anyone is elevating the being to status of an Ilah, is not valid because it has been established Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) distributes all the treasures to all bi iznillah (i.e. by permission of Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala). Note the following Hadith: “I used to live with the Messenger of Allah at night. I would bring water for his ablution and his need. He said: Ask me. I said: Your company in Paradise. He said: Is there anything other than that? I said: It is only that. He said: Help me for yourself by making prostrations abundantly.” [Ref: Abu Dawood, B5, H1315] Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) told the companion to request something from him and in response, the companion requested company/nearness of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) in paradise. It is important to note, that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) used words which indicate companion was permitted to request whatever he wished and this reveals Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) had capacity to grant all that companion could have requested. This establishes Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) had the authority to grant anything he wishes to anyone one wished, bi iznillahi ta’ala.

Principles Of Distributing Sustenance Reconciled According Ahle Sunnat Methodology:

Zaati (i.e. personal – not granted by any other) is unique for Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) because all His essence (i.e. Zaat), attributes (i.e. Sifaat) and actions (i.e. Afaal) are His personal, which have not been granted by another. If the deduced principles and the original principle are understood in light of Zaati classification then they indeed elevate the being to status of an Ilah. Here is example of how they will be reconciled with methodology of Ahle Sunnat: i) ‘To believe a being distributes rizq [Zaati] is elevating the being to status of an Ilah. ii) ‘To believe a being distributes [as Zaati distributor] to anyone anything the being desires is elevating the being to status of an Ilah.’ iii) ‘To believe a being grants rizq [as Zaati distributor] - meaning, distribution of sustenance is the beings [Zaati] responsibility and grants to anyone anything the being desires [out of Zaati possessions] or grants son/daughter [as Zaati distributor] is elevating the being to status of an Ilah.’ I will not explain all three but only the first in light of Zaati classification. ‘To believe a being distributes rizq [Zaati] is elevating the being to status of an Ilah.’ Then it means, the being distributes his own and has not been granted by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). This belief also establishes beliefe of independence from Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Only Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) distributes Zaati Rizq and He alone is independent of all and none other is independent as Him and independent of Him. All other then Him distribute Atahi (i.e. granted) Rizq and distribute as they are dependent upon Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). If someone believes a being distributes Rizq with concept of Zaati or believes a being distributes anything while affirming the Zaati belief for the being then without doubt a creation is elevated to status of an Ilah besides Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala).

[Continued ...]

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Evidence Of Khariji  Sustenance Distributing Principle:

Wahhabi Zia Bashir did not quote any direct evidence in support of his Khariji methodology but the following verse supports his line of reasoning: Allah is He Who created you, then provided food for you, then will cause you to die, then (again) He will give you life. Is there any of your partners (of Allah) that do anything of that? Glory be to Him! And Exalted be He above all that they associate (with Him).” [Ref: 30:40] His argument would be, Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) created, provided food for creation, causes living things to die and will restore life to dead for accountability on judgment day. To believe anyone besides Him [creates and] provides sustenance is answering the following question with affirmation: “Is there any of your partners (of Allah) that do anything of that?” This affirmation translates into existance of a partner with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and this is nothingless then elevating a creation to status of an Ilah besides Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala).

Interpreting The Verse 30:40 In Light Of Quran:

First interpretation, Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) states: Allah is He Who created you, then provided food for you, then will cause you to die, then (again) He will give you life. Is there any of your partners (of Allah) that do anything of that? Glory be to Him! And Exalted be He above all that they associate (with Him).” [Ref: 30:40] The partners the polytheists associated with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) were believed to be god partners of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) frees Himself from their god-partners which they associated with Him: Had there been therein alihah (gods) besides Allah, then verily both would have been ruined. Glorified be Allah, the Lord of the Throne, (High is He) above all that (evil) they associate with Him! [Ref: 21:22] The polytheists believed in two gods, i) Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) as their supreme God,  ii) a idol god which they took as intercessor with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and they believed as intercessor this mini-god represented their interests in court of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala): And they worship besides Allah things that harm them not, nor profit them, and they say: "These are our intercessors with Allah." Say: "Do you inform Allah of that which He knows not in the heavens and on the earth?" Glorified and Exalted is He above all that which they associate as partners (with Him)!” [Ref: 10:18] Alhasil, Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is free of Ilah partners which the polytheists associated with Him. Second interpretation, Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) states: Allah is He Who created you, then provided food for you, then will cause you to die, then (again) He will give you life. Is there any of your partners (of Allah) that do anything of that? Glory be to Him! And Exalted be He above all that they associate (with Him).” [Ref: 30:40] The question in the verse is asking, is there anyone from your partners who can create, provide with you sustenance, cause you to die, restore your life? The identity of the partners and answer to the question is given in the following verse: Yet they have taken besides Him other alihah (gods) who created nothing but are themselves created, and possess neither harm nor benefit for themselves, and possess no power (of causing) death, nor (of giving) life, nor of raising the dead. [Ref: 25:3] Regarding the sustenance aspect of verse 30:40 another verse sheds light over gods (i.e. idols) of polytheists not having control over sustenance, here: “You only worship, besides Allah, idols, and you produce a falsehood. Indeed, those you worship besides Allah do not possess for you [the power of] provision. So seek from Allah provision and worship Him and be grateful to Him. To Him you will be returned." [Ref: 29:17] Alhasil, the partners regarding which the question in verse 30:40 was asked were gods of polytheists and these gods were idols who have no control over creation of any being but they were by themselves created [with clay/stones] by polytheists, nor excercised control over taking someones life, or restoring life, or providing it sustenance. Interpretation three, Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) states He is free from the partners which the polytheists associated with Him: “Allah is He Who created you, then provided food for you, then will cause you to die, then (again) He will give you life. Is there any of your partners (of Allah) that do anything of that? Glory be to Him! And Exalted be He above all that they associate (with Him).” [Ref: 30:40] They associated with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) in his Ilahiyyah besides Allah things that do not harm or benefit them, here: And they worship besides Allah things that harm them not, nor profit them, and they say: "These are our intercessors with Allah." Say: "Do you inform Allah of that which He knows not in the heavens and on the earth?" Glorified and Exalted is He above all that which they associate as partners (with Him)! [Ref: 10:18] The partner things which the polytheists associated with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) which do not benefit and harm are gods of polytheists, here: “Yet they have taken besides Him other alihah (gods) who created nothing but are themselves created, and possess neither harm nor benefit for themselves, and possess no power (of causing) death, nor (of giving) life, nor of raising the dead.” [Ref: 25:3] Verse 29:17 quoted above establishes the gods of polytheists were idols. Alhasil, it is established from three interpretations that verse 30:40 was regarding Ilahs of polytheists which they had taken as partners besides Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and these Ilahs were idols.

Refuting Wahhabi In Me By Sunni In Me:

If you remember in the beginning of the second part of sustenance distributing principle following argument was presented to support the charge of polytheism: “Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) created, provided food for creation, causes living things to die and will restore life to dead for accountability on judgment day. To believe anyone besides Him [creates and] provides sustenance is answering the following question with affirmation: “Is there any of your partners (of Allah) that do anything of that?” This affirmation translates into belief in existance of a partner with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and this is nothingless then elevating a creation to status of an Ilah besides Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala).” The verse based on which the following argument erected against Muslims was properly explained in the previous section with three interpetations each clarifying the verse from a different perspective and revealing the verse was revealed regarding the idol gods of polytheists. All that needs to be done is to insert the corrections into quoted material. The following is Halal version of Islamic belief: “Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) created, provided food for creation, causes living things to die and will restore life to dead for accountability on judgment day. To believe anyone besides Him creates and provides sustenance as an Ilah is akin to answering the following question with affirmation: “Is there any of your (i.e. idol Ilah) partners (of Allah) that do anything of that?” This affirmation translates into belief in existance of an Ilah partner with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and this is nothingless then elevating a creation to status of an Ilah besides Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala).” The insertion of the Ilahiyyah into argument would have revealed that belief in Ilahiyyah is essential to elevation of a creation to status of an Ilah. Also it would have demonstrated how Mr Sneaky aka myself is employing Khariji methodology to make Wahhabi ends meet. Note, I only employed my ex-methodology and of which Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhabs Kharijism is guilty of and for evidence read Kitab at-Tawheed and so is entire clan of Ibleesi minions. Every verse regarding non-Muslims is interpreted to target Muslims. Once again, pay attention to the following Hadith: “... and the Mulhidun (heretical) after the establishment of firm proof against them: “And the statement of Allah: 'Allah will not mislead a people after He has guided them, until He makes clear to them what to avoid.' [9:115] And Ibn Umar used to consider them worst of Allah's creatures and said: "These people took some verses that had been revealed concerning the disbelievers and interpreted them as describing the believers.” [Ref: Bukhari, Volume 9, Page 49, Chapter 6: Killing The Khawarij] Allah (subhanhu wa ta’ala) guides whom He wills and leads astray whom He wills.

Principles Of Distributing Sustenance In Light Of Quran:

Considering the fact that verses of Quran were in light of Ilahiyyah of idols it is apropriate to insert the Ilahiyyah into the principles. i) To believe a being distributes rizq [as an Ilah] is elevating the being to status of an Ilah. ii) To believe a being distributes to anyone anything the being desires [as an Ilah] is elevating the being to status of an Ilah. iii) To believe a being grants son/daughter is elevating [as an Ilah] the being to status of an Ilah. According to this correction if Ilahiyyah is believed for one who performs these actions then the being is made partner with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). It does not matter if the following qualities: Zaati, Qulli, Haqiqi, bi Ghayr Izni … are not attributed to the essences, attributes, actions of the being. Instead only makhlooqi qualities such as: Atahi, Baaz, Muntahi … are attributed to essence, attributes and actions of the being, still creation would be elevated to status of an Ilah and Shirk Al Akbar will be warranted.

[Continued ...]

Edited by MuhammedAli
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Khariji Principle Of Halal And Haram:

Zia Bashirs heretical principle is: “To believe a being also has authority to declare halal and haram, is elevating the being to status of an Ilah.” Everything has not been declared haram by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) in Quran. Some things such as eating of donkey meat was declared to be haram by Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). So if someone says: Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has the authority to declare what is haram and halal. And the person says this with the belief that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) recieves hidden revelation from Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala), the wording of which wasn’t to be made public but the injunctions were to be declared. Based on this he has worded his statement in the fashion mentioned but only intends that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has the authority to anounce haram and halal under instruction of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). This would not amount to elevating the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) to status of an Ilah because the belief behind the statement is in accordance with teaching of Islam. Another point is, Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) provided guiding principles on which we can determine what is haram or halal. Considering this, it could be said; a Mufti has the authority to declare something haram. Now if this was said with the belief that a jurist judging based on the principles provided by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) declares something haram or halal, then no offence has been committed. We the Muslims believe Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has the right to declare what is haram/halal and we believe the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) announced the injunctions of hidden revelation i.e. donkey is haram. Considering this, is the Mufti been elevated to status of an Ilah besides Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) or has been taken as a Prophet after the gate of Prophet-hood has been closed and no new Nabi is to come? Clearly the principle is biased or I should say primed for purpose of imparting the understanding; Muslims are guilty of major Shirk.[10] Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is merciful and compassionate and He judges and will judge knowing the creed and intention of believer. The mercilessness and harshness of Wahhabiyyah is established. Their judgments reflect their lack of mercy and compassion for believers and demonstrate the harshness: “The harshness and mercilessness are the qualities of those farmers etc, who are busy with their camels and pay no attention to the religion (is towards the east) from where the side of the group of Satan will appear;[11] those are the tribes of Rabi`a and Mudar.” [Ref: Bukhari, B59, H670]

Deconstructing The Principle Of Halal And Haram:

Suppose, y says: Goat is haram. This judgment is not Ijtihad based but purely desired based. y wanted to declare it haram and y did so. Question is, did y elevate himself to status of an Ilah besides Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala)? It can be said with confidence that in Khariji methodology to believe someone else has the authority to declare haram/halal or to believe person himself has authority to declare haram/halal is akin to elevating someone-else or ownself to status of an Ilah. Note this point and continue reading. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) says: “O Prophet, why do you prohibit [yourself from] what Allah has made lawful for you, seeking the approval of your wives? And Allah is Forgiving and Merciful.” [Ref: 66:1] “O you who have believed, do not prohibit the good things which Allah has made lawful to you and do not transgress. Indeed, Allah does not like transgressors.” [Ref: 5:87] Now, if the principle is correct then Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) excercised the right/authority of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) thus elevated himself to status of an Ilah besides Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Question is, did Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) not know Tawheed? Ofcourse Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) knew Tawheed. So why would he haram upon himself which was not haram by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala)? He knew very well that prohibiting it upon himself has got nothing to do with elevating himself to status of an Ilah. And he also knew; believing a being possesses authority to prohibit/permit, has got anything to do with elevating creation to status of an Ilah.

Explanation Of The Incident Mentioned In Verse 66:1:

In Islam the intention and creed are fundamental to action. If someone intends to prohibit upon himself then we judge the action based on the intention and creed of person and not how it is percieved by us. The following verse indicates Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) prohibited upon himself which Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) had not prohibited: “O Prophet, why do you prohibit [yourself from] what Allah has made lawful for you, seeking the approval of your wives? And Allah is Forgiving and Merciful.” [Ref: 66:1] Note, even thou it was intended as a oath/vow the reality of it is that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) prohibited what was permitted for him and this is the reason for which Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) questioned: “O Prophet, why do you prohibit [yourself from] what Allah has made lawful for you, seeking the approval of your wives?” Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) did not prohibit upon himself z with belief; I am Ilah besides Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala), rather it was a vow/oath to refrain from eating z, verse: “Allah has already ordained for you the dissolution of your oaths. And Allah is your protector, and He is the Knowing, the Wise.” [Ref: 66:2] This establishes that even though a halal was made haram it was still interpreted according to intention of vow/oath. The verse also indicates a earlier revelation regarding prohibiting something which was permitted: “O you who have believed, do not prohibit the good things which Allah has made lawful to you and do not transgress. Indeed, Allah does not like transgressors.” [Ref: 5:87] The verse following 87 states: “And eat of what Allah has provided for you [which is] lawful and good. And fear Allah , in whom you are believers.” [Ref: 5:88] The next verse is important becaue it reveals a important point: “Allah will not impose blame upon you for what is meaningless in your oaths, but He will impose blame upon you for [breaking] what you intended of oaths. So its expiation is the …” [Ref: 5:87] Also note in this verse Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has exampted meaningless oaths/vows for believers – meanings meaningless vows/oaths will not be considered sins by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’al). Just as meaningless vows/oaths which result in prohibiting which Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has permitted incur no blame in the same fashion meaningless statements [examples of which were given earlier] incurs no blame because creed is of a Muwahid and intention is to express what is established in religion of Islam.

Authority Of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) To Legislate Religion:

Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has stated in the Quran: “… the rich from among you. And whatever the Messenger has given you - take; and what he has forbidden you - refrain from it. And fear Allah ; indeed, Allah is severe in penalty.” [Ref: 59:7] Adhering to what Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has commanded is adhering to what Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) commands: “He who obeys the Messenger has obeyed Allah ; but those who turn away - We have not sent you over them as a guardian.” [Ref: 4:80] In Hadith it is recorded that a man will say that Quran and Hadith do not agree with each other therefore whatever is in the Quran is to be accepted and what is in Hadith to be rejected: “That the Messenger of Allah said: "Lo! Soon a Hadith from me will be conveyed to a man, while he is reclining on his couch, and he says: 'Between us and you is Allah's Book. So whatever we find in it that is lawful, we consider lawful, and whatever we find in it that is unlawful, we consider it unlawful.'” Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) then goes on to declare: “Indeed whatever the Messenger of Allah made unlawful, it is the same as what Allah made unlawful."[12] [Ref: Tirmadhi, B39, H2664] This is to say that Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has granted Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) the right to legislate religion. The following incident establishes this point very clearly: “Allah's Messenger addressed us and said: O people, Allah has made Hajj obligatory for you; so perform Hajj. Thereupon a person said: Messenger of Allah, every year? He kept quiet, and he repeated (these words) thrice, whereupon Allah's Messenger said: If I were to say yes, it would become obligatory (for every year) and you would not be able to do it. Then he said: Leave me with what I have left to you, for those who were before you were desroyed because of excessive questioning, and their opposition to their apostles.” [Ref: Muslim, B7, H3095] This Hadith establishes that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) had been granted the right by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) to legislate religion and if he had said yes to the questioner then Hajj would have been Fard (i.e. compulsory) for Muslims every year. A example of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) excercising his authority is of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) permitting wearing of silk for companions due to their skin rash. Note the following Hadith establishes wearing of silk is unlawful for men in Islam: “The Messenger of Allah came out to us, and in one of his hands was a garment of silk and in the other was some gold. He said: ‘These are forbidden to the males of my nation and permitted to the females.’” [Ref: Ibn Majah, B32, H3597] Yet against his own teaching Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) permitted two companions to wear silk:  “The Prophet allowed Az-Zubair and `Abdur-Rahman to wear silk because they were suffering from an itch.” [Ref: Bukhari, B72, H730] A Hadith records that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) said: "The most criminal person among the Muslims is the one who asked about something which had not been prohibited, but was prohibited because of his asking." [Ref: Bukhari, B92, H392] And note, if Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) was to declare something unlawful because he was questioned regarding something which Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and His Messenger had remained silent over and in response to that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) had declared in unlawful then it would be unlawful because Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has stated: “… the rich from among you. And whatever the Messenger has given you - take; and what he has forbidden you - refrain from it. And fear Allah ; indeed, Allah is severe in penalty.” [Ref: 59:7] “He who obeys the Messenger has obeyed Allah; but those who turn away - We have not sent you over them as a guardian.” [Ref: 4:80] All this evidence establishes Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) had granted the authority/right to legislate religion and the Khariji principle contradicts clear teaching of Quran and Ahadith.[13]

[Continued ...]

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Rectifying The Mistake In Halal & Haram Principle:

It has been established that a qualified scholar based on evidence of Quran and Hadith can judge something to be haram or halal if it has not been explicitly stated to be either. Also evidence establishes that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has been granted the authority to legislate religion including declaring something haram or halal. Considering this evidence it is evident, the principle presented was invalid because it criminalised something which had its basis in Quran and Hadith. Hence the following insertion can be way of legitimizing the principle: “To believe a being also has authority to declare halal and haram [bi ghayr iznillah] is elevating the being to status of an Ilah.” Also if one believes a being legislates religion or declares something halal/haram because Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has permitted him to do so then being has not been elevated to status of an Ilah and to believe as stated is not [major] Shirk. Note, anything which has been declared haram or halal by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) if someone was to change its established position (i.e. declar a haram as halal or halal as haram) and he is followed then that being is elevated to status of an Ilah/Rabb besides Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala).

Evidence Of Khawarij In Support Of The Principle:

The supporters of the principle will bring the following verse as evidence: “You worship not besides Him except [mere] names you have named them, you and your fathers, for which Allah has sent down no authority. Legislation is not but for Allah. He has commanded that you worship not except Him. That is the correct religion, but most of the people do not know.” [Ref: 12:40] They would argue, only Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has the right declare haram/halal because legislation of religion is stated to be for Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Muslims first answer should be that we declare halal/haram based on the criteria given by Allah’s Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). Secondly, Hadith establishes Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) had authority to legislate religion which is evident from the following Hadith: “Allah's Messenger addressed us and said: O people, Allah has made Hajj obligatory for you; so perform Hajj. Thereupon a person said: Messenger of Allah, every year? He kept quiet, and he repeated (these words) thrice, whereupon Allah's Messenger said: If I were to say yes, it would become obligatory (for every year) and you would not be able to do it. Then he said: Leave me with what I have left to you, for those who were before you were desroyed because of excessive questioning, and their opposition to their apostles.” [Ref: Muslim, B7, H3095] The wording indicates Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) had choice in legislating status of practices in Islam.

Halal And Haram Principle In Light Of Hadith:

If following insertions are made into the principle then it is also correct: “To believe a being also has authority [as an Ilah] to declare halal and haram [bi ghayr iznillah or bi iznillah] is elevating the being to status of an Ilah.” Implications of this are, once Ilahiyyah is affirmed any act of declaring something haram or halal, fara’id (i.e. compulsory) or nawafil (i.e optional) is act of excercising authority in the right of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) even if it is believed this exercise of authority is with or without the permission of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and therefore major Shirk.

[Continued ...]

Edited by MuhammedAli

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Principle Of Life And Death:

The Wahhabi presented the principle: “Owner of life and death is only Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala), and to give life to the dead, and to give life to the clay figurine, this is in authority of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). To believe anyone other then Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) possesses this right is elevating the being to status of an Ilah [and this] is Shirk.”[14] According to this principle, to believe anyone other then Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) can give life to the dead is elevating that being to status of an Ilah beside Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) yet it is imperative that we believe creation of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has authority from Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) to restore life.

Prophet Al Masih Ad-Dajjal And Isa (alayhis salaam) Giving Life To Dead:

It is recorded in Hadith that Dajjal will kill a person and bring him back to life: “… the entrances of Medina. He will land in some of the salty barren areas (outside) Medina; on that day the best man or one of the best men will come up to him and say, 'I testify that you are the same Dajjal whose description was given to us by Allah's Messenger.' Ad-Dajjal will say to the people, 'If I kill this man and bring him back to life again, will you doubt my claim?' They will say, 'No.' Then Ad-Dajjal will kill that man and bring him back to life. That man will say, 'Now I know your reality better than before.' Ad-Dajjal will say, 'I want to kill him but I cannot.' " [Ref: Bukhari, B30, H106] The manner of his killing will be that he will be sawn into two pieces from head to toes, which is recorded in following Hadith: “Then the Dajjal would ask him: Don't you believe in me? He would say: You are a false Masih. He would then order him to be torn (into pieces) with a saw from the parting of his hair up to his legs. After that the Dajjal would walk between the two pieces. He would then say to him: Stand, and he would stand erect. He would then say to him: Don't you believe in me? And the person would say: It has only added to my insight concerning you (that you are really the Dajjal).” [Ref: Muslim, B41, H7019] Hadith of Sunan Ibn Majah states a sword will be used: “Then he will call a man brimming with youth and will strike him with a sword and cut him in two. He will put the two pieces as far apart as the distance between an archer and his target. Then he will call him and he will come with his face shining, laughing.” [Ref: Ibn Majah, B36, H4075] Indicating two individuals will be killed by Dajjal, first one with a saw and the other with sword, and both will be brought back to life. Coming to Prophet Isa (alayhis salaam), Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) states He will say to him on the day of judgment: “(Remember) when Allah will say: "O 'Îsa, son of Maryam! Remember My Favour to you and to your mother when I supported you with Ruh-ul-Qudus so that you spoke to the people in the cradle and in maturity; and when I taught you writing, the wisdom, the Taurat and the Injeel; and when you made out of the clay a figure like that of a bird, by My Permission, and you breathed into it, and it became a bird by My Permission, and you healed those born blind, and the lepers by My Permission, and when you brought forth the dead by My Permission; and when I restrained the Children of Israel from you as you came unto them with clear proofs, and the disbelievers among them said: 'This is nothing but evident magic.'" [Ref: 5:110] Note Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) said Prophet Is (alayhis salaam) did all that by His permission. It is also recorded in the Quran that Prophet Is (alayhis salaam) said: “And will make him a Messenger to the Children of Israel (saying): "I have come to you with a sign from your Lord, that I design for you out of clay, a figure like that of a bird, and breathe into it, and it becomes a bird by Allah's Leave; and I heal him who was born blind, and the leper, and I bring the dead to life by Allah's Leave. And I inform you of what you eat ... by Allah’s permission.” [Ref: 3:49]

Islamic Argument Against The Khariji Principle:

It is evident that the impostor Christ will be able to revive the dead after killing them and Quran testifies to Prophet Isa (alayhis salaam) giving life to the dead and breathing life into the clay figurines. As Muslims we believe in what is narrated about Prophet Isa (alayhis salaam) in the Quran and what Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) foretold about the ability of the impostor Christ. Considering this, if the principle in discussion is true then all Muslims who believe Dajjal and Prophet Isa (alayhis salaam) have right over restoring life to the dead and Prophet Isa (alayhis salaam) breathing life into clay figurines are guilty of elevating creation to status of Ilah. In fact the charge of major Shirk goes back to first three generations of followers of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) as well as Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) himself because he is the source of this teaching. On other hand if one does not believe as the Quran and Hadith teach, especially in the context of Quran, then we become disbelievers. Heads, minion of Iblees wins. Tails, Iblees wins. In both cases, Muslim looses his faith in Islam. The principle leads to deduction; all Muslims as polytheists. If we accept the principle as validand leave the teaching of Quran then we are disbelievers. How can a principle which leads to deduction teaching of Islam are Kufr/Shirk, be Islamic? What is state of Islam of one who produces a principle which charges entire Ummah of major Shirk, including the companions and even Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam)? Such person is out of religion of Islam and is believer in Kharijism of Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab an-Najdi.

Reconciling The Principle Of Life And Death According To Islamic Methodology:

Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is the Owner of life and death in Haqiqi (i.e. real/true) sense but He does give control of life and death to His creation. This control over life and death is with permission (i.e. bi iznillah) from Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) excercises control over all including life and death without permission (i.e. bi ghayr izn) of another superior or inferior. Hence the principle can be reconciled with Islamic teaching with following insertions: “Owner of life and death is only Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala), and to give life to the dead [bi ghayr izn], and to give life to the clay figurine [bi ghayr izn], this is in authority of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). To believe anyone other then Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) possesses this right [of giving life bi ghayr izn] is elevating the being to status of an Ilah [and this] is Shirk.” Implications of these insertions are; to believe a creation of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) exercises authority over life/death without receiving power from Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and without permission from Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) then create is elevated to status of an Ilah. Note, if it is believed a creation excercises authority over life/death with power given by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and with permission from Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) then that creation has not been elevated to status of an Ilah. This mentioned point establishes the Tawheed of Muslims which the deduction based on Khariji principle negated.

Khariji Distortion Quran For Life And Death Principle:

As Muslims we believe Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) gives life to the dead and causes death of living like the following verses of Quran indicate: “How can you disbelieve in Allah seeing that you were dead and He gave you life? Then He will give you death, then again will bring you to life (on the Day of Resurrection) and then unto Him you will return.” [Ref: 2:28] “Verily, We give life to the dead, and We record that which they send before (them), and their traces and all things We have recorded with numbers (as a record) in a Clear Book.” [Ref: 36:12] Based on these two verses and maybe more Zia Bashir had determined Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) gives life/death and then invented the following reasoning:  i) Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) gives life/death, ii) attributing partner to Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) in His essenes, and attributes, and actions is major Shirk, iii) to attribute life/death to a creation is to elevate that creation to status of an Ilah, iv) because to believe as such would make the creation a partner with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). With this in mind the Zia Bashir wrote the principle being discussed. Had he actually thought about the teaching of Islam regarding Prophet Isa (alayhis salaam) and Dajjal giving life to the dead and Prophet Isa (alayhis salaam) breathing life into the clay bird figurines it would have become apparent to him that he has committed a grave mistake. Unfortunately like a typical Khariji he too had his priorities skewered[15] and resorted to worse case scenario.

Correcting The Logic And Evidence Behind Principle:

It is true that attributing a partner to Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) in His essences, and attributes, and actions is major Shirk, and it is akin to attributing an Ilah partner to Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). For a creation to be elevated to status of an Ilah the partnership has to be absolute/equale and this partnership only occurs when a attribute is given to a creation in same meaning in which it is attributed to Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) gives life/death by His own (i.e. zaati) power, without anyone elses permission (i.e. bi ghayr izn), to everthing/everyone (i.e. qulli). Therefore as long as a creation is not attributed this type of life/death giving powers then there is no Shirk. Mr Zia Bashir did not understand that all attributes and actions of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) are stated as they are according to His majestay [as explained previously in this paragraph] and when the giving of life/death is attributed to a creation [in this case Prophet Isa alayhis salaam and the Dajjal] they are to be understood according to creation’s capability [such as, atahi, baaz, bi iznillah]. On scriptural level this division is evident. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) stated: “How can you disbelieve in Allah seeing that you were dead and He gave you life? Then He will give you death, then again will bring you to life (on the Day of Resurrection) and then unto Him you will return.” [Ref: 2:28] In the following verse Prophet Ibrahim (alayhis salaam) affirms the same belief: “Have you not looked at him who disputed with Ibrahim about his Lord, because Allah had given him the kingdom? When Ibrahim said (to him): "My Lord is He Who gives life and causes death." He said, …” [Ref: 2:258] In both verses, the giving of life and taking of it, is in meaning of bi ghayr iznillah. Quran also records miracles of Prophet Isa (alayhis salaam). He performed many supernatural (i.e. ma fawq al asbab) type of things along with giving life to the dead with permission of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala),  here is verse in disscussion: “And will make him a Messenger to the Children of Israel (saying): "I have come to you with a sign from your Lord, that I design for you out of clay, a figure like that of a bird, and breathe into it, and it becomes a bird by Allah's Leave; and I heal him who was born blind, and the leper, and I bring the dead to life by Allah's Leave. And I inform you of what you eat ... by Allah’s permission.” [Ref: 3:49] Dajjal also will command skies to rain and withold rain and give life to the dead [all will be with permission of Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala].

Connection Between Ilahiyyah And Natural And Supernatural:

To properly understand forth coming material it is advised to that readers revise the material in the beginning of article under the heading, Ilahiyyah Is Not Dependent Upon Performing Of Natural And Supernatural. When it is apparent that Ilahiyyah is not dependent upon performing of natural or supernatural acts but a true Ilah must be capable of them then correct understanding of the following verses is possible. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) questions: “Say: "Tell me! If Allah made the night continuous for you till the Day of Resurrection, which ilah (i.e. god) besides Allah could bring you light? Will you not then hear? Say: "Tell me! If Allah made the day continuous for you till the Day of Resurrection, which ilah besides Allah could bring you night wherein you rest? Will you not then see?" [Ref: 28:71] The implication of the verse is that there is no god from the idols of polytheists who could make day into night or night into day. In another verse of Quran it is stated: “Say: "Tell me, if Allah took away your hearing and your sight, and sealed up your hearts, who is there - an ilah (i.e. god) other than Allah who could restore them to you?" See how variously We explain the Ayat yet they turn aside.” [Ref: 6:46] Again the point being made is that there is no idol god who can restore the sight if Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) decided to darken ones life. In the following verse Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) questions: Or have they taken alihah (i.e. gods) from the earth who raise the dead? Had there been therein alihah besides Allah, then verily both would have been ruined. Glorified be Allah, the Lord of the Throne above all that they associate with Him!” [Ref: 21:21/22] This question is answered by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) in the Quran itself: “Yet they have taken besides Him other alihah (i.e. gods) who created nothing but are themselves created, and possess neither harm nor benefit for themselves, and possess no power (of causing) death, nor (of giving) life, nor of raising the dead.” [Ref: 25:3] So even though the polytheists took their idols as gods they were unable to perform acts which are fundamental to Ilahiyyah (i.e. god-hood) and as such there were not true Ilahs. So when Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) stated: “Verily, We give life to the dead, and We record that which they send before (them), and their traces and all things We have recorded with numbers (as a record) in a Clear Book.” [Ref: 36:12] He gives life to the dead, it was not to make it criteria of judging Ilahiyyah in verse and verses like it but only to establish that He does give life to the dead. Giving of life to the dead and giving death to living and performing many other supernatural actions are not proof of Ilahiyyah.


Principle Of Giving Life And Death In Light Of Quran:

It is evident that a creation can only be elevated to status of an Ilah besides Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) when one or more concept from the thirteen concepts is affirmed or if Ilahiyyah is affirmed explicitly. Affirmation of creation being able to give life or cause death, naturaly or supernaturaly does not exalt that creation to status of an Ilah hence the principle in discussion is corrected: [Bi ghayr izni] Owner of life and death is only Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and to give life to the dead [bi ghayr izn], and to give life to the clay figurine [bi ghayr izn], this is in authority of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). To believe anyone other then Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) possesses this right [of giving life as an Ilah bi ghayr iznillah or as an Ilah bi iznillah] is elevating the being to status of an Ilah [and this] is Shirk.” This correction is in accordance with Islamic teaching and does not crimnalize established Islamic teachings.

Completed Version Can Be Found Here: http://www.islamimehfil.com/topic/23149-refuting-khariji-ilah-determining-principles-and-interpreting-them-according-to-thirteen-essential-concepts-of-tawheed/


[Continued ...]

Edited by MuhammedAli

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