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MuhammedAli

Chapter Yusuf (12) Verse 106 Cannot Be Exclusively For Polytheists – Exclusivity Implies Some Polytheists Believe Without Shirk.

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Objection:

You stated in your explanation of the verse 12:106 that it was only revealed for polytheists and not Muslims. The majority indicates minority – minority is Muslim because they do not commit Shirk. Therefore the verse is inclusive of Muslims and not exclusive of Muslims. If your position is valid then it would imply; some polytheists do believe in Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) without Shirk but majority of them believe with Shirk. Also note the only real disagreement between Muslims and Mushrikeen was issue of Tawheed. If some of them believed in Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) without Shirk then they were Muslims.

The Fundamental Disagreement:

The least important aspect requiring some reaction and response will be dealt in the following discussion. You stated: “Also note the only real disagreement between Muslims and Mushrikeen was issue of Tawheed. If some of them believed in Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) without Shirk then they were Muslims.” There were many disputes and disagreements between RasoolAllah (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and all were real and important in terms of having belief which reflected teaching of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). You used the word real and I assume you intended fundamental. If I was to pin point a real/fundamental disagreement between RasoolAllah (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and polytheists, and between companions and polytheists, I would state the Nabuwat of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) was fundamental disagreement and dispute. Had the polytheists believed in his Prophet-hood and believed he is Messenger of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) they would not have opposed his teaching nor rejected any of his teachings. They attempted to discredit Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) by various means all in vain efforts to discredit his Nabuwat (i.e. Prophet-hoot). Anyhow, there is no definitive position, all disputes are connected and relative to each other. Secondly, even if the polytheists came to believe in Tawheed they could not have become Muslims by accepting Tawheed. Entry into Islam requires that an individual believes in all fundamental teachings and Tawheed is one of such.

Verse 12:106 Is Indeed Revealed For Polytheists:

You wrote: “You stated in your explanation of the verse 12:106 that it was only revealed for polytheists and not Muslims. The majority indicates minority – minority is Muslim because they do not commit Shirk. Therefore the verse is inclusive of Muslims and not exclusive of Muslims.” The clear emphatic text of the verse points to majority which is polytheistic in belief. The verse is about the majority. The verse does not state anything about the belief of minority, here take note: And most of them believe not in Allah except while they associate others with Him." [Ref: 12:106] Hence monotheists are not included in the verse. By judging the diametric opposite, majority indicates minority and deducing; majority is polyteistic in belief and by default minority does not commit Shirk. Based on this deduction you cannot legitimately and correctly argue the verse is inclusive of Muslims because the verse has not mentioned minority. Had Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) stated, minority does but the majority of the people believe not in Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) except with associating partners, or in a similar type statement then it could be argued that minority the verse was inclusive of Muwahideen (i.e. monotheists) and maybe Muslims. Based on the text of verse which does not mention anything about minority – the verse was revealed with regards to polytheists.

Some Polytheists Do Believe In Allah Without Shirk:

You wrote: “If your position is valid then it would imply; some polytheists do believe in Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) without Shirk but majority of them believe with Shirk.” This is a brillant point which is likely to occur in minds of many but it is invalid. The verse is not about entire polytheis- kind. It did not have basis on: Entire polytheist-kind is believer in Allah And most of them believe not in Allah except while they associate others with Him." [Ref: 12:106] If the verse was about entire polytheistic-kind then your argument would be valid, because majority believing in Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) with Shirk by default implies, a minority from among the ‘polytheists’ is from Muwahideen (i.e. monotheists). You have made a Mutliq (i.e. general) undeclared assumption into a Muqayyid (i.e. specific) undeclared assumption. Meaning you have restricted the undeclared assumption for only polytheists. The undeclared assumption is the green writing before the actual verse. It is undeclared because it is not part of the verse. It is assumption because it is logical assumed basis on which the verse clarifies itself. In reality it is about entire mankind on basis of following undeclared logical assumption: Entire mankind is believer in Allah And most of them believe not in Allah except while they associate others with Him." [Ref: 12:106] In the following section the undeclared assumption; out of entire mankind most do not believe in Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) without associating god-partners with Him, will be established to give authority to Islamic understanding.

Most Of Mankind Believe Not In Allah Except With Shirk:

Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has stated: “And I did not create the jinn and mankind except to worship Me.” [Ref: 51:56] But mankind deviated from Tawheed and took others as Ilah beside Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and worshiped them. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) addressing mankind states: O mankind, remember the favor of Allah upon you. Is there any creator other than Allah who provides for you from the heaven and earth? There is no deity except Him, so how are you deluded? [Ref: 35:3] The questioning is to establish there is no Deity beside Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is the One and the Only Deity. The verse reveals mankind took deities beside Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) this is why Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) states, there is no deity except Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Note, it is matter of principle, where ever entirity is mentioned in Quran/Ahadith, either the entirity or majority is intended. We have example of Iblees (the Jinn) being ordered along side the angels to prostrate to Prophet Adam (alayhis salaam). Yet the explicit command was given to angels. Returning to discussion, the verse 35:3 is addressesing entire mankind, indicating entire or majority of mankind is guilty of associating god partners with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). To answer the ambiguity of majority of or entirity of mankind, Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) stated: "And most of them believe not in Allah except while they associate others with Him." [Ref: 12:106] Meaning most of mankind believe not in Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) except that they committ Shirk. In another verse of Quran it is stated: “They will say, "Exalted are You! You are our benefactor not them. Rather, they used to worship the Jinn; most of them were believers in them."  [Ref: 34:41]

Conclusion:

 

A Muslim is one who accepts all fundamental doctrines of Islam and not just one who believes in Tawheed alone. The verse assumes, out of mankind most do not believe in Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) without associating a god partner with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Also the verse 12:106 was revealed for polytheists because explicit mention of a minority is not made in the text of verse. Rather it is deduced via judging based on diametric opposite and what is not part of verse cannot be made part of text of verse even if it is logically, rationally deduced.

Wama alayna ilal balaghul mubeen.
Muhammed Ali Razavi

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