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MuhammedAli

Textually Supporting The Belief - Polytheists Did Not Believed In Tawheed Al Rububiyyah For Their Gods.

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Introduction:

Najdiyyah divide monotheism into three, Ulluhiyyah (i.e. godhood), Rububiyyah (i.e. lordship), and Asma Wal Sifaat (i.e. names and attributes). They believe Uluhiyyah consists of believing, a Ma’bud (i.e. worthy of worship) is only Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) - direct all acts of worship to Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Rububiyyah consists believing all matters related to maintaining, creating, sustaining creation are in power of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) alone. Due to which Khawarij believe Ulluhiyyah and Rububiyyah are not connected in meaning and to believe in one is not to believe in the other. As a result of this understanding they believe polytheists did commit Shirk in Tawheed Al Ulluhiyyah but did not believe in powers of Rububiyyah for their idol-gods nor committed Shirk in Rububiyyah. And the polytheists believed in Tawheed in Rububiyyah. Contrary to their belief, the Muslims believe the polytheists did believe in Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) having control over and running the major affairs of universe mentioned in the Quran and not their gods. But this does not mean they believed in Tawheed Al Rububiyyah. It should be pointed out; the beliefs and actions connected with Ulluhiyyah and Rububiyyah by Khawarij are certainly Islamicly sanctioned. Just the exclusion of Rububiyyah from Ulluhiyyah and belief that polytheists believed in Tawheed Al Rububiyyah is heretical. Islamicly Ulluhiyah consists of Rububiyyah therefore to believe in an Ilah beside Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is to believe in Rabb beside Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala).

Rububiyyah Is Part Of Ilahiyyah:

Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) states: “Yet they have taken besides Him other gods (i.e. alihah) who created nothing but are themselves created, and possess neither harm nor benefit for themselves, and possess no power (of causing) death, nor (of giving) life, nor of raising the dead.” [Ref: 25:3] This verse indicates an Ilah is also Rabb because Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has stated the gods of polytheists are unable to creat anything – creating a creation is characteristic of Rububiyyah. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) connected act of creating with Ilahiyyah because it is inherently/naturally part of it. In another verse Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) states: “Allah has not taken any son, nor has there ever been with Him any god. (Had there been gods or son-gods beside Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala) then each god would have taken what it created, and some of them would have sought to overcome others. Exalted is Allah above what they describe (concerning Him).” [Ref: 23:91] In this verse act of creating creation is connected with Ilahiyyah because Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has stated, each god would have segregated what was created by him and out of these gods some would have attempted to over throw the Lordship of another god in order to be the god/lord of another gods dominion. Alhasil, Ilahiyyah is inclusive of Rububiyyah and it was for this reason Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) revealed these verses mentioning charactristics of Rububiyyah while using the words Aaliha/Ilah.

Consequence Of Many Gods/Lords Ruling Universe:

Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) states: “If there were, in the heavens and the earth, other gods besides Allah, there would have been confusion in both but glory to Allah, the Lord of the Kursi: above what they attribute to Him!” [Ref: 21:22] Why would there be confusion in space and on earth? Each god would have wished to exercise authority over the creation and would have desired for things to take place when he wished. One would have commanded the clouds to produce rain. The other would have wished for rain but not for few more days. Angels charged with producing rain from clouds would be confused regarding whose order to follow. Or the angels asigned the task of watching over womb of pregnant women. O Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala)! Is this a male or female? Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala): Male! Krishna: Female! Manat: Not male or female, deprive him of both. And angel incharge of womb would be confused. If an angels did according to command of a god out of many then disputes would break out. In the following verse Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) gives a parable to indicate the disputes which would break out between gods: “Allah puts forth a similitude: a (slave) man belonging to many partners disputing with one another, and a (slave) man belonging entirely to one master. Are those two equal in comparison? All the praises and thanks be to Allah! But most of them know not.” [Ref: 39:29] The implication is a servant under the command of a master is better and a universe and earth and its inhabitants are better under command of One God. And all the harmony in universe and earth points to existance of One God not many gods. Alhasil: Ilahiyyah is inclusive of Rububiyyah and it was on this basis Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) stated if there were in space and earth other lords beside Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) then there would be chaos and confusion because each lord would wish the universe and earth to be governed his way.

The Dispute Between Gods Would Lead To War Between Gods:

Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) mentioned in following verse that if there were many gods then they would have disputed with each other: “Allah puts forth a similitude: a (slave) man belonging to many partners disputing with one another, and a (slave) man belonging entirely to one master. Are those two equal in comparison? All the praises and thanks be to Allah! But most of them know not.” [Ref: 39:29] Where would these dispute lead these gods? This question is answered in the following verse: “Allah has not taken any son, nor has there ever been with Him any god. (Had there been gods or son-gods beside Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala) then each god would have taken what it created, and some of them would have sought to overcome others. Exalted is Allah above what they describe (concerning Him).” [Ref: 23:91] Then some gods would have attempted to over power other gods to extend their dominion and to solve the dispute with another god. This comes under the category of Rububiyyah because a god is said to attempt to manage an affair/matter but it is mentioned in context of Ilahiyyah. Also creation of creation by a god is trait of Rububiyyah but it is mentioned in context of Ilahiyyah. Alhasil: Ilahiyyah is inclusive of Rububiyyah because because due to this fact Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) stated traits of Rububiyyah in context of Ilahiyyah.

Mushrikeen Believed In Powers Of Rububiyyah For Their Idols:

Many verses of Quran connect punishment with attribute of Lordship. Following are number of examples: “And (remember) when your lord proclaimed: "If you give thanks, I will give you more (of My blessings); but if you are thankless (i.e. disbelievers), verily My punishment is indeed severe." [Ref: 14:7] And indeed We seized them with punishment, but they humbled not themselves to their lord, nor did they invoke (to Allah) with submission to Him.” [Ref: 23:76] “Nothing is said to you except what was said to the Messengers before you. Verily, your lord is the Possessor of Forgiveness, and (also) the Possessor of Painful punishment.“ [Ref: 41:43] These verses establish; inflicting punishment is characteristic of Lordship and polytheists believed their gods possessed this power of Lordship. In the following verse Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) states that the polytheists attempted to scare the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) into silence with threat of punishment from their gods:“Is not Allah enough for his Servant? But they try to frighten thee with other besides Him! For such as Allah leaves to stray, there can be no guide.” [Ref: 39:36] This indicates the polytheists believed their gods had powers of harm/punishment – or in other words a characteristic of Lordship. And this is similar to when nation of Prophet Hud (alayhis salaam) said about their gods inflicting Prophet Hud (alayhis salaam) with stupidity, and evidence of this is in the following verse: "We say nothing but that (perhaps) some of our gods may have seized thee with imbecility. “He said: "I call Allah to witness, and do ye bear witness, that I am free from the sin of ascribing, to Him." [Ref: 11:54] This indicates throughout ages polytheists believed in their gods having powers of Rububiyyah and in context of discussion power of inflicting harm as an instrument of punishment.

Lat, Uzza, And Manat As Lords Beside Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala):

Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) states: And neither did he bid you to take the angels and the prophets for your lords: [for] would he bid you to deny the truth after you have surrendered yourselves unto God?” [Ref: 3:80] What else did those people believe about the angels apart from believing them to be lords beside Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala)? This question is answered in the following vers of Quran – it reveals they believed these angels were daughters of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala): Has then your Lord distinguished/honoured you by (giving you) sons, and taken unto Himself daughters in the guise of angels? Verily, you are uttering a dreadful saying!” [Ref: 17:40] “Have you seen Lat and Uzza? And another, the third Manat? What! for you the male ######, and for Him, the female? [Ref: 53:19/21] It was the polytheists of Arabia who believed Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) had three daughters. This establishes the polytheists of Arabia believed Lat, Uzza, Manat to be Lords beside Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) because the polytheists believed these three are angels and hence daughters of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and proof of them taking these daughter-angels as Lords is in the following verse: And neither did he bid you to take the angels and the prophets for your lords: [for] would he bid you to deny the truth after you have surrendered yourselves unto God?” [Ref: 3:80] And in response to their attribution of angel-daughters as lord partners of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala), Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) states: “But they have attributed to Allah partners - the jinn, while He has created them - and have fabricated for Him sons and daughters. Exalted is He and high above what they describe.” [Ref: 6:100] And in another verse questions how they have come to know if the angels were female in the following verse: “And they have made the angels, who are servants of the Most Merciful, females. Did they witness their creation? Their testimony will be recorded, and they will be questioned.” [Ref: 43:16] Indicating the entire philosophy of polytheism is made-up and has no foundation other then their own desires.

Shirk Al Ilahiyyah Is Inclusive Of Shirk Al Rububiyyah:

Islamicly Ilahiyyah is inclusive of Rububiyyah therefore fundamentaly if one believes in many Ilahs beside Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) then one is guilty of associating that many lords with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). And if one attributes lord partners to Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) but not Ilah partners even then one would be guilty of Shirk in Ilahiyyah because Ilahiyyah is fundmental prequisite for Rububiyyah. Without Ilahiyyah there is no Rububiyyah. And any individual guilty of Shirk in Tawheed Al Ilahiyyah cannot be believer in Tawheed Al Rububiyyah. By attributing god/lord partners to Him [in other words committing Shirk Al-Ilahiyyah] by default one negates Tawheed Asma Wal Sifaat (One-ness Of Names & Attributes) even if one believes the attributes/names of action are limited for the appointed deity. This belief would only indicate; the individual believes Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has partner gods/lords who possesse, limited and restricted, attributes and actions. And this would still be Shirk in Ilahiyyah and Rububiyyah.

Shirk In Lordship Is Also Shirk Of Attributes:

Rabb (i.e. Lord) is a Ism Khas  (i.e.special name) of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and it is connected to some of attributes and an actions (i.e. Afaal) of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). If one was to affirms the title of rabb for a deity, one has also affirmed all the attributes and actions connected with being a rabb for their deity. Polytheists affirmed the lordship for their gods – Lat, Uzza, Manat - and in this sense also affirmed the attributes and actions connected to lordship. And if one commits Shirk in Lordship, by by default he has comitted Shirk in all those attributes and actions which are connected with Lordship. Hence they would also be guilty of Shirk Al As-Sifaat (i.e. attributes) not just in Rububiyyah.

Conclusion:

It has been firmly established that polytheists believed in qualities of Rububiyyah for their gods. With regards to Lat, Uzza and Manat we have clear evidence which establishes they were deemed to be Lords beside Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). It is established that Ilahiyyah is inclusive of Rububiyyah. And it is also established from many verses of Quran that polytheists believed in many gods beside Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). According to Hadith there were some 360 idols of various gods of polytheists in and around Kabah.  Hence polytheists were not only guilty in Shirk of Ilahiyyah but they were also guilty of Shirk of Rububiyyah. Rububiyyah is inclusive of attributes such as Khaliq (i.e. Creator), Raziq (i.e. Sustainer) and many others therefore Shirk in Rububiyyah is also Shirk of Sifaat.


Wama alayna ilal balaghul mubeen.
Muhammed Ali Razavi

Edited by MuhammedAli

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