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Addendum To Articles Written On Topic Of Salat ad-Duha.


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Introduction:

Recently five articles on subject of Salat ad-Duha were presented on the IslamiMehfil forum, here, here, here, here, and here. In these articles position presented was; Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) believed Salat ad-Duha holistically was an innovation and not a prophetic Sunnah. A Sunni brother directed my attention toward what classical era scholars of Ahlus Sunnah have stated in this regard; Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) has made these statements about performing of Salat ad-Duha in congregation, here, which contradicted my position. After investigating what the scholars of Islam have stated on this topic it was realised position maintained in the articles is of minority. And matter of principle for Muslims is to hold to understanding of majority. This article is an attempt to re-address and establish what Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) believed in light of teaching of Islamic scholarship. And if Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) permits this article will attone for the error.

What Transpired And Where The Mistake Was Made:

My understanding of Abdullah Ibn Umar’s (radiallah ta’ala anhu) belief was based on literal reading of Ahadith presented in, Ibn Umar Believed Salat ad-Duha To Be An Innovation, of linked,
article. Objective was to employ the apparent text of Ahadith and ignore the detail because it would not effect the foundation of Islamic argument.[1] And when it was established Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) said to have performed Salat ad-Duha on two ocasions even then I held to my initial judgment because the justification established against this Hadith seemed sound and reasonably justifiable. And it was argued that Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) did not perform Salat ad-Duha [as Prophetic Sunnah and] with intention of performing Salat ad-Duha but merely acted on other Sunnahs of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and evidence of those Sunnahs was presented in the, article. After investigation it was realised the scholars of Ahlus Sunnah have stated Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) believed Salat ad-Duha is Prophetic Sunnah and the Ahadith in which Salat ad-Duha is being said to be good innovation is regarding a particular aspect and not entirity of Salat ad-Duha. And to compound the means of guidance Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) made it clear that position adopted by me is of insignificant minority. And in adopting my position I also comprimised my long held principle to practice reconciliation between difficult Ahadith – which I did with contradictory Ahadith of Aysha (radiallah ta’ala anha) - instead of preferrence of a Hadith over the other.

What Persuaded Me To Rethink And Change My Initial Position:

After re-evaluating the evidence and subject matter as whole I have come to regret the initial judgment due to three reasons: i) due to realisation that to believe a Sahabi like of Abdullah Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu), did not know Salat ad-Duha is fundamentally a Prophetic Sunnah, is to over stretch, lack of knowledge hypothesis, especially for someone who lived in Madinah. ii) And distrusting narrator of Hadith who attributed performing of Salat ad-Duha to Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anh) on two occasions for no justifiable reason. iii) And importantly the vast majority of Islamic scholarship - the Jamhoor (i.e. majority), the Sawad Al Azam (i.e. greath majority, largest group) whom we are instructed to follow in disputes – believes Abdullah Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) did not believe Salat ad-Duha is an absolute innovation but believed aspects of it were innovation in his understanding.

Ibn Umar Performed Salat ad-Duha On Two Ocasions:

It is narrated that Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) did not perform Salat ad-Duha on any other occasion except on two occasions: “… whenever he reached Mecca; and he always used to reach Mecca in the forenoon (i.e. al-Duha). He would perform Tawaf round the Ka`ba and then offer two rak`at at the rear of Maqam Ibrahim.” And the second occasion is Masjid Al Quba: “Whenever he visited Quba, for he used to visit it every Saturday. When he entered the Mosque, he disliked to leave it without offering a prayer.“ And note he only performed Salat ad-Duha individually at these two locations because he deemed performing Salat ad-Duaha as such a Prophetic Sunnah and practice of his companions: "I do only what my companions used to do and I don't forbid anybody to pray at any time during the day or night except that one should not intend to pray at sunrise or sunset." [Ref: Bukhari, B21, H283] And from this Hadith we take that Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) must have believed performing Salat ad-Duha in Masjid Haram, and Masjid Quba, individually is Prophetic Sunnah, and performing Salat ad-Duha was only for these two Masajid, and for this reason he only performed it in these two Masajid.

Ahadith Of Salat ad-Duha Being Innovation And Their Explanation:

It was reported that Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) said: “Mujahid reported: I and 'Urwah b. Zubair entered the mosque and found 'Abdullah b. 'Umar sitting near the apartment of A'ishah and the people were observing the forenoon prayer. We asked him about their prayer, and he said: It is an innovation.” [Ref: Muslim, B7, H2883] Islamic scholars have stated Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) said; it is innovation because it was performed in congregation. And I am also of opinion that Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) said Salat ad-Duha was [good] innovation because Salat ad-Duha was performed in Masjid an-Nabvi on a day which was not Saturday. Implication of all this would be; fundamentally, Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) deemed Salat ad-Duha to be a Prophetic Sunnah, if it was performed individually, in one of the two Masajid, and on Saturday as established from following Hadith: “Ibn `Umar never offered the Duha prayer except on two occasions: (1) whenever he reached Mecca; and he always used to reach Mecca in the forenoon (i.e. al-Duha). He would perform Tawaf round the Ka`ba and then offer two rak`at at the rear of Maqam Ibrahim. (2) Whenever he visited Quba, for he used to visit it every Saturday. When he entered the Mosque, he disliked to leave it without offering a prayer.“ [Ref: Bukhari, B21, H283] And if it was performed in any other Masjid, on any other day, in congregation, then Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) would deem it to be an innovation.

Ahadith In Which Salat Ad-Duha Is Said To Be Excellent Innovation:

He said the Salat ad-Duha being performed in Masjid an-Nabvi is fine/excellent innovation: “Ibn Ulayyah narrated to us, Jarir narrated, al-Hakim bin A'raj narrated; I asked Muhammad about Salat ad-Duha, while he was sitting near the house of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). He said: It is an innovation and what a fine innovation it is!" [Ref: Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah, Kitab Of Prayer – Salat ad-Duha, H3] And in another Hadith it is stated that Salat ad-Duha is dear to Abdullah Ibn Umar:  "At the time Uthman was killed no-one considered it desirable and the people did not innovate anything that is dearer to me than that prayer." [Ref: Abd ar-Razzaq, Book Salat (No.2), Chap al-Duha, H4868] Note he reffered to Salat ad-Duha performed in Masjid Nabvi as an excellent innovation and his judgment could be due to multiple reasons – for being performed in congregation, in Masjid Nabvi, and day other than Saturday. The bottom line is in light of Hadith he deemed it fine/excellent innovation for one, two, or for all three reasons.

Innovated ad-Duha Prohibited/Evil Or Permitted/Good Innovation:

Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) would not consider impermissible to perform Salat ad-Duha if it was performed; at home, or in Masjid, or individually, or privately, or daily, or irregularly, or regularly, or in congregation becasuse he believed all worship is permissible including Salat ad-Duha except worship performed at prohibited times: "I do only what my companions used to do and I don't forbid anybody to pray at any time during the day or night except that one should not intend to pray at sunrise or sunset." [Ref: Bukhari, B21, H283] Alhasil in light of Abdullah Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) performing Salat ad-Duha on two occasions, and acting on what his companions acted, it can be said he would deem all form of practice of Salat ad-Duha as fine/excellent innovations except which he practiced. And as a general rule he would deem all forms of Salat ad-Duha as innovations if they did not meet his criteria of Prophetic Sunnah form of Salat ad-Duha – which is that it should be performed on Saturday, in Masajid of Haram/Quba, and individually.

Extra Detail Has No Effect On Fundamental Position:

Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) performing Salat ad-Duha on two occasions and following Ahadith of Salat ad-Duha being declared fine innovation, dearer innovation were/are being employed to establish; he believed Islam teaches and allows good innovations to be made part of it: “Mujahid reported: I and 'Urwah b. Zubair entered the mosque and found 'Abdullah b. 'Umar sitting near the apartment of A'ishah and the people were observing the forenoon prayer. We asked him about their prayer, and he said: It is an innovation.” [Ref: Muslim, B7, H2883] “Ibn Ulayyah narrated to us, Jarir narrated, al-Hakim bin A'raj narrated; I asked Muhammad about Salat ad-Duha, while he was sitting near the house of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). He said: It is an innovation and what a fine innovation it is!" [Ref: Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah, Kitab Of Prayer – Salat ad-Duha, H3] "At the time Uthman was killed no-one considered it desirable and the people did not innovate anything that is dearer to me than that prayer." [Ref: Abd ar-Razzaq, Book Salat (No.2), Chap al-Duha, H4868] The scholars have stated Abdullah Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) declared performing of Salat ad-Duha, in congregation, or in Masjid, to be fine innovation. Note this additional detail does not effect main argument which was that Islam allows innovations and it is not effected because Abdullah Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) still believes an aspect of Salat ad-Duha is good innovation in context of Hadith.

Re-Interpreting My Material In The Light Of Current Position:

In the mentioned articles where ever belief of Abdullah Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) is stated please insert the following words in square brackets – one, two, or all three: [in congregtion], or [in Masjid other than Masajid of Haram/Quba], or [on any other day than Saturday]. Footnote two demonstrates how it can be and should be inserted into the text of four articles. Please do note there is no guarantee these additions will perfectly fit into all the articles. After all these insertions are being suggested to reconcile articles with my current belief. In other words, these words in brackets are suggested to cover up my error and redirect them toward straight path. But I am confident my writing style allows such Taweels to be made. And where ever it is not possible to reconcile the words of brackets with the context then please stick to the original material and appreciate the fundamental point – Islam allows good innovations – while acknowledging error was made by me regards to presenting Ibn Umar’s (radiallah ta’ala anhu) correct position on Salat ad-Duha. If Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) wills all these articles will be reworked in due time but not until the Khariji student is informed of change of heart and not until he has his say on the issue.

Conclusion:

Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) did not believe Salat ad-Duha is fundamentally an innovation invented by companions of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) but he believed it is Prophetic Sunnah which Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) observed when he travelled to Masjid Quba and Masjid Haram. He believed to perform Salat ad-Duha apart from these two Masajid and as it was practiced by his companions something which Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam), Abu Bakr (radiallah ta’ala anhu), his father Umar Ibn al-Khattab (radiallah ta’ala anhu) did not do and therefore he did not perform Salat ad-Duha in: congregation, daily, publically, at home, in Masjid Nabvi or in any other Masjid, regularly, daily, irregularly.

Wama alayna ilal balaghul mubeen.
Muhammed Ali Razavi

Footnotes:

- [1] Suppose a companion believes raising the hands (i.e. rafa ul yadayn) while going into Ruku, coming out of Ruku, going into Sajdah, coming out of Sajdah is innovation but in the beginning of Salah Rafa ul Yadayn is Sunnah. Regarding Rafa Ul Yadayn companion also is on record for saying, its good innovation, and dearest innovation. A Muslim employs his statements to argue he believed Islam allows/recognises good innovations and permits introduction of them into Islam. Let me illustrate this with examples – the basic statements: 1) Rafa Ul Yadayn is innovation. 2) Rafa Ul Yadayn is good innovation. And the statements with details built into them: 1) Rafa Ul Yadayn [while going into Ruku, coming out of Ruku, going into Sajdah, coming out of Sajdah] is innovation. 2) Rafa Ul Yadayn [while going into Ruku, coming out of Ruku, going into Sajdah, coming out of Sajdah] is good innovation. Please note despite the addition of detail the fundamental point hasn’t changed nor the argument has been affected. To establish Islam permits good innovations the Muslim does not need to get into technical details of what he deemed innovation and what he deemed Prophetic Sunnah. Just the statement, Rafa Ul Yadayn is an innovation, or Rafa Ul Yadayn is good innovation, is enough to argue and to establish the point.

- [2]
Introduction: There is evidence to suggest Abdullah Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) did not deem Salat ad-Duha [in congregation] as a Prophetic Sunnah. Instead Ahadith record he believed it was a innovation and a practice which did not exist during the life time of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) nor in the life of first two rightly guided successors of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). He is reported to have said Salat ad-Duha [in congregation] is a fine innovation. Ibn Umar’s (radiallah ta’ala anhu) this statement allows Muslims to deduce that Islam has room for good/fine innovations which the opponents of Muslims reject and choose to disbelieve. Please do note; we Muslims believe Salat ad-Duha is a Prophetic Sunnah and Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) was not witness to Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) performing Salat ad-Duha [in congregation]. Salat ad-Duha Prophetic Sunnah: In a Hadith it is stated Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) so dutifully performed Salat ad-Duha which lead the companions to believe he would not leave it. And then left it for long periods of times leading them to think he will not perform it again: In another Hadith Abu Huraira (radiallah ta’ala anhu) narrated Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) instructed him engage in three actions – one of which was two Rak’at of Salat ad-Duha: Following Ahadith record the number of Rak’at performed and how many he would perform at a time: … Ahadith also narrate benefits of performing Salat ad-Duha but these Ahadith are of questionable grading. And Muhaditheen employ principle; weak Ahadith are strengthened if there are multiple chains for it, which is true for these Ahadith. And Ulamah also employ principle, weak Ahadith which mention merits of an action are usable. In this context regular practice of Salat ad-Duha will amount to forgiveness of innumerable sins, and according to another Hadith, in Paradise Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) will build palace of gold for practioner of Salat ad-Duha. Salat ad-Duha An Innovation According To Aysha: In a Hadith Aysha (radiallah ta’ala anha) is reported to have said; Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) performed Salat ad-Duha after returning from a journey: Note she stated, Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) did not perform Salat ad-Duha and then affirmed it for him saying he performed it after he returned from a journey. This indicates questioner inquired if Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) performed Salat ad-Duha regularly and she negated this. And then felt the need to specify when Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) perform it. She is also reported to have said: Again her negation is in context of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) performing Salat ad-Duha regularly and her saying she performs Salat ad-Duha is in context of regularly performing Salat ad-Duha. From this it becomes apparent she deemed regular practice of Salat ad-Duha as something which Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has not done. Ibn Umar Believed Salat ad-Duha To Be An Innovation: Ahadith record Abdullah Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) was asked if he himself, and Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam), Abu Bakr (radiallah ta’ala anhu) and Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) performed Salat ad-Duha, and he replied in negative: Ibn Umar’s (radiallah ta’ala anhu) answer naturally implies Salat ad-Duha [in congregtion] is an innovation. Sahih Bukhari and Muslim each record Hadith in which he is explicitly as been reported to have said, Salat ad-Duha is an innovation: Following Hadith establishes Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) deemed it to be a good innovation: Yet in another Hadith it is stated; Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) deemed Salat ad-Duha [in congregtion] to be an innovation and it was very dear/loved by him: Note this Hadith indicates Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) might have started to practice Salat ad-Duha. And after realising its goodness it became dear/beloved to him. Words Of Prophet Regarding Good Innovative Sunnahs: Statements of Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) establishes that he believed in evil innovations and good innovations. And he deemed Salat ad-Duha [in congregtion] to be good innovation which was dear to him. This also establishes that companions did not believe absolutely every innovation is misguidance but believed innovations which conformed to Prophetic teaching can be good. Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) was aware performing Salat ad-Duha [in congregtion] conformed to Prophetic teaching according to which Nawafil can be performed in all times except the prohibited times of sunrise/sunset and this is evident from his words: Regarding good innovations Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is reported to have said: Note in the Hadith Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) did not say, he who introduces my good Sunnah of Islam. This would have indicated; reward is for a Sunnah which is already part of Islam as Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has stated: “He who introduces …” implication of which is; Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is referring to every Muslim who introduces his own Sunnah. And then says:  “… introduces a good Sunnah in Islam …” Meaning introduces a Sunnah in Islam which is not already part of Islam. Alhasil, Hadith indicates Sunnah for which Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) told of reward is not already part of Islam and is not Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) but Sunnah of Muslim who issues it. And this is precisely the meaning of word innovation and following Hadith also corroborates that the reward is for innovated good Sunnah: And Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) judged the issue of Salat ad-Duha [in congregtion] being good innovation on basis of these Ahadith.anhu) judged the issue of Salat ad-Duha being good innovation on basis of these Ahadith. Conclusion: Aysha (radiallah ta’ala anha) has narrated Ahadith according to which Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) did and did not perform Salat ad-Duha. Principle of Muhaditheen is that which attests takes precedence over that which negates. And therefore those Ahadith which establish Salat ad-Duha being Prophetic Sunnah are to be preferred over those Ahadith of her which negate it. In addition contradicting Ahadith can be reconciled; ones which negate are negating regular practice and those Ahadith which attest to Salat ad-Duha being Prophetic Sunnah are regarding Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) performing Salat ad-Duha after returning from journey or reaching a destination. This leads to conclusion in context of her that she practiced Salat ad-Duha regularly which she believed Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) did not do. Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) believed Salat ad-Duha [in congregtion] [in Masjid other than Masajid of Haram/Quba] [on any other day than Saturday] was not performed by Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) nor by the first two Khulafah and therefore he did not perform it. And based on this he deemed Salat ad-Duha [in congregtion] to be an innovation and a good innovation which was dear to him. He was unaware of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) performing Salat ad-Duha [in congregtion] and this led him to deem it innovation. His statements cannot be valid evidence to negate the established status of Salat ad-Duha but his statements do establish he believed in Islam there is room for and there is permission to introduce good innovations.” [Ref: Ibn Umar's Statement Regarding Salat ad-Duha Establishes He Believed Shar'ri Good Innovations Are Legitimate In Islam, here]

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