MuhammedAli

Hadhir Nazir Objection: One Can Bear Witness On Basis Being Informed By A Truthful And Trustworthy.

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Introduction:

Deobandi brother, Mustafvi, had private discussion on subject of Hadhir Nazir. When it was argued and substantiated with evidence that a witness must hear and see events to which he claims to be witness, otherwise claimant cannot be truthful witness. His defence was and refutation of Hadhir Nazir was; when a truthful Bakr is informed by another truthful Amr then Bakr can bear witness to events [and the witnessing would is acceptable in court of law]. He then employed a Hadith and implied Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) too can and will bear witness on day of judgment on account of being informed by truthful/reliable witnesses. And I responded with material below. Note he did not spell out his point as I have expressed it but this is how he wished to refute the creed of Hadhir Nazir. My then response to his point is being presented for this article with improvements. It went unanswered and if Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) wills will remain, unchallenged.

Brother Mustafvi Argued – Witnessing Upon Being Informed By Another:

“It is true that your above mentioned two qualities have some weight but these two are not compulsory in all the cases. One can be a witness without being present physically and can give witness on the basis of his knowledge provided to him by some truthful and trustworthy. And it is clear from the hadith you presented in your post that Ummat-e-Muhammadiyah (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) will be witnessing over other ummats soley on the basis of being informed by Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam): ‘Did you convey the message to your people?’ and he will say: ‘Yes.’ It will be said to him: ‘Who will bear witness for you?’ He will say: ‘Muhammad and his ummah.’ So Muhammad and his ummah will be called, and it will be said to them: ‘Did this one convey the message to his people?’ They will say: ‘Yes.’ It will be said: ‘How did you know that?’ They will say: ‘Our Prophet came to us and told us that the Messengers had conveyed the message.’” That is the words of Allaah, ‘Thus We have made you a just (and the best) nation.’ He said: Just, so that you will be witnesses over mankind and the Messenger will be a witness over you.” Than you said: … do you mean by the words " move from place to place " that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) can be hazir nazir at different places at different times and is not hazir nazir all the time at all the places?” [Ref: Mustafvi, Private Discussion, Publicised, Post 2.]

Witness And Testimony Of Witness In Court:

To begin with a truthful witness must possess qualities of witness to be a truthfull witness: Hadhir (i.e. present) and Nazir (i.e. observing) and ofcourse hearing. Prophet Isa (alayhis salam) said: I was witness whilst I was among them. Meaning he was witness when he was Hadhir among his Ummah:"Never said I to them aught except what Thou didst command me to say, to wit, 'worship Allah, my Lord and your Lord'; and I was a witness over them whilst I dwelt amongst them; when Thou didst take me up Thou wast the Watcher over them, and Thou art a witness to all things." [Ref: 5:117] Secondly a witness must see the events he is bearing witness to be truthful witness: "He said: "It was she that sought to seduce me - from my (true) self. "And one of her household saw (this) and bore witness, (thus):- "If it be that his shirt is rent from the front, then is her tale true, and he is a liar!"[Ref: 12:26] and brother of Yusuf (alayhis salam) said: "Turn ye back to your father, and say, 'O our father! behold! thy son committed theft! we bear witness only to what we know [from first hand experience], and we could not well guard against the unseen!" [Ref: 12:81] Secondly, agreed that one can be a witness without being present phisically and actually without seeing the events he is bearing witness about but question is: Can a person be deemed a truthfull witness if he/she has not seen/heard the events to which he/she is bearing witness to? What is a man who bears witness in court of law without seeing/hearing and without being present at the events: Is he deemed unfit to testify and will he not be deemed a liar? And will someone receive punishment in court of law when the reality of alleged ‘witness’ not witnessing is known to judge? If mankinds judges will not then how will the grandest court of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and how the all-knowing Judge will accept such testimony?

Witnessing Of Ummah In Defence Of Prophets:

Ummah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was'sallam) clearly will declare that they are bearing witness just on the basis of being told by Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was'sallam). And this is clearly against the verses of Quran which emphatically state one has to be Hadhir: "and I was a witness over them whilst I dwelt amongst them; ..." and Nazir: "And one of her household saw (this) and bore witness, (thus):-" and upon being first hand witness and knowing the event one can bear witness: "... we bear witness only to what we know [from first hand experience], and we could not well guard against the unseen!" Therefore the witnessing of the Ummah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was'sallam) will be testifying of their faith in Allahs Quran and Prophets teaching. Note Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) said: "O Prophet! Truly We have sent you as a Witness, a Bearer of Glad Tidings, and Warner." [Ref: 33:45] Note this indicates Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) specificly has been sent as a Witness. Here the verse clearly means seeing/hearing and present type of witness. Also note that the verse does not say you will be witness on the day of judgemnt, it says you are sent as a witness [in dunya]. If he was witness of type who bears witness after being told by another then would a witness be appropriate word in the verse or a Messenger - such as: O Prophet! Truly We have sent you as a Messenger, a Bearer of Glad Tidings, and Warner. And Messenger would fit the meaning you give because he has been told by Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala) and Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) being Messenger passed the message to his Ummah - who then will be bearing witness against Ummats of previous Prophets. Yet the word Witness has been used. Either Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) didn’t know the meaning of witness or Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala) knows the meaning of word witness but you have not understood the verse as it should be understood.[1]

Ummah Testified Due To Being Informed, Qiyas; So Will Prophet:

You have reffered to the hadith and it states that Ummah will bear witness and Ummah will be questioned who told you they will say our Prophet (salllalahu alayhi wa aalihi was'sallam) has informed us. And on the basis of this you conclude that one can bear witness by being told by a reliable individual and in the context this would mean Ummah is bearing witness on account of what Prophet (salllalahu alayhi wa aalihi was'sallam) has told them because he is reliable, truthful. Even for sake of argument agree to this argument of yours. Would you like to quote me a single verse of the Quran or hadith which states that Prophet (salllalahu alayhi wa aalihi was'sallam) will bear witness on account of him being told by someone reliable. In your argument Ummah is bearing witness upon being told and on basis of reliability of Prophet (salllalahu alayhi wa aalihi was'sallam) but on who has informed Prophet (sallalahu alayhi wa aalihi was'sallam) and on whos reliability is Prophet (salllalahu alayhi wa aalihi was'sallam) bearing witness? You may reply; on being informed by Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) and on reliability of Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala). Then I demand a verse, a Hadith, which states Prophet (salllalahu alayhi wa aalihi was'sallam) will be bearing witness upon being informed by Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala).You should know that in matters of Aqeedah (i.e. creed), there is no Qiyas (i.e. analogy), no leap of faith, and no ijtihad. The requirement is definitive, explicit evidence and your argument hinges on Qiyas; Ummah will be bearing witness upon being told, so will Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) bear witness upon being told, and this type of Qiyas is not acceptable. Believing Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is a witness and will be bearing witness on account of being informed by truthfull is akin to believing Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is NOT witness upon the deeds of Jinn and mankind as the events transpire but he is witness/witnessing deeds based on being presented to Him by angels on Thursday and Monday.[2]

Witnessing Of Prophet Is Inclusive Of All Ages:

Your Qiyas is against the verse of Quran which explicitly states: O Prophet (salllalahu alayhi wa aalihi was'sallam) We have sent you as a Shahid: "O Prophet! Truly We have sent you as a Witness, a Bearer of Glad Tidings, and Warner." [Ref: 33:45] Note being sent as a Shahid implies hearing, seeing type of Shahid and not blind, deaf type of Shahid because if a Shahid was blind, deaf he cannot be Shahid. And Prophet (salllalahu alayhi wa aalihi was'sallam) has been sent as a Shahid Mutliq (i.e. absolute Witness) -: Meaning Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) did not say: You’re currently witness over what you see/hear with your eyes and ears during your life. Instead Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) stated we have sent you as a Shahid and specified no detail to restrict its application. Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is witness over the nations of earlier Prophets as following Hadith indicates: “… It will be said to him: ‘Did you convey the message to your people?’ And he will say: ‘Yes.’ Then his people will be called and it will be said: ‘Did he convey the message to you?’ They will say: ‘No.’ Then it will be said: Who will bear witness for you?’ He will say: Muhammad and his nation.’ So the nation of Muhammad will be called and it will be said: ‘Did this man convey the message?’ They will say: ‘Yes.’ He will say: How did you know that?’ They will say: Our Prophet told us that the Messengers had conveyed the message, and we believed him.’ This is what Allah says: ‘Thus We have made you, a just (and the best) nation, that you be witnesses over mankind and the Messenger be a witness over you.’” [Ref: Ibn Majah, B37, H4284] Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has been sent as a Shahid and we know he will be bearing witness regarding earlier nations therefore natural conclusion is that he has witnessed the events due to which he has informed the Ummah and due to which he will support witnessing of his nation on judgement day. In other words, when Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) stated: "O Prophet! Truly We have sent you as a Witness, a Bearer of Glad Tidings, and Warner."] He did not exclude the witnessing of deeds of earlier nations instead Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) declared; Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has been sent as a hearing/seeing type of witness who has witnessed the past and is to witness the future.

Conclusion:

To reject actual witnessing of deeds by Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is akin to believing Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is Shahid but He is not directly witnessing the events as they transpire but Allah (subhanhu wa ta’ala) is witness via angels presenting Him actions on Thursday and Monday. In simple words one rejects direct witnessing of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) via distortion of natural meaning, based on authentic evidence and sickness of heart. Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) informing his Ummah and Ummah bearing witness in defence of Prophets is established from Ahadith. To believe Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) will bear witness and will support the witnessing of his followers on account of being informed by another is without scriptural warrant and it is based on Qiyas and this is extremely heretical because this beliefe is against clear verses of Quran which state Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is sent as a Shahid/Witness. Instead of holding the obvious meaning -; the one whose heart is sick is inclined to distort the natural meaning of Shahid to mean Shahid-without-witnessing.

Wama alayna ilal balaghul mubeen
Muhammed Ali Razavi

Footnotes:

- [1] “My dear brother a truthful witness must possess two qualities of Hadhir, Isa alayhis salam said, I was witness whilest i was among them meaning he was witness when he was Hadhir among his Ummah:"Never said I to them aught except what Thou didst command me to say, to wit, 'worship Allah, my Lord and your Lord'; and I was a witness over them whilst I dwelt amongst them; when Thou didst take me up Thou wast the Watcher over them, and Thou art a witness to all things." [Ref: 5:117] Secondly a witness must see the events he is bearing witness to be truthful witness: "He said: "It was she that sought to seduce me - from my (true) self. "And one of her household saw (this) and bore witness, (thus):- "If it be that his shirt is rent from the front, then is her tale true, and he is a liar!"[Ref: 12:26] and brother of Yusuf alayhis salam said: "Turn ye back to your father, and say, 'O our father! behold! thy son committed theft! we bear witness only to what we know [from first hand experience], and we could not well guard against the unseen!" [Ref: 12:81] Agreed that one can be a witness without being present phisically and actually without seeing the events he is bearing witness about. But question is CAN A PERSON BE A TRUTHFUL WITNESS IF HE HAS NOT SEEN THE EVENTS HE IS BEARING WITNESS ABOUT? What is a man who bears witness in court of law without seeing, hearing and without being present at the events, is he not termed a liar? Also note the Ummah of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) clearly will declare that they are bearing witness just on the basis of being told by [Allah subhana wa ta'ala in the Quran and] Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam). And this is clearly against the verses of Quran which emphatically state one has to be hadhir: "and I was a witness over them whilst I dwelt amongst them; ..." and nadhir: "And one of her household saw (this) and bore witness, (thus):-" and upon being first hand witness and knowing the event one can bear witness: "... we bear witness only to what we know [from first hand experience], and we could not well guard against the unseen!" Therefore the witnessing of the Ummah of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) will be testifying of their faith in Allahs Quran and Prophets teaching. Note Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) said: "O Prophet! Truly We have sent you as a Witness, a Bearer of Glad Tidings, and Warner." [Ref: 33:45] this means he has been speificly sent as a Witness. Here the verse clearly means seeing, hearing, present type of witness. Also note that the verse does not say you will be witness on the day of judgemnt, it says you are sent as a witness [in dunya] and if he was witness of type who bears witness after being told by another then would a witness be appropriate word in the verse or a Messenger? And messenger would fit the meaning you give because he has been told by Allah who and he passed the message to his Ummah who is bearing witness against Ummats of previous Prophets. Yet the word Witness has been used. Either Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) didnt know the meaning of witness or Allah knows the meaning of word witness but you have not understood the verse as it should be understood.” [Ref: Discussion: Hadhir Nazir, Post 2.]

- [2] “You have reffered to the hadith which states that Ummah will bear witness and Ummah will be questioned who told you they will say our Prophet (salllalahu alayhi was'sallam) has informed us. And on the basis of this you conclude that one can bear witness by being told by a reliable individual and in the context this would mean Ummah is bearing witness on account of what Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) has told them because he is reliable, truthful. Lets even for sake of argument agree to this argument of yours. Would you like to quote me a single verse of the Quran or hadith which states that Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) will bear witness on account of him being told by someone reliable. In your argument Ummah is bearing witness upon being told and on basis of reliability of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) but on who has informed Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) and on whos reliability is Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) bearing witness? You may reply; on being informed by Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) and on reliability of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala). Then I demand a verse, a hadith, which states Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) will be bearing witness upon being informed by Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) and on the reliability of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala). You should know that in aqeedah there is no qiyas, no leap of faith, no ijtihad, definitive, explicit evidence is required and your argument hinges on Qiyas; Ummah will be bearing witness upon being told, so will Prophet bear witness upon being told. Your this Qiyas is against the verse of Quran which explicitly states O Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) we have sent you as a Shahid. And being sent as a Shahid implies hearing, seeing type of Shahid and not blind, deaf type of Shahid because if a Shahid was blind, deaf he cannot be Shahid. And Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) has been sent as a Shahid mutliq. Hence his witnessing on the day of judgement would be seeing, hearing type of witnessing. And verse 33:45 in reality is the key which explains in which meaning Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) will being bearing witness i.e. a Shahid who was sent as a hearing seeing type of Shahid.” [Ref: Discussion: Hadhir Nazir, Post 11.]

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