MuhammedAli

Hadhir Nazir Objection: Prophet Will Testify Against Nations By Means What Allah Informs Him Because Prophet Does Not Know Ghayb.

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Introduction:

Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) being Hadhir Nazir (i.e. Shahid/Witness) is contested between Muslims and Khawarij. Muslims believe Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) witnesses the actions of Jinn and Mankind as they happen. And witnessed the deeds of nations before birth of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). In contrast the Khawarij disbelieve in this teaching of Islam and disbelieve in verses of Quran like the Qadiyaniyyah/Ahmadiyyah believe but in reality disbelieve in Khatamiyyah (i.e. finality) of Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). Meaning they believe the Arabic word but reject the natural meaning associated with it. As an example; someone believes Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is Rabb (i.e. Lord) but rejects the natural meaning of Rabb and disassociates from it all attributes/actions which indicate its natural meaning. Therefore they believe in Rabb but disbelie in it. A Khariji quoted a portion of article dedicated to presenting Islamic belief of Hadhir Nazir, here, and sought clarification from anti-Islamic website. Below their answer is being reproduced. To see which part was quoted click the link, here. There response was patently misguiding. If Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) permits a details refutation of their distortion will follow.

Part One: IslamQA Material Related To Bashariyyah And Death:

Someone enquired from the IslamQA team: “Is the Prophet peace and blessings of Allaah [be upon him] alive and present on the earth at this time?” And also submitted a portion of an article which seems to be written by a Muslim and which I am not quoting here. In response the IslamQA Mufti wrote and I quote the first part of it:“The Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) is the best and most perfect of creation, and the most beloved to Allaah and the most honoured by Him. But this does not mean that his human characteristics are to be denied, or that any of the duties of worship which are due only to Allaah should be directed to him. The Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) was a human being who suffered from sickness and real death the same as any other human being. Allaah said (interpretation of the meaning): “Verily, you (O Muhammad) will die, and verily, they (too) will die” (al-Zumar 39:30) “And We granted not to any human being immortality before you (O Muhammad); then if you die, would they live forever?” (al-Anbiyaa’ 21:34) The Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) died and was buried in his grave, hence al-Siddeeq Abu Bakr (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: “Whoever used to worship Muhammad, Muhammad has died, but whoever used to worship Allaah, Allaah is alive and will never die.” [Ref: IslamQA, Answered by: Shaykh Abd al-Kareem al-Khudayr,
here.] Note the questioner did not correctly know the creed of Muslims because he assumed Muslims believe Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is Hadhir (i.e. present) and living on earth.

0.0 - Agreement Between Khawarij And Muslims On Following Points:

Muslims believe that Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) willed for death of Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and he was burried in house of, mother of righteous Muslims, Aysha (radiallah ta’ala anha) and his grave is in garden of paradise which is stablished by following Hadith: “Narrated Abdullah bin Zaid Al-Mazini:Allah's Messenger said, "Between my house and the pulpit there is a garden of the gardens of Paradise." [Ref: Bukhari, B21, H286] Therefore his blessed grave is in a garden of paradise. In addition to this Muslims believe that worship is of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) alone. And to worship a creation of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) instead of Him, or to worship a creation of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) as well as Him is major Shirk. And major Shirk invalidates belief in Islam. Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) said: “Narrated Umar: I heard the Prophet saying, "Do not exaggerate in praising me as the Christians praised the son of Mary, for I am only a Slave. So, call me the Slave of Allah and His Apostle." [Ref: Bukhari, B55, H654] Note Christians praised Prophet Isa (alayhis salam) and exaggerated about Prophet Isa (alayhis salam) to such extent that they elevated him and his mother to status of gods beside Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala).

0.1 - Prohibited And Permitted Mubalgha:

In the above Hadith Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) as prohibited the Muslims to engage in mubalgha (i.e. exaggeration) about him to extent; we elevate him to status of an Ilah (i.e. god) beside Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Please note Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has declared the boundary which his followers should not transgress while praising him. In other words Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has informed the Muslims; any praise even if it is exageration, if it does not declare Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) to be an Ilah/Rabb beside Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) then it is permissible. Note if there was prohibition on praising Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) other then the prohibited level then Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) would have informed the Muslims. Note even mubalgha regarding merits, qualities and character of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is permissible but not to extent which elevates him to status of Ilah/Rabb beside Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Yet we Muslims do not ask anything from the opponents of Islam but to believe in what Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) revealed. And believe in what is due right of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has revealed verses which establish; Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) witnesses the deeds of Jinn and mankind, and there is no exaggeration in this. [See section 1.1 for Islamic view point and related evidence.]

1.0 - Life After Death Of Prophets:

Muslims unanimously agree that Prophets are alive in their graves and perform Salah but their life is not of this world. Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’allam) informed the companions to invoke blessings of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) upon him on Friday because they will be submitted to Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). Companions enquired the body would decay after death. To which Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) responded; Allah (subhnahu wa ta’ala) has prohibited the earth to decompose their bodies: “The Prophet said: Among the most excellent of your days is Friday; on it Adam was created, on it he died, on it the last trumpet will be blown, and on it the shout will be made, so invoke more blessings on me that day, for your blessings will be submitted to me. The people asked: Messenger of Allah, how can it be that our blessings will be submitted to you while your body is decayed? He replied: Allah, the Exalted, has prohibited the earth from consuming the bodies of Prophets.” [Ref: Abu Dawud, B3, H1042] Note this indicates the companions believed Salat (i.e.blessings) can only be heard/received by Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) if he was alive in the sense of Jism (i.e. body) and Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) did not refute their undestanding. Meaning Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) approved of their view that he will listen to Salat with his Jism. In fact another Hadith indicates Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) directly listens to Salat of Muslims without need of angels presenting it to him – even after his death: “Abu Darda said, Rasoolallah said: On Friday recite copious amount of blessings upon me, for that is day of witnessing [actions]. That day angels visit [with deeds of people]. A person does not sends blessings upon me except that his voice reaches me, where ever he maybe. We said: Even after the death? He said: Even after my death. For Allah has prohibited the earth to consume the bodies of Prophets.”[1] [Ref: Jala'a Al-Afham, Page 63, Hadith 108, by Shaykh Ibn Qayyim al-Jawzia,
here] Fact of matter is Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) had view the deeds of his entire Ummah during his life time: “It was narrated from Abu Dharr that the Prophet said: "My nation was shown to me with their good deeds and bad deeds. Among their good deeds I saw a harmful thing being removed from the road. And among their bad deeds I saw sputum in the mosque that had not been removed." [Ref: Ibn Majah, B33, H3683] Another Hadith also makes it absolutely clear that all actions of Muslims are presented to Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) after his death and if he sees righteousness he praises Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and if he sees sin he seeks forgiveness for the sinner: “Narrated Sulayman bin Harb, Hammad bin Zaid, Ghalib al Qattan, Bakr bin Abdullah al-Muzani[2]: RasoolAllah (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) said:My life is good for you [because] Hadith are narrated for you and you narrate them. When I die then in my death there is good for you [because] your actions are presented to me. If I see goodness I will praise Allah and if I see otherwise I will seek forgive for you from Allah. [Ref: Khasa’is Ul Kubra, Imam Jalal ad-Deen Suyuti, pages 391/392] What this establishes is that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has not lost connection with our world but he is in very much in contact with it due to permission and mercy of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala).

1.1 – Evil Of Enemy Of Allah And His Messenger:

Sometimes enemies of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and His honourable Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) highlight the death of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and point to forever life of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) to hint; Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) could not be Hadhir Nazir over the actions of Ummah after his death because he is no longer alive but Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is forever alive and observes the deeds of His creation. It cannot be denied that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has departed from earthly life and it cannot be denied that he is alive in his grave. Despite this Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) -; with permission and ability granted to him by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) he observes the deeds of his Ummah. When it is not impossible for him to listen to Salat of his Ummah  after his death and observing deeds after they are presetned to him in his grave then why do you disbelieve in witnessing of deeds by Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) when fact is; he was sent as a witness: “O Prophet! Truly We have sent you as a Witness, a Bearer of Glad Tidings, and Warner." [Ref: 33:45] “Indeed, We have sent to you a Messenger as a witness upon you just as We sent to Pharaoh a messenger.” [Ref: 73:15] He was not just sent to Arabs of his time to entire mankind: “Whatever of good reaches you, is from Allah, but whatever of evil befalls you is from yourself. And We have sent you as a Messenger to mankind, and Allah is Sufficient as a Witness." [Ref: 4:79] Implication of which is; Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is directly witnessing the deeds of all to which he was sent as witness – i.e. mankind and Jinn-kind. Why is this impossible for you to believe? You’re from the group (i.e. Qarn) of Iblees which emerged from East – Najd - and Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) informed the Muslims: "There will emerge from the East some people who will recite the Qur'an but it will not exceed their throats and who will go out of the religion as an arrow passes through the game, and they will never come back to it unless the arrow, comes back to the middle of the bow (i.e. impossible becomes possible).” [Ref: Bukhari, B93, H651] It establishes that Khawarij will not be able to understand Quran and they are group of disbelievers.

2.0 - Finding Fault In Prophet Muhammad:

Prophet Musa (alayhis salam) was very secretive about his private parts and he was very cautious about exposing them. The people spread rumour that Prophet Musa (alayhis salam) suffers from some defect result of which he is secretive: “He covers his body in this way only because of some defect in his skin, either leprosy or scrotal hernia, or he has some other defect. ... so one day while Moses was in seclusion, he took off his clothes and put them on a stone and started taking a bath. When he had finished the bath, he moved towards his clothes so as to take them, but the stone took his clothes and fled; ...” [Ref: Bukhari, B55, H616] Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) obsolved him from their charge by making the stone running away with his clothes and when he chased after it the people saw he suffered from no such defect. This incident is hinted toward in the verse: Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) said: “O you who have believed, be not like those who maligned Moses; then Allah cleared him of what they said. And he in the sight of Allah was distinguished.” [Ref: 33:69] Meaning be like those who maligned Prophet Musa (alayhis salam) by maligning Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). Scholars have also interpreted the verse in context of following incident: “Narrated Abdullah: The Prophet divided something (among the Muslims) and distributed the shares (of the booty). A man said: "This division has not been made to please Allah." When I informed the Prophet about it, he became so furious that I noticed the signs of anger on his face and he then said: "May Allah bestow His Mercy on Moses, for he was hurt with more than this, yet he remained patient." [Ref: Bukhari, B75, H348] The implication of verse is do not find defects/faults in Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) goes on to say: Indeed, those who malign Allah and His Messenger: Allah has cursed them in this world and the Hereafter and prepared for them a humiliating punishment.” [Ref: 33:57] Note the verse was revealed in context of historical events but the derived injunction is to not to malign Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). The tool used to maligning Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) does not necessarily be the ones mentioned in Ahadith. Any way in which Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) can maligned is prohibited.

2.1 - The Way Hypocrites Maligned Prophet Of Allah:

Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) Prophecised that Muslims will conquer Syria, Iraq, and Yemen. And as result of these conquests Muslims will travel to these countries to settle but Madinah is better place for them to settle.[3] When Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) was marching for battle to Tabuk the hypocrites were amongst the Muslims and one from them said: Does Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) really think the Muslims will conquer Syria!Far be it! Meaning that he will not believe this happening.[4] Many other things were said and following verses were revealed about them: "They hypocrites are apprehensive lest a surah be revealed about them, informing them of what is in their hearts. Say, "Mock; indeed, Allah will expose that which you fear." And if you ask them, they will surely say: "We were only conversing and playing." Say, "Is it Allah and His verses and His Messenger that you were mocking?" Make no excuse; you have disbelieved after your belief. If We pardon one faction of you - We will punish another faction because they were criminals." [Ref: 9:64/66] This indicates the hypocrites doubted/disbelieved Prophet Muhammad’s (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) knowledge of Ghayb/Unseen and this became cause of their Kufr/Disbelief. The hypocrites were mocking the Ghayb/Unseen knowledge of RasoolAllah (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). One of them enquired where is my female camel? And Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) informed him regarding it:“Narrated Ibn Abbas: Some people were asking Allah's Messenger questions mockingly. A man would say: "Who is my father?" Another man whose she-camel had gone astray would say: "Where is my she-camel? "So Allah revealed this Verse in this connection: ‘O you who believe! Ask not about things which, if made plain to you, may cause you trouble.’” [Ref: Bukhari, B60, H146] The man who enquired regarding his father was Sahabi, Abdullah Ibn Hudhafa (radiallah ta’ala anhu): “Narrated Anas bin Malik: "One day Allah's Apostle came out (before the people) and 'Abdullah bin Hudhafa stood up and asked (him) "Who is my father?" The Prophet replied, "Your father is Hudhafa." The Prophet told them repeatedly (in anger) to ask him anything they liked. 'Umar knelt down before the Prophet and said thrice, "We accept Allah as (our) Lord and Islam as (our) religion and Muhammad as (our) Prophet." After that the Prophet became silent." [Ref: Bukhari, B3, H93] Abdullah bin Hudhafa (radiallah ta’ala anh) was said to be illegitimate child therefore seeing the oppurtunity to find who his father was he enquired. This has established the hypocrites doubted/disbelieved in Ghayb knowledge of RasoolAllah (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and often came up with ways to malign him. And it is evident those who disbelieve in Ghayb knowledge of RasoolAllah (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) malign Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and therefore are disbelievers.

2.2 - The Way Disbelievers Maligned Prophet Of Allah:

Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) states: “Mocked were (many) apostles before thee; but their scoffers were hemmed in by the thing that they mocked.” [Ref: 6:10] “Mocked were (many) apostles before thee: but I granted respite to the unbelievers, and finally I punished them: Then how (terrible) was my requital!” [Ref: 13:32] There are many verses of Quran which indicate the disbelievers of pre-Islamic era said to their Prophets that you’re only human beings. While pointing to human-ness of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) they said: “When they see you then, deem you nothing but as a joker: "Is this the one whom Allah has sent as an apostle?" [Ref: 25:14] And they made it clear why they made the above statement in following verse: “Their hearts toying as with trifles. The wrong-doers conceal their private counsels, (saying), "Is this (one) more than a man like yourselves? Will ye go to witchcraft with your eyes open?" [Ref: 21:3] In the following verse Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) explains why they pointed to human-ness of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and what was result of their statement: What kept men back from belief when Guidance came to them was nothing but this; they said: "Has Allah sent a man to be Messenger." [Ref: 19:94] In other words they pointed to human-ness of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) to deny his Prophet-hood. In another verse it becomes clear that they argued; if Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is truly Prophet of Allah then why isn’t an angel sent with him and Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) responded by saying: “Say, "If there were settled, on earth, angels walking about in peace and quiet, We should certainly have sent them down from the heavens an angel for an apostle." [Ref: 19:95] Their objective was to say a human being is not good enough, not worthy enough to be given the office of Prophethood/Messengership.

2.3 - Highlighting Certain Aspects To Negate Merits Of Prophet:

Alhasil it was habbit of the disbelievers to point out commanalities between the human nature of a Prophet to refute and undermine Prophet-hood. While the Khawarij highlight human nature of RasoolAllah (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) to negate/refute a merits of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa alaihi was’sallam). Note Muslims too affirm the Bashariyyah (i.e. human-ness) of Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) but uniqueness of Khawarij is; they in most cases they affirm Bashariyyah when they wish to cast doubt on certain merit of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). In other words the objective of Khawarij is same as the disbelievers to imply that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is not worthy enough to be granted this merit by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). And in this context the Khariji Shaykh negates/refutes Ghayb knowledge of RasoolAllah (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and witnessing of deeds (i.e. Hadhir Nazir).

Part Two: IslamQA Material Related To Hadhir Nazir And Ilm Al Ghayb:

“The fact that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) was a witness, a bringer of glad tidings and a warner, and that he will be a witness on the Day of Resurrection, does not mean that he is present among all nations, or that he (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) will remain alive until the Day of Resurrection, or that he sees and witnesses whilst he is in his grave. Witnessing does not only mean seeing. Rather he will testify against the nations by means of what Allaah tells him, for he does not know the unseen. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “… and If I had the knowledge of the Ghaib (Unseen), I should have secured for myself an abundance of wealth…” (al-A’raaf 7:188) The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) does not have the ability to be present in numerous places; he is in only one place, which is his grave, and this is according to the consensus of the Muslims.” [Ref: IslamQA, Answered by: Shaykh Abd al-Kareem al-Khudayr,
here.]

3.0 - What Muslims Believe About Hadhir Nazir And What We Repudiate:

Muslims believing Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is Shahid/Shaheed (i.e. Hadhir Nazir) upon the actions of Jinn and mankind. But we Muslims do not believe Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is Hadhir (i.e. present) among all nations, or visits in multiple places on earth[5] to witness deeds, or he will be alive [in bodily sense] until the day of ressurection. Rather we believe he departed from this world and has been resting in his heavenly grave ever since. And from his heavenly resting place  (i.e. grave) Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) observes deeds of Jinn/Mankind with permission, ability, and power granted to him by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and on the day of judgment he will bear witness against people of his Ummah and others. In similar manner to which Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) made it possible for him to listen to voices of believers when they recite Salat upon him and just like during his life time Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) showed him the deeds of his entire Muslim Ummah. And this belief of Muslims is supported by the studentof Shaykh Ibn Taymiyyah and one of pillars on which Najdism is founded: “Then addresses the disbelievers of the Quraysh, and along with them the rest of mankind: “Verily, We have sent to you a Messenger to be a witness over you, …” Meaning witnessing your deeds: “… as We did send a Messenger to Fir`awn. But Fir`awn disobeyed the Messenger; so We seized him with a severe punishment.” [Ref: Tafsir Ibn Kathir, 73:15,
here.] Alhasil we Muslims believe Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) directly witnesses the deeds of Ummah as well as mankind due to which he will bear witnesses.

4.0 - The Meaning Of Being Sent As A Witness:

Khariji Shaykh said: “… or that he sees and witnesses whilst he is in his grave. Witnessing does not only mean seeing. Rather he will testify against the nations by means of what Allaah tells him, for he does not know the unseen.” Being sent as a witness naturally means one who is sent as a witness is expected to witness events. If Shaykh of Najd was sent as a witness to Masjid Al Haram then it is imperative that Shaykh of Najd witness the events transpiring in Masjid Al Haram. Would anyone send blind, deaf, and mute as a witness! Ofcourse not because such a person does not possesses the required qualities to be a witness. Being sent as a witness implies being sent to observe to whom/which one was sent as a witness. Just as being sent as a manager, or guardian, or supervisor, implies that the one being sent has something to manage, guard, and supervise. And Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) sent the Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) as a witness to Jinn and Mankind. Therefore natural meaning of verse is hearing/seeing type of Shahid/Shaheed (i.e. witness).

4.1 - Prophet Testifying After Being Informed – An Evil Innovation:

Khariji Shaykh wrote: “… or that he sees and witnesses whilst he is in his grave. Witnessing does not only mean seeing. Rather he will testify against the nations by means of what Allaah tells him, for he does not know the unseen.” Note there is no proof that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) will testify in court of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) after being informed by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). This belief of disbelievers is flight of their fantasy and an evil innovation for which they have no warrant. Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) warning about the evil innovations said: And he who introduced some evil Sunnah in Islam which had been followed subsequently (by others), he would be required to bear the burden like that of one who followed this (evil practice) without their's being diminished in any respect.” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) states stated about who invents religion as he/she desires: “Have you seen; he who has taken his desire as his Ilah (i.e. god)? And Allah has sent him astray and has set a seal upon his hearing and his heart and put over his vision a veil. So who will guide him after Allah? Then will you not be reminded?” [Ref: 45:23] And Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) instructs the Muslims to say to people of innovation and Kufr: “Say: "I will not follow your vain desires. If I did, I would go astray, and I would not be one of the rightly guided." [Ref: 6:56] We Muslims are under no obligation to follow an evil innovation invented by Khariji Shaykh to protect and guard his sectarian position. We are Muslims and we believe in Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and all that His Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) commanded us to believe.

4.2 – Denial Of Ilm Al Ghayb An Evident Act Of Disbelief:

Shaykh of Najdism writes: “… or that he sees and witnesses whilst he is in his grave. Witnessing does not only mean seeing. Rather he will testify against the nations by means of what Allaah tells him, for he does not know the unseen.” Shaykh of Khawarij has given a reason why he believes Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is not Witness (i.e. Hadhir Nazir) over the deeds. And his justification is that Prophet (sallalahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) does not possess knowledge of Ghayb.  Please note Shaykh has correctly deduced the topic of Hadhir Nazir is connected with Ilm al-Ghayb (i.e. knowledge of unseen). And it would stand to reason if it is established; Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) does possess Ilm al-Ghayb then witnessing of deeds by Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) will be established. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) stated in the following verse  regarding knowledge of Ghayb of RasoolAllah (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam): “And he is not withholder of (knowledge of) the Ghayb.”[6] [Ref: 81:24] “Allah would not leave the believers in that (state) you are in until He separates the evil from the good. Nor would Allah reveal to you the Unseen (i.e. Ghayb). Except Allah chooses His Messengers whom He wills. So believe in Allah and His Messengers. And if you believe and fear Him, then for you is a great reward.”[7] [Ref: 3:179] In another verse Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) categorically states Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) reveals Ghayb to approved/ Messengers whom He has chosen from mankind: "(He is Allah, the) Knower of the Ghayb, and He does not disclose His (knowledge of the) Ghayb to anyone. Except whom He has approved of Messengers, and indeed, He sends before each messenger and behind him observers."[8] [Ref: 72:26/27] Please bare in mind in section - 1.1 – it was demonstrated with Sahih Ahadith that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) does indeed possess knowledge of Ghayb and upon being challenged he demonstrated his capacity with permission and means provided by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala).

4.3 – Prophet Muhammad Revealing Portion Of His Knowledge Of Ghayb:

When the hypocrites asked too many questions in order to test the Ghayb knowledg of RasoolAllah (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) he got angry and ascended the pulpit of Masjid Nabavi and said:
“Narrated Anas: Once the people started asking Allah's Apostle questions, and they asked so many questions that he became angry and ascended the pulpit and said, "I will answer whatever questions you may ask me today." I looked right and left and saw everyone covering his face with his garment and weeping.” Then a righteous companion broke the ice, seeing this as opportunity for clarifiying the truth about his parentage: “Behold ! There was a man who, on quarreling with the people, used to be called as a son of a person other than his father. He said, "O Allah's Apostle! Who is my father?" The Prophet replied, "Your father is Hudhaifa." Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) saw how even the righteous companions have fallen into trap of Iblees and started to ask questions – when the right approach was to remain silent: “And then 'Umar got up and said, "We accept Allah as our Lord, and Islam as (our) religion, and Muhammad as (our) Apostle; and we seek refuge with Allah from the afflictions." Allah's Apostle said: "I have never seen a day like today in its good and its evil for Paradise and the Hell Fire were displayed in front of me, till I saw them just beyond this wall.” [Ref: Bukhari, B75, H373] In another Hadith Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) made the following statement during the solar eclipse: has reported to have said: “Narrated Asma bint Abu Bakr: I came to Aisha during the solar eclipse. The people were standing and she too was standing and offering prayer. I asked: "What is wrong with the people?" She pointed towards the sky with her hand and said: Subhan Allah!'' I asked her: "Is there a sign?" She nodded with her head meaning yes. When Allah's Apostle finished (the prayer), he glorified and praised Allah and said: "There is not anything that I have not seen before but I have seen now from this place of mine even Paradise and Hell. It has been revealed to me that you people will be put to trial nearly like the trial of ad-Dajjal in your graves. As for the true believer or a Muslim (the sub-narrator is not sure as to which of the two (words Asma' had said) he will say: ..." [Ref: Bukhari, B92, H390] That statement of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) reveals that he had seen everything except hell/paradise and on that day he saw these two as well. And Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) seeing all the Ummah and their good and bad deeds is established from following Hadith - quoted earlier: “It was narrated from Abu Dharr that the Prophet said: "My nation was shown to me with their good deeds and bad deeds. Among their good deeds I saw a harmful thing being removed from the road. And among their bad deeds I saw sputum in the mosque that had not been removed." [Ref: Ibn Majah, B33, H3683] Lastly Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is reported to have said: “Narrated Uqba: One day the Prophet went out and offered the (funeral) prayer for the people of Uhud as he used to offer a funeral prayer for any dead person and then he ascended the pulpit and said: "I am your predecessor before you, and I am a witness upon you, and I am looking at my Tank just now, and I have been given the keys of the treasures of the world (or the keys of the world). By Allah, I am not afraid that you will worship others besides Allah after me, but I am afraid that you will compete with each other for (the pleasures of) this world." [Ref: Bukhari, B59, H411] It was already established Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is witness over all of his Ummah. Those who lived during his time and those who were destined to be part of his Ummah after him –; till the day of judgment. Note he said in the Hadith; “… and I am witness upon you …” to indicate that he is witness upon his Ummah. For those who would negate his supernatural witnessing by saying: He only intended to say; “… and I am witness upon you …” -; in sense of watching the actions/deeds of those who were present around him. For such folk he coupled his statement with: “… and I am looking at my Tank just now …” -; so they have no excuse to disbelieve in his supernatural witnessing on account of it being impossible for human eyes. Alhasil Ghayb knowledge of RasoolAllah (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is established from verses of Quran as well as countless Ahadith and witnessing of deeds of mankind is established from Quran and Hadith [which is related to topic of Ilm al-Ghayb and] evidence of which was presented in section 1.1.

5.0 – Contradicting 7:188 With 81:24 And 3:179:

Shaykh of Kharijism quotes following verse to establish that Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) does not know Ghayb: “Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “… and If I had the knowledge of the Ghaib (Unseen), I should have secured for myself an abundance of wealth…” (al-A’raaf 7:188)” Muslims believe the book of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is without contradiction and indeed there is no contradiction in speech of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). With this in mind I quote the following: “And he is not withholder of (knowledge of) the Ghayb.” [Ref: 81:24] “Allah would not leave the believers in that (state) you are in until He separates the evil from the good. Nor would Allah reveal to you the Unseen (i.e. Ghayb). Except Allah chooses His Messengers whom He wills. So believe in Allah and His Messengers. And if you believe and fear Him, then for you is a great reward.” [Ref: 3:179] When it is evident both cannot be rejected and both cannot be believed on their apparent meanings then indepth understanding is required within boundary of Tawheed.

5.1 – Explaining Verse 7:188 In Context Of Tawheed:

The verse quoted by Khariji Shaykh is not completely negating Ilm al-Ghayb of RasoolAllah (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) but in fact it is negating a part of Ilm al-Ghayb. And this part is Zaati knowledge. Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is instructed to deny possessing Zaati knowledge of Ghayb[9]. In the context of Zaati meaning of the verse is: If I Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) had ability to possess knowledge of Ghayb by myself and as I willed then I could have secured for my self abundance of wealth and no harm could have touched me because I would have known the events to unfold and would have manipulated them in my favour.[10] Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) possessing Atahi (i.e. granted) knowledge of Ghayb following verse establishes this: "(He is Allah, the) Knower of the Ghayb, and He does not disclose His (knowledge of the) Ghayb to anyone. Except whom He has approved of Messengers, and indeed, He sends before each messenger and behind him observers." [Ref: 72:26/27] Readers should know to disbelieve in Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) possessing Atahi knowledge of Ghayb – as it is established from above verses is Kufr, which invalidates belief in Islam.

Conclusion:

Muslims believe Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) died and was/is burried in heavenly abode in Madinah. Prophets are alive in their graves but their life is not earthly life. Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) from his heavenly abode witnesses deed/actions of all those to whom he was sent as a Nabi and Messenger. Angels present to him deeds of his believing Ummah and upon witnessing righteousness he praises Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala), and if he observes a sinful act then he inovkes Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) for forgiveness of sins. In addition to this angels present to him [in form of gift] the Salawat invoked upon him by his Ummat and Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) directly listens to recitation of Salawat also as established from Sahih Hadith recorded in Jala’a al-Afham of Shaykh Ibn Qayyim. And Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihiw as’sallam) is Hadhir in Madinah and from his heavenly abode witnesses deeds of Jinn and mankind. To believe Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) will bear witness on judgment day on account of being informed by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is an evil innovation for which there is no warrant in Quran and Sunnah of RasoolAllah (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). And to disbelieve in direct witnessing of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) on account of beliefe that he did not possess knowledge of Ghayb is heresy on one account and Kufr for rejecting/disbelieving in Ilm Ghayb of RasoolAllah (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). The verse employed by enemy of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) only instructs the Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam)  to negate getting access to knowledge of Ghayb as desired and Zaati Ghayb. We Muslims believe Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) grants him knowledge of Ghayb and has granted him the ability and capacity to view events which ordinary eyes cannot grasp. And this includes seeing of many events in his life time and witnessing of deeds thereafter.

Wama alayna ilal balaghul mubeen.
Muhammed Ali Razavi

Footnotes:

- [1] Prophet listens To Salawat recited by his Ummatis as they recite it, Ibn Hajr Haythmi (rahimullah) And Hafidh Sakhawi (rahimullah),
here.

- [2] All the narrators of this Hadith are reliable. Sulayman bin Harb is:
ثقة إمام حافظ (i.e. Trustworthy, Imam and Hafidh), here. Hammad bin Zaid is also: ثقة ثبت فقيه إمام كبير مشهور (i.e. Established as reliable, Jurist and famous great Imam), here. Ghalib al-Qattan is indicated as: ثقة  (i.e. Reliable), here. Lastly Bakr bin Abdullah al-Muzani is said to be: ثقة ثبت (i.e. Established as reliable), here.

- [3] “Sufyan b. Abu Zuhair heard Allah's Messenger say: Yemen will be conquered and some people will go away (to that country) driving their camels and carrying their families on them and those who are under their authority, while Medina is better for them if they were to know it. Then syria will be conquered and some people will go away driving their camels along with them and carrying their families with them and those who are under their authority, while Medina is better for theni if they were to know it. Then lraq will be conquered and some people will go away (to that country) driving their camels and carrying their families with them and those who are under their authority while Medina is better for them if they were to know it.” [Ref: Muslim, B7, H3201]

- [4] “And if thou ask them they will say: We did but talk and jest…” [9:65]. Said Qatadah: “As the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, was heading for the Battle of Tabuk, a hypocrite, who was ahead of him, said: 'Does this man really hope to conquer the castles and fortresses of Syria? Far be it! Far be it'. Allah, exalted is He, informed His Prophet about what they said, and so the Prophet ordered the troops to stop marching. He went to those hypocrites and informed them of what they said. They said to him in reply: 'O Messenger of Allah, we were just engaging in idle talk and jesting'. Allah, exalted is He, then revealed this verse”. Zayd ibn Aslam and Muhammad ibn Ka'b said: “One of the hypocrites said at the Battle of Tabuk: 'I have never seen anyone whose belly is more hungry, whose tongue lies more or who is more cowardly in fighting than these reciters of ours', meaning the Messenger of Allah and his Companions. 'Awf ibn Malik said to him: 'You lie; rather, you are a hypocrite! I will inform the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, of what you have just said'. But 'Awf found that the Qur'an had already informed him. The man went to the Messenger of Allah when he had already mounted his camel and set off and said to him: 'O Messenger of Allah! We were but talking idly and jesting; we were talking the way riders do to make our travelling easy.'  Abu Nasr Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Abd Allah al-Jawzaqi informed us, Bishr ibn Ahmad ibn Bishr, Abu Ja'far Muhammad ibn Musa al-Halwani, Muhammad ibn Maymun al-Khayyat, Isma'il ibn Dawud al-Mihrajani, Malik ibn Anas, Nafi, Ibn Umar who said: “I saw Abd Allah ibn Ubayy walking in front of the Prophet while being hit by stones and saying: 'O Messenger of Allah! We were only talking idly and jesting!’ And the Prophet: responded: “Was it at Allah and His revelations and His Messenger that ye did scoff ?” [Ref: Tafsir Asbab Al Nuzul, 9:65, by Ali Ibn Ahmad al-Wahidi.]

- [5] The scholars of Ummah throughout the ages have reported to have said Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) attends funerals of righteous (i.e. Awliyah-Allah) members of his Ummah. And Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) performing funeral of Muslims is out of choice and not out of necessity. Maybe he attends with jism mithali (i.e. likeness of his body) or maybe roohani (i.e. spiritual) but definitely with permission and ability granted to him by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). And cholars of Ahlus Sunnah are in agreement that jism haqiqi (i.e. real body) of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) does not leave the heavenly grave of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam).

- [6]“And he is not …” -: i.e. Muhammad peace be upon him. “… avid of the Unseen …” he is accused with regard to the revelation; and it is also said this means: He is not avaricious (i.e. greedy/miserly).” [Ref: Tafsir Ibn Al-Abbas, 81:24, enhanced by MAR.] “The Prophet is not Stingy in conveying the Revelation (
وَمَا هُوَ عَلَى الْغَيْبِ بِظَنِينٍ) (He is not Zanin over the Unseen) meaning Muhammad is not following false conjecture about what Allah revealed. Others have recited this Ayah with the `Dad' in the word Danin, which means that he is not stingy, but rather he conveys it to everyone. Sufyan bin `Uyaynah said, "Zanin and Danin both have the same meaning. They mean that he is not a liar, nor is he a wicked, sinful person. The Zanin is one who follows false supposition, and the Danin is one who is stingy.'' Qatadah said, "The Qur'an was unseen and Allah revealed it to Muhammad , and he did not withhold it from the people. Rather he announced it, conveyed it, and offered it to everyone who wanted it.'' `Ikrimah, Ibn Zayd and others have made similar statements. Ibn Jarir preferred the recitation Danin. I say that both of recitations have been confirmed by numerous routes of transmission, and its meaning is correct either way, as we have mentioned earlier.” [Ref: Tafsir Ibn Kathir, 81:24] “And he is not …” This is (referring to Prophet) Muhammad peace and blessing of Allah be upon him. “… upon Ghayb …” This is (referring to) which is hidden of revelation (i.e. Wahi) and news of heavens.  “… stingy/miserly …” A variant reading for bi-zanīnin has bi-danīnin meaning that he is not ‘niggardly’ with the Unseen so as to reduce something of it and not disclose it.” [Ref: Tafsir Al Jalalayn, 81:24, distortion rectified by MAR, after comparing with Urdu translation.]

- [7]“It is not God’s purpose to leave to abandon the believers in the state in which you O people are where the sincere are intermingled with those otherwise till He shall distinguish read yamīza or yumayyiza till He separates the evil one the hypocrite from the good the believer through the burdensome obligations that will reveal this distinction — He did this on the Day of Uhud. And it is not God’s purpose to apprise you of the Unseen so that you could recognise the hypocrites from the others before the distinguishing; but God chooses He selects of His messengers whom He will apprising him of some of His Unseen as when He apprised the Prophet s of the position of the hypocrites. So believe in God and His messengers; and if you believe and guard against hypocrisy then yours shall be a great wage.” [Ref: Tafsir Al Jalalayn, 3:179] “With regard to the idolaters saying to Muhammad: “You say to us that there are amongst us believers and unbelievers. Show us, O Muhammad, who believes among us and who does not.” Allah then said: “It is not (the purpose) of Allah to leave the believers …” and unbelievers “… in your present state …” of religion until the believer becomes an unbeliever and the unbeliever becomes a believer if it is so in His decree “… till He shall separate the wicked from the good …” the damned from the felicitous, the unbeliever from the believer and the hypocrite from the sincere. “And it is not (the purpose of) Allah to let you know …” O people of Mecca “… the unseen …” such that you know who believes and who does not. “But Allah chooseth …” selects “… of His messengers whom He will …” :- i.e. Muhammad, and informs him of some of the unseen through revelation. “So believe in Allah and His messengers …” believe in all the messengers and Scriptures. “If ye believe …” in Allah and all the Scriptures and messengers “... and ward off (evil) …” ward off disbelief and idolatry, “… yours will be a vast reward.” an abundant reward in Paradise.” [Ref: Tafsir Ibn Al-Abbas, 3:179]

- [8] “(He is) the knower of the Unseen …” He knows when the chastisement will happen, “… and He revealeth unto none His secret. Save unto every messenger whom he hath chosen …” He reveals to them some instances of the Unseen, “… and then He maketh a guard …” angels “… to go before him …” before the messenger “… and a guard behind him …” to protect him from the jinn, devils and human beings so that they do not hear Gabriel reciting the revelations.” [Ref: Tafsir Ibn Abbas, 72:26/27] “Knower He is of the Unseen what is hidden from servants and He does not disclose He does not reveal His Unseen to anyone from mankind. except to a messenger of whom He approves. Then in addition to disclosing to him what He will to disclose of it by way of making it a miracle for him He despatches He appoints and sends forth before him namely the Messenger and behind him watchers angels to preserve him until He has conveyed it to him as part of the entire revelation.” [Ref: Tafsir Al Jalalayn, 72:26/27]

- [9] Zaati Ilm al-Ghayb (i.e.Personal/Intrinsic Knowledge Of Ghayb): It is He who has the knowledge of Ghayb by His self. His Ghayb is His Own. None has taught Him, or revealed to Him, or shown Him. His Knowledge of Ghayb was inherently His Own.

- [10] The implications have been inserted into following verse: If I Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) had ability to possess Zaati knowledge of Ghayb then I could have secured for my self abundance of wealth and no harm could have touched me because I would have known the events to unfold and would have manipulated them in my favour.

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