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Hadith Of Good/Evil Innovated Sunnah In Context Of Hadith Of Few Sentences With Vast In Meaning.


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Introduction:

Anti-Islam elements interpret the words Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) in context of event when it suites their objective and they refuse to accept any other interpretation. They argue their’s is the true/correct interpretation. Call them; Onliests. This is very true when it comes to Hadith of good/evil Sunnahs. Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) stated he has been given something which is short expression with vast meanings. And this Hadith refutes the onliest interpretation rule; only one interpretation and only our interpretation is right/true. It establishes there can be multiple interpretations and all can be valid. As a case study Hadith of good/evil Sunnah would be interpreted in light of other Ahadith to coroborate the Islamic teaching that there can be multiple interpretions of a text.

Prophet Sent With Short Expression Widest Meaning Possible:

It is recorded in Ahadith Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) said he has been sent with ability of short expression with widest possible meaning: "I heard Allah's Apostle saying, "I have been sent with Jawami al-Kalim, and I was made victorious with awe (caste into the hearts of the enemy), and while I was sleeping, the keys of the treasures of the earth were brought to me and were put in my hand." Muhammad said, Jawami'-al-Kalim means that Allah expresses in one or two statements or thereabouts the numerous matters that used to be written in the books revealed before (the coming of) the Prophet." [Ref: Bukhari, B87, H141] "Narrated Abu Huraira: Allah's Apostle said, "I have been sent with the shortest expressions bearing the widest meanings, and I have been made victorious with terror (cast in the hearts of the enemy), and while I was sleeping, the keys of the treasures of the world were ... " [Ref: Bukhari, B52, H220] One obvious meaning is; Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) sent with Quran therefore Quranic nature is of short expression widest meaning possible. It also means Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was'sallam) has been sent with ability to express widest meanings in few sentences. Note neither of the two meanings have explicitly been stated nor does the language negate one or the other and this itself is the proof that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was'sallam) has been granted the ability of short expression giving widest possible interpretation.

Prophet’s (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) Speech Is Jawami Al-Kalim:

Revelation sent to Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was'sallam) was of two types: (i) Quran, (ii) what became he taught as Sunnah. And proof of Hadith being part of revelation from Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala): Narrated Safwan bin Ya'la bin Umaiya: Ya'la used to say, "I wish I could see Allah's Apostle at the time when he is being inspired divinely." Ya'la added "While the Prophet was at Al-Ja'rana, shaded with a cloth sheet (in the form of a tent) and there were staying with him, some of his companions under it, suddenly there came to him a Bedouin wearing a cloak and perfumed extravagantly. He said: "O Allah's Apostle ! What is your opinion regarding a man who assumes the state of Ihram for 'umra wearing a cloak after applying perfume to his body?" 'Umar signaled with his hand to Ya'la to come (near). Ya'la came and put his head (underneath that cloth sheet) and saw the Prophet red-faced and when that state (of the Prophet ) was over, he said: "Where is he who as already asked me about the 'umra?" The man was looked for and brought to the Prophet The Prophet said (to him): "As for the perfume you have applied to your body, wash it off your body) thrice, and take off your cloak, and then do in your 'umra the rites you do in your Hajj." [Ref: Bukhari, B59, H618] Note that the underlined part of the Hadith is not part of the Quran yet its considered revelation by companions. Another establishes some things Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) are not part of Deen/revelation: “Musa b. Talha reported: I and Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) happened to pass by people near the date-palm trees. He (the Holy Prophet) said: What are these people doing? They said: They are grafting, i. e. they combine the male with the female (tree) and thus they yield more fruit. Thereupon Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: I do not find it to be of any use. The people were informed about it and they abandoned this practice. Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) (was later) on informed (that the yield had dwindled), whereupon he said: If there is any use of it, then they should do it, for it was just a personal opinion of mine, and do not go after my personal opinion; but when I say to you anything on behalf of Allah, then do accept it, for I do not attribute lie to Allah, the Exalted and Glorious. [Ref: Muslim, B30, H5830] And this leads to the conclusion; Prophet's (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was'sallam) those Ahadith which are part of Deen (i.e. on which issues of deen are discussed) are part of revelation which Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) sent him. Therefore the statement of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was'sallam) which are connected with Deen even if they are part of Hadith are part of revelation. Hence such Ahadith are shortest expressions bearing widest of possible meanings, and to put it in the words of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was'sallam): “Allah expresses in one or two statements or thereabouts the numerous matters that used to be written in the books revealed before (the coming of) the Prophet." Therefore what Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was'sallam) utters about deen with his truthful, purified, blessed tonge is in nature of jawami al kalim.

Many Interpretations Of Principle Statement Of Good/Evil Sunnah:

(
i) It also means; if a innovated good/evil action is done by Muslim and it is followed then that action is innovated Sunnah into Islam [even if the person has no intention of making it part of Islam] then the reward/sin is equale for one who started it in Islam. (ii) [In light of Ahadith which are without words; فِي الإِسْلاَمِ] it also means; one who revives a forgotten prophetic Sunnah his reward is like the one who originally started it and those who followed him. Please note first two interpretations are dependent upon another piece of evidence but they are being omitted to avoid lengthening the article. (iii) A Mujtahid strives and issues a good Sunnah there will be reward for him. And a innovator who introduces an evil Sunnah there will be equal sin of those who follow him. (iv) It means; Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) started to good Sunnah of Sadaqah in Islam therefore he like those who followed it will be rewarded equally. (v) It also means; if a Muslim introduces a innovated good/evil Sunnah which was not already part of Islam the reward/punishment for it is equale for one who introduces and those who follow. Interpretation four and five are in accordance with natural meaning of Hadith.

Enjoining Good And Forbidding Evil:

Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) states: “Indeed, Allah has purchased from the believers their lives and their properties (in exchange) for that they will have Paradise. They fight in the cause of Allah, so they kill and are killed. (It is) a true promise (binding) upon Him in the Torah and the Gospel and the Qur'an. And who is truer to his covenant than Allah? So rejoice in your transaction which you have contracted. And it is that which is the great attainment. (Such believers are) the repentant, the worshippers, the praisers (of Allah), the travelers (for His cause), those who bow and prostrate (in prayer), those who enjoin what is right and forbid what is wrong, and those who observe the limits (set by) Allah. And give good tidings to the believers.” [Ref: 9:112] It means; the right to be enjoined and the wrong to be prohibited is; which was taught by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and His Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) in Quran and prophetic Sunnah. It also means; the right/wrong to be enjoined/prohibited is also which is composed of innovated good/evil Sunnahs mentioned in the following Hadith: “He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect. And he who introduced some evil practice in Islam which had been followed subsequently (by others), he would be required to bear the burden like that of one who followed this (evil practice) without theirs being diminished in any respect." [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466]

Good And Evil Sunnah Means Good/Evil Innovated Sunnahs:

In order to explain this Hadith consider the following example: Suppose a wealthy Muslim starts a Sunnah;  he goes out every Friday, finds a new poor person, agrees to feed him [every day], buys him new clothes [as required], pay him daily wage on condition; he will learn about Islam in Madrassa and practice fundamentals of Islam, at minimum. And this wealthy Muslim calls this Sunnah as Outreach. Rich Shaykh of UAE takes note of good being done and he too follows the example of first guy. And few years later now all UAE rich Shaykhs are no longer competing in; whose got expensive Yatch, or Aeroplane, they all go righteous. They are competing for the good they can earn by following example of the Shaykh who started practice of Outreach. Outreach as whole is not prophetic Sunnah but its composed and made whole by combining parts of prophetic teachings. You would agree even though its Sunnah of wealthy Shaykh the practice as whole is an innovation because it did not exist before. Now keep this in mind and read the following words of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam): “He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect. And he who introduced some evil practice in Islam which had been followed subsequently (by others), he would be required to bear the burden like that of one who followed this (evil practice) without theirs being diminished in any respect." [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] The Sunnahs mentioned in this Hadith are not part of Islam and the reward being told is regarding what is not part of Islam. Innovation is not part of Islam.  Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was'sallam) has stated; he who innovated a praiseworthy Sunnah into Deen of Islam for him and those who fallow the innovator there will be equale reward. He also warned that anyone who introduces blameworthy Sunnah into Islam and those who fallow that blameworthy Sunnah there will no reduction of sins. Therefore natural and basic meaning of Hadith is innovation and to be precise innovation Sunnah of good/evil type.

Innovation Without Usage Of Word Innovation:

The word Sunnah has been used to mean innovated Sunnahs by Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was'sallam): “He then said: I enjoin you to fear Allah, and to hear and obey even if it be an Abyssinian slave, for those of you who live after me will see great disagreement. You must then follow my sunnah and Sunnah of the rightly-guided caliphs. Hold to it and stick fast to it. Avoid novelties, for every novelty is an innovation, and every innovation is an error.” [Ref: Dawood, B40, H4590] Prophetic Sunnah is part of Islam but Sunnah of rightly guided Caliphs. Example of Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) making companions following a Imam lead Taraweeh for entire month of Ramadhan is example of Sunnah issued by a Khalifah. And note prophetic Sunnah was three days and this is why Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) deemed his entire month of Ramadhan Taraweeh as good innovation: “Then on another night I went again in his company and the people were praying behind their reciter. On that Umar remarked: What an excellent innovation this is but the prayer which they do not perform, but sleep at its time is better than the one they are offering.'” [Ref: Bukhari, B32, H227] There are numerous innovations which the Caliphs of beloved Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was'sallam) innovated after he had departed from this world. Just for the sake of record Uthman (radiallahu ta'ala anhu) innovated the third Adhan which was given in the market. Another example of word Sunnah being used in context of innovated Sunnahs is in following Hadith: "Narrated Abdullah: The Prophet said, "None is killed unjustly, but the first son of Adam will have a part of its burden." Sufyan said: "..a part of its blood because he was the first to establish the Sunnah of murdering" [Ref: Bukhari, B92, H423] Note Hadith states son of Adam (alayhis salam) started the Sunnah and he was first one to start Sunnah of murdering and this implies first one to start innovation of murdering. And son of Adam (alayhis salam) is being judged in light of following prophetic words: And he who introduced some evil practice in Islam which had been followed subsequently (by others), he would be required to bear the burden like that of one who followed this (evil practice) without theirs being diminished in any respect." [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466]

Conclusion:

The guiding principle given in the Hadith of praiseworthy and blame worthy innovated Sunnah is part of deen and part of revelation therefore its nature is that its few sentences but suffices for multitude of issues. It tells of equal reward for one who introduce praiseworthy innovations as innovated good Sunnahs and one who follows it. And informs of equal sins for one who practices blameworthy innovation and one who creates it. In a nutshell this Hadith is upon the verse of enjoining good/right because it encourages fallowing innovated good Sunnahs, and forbids evil by telling that creator and follower of innovated evil Sunnahare equal in sight of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) in their sins. It is beyond the shadow of doubt; Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was'sallam) gave the guiding principle regarding innovated good Sunnah to encourage good innovations and their fallowing. And natural meaning of the good Sunnah and evil Sunnah portion of Hadith is innovated good/evil Sunnahs.

Wama alayna ilal balaghul mubeen.
Muhammed Ali Razavi

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