MuhammedAli

Prophet Muhammad As Khaat’m al-Nabiyeen, And Khaat’m Of Prophets And Messengers.

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Intorduction:

This article will explain based on verse of Khaatmiyyah (i.e. Finality) why there can not be another Prophet or Messenger after Prophet Muhammed (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam), the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was'sallam). In the last century three well known individuals Mirza Ghulam Ahmed Qadiyani of India, Elijah Muhammed of U.S.A, Rashid Khalifah a Egyptian who had settled in U.S.A, have claimed to be Messengers (i.e.Rusul). And due to general ignorance of Muslims, they managed to lead some Muslims astray from path of Islam into path of Kufr. To manage their claims of Prophet-hood and to give themselves a credibility they attempted to distort the meaning of verse of Khaat’m al-Nabiyeen. Mirza Ghulam Ahmad Qadiyani negated the traditional meaning of Khaat’m (i.e. last/end) and resorted to other linguistic meanings of the word to faciliate his claim of Prophet-hood and Messengership. Rashid Khalifah held to traditional meaning of Khaat’m. Yet in order to justify his claim to being Messenger of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) he argued according to the verse; Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is end/last from line of Prophets not Messengers. In contrast to both orthodox Islam teaches; Prophet Muhammed is Khaat’m al-Nabiyeen and after him there is no new Nabi, or new Rasool. And claimants of Prophet-hood and Messengership are liars (i.e. kazzabun) and imposters (i.e. dajjalun) in the word of Prophet Muhammed (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam), and disbelievers.

0.0 - Quranic Verse On Khatamiyyah Of Prophet Muhammad:

Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) stated: “Ma qana Muhammedun aba’hadim mir’rijaliqum wala kir’rasool lal’lahi wa khaat’m un-Nabiyeen.” [Ref: 33:40] Translation of it is as follows: “Muhammad is not the father of any of your men, but (he is) the Messenger of Allah and the khaat’m of the Prophets: and Allah has full knowledge of all things.” [Ref: 33:40] Khaat’m has been explained in detail by Arabic linguistis and gramarians. But before knocking on their door lets see how the root word of Khaat’m, Kha-Ta-M, has been employed in Quran.

0.1 Quranic Usage Khaat’m And Its Derivitives And Their Meanings:

The root of letter of word Khaatim/Khaatam are letters Kh-Ta-M. These root letters are employed to contruct words which have connecting meanings. In Quran various words evolving from Kh-Ta-M have been employed. Three times word Khatama has been used in connection with sealing/closing of hearing, eyes and heart. Its first occurance is in 2:7: “…خَتَمَ اللّهُ عَلَى in second in verse 6:46: “…وَخَتَمَ عَلَى …” and lastly in verse 45:23. In another verse 36:65 Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) employs derivative as nakhtimu while mentioning that mouths of people will be sealed/closed and hands/feet will testify against the person regarding how they were used: “…الْيَوْمَ نَخْتِمُ عَلَى.  In verse 42:24 Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) employed it as yakhtim: “…فَإِن يَشَأِ اللَّهُ يَخْتِمْ عَلَى قَلْبِكَ  …”. The verse mentions accusation of disbelievers that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has attributed to lies to Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). In response to whom Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) states; if such was the case He would have sealed the heart of Rasoolallah (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) so that he could not attribute faslehood to Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). In verse 83:25 word makhtoom has been employed in context of paradise: “.يُسْقَوْنَ مِن رَّحِيقٍ مَّخْتُومٍ Contextually the referrence is to people of paradise being presented a drink which has been sealed/closed to perserve flavour, fragrance, and freshness of drink.

0.2 - Arabic Linguists And Gramarians On Khaat’m:

Khaat'm is recited Khaatam and as Khaatim. Khaatim means terminator, finalizer. Khaatam means end/final. Imam Abul Mansur al-Azhari (rahimullah) in al-Tahzib attributes to Imam Zujaj (rahimullah) and gramarian Abu Ishaq (rahimullah); Khatm and Taba’a have same meaning. He went on to explain that both words denote meaning of tightly sealing a thing so nothing enters it and then referrences sealing of hearts mentioned in verse 7 of chapter of al-Baqarah as demonstration of meaning used in Quran. He goes on to state that Khaat’m of all things is its last. And while explaining the meaning of verse in discussion he states Khaatam al-Nabiyeen means Akhar al-Nabiyeen (i.e. end/last of the Prophets). Imam Ibn Hammad al-Juhri (rahimullah) in his al-Sihah stated Khaat’m recited with with Fat-ha (i.e. Zabr) and Kasra (i.e. Zey’r) form words Khitaam and Khaataam; all have same meanings. And plural of these words if Khawatim, and Khatimah of a thing means its Akhir (i.e. last/end). And he states in this defined meaning Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is Khatam ul-Anbiyah (i.e. end of the Prophets). Imam Raghab al-Isfahani (rahimullah) in his Mufradat indicated Khaat’m means end/final. He stated Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is considered Khat’m al-Nabiyeen because he ended Prophet-hood; in meaning that he completed/finished it. Long story short scholars of Islam of past and present are in agreement that word Khaat’m in Khaat’m al-Nabiyeen verse means; end of the Prophets.

0.3 - Khaat’m In Light Of Hadith And Its Implication:

Word (خَاتَمَ) as many means. Popularly in Hadith it has been employed to mean a signet and seal. Apart from denoting officiality a seal historically was used by Kings to prevent messengers from tempering or gaining knowledge about contents. And companions of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) informed him that it is custom of Kings of his era to put a seal on letters. As in following Hadith reveals: “Anas reported that when Allah's Apostle decided to write (letters) to non-Arabs it was said to him that the non-Arabs would not accept a letter but that having a seal (i.e. خَاتِمٌ) over it; so he (the Holy Prophet) got a silver ring made. He (Anas) said: I perceive as if I am looking at its brightness in his hand.” [Ref: Muslim, B24, H5217] Typically after writing of letter finished a wax seal at the end was put to indicate completion of letter. If the content was secret then it was roled and on the joint wax was poured and then embossed with stamp. In first case to ensure no new additions were made to content of letter and in second to prevent the information to come out. In this context it becomes obvious Khaatam means denotes meaning of sealing to prevent new additions to letter and sealed prevent information from being leaked. Thus Khaat’m carries the meaning of sealing to prevent additions and sealing to prevent leak of information.

0.4 - Prophetic Explanation Of Khaat’m:

Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) said he is al-Aqib and there is no Prophet after him: “Jubair b. Mut'im reported on the authority of his father that he heard Allah's Messenger as saying: I am Muhammad and I am Ahmad, and I am al-Mahi (the obliterator) by whom unbelief would be obliterated, and I am Hashir (the gatherer) at whose feet mankind will be gathered, i) and I am Aqib, ii) after whom there will be no Prophet. [Ref: Muslim, B30, H5810] al-Aqib means subsequent, successive, in other words; one who comes at the end of long list, thus it carrys meaning of last/final. And Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) defined what he intended by al-Aqib by saying, after whom there will be no Prophet. A Hadith in Muslim records how Imam Zuhri (rahimullah) understood al-Aqib: “This hadith has been transmitted on the authority of Ma'mar (and the words are): I said to Zuhri: What does (the word) al-'Aqib imply? He said: One after whom there is no Prophet, and in the hadith transmitted on the authority of Ma'mar and 'Uqail there is a slight variation of wording.” [Ref: Muslim, B30, H5812] Note Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) said, I am al-Aqib, after whom there will be no Prophet and Imam Zuhri (rahimullah) said al-Aqib means, after whom there is no Prophet. This reveals the second prophetic statement was further explanation of al-Aqib and not a separate unrelated statement. Please take note of how Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) further explained the meaning of al-Aqib because this Sunnah will be repeated in next Hadith. In another Hadith Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) explained the meaning of word Khaatam. Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is reported to have said: “Thawban narrated that the Messenger of Allah said: "The Hour shall not be established until tribes of my Ummah unite with the idolaters, and until they worship idols. And indeed there shall be thirty imposters in my Ummah,each of them claiming that he is a Prophet. And I am the Khaatam of the Prophets, there is no Prophet after me." [Ref: Tirmadhi, B7, H2219] Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) was aware that there will be people who will distort the natural meaning of Khaatam so he made the following statement; there is no Prophet after me, to pin point Khaatam’s (i.e. last/final) intended meaning. Note Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) said: I am Khaatam of Prophets. He stated this in context of his saying; there will be thirty impostors claiming to be Prophets after him. If he is the last Prophet and thirty men from his Ummah claim to be Prophets after him then by default they are impostors because they claim to be something which they cannot be. This logical deduction established the meaning of Khaatam to mean last/final.

0.5 - Commentary On Prophet Not Being Father Of Adult Man:

It was customs of Arabs to not to marry the divorcees of their biological sons. The verse Khatamiyyah was revealed in context of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) wanting to marry divorcee of his adopted son Zaid Ibn Harith (radiallah ta’ala anhu). The polytheists and the hypocrites took this as opportunity to malign the character of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) saying; he has married wife of his son. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) revealed the verse in response to this compaign saying: “Muhammad is not the father of any of your men …” [Ref: 33:40] Meaning Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is not biological father of any adult male to imply that the compaign to malign him is without foundation.

0.6 - Commentary On Verse Of Khaatamiyyah: Prophet-hood Is In Bloodline:

In the preceding verse Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) states: “… but (he is) the Messenger of Allah and the khaat’m of the Prophets ...” [Ref: 33:40] Question begs to be asked: Why would Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) declare that his beloved Prophet is Khaat’m of the Prophets in a apparently unrelated incident? The obvious answer is in the following Hadith: “Narrated Ismail: I asked Abi Aufa: "Did you see Ibrahim, the son of the Prophet?" He said: "Yes, but he died in his early childhood. Had there been a Prophet after Muhammad then his son would have lived, but there is no Prophet after him." [Ref: Bukhari, B73, H214] The negation of adult biological son in the verse and affirmation of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) being Khaat’m of the Prophets is to convey the meaning; the line of Prophe-thood is through bloodline. In other words Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) does not have a biological adult son because Prophet-hood would have been through his bloodline yet he is the last/end of the Prophets. Implying that prophetic bloodline has to come to end too for Prophet-hood to come to an end. And if he had biological adult son then bloodline would continue and so would have Prophet-hood. Following Hadith also supports the point established via reasoning: “It was narrated that Ibn Abbas said: ‘Then Ibrahim the son of the Messenger of Allah died, the Messenger of Allah prayed and said: ‘He has a wet-nurse in Paradise, and if he had lived he would have been a Siddiq and a Prophet. If he had lived his maternal uncles, the Egyptians, would have been set free and no Egyptian would ever have been enslaved.’” [Ref: Ibn Majah, B6, H1511] Implication of which is, bloodline of Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) came to an end, therefore Prophet-hood ended with Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam).

0.7 - Verse Of Khaat’m al-Nabiyeen In Understanding Of Commentators:

Commentary of companion Ibn al-Abbas (radiallah ta’ala anhu) interprets the verse of Khaatamiyyah as following: “(Muhammad is not the father of any man among you …) such as Zayd (… but he is the Messenger of Allah …) but Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah (… and the seal of the Prophets …) with him Allah has sealed the advent of prophets; such that there is no prophet after him (… and Allah is Aware of all things …) of your words and works.” [Ref: Tafsir Ibn al-Abbas, 33:40, here] In Tafsir al Jalalayn of Imam Jalal al-Din Suyuti (rahimullah) Khaatam al-Nabiyeen conveys the exact meaning of Ibn al-Abbas (radiallah ta’ala anhu): “… (… but …) he is (… the Messenger of God and the seal of the Prophets …) And so he will not have a son that is a fully grown man to be a prophet after him. A variant reading for khātim al-nabiyyīna has khātam al-nabiyyīn as in the instrument known as a ‘seal’ in other words their prophethood has been sealed by him. And God has knowledge of all things among these is the fact that there will be no prophet after him and even when the master Jesus descends at the end of days he will rule according to his Muhammad’s law.” [Ref: Tafsir al-Jalalayn, 33:40, here] Ibn Kathir (rahimullah) conveys the same meaning also in his commentary: “(but he is the Messenger of Allah and the last of the Prophets. And Allah is Ever All-Aware of everything.) This is like the Ayah: (Allah knows best with whom to place His Message.) (6:124) This Ayah clearly states that there will be no Prophet after him. If there will be no Prophet after him then there will surely be no Messenger after him either, because the status of a Messenger is higher than that of a Prophet, for every Messenger is a Prophet but the reverse is not the case.'' [Ref: Tafsir Ibn al-Kathir, 33:40, here]

0.8 - What Some Of Other Commentators Stated On Verse Of Khatamiyyah:

Ibn Jarir al-Tabari (rahimullah) in his commentary Jami al-Bayan under the verse in discussion reduced the meaning of Khaatam al-Nabiyeen to Akhar al-Nabiyeen (i.e. last/end of the Prophets). The famous Mutazali gramarian al-Zamashkari in his Tafsir al-Kashf stated Khaatam is in meaning of al-Taba’a (i.e. last) and al-Khatm (i.e. end), and in meaning of Khatm al-Nabiyeen (i.e. end of the Prophets).  In Tafsir al-Kabir, Imam Fakhr al-Din Raazi (rahimullah) while alluding to completion/perfection of religion of Islam stated that if there was another Prophet to follow after Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) then some aspect of Islam would have been incomplete which a later Prophet would have perfected/completed. Alluding to the fact that Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has completed/perfected Islam therefore there is no need for sending of Prophet after him. Thus in his unique fashion Imam (rahimullah) affirmed that Khaat’m means last/final and Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is last/final of the Prophets. Imam Ibn Jawzi (rahimullah) stated in his Zaad ul-Masir that if Khaat’m is recited as Khaatim then it means Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has ended the line of Prophets. And if Khaat’m is recited as Khaatam then it means Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is last Prophet. Imam Mahmood Nasfi (rahimullah) stated in his Tafsir Madarik al-Tanzeel that Khatam al-Nabiyeen means in line of Prophets Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is the last Prophet. No one will be appointed as a Prophet after him. End. Every single commentator of Quran has interpreted the verse of Khatamiyyah to denote end of Prophet-hood after Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam), and there will be no more new Prophet after Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam).

1.0 - Refuting The Liar And Impostor Mirza Ghulam Ahmad Qadiyani:

Messenger of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) there will be no Prophet nor a Messenger after him: “Anas bin Malik narrated: "The Messenger of Allah said: 'Indeed Messenger-ship and Prophet-hood have been terminated, so there shall be no Messenger after me, nor a Prophet.' He (Anas) said: "The people were concerned about that, so he  said: 'But there will be Mubashirat.' So they said: 'O Messenger of Allah! What is Mubashirat?' He said: 'The Muslim's dreams, for it is a portion of the portions of Prophet-hood.'" [Ref” Tirmadhi, B8, H2272] Prophet Muhammed (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is the Khaat’m al-Nabiyeen, as well as Khatam al-Rusul. After him there is no Prophet, and no Messenger. In other Ahadith Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is reported to have said: "Narrated AbuHurayrah: The Prophet said: The last hour will not come before there come forth thirty Dajjals (fraudulents), everyone presuming himself that he is an Rasool of Allah." [Ref: Abu Dawood, B37, H4319] "Abu Huraira reported Allah's Messenger as saying: The last hour would not come until there would arise about thirty Dajjals (i.e. impostors), Kadhabs (i.e. liars), and each one of them would claim that he is a Rasool (Messenger) of Allah." [Ref: Muslim, B41, H6988] Even though these people claim to be Messengers of God but the reality is there cannot be a Prophet, nor a Messenger, therefore their claims prove they are liars, and Mirza Ghulam Ahmad Qadiyani, upon whom be curse of Allah, is one from these thirty [minor] Dajjals and Kadhabs.

2.0 - Prophets And Messengers Are Distinguished By Principles:

These are some principles which need to be understood, and remembered, they are crucial in understanding why, and how Prophet Muhammed is Last Prophet as well as Messenger: i) Some humans were sent as Prophets and as Messengers, ii) and some humans were only sent as Prophets. In other words it means: i) Every Messenger is Prophet also,  ii) but every Prophet is not Messenger. In conclusion it can be said there are two types of Prophets: i) Nabi, ii) Nabi Rasool: The differences between: i) Nabi: Receives revelation, but receives no Book, communicates with Allah directly from behind a curtain, or indirectly via angle, and rank is lower then Rasool. ii) Nabi Rasool: Receives revelation, as well as Book, communicates with Allah directly from behind a curtain, or indirectly via angle, and is of highiest rank. Following is example of some Prophets belonging to each category: i) Nabi: Haroon, Sulayman, Yaqoob, Jonah, Ismail, Is'haq. ii) Nabi Rasool: Ibrahim, Dawood, Musa, Isa, Muhammed.[1]

3.0 - Rashid Khalifah, Impostor And Liar, Refuting His Taweel:

With meaning of Khaat’m decided, we come to conclusion that Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is last, final, and he has sealed the door of Prophet-hood and there cannot be another Prophet after him. By default, the door of Messengership has been closed by ending/sealing arrival of Prophets because every Messenger is a Prophet. Some humans were just Prophets and some were Prophet-Messengers therefore if a Messenger was to be born after RasoolAllah (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) that Messenger should also be a Prophet. And according to the verse of Khatamiyyah another new Prophet cannot come after Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam): “Muhammad is not the father of any of your men, but (he is) the Messenger of Allah and the Kha'tm of the Prophets: and Allah has full knowledge of all things.” [Ref: 33:40] Another way of understanding the verse would be is when something inferior is prohibited the greater then it is automatically prohibited. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) instructs the believers: “And your Lord has decreed that you not worship except Him, and to parents, good treatment. Whether one or both of them reach old age with you, say not to them, "uff," and do not repel them but speak to them a noble word.[Ref: 17:23] Do not say show dislike, or displeasure to parents. This verse prohibits the lowest and level of displeasure anything greater then that is by default prohibited. Now when it has become evident that Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has stated the lower rank of Nabi has been ended/sealed then by default the greater rank of Nabi-Rasool sealed/ended. Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has made following statement narrated in a Hadith: “Anas bin Malik narrated: "The Messenger of Allah said: 'Indeed Messenger-ship and Prophet-hood have been terminated, so there shall be no Messenger after me, nor a Prophet.' He (Anas) said: "The people were concerned about that, so he  said: 'But there will be Mubashirat.' So they said: 'O Messenger of Allah! What is Mubashirat?' He said: 'The Muslim's dreams, for it is a portion of the portions of Prophet-hood.'" [Ref” Tirmadhi, B8, H2272] Statement of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has been understood as an explanation of verse of Khatamiyyah. And my explanation of verse details, explains how Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) understood the verse of Khaat’m al-Nabiyeen and makes clear the reason he made the statement recorded in Hadith. In addition it explains why and how Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is Khaat’m al-Nabiyeen and Khaat’m al-Rusul. And why Taweel of Rashid Khalifa is invalid.

Conclusion:

Word Khaat’m in Khaat’m al-Nabiyeen is recited with Fat-ha and Kasra. Both readings accord the prophetic explanation, mentioned in Ahadith, and produce understanding, there is no Prophet after Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). The Arabic gramarians and commentators of Quran have given meaning of Akhar al-Nabiyeen to Khaat’m al-Nabiyeen. In addition to this scholars have stated every Messenger is Prophet as well but not every Prophet is Messenger. And Messenger ranks higher then a Prophet. Principle is when lesser is prohibited then greater is automatically prohibited. When this information is computed with meaning of Khaat’m al-Nabiyeen the result is; Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is not only the last and final Prophet but he is also final Messenger from Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). And this is in agreement with prophetic saying, there will be no Messenger and Prophet after me. In other Ahadith he said after him some thirty liars and minor Dajjals will claim Prophet-hood from his Ummah. In light of this all the men/women who claimed Prophet-hood or Messenger-ship after Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) are liars and minor Dajjals. This includes the chief of disbelievers, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad Qadiyani, upon him be curse of Allah, and Rashid Khalifah, and Elijah Muhammad of Nation Of Islam.

Wama Alayna Ilal Balaghul Mubeen.
Muhammed Ali Razvi

FootNotes:


- [1] These principles were derived by great scholars of Islam and are universally accepted as valid by all sects of Muslims. Those who wish to test them can verify them by analysing Quran, and Ahadith. This is a time consuming, and very detailed analysis, which would be too detailed to casual readers, those who are interested in authenticating these rules are more then welcome to investigate, and if any anamolies apear I would gladly provide further evidence from Quran and Ahadith to remove doubts.

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