MuhammedAli

Introductory Article To Hadhir Nazir: Prophet Witnessing And Bearing Witness To Actions.

1 post in this topic

Posted (edited) · Report post

Introduction:

During a discussion on subject of Hadhir Nazir and in explanation of verse, O Prophet truly We have sent you as a Shahid/Witness, Wahhabi argued this verse is connected with verses in which Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is said to be witness over his Ummah in defence of Prophets. And it has no connection with Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) witnessing deeds of his own Ummah [or mankind ing eneral]. He attempted to de-link the verse from Ummah because Islamic teaching is; Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) will witness the deeds of mankind, including his Ummah, and will testify in court of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). And this in essence establishes the belief which has come to be known as Hadhir Nazir. Therefore focus of this article would to establish Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) actually witnesses actions and will testify as such.

0.0 - Jawami al-Kalim Nature Of Quran And Prophetic Utterances:

Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) said he has been given Jawami Al-Kalim and he explained; few sentences expressing vast meanings and indeed this is nature of Quran:
“Narrated Abu Huraira: I heard Allah's Messenger saying: "I have been sent with Jawami al-Kalim, and I was made victorious with awe (caste into the hearts of the enemy), and while I was sleeping the keys of the treasures of the earth were brought to me and were put in my hand." Muhammad said: Jawami al-Kalim means that Allah expresses in one or two statements or thereabouts the numerous matters that used to be written in the books revealed before (the coming of) the Prophet.” [Ref: Bukhari, B87, H141] In light of this it should be noted that it is possible to interpret verses of Quran in many ways, and all interpretations can be valid if they have sustantiating evidence, and do not contradict a apparent meaning of verse which cannot not be reconciled with the interpretation.

1.0 - Prophet Of Allah Sent As A Witness To Mankind:

Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) stated: "O Prophet! Truly We have sent you as a witness, a bearer of glad tidings, and as a warner." [Ref: 33:45] Being sent as a Warner entails the one being sent as Warner warns and if he gives no warning of impending harm, loss of property, or life, or anything else then he isn’t a warner. And same applies to bearer of glad tidings. Muslims would agree that he warned mankind of punishment of hell-fire and gave glad tidings of paradise to mankind if they believe and do righteous deeds. In this context of being warner/giver of glad tidings to mankind Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) stated he has sent Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) as a witness and therefore natural meaning would be he has been sent as a witness to see/hear. And he is sent to as warner and giver of glad-tidings to mankind therefore his station of Shahid/Shaheed is for entire mankind just as his warnings and glad-tidings and entire Islam is for mankind. Being been sent as a witness to a convention the natural meaning is to observe the events of convetion and Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has been sent to mankind as a witness to witness the deeds of mankind. Hadith establishes direct witnessing of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam): "It is reported by Hazrat Abdullah bin Umar (radi Allahu anhuma) that Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said: "Indeed this entire world is in front of me so that I can observe everything in it. I can see everything in this world and everything that will take place till the Day of Qiyamah. I see the entire world as I see the palm of my hand". [Ref: Mawahib al-Laduniyyah bil-Manahi al-Muhammadiyyah, Vol7, Page204]

1.1 - Interpretation Of 33:45 By Imam Suyuti And Shaykh Ibn Kathir:

Imam Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti (rahimullah) had following to say on the verse: “O Prophet! Indeed We have sent you as a witness against those to whom you have were sent and as a bearer of good tidings for those who affirm your sincerity of Paradise and as a warner for those who deny you of the punishment of the Fire.” [Ref: Tafsir al-Jalalayn, 33:45, here.] Note Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has been sent as a Nabi/Rasool to entire Jinn and mankind. In this context Imam (rahimullah) has stated that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has been sent as a witness against entire mankind and this agrees with what Ibn Kathir (rahimullah) stated. Shaykh Ibn Kathir (rahimullah) commenting in his Tafsir indicates on the day of judgment Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) will be a witness against mankind for their deeds: “’… as witness …’ means; a witness to Allah's Oneness, for there is no God except He, and a witness against mankind for their deeds on the Day of Resurrection. [Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala] said: “… and We bring you as a witness against these people …” (4:41) This is like the Ayah: “… that you be witnesses over mankind and the Messenger be a witness over you.” (2:143) [Ref: Tafsir Ibn Kathir, 33:45]


2.0 - Allah And Messenger Of Allah Observe Deeds Of Ummah:

Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) stated that He and Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) will see the deeds of hypocrties: “They will make excuses to you when you have returned to them. Say, "Make no excuse - never will we believe you. Allah has already informed us of your news. And Allah will observe your deeds, and His Messenger; then you will be taken back to the Knower of the unseen and the witnessed, and He will inform you of what you used to do." [Ref: 9:94] In light of historical context the verse states when the Muslims return from battle the hypocrites will present excuses to you in an attempt to justify why they have not taken part in battle. Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has been instructed to say to them that Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has already informed him about reality of Iman and they are to be told do not make excuses about your absence from Jihad. As stated Quran is short but comprehensive in meaning. It can also be interpreted to mean that; O hypocrites of Prophet’s (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) time and of every era you can do your deeds Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and His Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) will observe your deeds then you will be brought back in presence of your Lord and He will inform you of all that you did. Another evidence which explains why Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) observes the deeds: "O Prophet! Truly We have sent you as a witness, a bearer of glad tidings, and as a warner." [Ref: 33:45] For those who are reluctant to accept second interpretation please note it is attested by commentators in a similar verse to 9:94 where Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) states: “And say: "Do deeds for Allah will see your deeds, and His Messenger, and the believers. And you will be returned to the Knower of the unseen and the witnessed, and He will inform you of what you used to do." [Ref: 9:105] Imam Jalal ad-Din al-Suyuti (rahimullah ta’ala) has stated about this verse: “And say to them [the hypocrites], or to people in general: ‘Act as you will for God will surely see your actions and so will His Messenger and the believers and you will be returned through resurrection to the Knower of the unseen and the visible that is to God and He will tell you what you used to do and so requite you for it.’” [Ref: Tafsir al-Jalalayn, 9:105, here.] This establishes Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) will see the actions of hypcrites and Mulsims. Note the verse isn’t restricted to context of an era. It is open to all ages and instruction in it is applicable to all Muslims therefore the detail of verse applies to all Muslims including seeing of actions of by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala), Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam), and believers.

2.1 - Good And Bad Deeds Of Ummah Presented To Prophet:

Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is reported to have said: My life is a great good for you in whom you talk (to me) and we talk to you, and my demise is also a great good for you (because) your deeds will be presented to me. If they are good, I will praise Allah, and if they are bad, I will ask Allah’s forgiveness for you.” [Ref:Narrated by Ibn Hajar Asqalani, through Harith, in al-Matalib ul-aliyah, 4: 22-3 #3853] Bakr bin ‘Abdullah also reported that the Holy said: My life is a great good for you in whom you talk (to me) and you are responded. And when I will die my demise will be a great good for you. Your deeds will be presented to me, if I see goodness, I will praise Allah, and if I see wrongs, I will ask Allah’s forgiveness for you." [Ref: Ibn Sa‘d related in at-Tabaqat-ul-kubra 2:194, Ali bin Abu Bakr Haythami related in Majma al-Zawa’id 9:24] This establishes he is aware of the deeds and affairs of his Ummah after he passed away.

3.0 - Companion Wants To Make Prophet A Witness:

It is recorded in Hadith that a companion wanted to gift a property to his son and he wanted Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) to be witness the good deed take place: “Narrated An-Nu`man bin Bashir: My mother asked my father to present me a gift from his property; and he gave it to me after some hesitation. My mother said that she would not be satisfied unless the Prophet  was made a witness to it. I being a young boy, my father held me by the hand and took me to the Prophet . He said to the Prophet, "His mother, bint Rawaha, requested me to give this boy a gift." The Prophet said: "Do you have other sons besides him?" He said: "Yes." The Prophet said: "Do not make me a witness for injustice." Narrated Ash-Shu`bi that the Prophet said: "I will not become a witness for injustice." [Ref: Bukhari, B48, H818] Companion inviting Prophet (sallallahua layhi wa aalihi was’sallam) to be witness over his good deed establishes the companions of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) held to belief that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is witness over them in sense of witnessing their deeds. Following article is related to topic and Hadith,
here.

3.1 - Companion Dedicates A Well And Makes Prophet A Witness:

It is recorded in Hadith a companion gave a garden in charity on behalf of his deceased mother and made Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) witness to it: “It was narrated from Ibn 'Abbas that a man said: "O Messenger of Allah, my mother died; will it benefit her if I give in charity on her behalf?" He said: "Yes." He said: "I have a garden and I ask you to bear witness that I am giving it in charity on her behalf." [Ref: Nisai, B30, H3685]
Companion specificly making Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) a witness of his good deed indicates companion has a particular belief due to which he did so. It is common knowledge Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has appointed angels to write good/bad deeds of believers and nothing goes miss from their accounts. In this light it cannot be said companion feared Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) would not be aware or the angels would not record the deed. The only plausible and logical reason for making Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) witness the good deed would be; he believed Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) will bear witness of his deeds in court of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and his witnessing carrys special weight in court of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Hadith in Sahih of Imam Bukhari (rahimullah) gives greater detail about identity of companion and incident: “Narrated Ibn Abbas: That the mother of Sa`d bin Ubada the brother of Bani Saida died in Sa`d's absence, so he came to the Prophet saying: "O Allah's Messenger! My mother died in my absence, will it benefit her if I give in charity on her behalf?" The Prophet said: "Yes." Sa`d said: "I take you as my witness that I give my garden Al-Makhraf in charity on her behalf." [Ref: Bukhari, B51, H24]

3.2 - Prophet Said To Abu Talib Recite Shahadah And I Will Testify On Your Behalf:

Hadith records Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) said to his uncle Abu Talib to recite Shahadah but he refused: “Narrated Abu Hurairah, may Allah be pleased with him: "The Messenger of Allah said to his uncle: 'Say: None has the right to be worshiped except Allah. And I may bear witness with that, on your behalf, on the Day of Judgement.' So he said: 'If it weren't that the Quraish would insult me (by saying): ‘He only said it out of fright then I would delighted your eyes.' Then Allah the Mighty and Sublime revealed: Verily, you guide not whom you like, but Allah guides whom He wills.” [Ref: Tirmadhi, B44, H3188]
Note Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) said he will bear witness in court of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) if Abu Talib recites the Shahadah. In another Hadith there is additional detail mentioned: "Narrated Sa`id bin Al-Musaiyab from his father: When the time of the death of Abu Talib approached, Allah's Messenger went to him and found Abu Jahl bin Hisham and Abdullah bin Abi Umaiya bin Al-Mughira by his side. Allah's Messenger said to Abu Talib: "O uncle! Say: None has the right to be worshipped but Allah. A sentence with which I shall be a witness for you before Allah. Abu Jahl and Abdullah bin Abi Umaiya said: "O Abu Talib! Are you going to denounce the religion of Abdul Muttalib?" Allah's Messenger kept on inviting Abu Talib to say it while they kept on repeating their statement till Abu Talib said as his last statement that he was on the religion of Abdul Muttalib and refused to say: 'None has the right to be worshipped but Allah.' Then Allah's Messenger said: "I will keep on asking Allah's forgiveness for you unless I am forbidden (by Allah) to do so." So Allah revealed (the verse) concerning him." [Ref: Bukhari, B23, H442] Both these Ahadith prove Islamic belief that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has been sent as a witness to observe/hear deeds and willl testify on behalf of Muslims in court of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala).

Conclusion:

Section 1.0 explains the verse in light of other verses to imply that it is inclusive of entire mankind. And 1.1 quotes interpretation of verse 33:45 of Imam Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti (rahimullah) and of Shaykh Ibn Kathir (rahimullah). They have indicated that RasoolAllah (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) on the day of judgment will testify on deeds of mankind which is inclusive of his own Ummah. Section 2.0 to 2.1 establish Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) observes the good and bad deeds of his Ummah. Section 3.0 to 3.2 establishes Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) was made to bear witness to some of good deeds on the grounds that he would testify in court of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). There are number of conclusions that can be drawn from this information.This first and connected to main objective of article is; verse 33:45 and verses like it are about Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) being sent as a witness to observe deeds of mankind so on the day of judgment he can bear truthfully bear witness by meeting criteria of a witness - hearing and seeing of deeds. Ofcourse he did witness everything during his life time as the Hadith established in 1.0. We Muslims also believe after departure of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) from earthly life Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) conferred upon him supernatural ability to witness deeds of Jinn and mankind without a intermediatry that are to happen till the day of judgment. In additions to this angels present records of deeds to Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and this is another way he is made aware of happenings of events but not the only way. Over-all witnessing of deeds of Ummah and mankind in general has been established.

Wama alayna ilal balalghul mubeen.
Muhammed Ali Razavi

Edited by MuhammedAli

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Create an account or sign in to comment

You need to be a member in order to leave a comment

Create an account

Sign up for a new account in our community. It's easy!


Register a new account

Sign in

Already have an account? Sign in here.


Sign In Now

  • Recently Browsing   0 members

    No registered users viewing this page.