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Evidence Against Disbelievers Who Believe Mushrikeen Were/Are Upon Tawheed al-Rububiyyah.

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Evidence Against Disbelievers Who Believe Mushrikeen Were/Are Upon Tawheed al-Rububiyyah.


The Imam of Khawarij, Shaykh Muhammad Ibn Abdul Wahhab, al-Najdi, at-Tamimi taught Mushrikeen of Arabia believed in Tawheed al-Rububiyyah. Muslims in contrast believe Mushrikeen did not believe in Tawheed al-Rububiyyah but they committed Shirk al-Rububiyyah. This dispute is not a minor disagreement but issue on which Islam and Kufr is established and negated. Hence it is important to know what Quran, Sunnah, and shining beacons of Ummah say.

Earlier Content Refuting, Mushrikeen Believed Tawheed al-Rububiyyah:

In order to get grasp of the subject why Mushrikeen did not believe in Tawheed al-Rububiyyah it is recommended you read the following two articles in order,
here, here, and 2.0 to 2.5 of following article, here. Following article is response to a Salafi sister Umm Abdullah, here. Another article was dedicated to refuting my former very near/dear friend and brother al-Boriqee when he claimed Imam Shah Wali Allah Muhaddith al-Dehalvi (rahimullah) believed in what Wahhabis believe, here. Following article establishes Jews/Christians committed Shirk in Rububiyyah, here. Following two articles establish the Mushrikeen of old and the ones which Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) encountered also committed Shirk al-Rububiyyah, here, and here.

Shaykh Ibn Kathir, Idols Are Representations of Angels And Worshipped As Such:

Shaykh Ibn Kathir (rahimullah) writes: “Allah says: “Surely, the religion is for Allah only.” Meaning, He will not accept any deed unless it is done purely and sincerely for Him Alone, with no partner or associate. Then Allah tells us that the idolaters say: “We worship them only that they may bring us near to Allah.” Meaning what motivates them to worship them is the fact that they made their idols in the image of the angels. Or so they claim and when they worship those images it is like worshipping the angels, so that they will intercede with Allah for them to help and give them provision and other worldly needs. As far as the resurrection is concerned, they denied it and did not believe in it. Qatadah, As-Suddi and Malik said, narrating from Zayd bin Aslam and Ibn Zayd: (only that they may bring us near to Allah. ) means, "So that they may intercede for us and bring us closer to Him.'' During Jahiliyyah, they used to recite the following for...” [Ref: Tafsir Ibn Kathir, Q39:3,
here.] Shaykh says in his Tafsir that Mushrikeen made the idols believing they are representations of angels and worshipped the idols as representation of angels hoping the angels would intercede for them. And Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) refutes them saying: "They say: ‘The All-beneficent has taken (angels as) off-springs.’ Immaculate is He! Rather they are (His) honoured servants. They do not venture to speak ahead of Him, and they act by His command. He knows that which is before them and that which is behind them, and they do not intercede except for someone He approves of, and they are apprehensive for the fear of Him. Should any of them say, ‘I am a god besides Him.’ We will requite him with hell. Thus do We requite the wrongdoers." [Ref: 21:26/29] What is established from this is that Mushrikeen created idols believing idols are in image of angels.

Demonstrating Tafsir Of Shaykh Ibn Kathir With Evidence Of Quran:

(i) The Mushrikeen believed in three female goddesses whose idols they worshipped: “Have you seen Lat and Uzza and another the third Manat? What! For you the male and for Him the female?” [Ref: 53:19/21] Al-Lat, al-Uzza, and al-Manat were believed to be angels and as goddesses daughters of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala😞 “(The Mushrikeen) leaving Him (Allah) call but upon females (goddesses): They call but upon Satan the persistent rebel!” [Ref: 4:117] Mushrikeen especially male population of Arabia considered it shameful IF they fathered a female child and they were proud of their sons. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) refutes them using their culture against them saying when you prefer sons over daughters yet you ascribe to Him al-Lat, al-Uzza, al-Manat as angels and as daughters to Him: “Has then your Lord distinguished/honoured you by (giving you) sons, and taken unto Himself daughters in the guise of angels? Verily, you are uttering a dreadful saying!” [Ref: 17:40] These verses have established what Shaykh Ibn Kathir (rahimullah) said in his Tafsir that Mushrikeen of Arabia believed idols to be in image of angels in general [and in specific idols to be in images of angel goddesses al-Lat, al-Uzza, and al-Manat]. (ii) And IF it is difficult understand than pay attention because following two verses are interconnected and explain each other: “Have you seen Lat and Uzza and another the third Manat? What for you the male and for Him the female?” [Ref: 53:19/21] “Has then your Lord distinguished/honoured you by (giving you) sons, and taken unto Himself daughters in the guise of angels? Verily, you are uttering a dreadful saying!” [Ref: 17:40] Words and for Him the female are related to daughters in guise of angel because daughter is female. And words for Him female and daughters in guise of angels are connected with words Lat, Uzza, and Manat. Apart from this obvious connection both verses are refuting ascription of females/daughters to Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala).

Establishing Argument Mushrikeen Committed Shirk al-Rububiyyah:

It is clear that Shaykh Ibn Kathir believes idols in general were made with belief that they are images/representations of angels. He is not alone because Tafsir of Abdullah Ibn Abbas also confirms this: “(Yet they ascribe as partners unto Him the jinn) they said: Allah, Exalted is He, and Satan are brothers and partners: Allah is the Creator of human beings, beasts and cattle while Satan is the Creator of snakes, scorpions and predatory beasts. This is the claim of the Magians, (although He did create them) and command them to declare His divine Oneness, (and impute falsely, without knowledge) without knowledge, argument or proof, (sons) as claimed by the Jews and Christians (and daughters unto Him) among the angels and idols, as claimed by the Arab idolaters. (Glorified be He) He has exonerated Himself from having children or partners (and high exalted) and He absolves Himself (above (all) that they ascribe (unto Him)) of sons and daughters.” [Ref: Tafsir Ibn al-Abbas, 6:100,
here.] It was also established with evidence of Quran that Mushrikeen believed angels to be daughters of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and I provided specific example of angels as daughters of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) in Quran is of al-Lat, al-Uzza, al-Manat but there can be others. And we know that idols of al-Lat, al-Uzza, al-Manat and countless other goddesses/gods were worshipped by Mushrikeen. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) says: “And neither did He bid you to take the angels and the prophets for your lords: (for) would he bid you to deny the truth after you have surrendered yourselves unto God?” [Ref: 3:80] And what does Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) say what the Mushrikeen did? Ayah insinuates you did take the angels [some they believed to be daughters of Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala and made idols resembling them] and prophets as Lords but Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) did not command you to take angels and Prophets as Lords beside Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala😞 “And neither did He bid you to take the angels and the prophets for your lords: (for) would he bid you to deny the truth after you have surrendered yourselves unto God?” [Ref: 3:80] What does this establish? It establishes that in teaching of Quran, Sunnah, Shaykh Ibn Kathir (rahimullah), Ibn Abbas (radiallah ta’ala anhu) specific Mushrikeen of Arabia, Mushrikeen in general, including some Jews, Christians in totality took creations to be lords/Lords hence they committed Shirk al-Rububiyyah.

Taking Idol-Gods As Partners Is Shirk al-Rububiyyah By Default:

Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) says: “Allah has not taken any son, nor has there ever been with Him any god. (Had there been gods or son-gods beside Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala) then each god would have taken what it created, and some of them would have sought to overcome others. Exalted is Allah above what they describe (concerning Him).” [Ref: 23:91] Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) connected ability of creation to Ilahiyyah and that is to say He has indicated true God creates and IF there were other gods beside Him they would create: “Yet they have taken besides Him other gods (i.e. alihah) who created nothing but are themselves created, and possess neither harm nor benefit for themselves, and possess no power (of causing) death, nor (of giving) life, nor of raising the dead.” [Ref: 25:3] This means Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) encapsulated powers of Rububiyyah in Ilahiyyah. In other words every Ilah is a Rabb by default. Hence in Islam god/goddess by default possess ability of creation, sustenance, in general Lordship/Rububiyyah and other attributes. We know Mushrikeen attributed up to three-hundred-sixty idol gods and hence they all committed Shirk al-Rububiyyah: “Narrated `Abdullah bin Mas`ud: The Prophet entered Mecca and (at that time) there were three hundred-and-sixty idols around the Ka`ba. He started stabbing the idols with a stick he had in his hand and reciting: "Truth (Islam) has come and Falsehood (disbelief) has vanished.” [Ref: Bukhari, B43, H658,
here.] Following verses are also evidence that God by default is Lord: “And those who recite the message. Indeed, your God is One. Lord of the heavens and the earth and that between them and Lord of the sunrises.” [Ref: 37:3/5] “Indeed, your God is One. Lord of the heavens and the earth and that between them and Lord of the sunrises.” [Ref: 37:3/5] “That is Allah your lord, there is no deity except Him, the Creator of all things, so worship Him. And He is Disposer of all things.” [Ref: 6:102] Mushrikeen wanted Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) to accept and believe there are many gods alongside Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) responds to desires of Mushrikeen by instructing him to say: Say, 'Is it other than Allah I should desire as a lord while He is the lord of all things? And every soul earns not (blame) except against itself …" [Ref: 6:164] This Ayah once again reinforces understanding that in Islam Ilah is Rabb by default hence establishes to believe in any other god instead of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is to believe in a lord instead of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). To believe in a god other than Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is indirect Shirk al-Rububiyyah. Any who directly/explicitly believes in a rabb/Rabb other than Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has committed direct Shirk al-Rububiyyah: "(All) praise is (due) to Allah, who created the heavens and the earth and made the darkness and the light. Then those who disbelieve equate (others as partner lords) with their Lord. It is He (your Lord) who created you from clay and then decreed a term and a specified time (known) to Him; then (still) you are in dispute (about ascribing gods/lords as partners with your Lord)." [Ref: 6:1/2]

Mushrikeen Invoked Allah, Yet On Safety, Committed Shirk al-Rububiyyah:

Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) says: “… and they sail with them with a favourable wind, and they are glad therein, then comes a stormy wind and the waves come to them from all sides, and they think that they are encircled therein. Then they invoke Allah, making their Faith pure for Him Alone, If You (Allah) deliver us from this we shall truly be thankful (to you alone). But when He delivers them, behold! They on land rebel (against Him) without justification/right. [Ref: 10:22/23] Mushrikeen only invoked Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) when they were troubled at sea to save them. It means they asked Him to exercise His powers in realm of Rububiyyah to save their lives and property. When He saves their lives and property and brings them to safety of land the Mushrikeen turn away from Him instead of thanking Him: “And when harm touches you upon the sea, those that you call upon vanish from you except Him. But when He brings you safe to land, you turn away (from Him). And man is ever ungrateful.” [Ref: 17:67] In another Ayah same is mentioned but in the verse Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) states where they turn to once they reach safety of land: “Say: "Who rescues you from the darkness of the land and the sea, (when) you call upon Him in humility and in secret (saying): If He only saves us from this (danger), we shall truly be grateful? Say: "Allah rescues you from this and from all (other) distresses, and yet you (still) associate others (as partners) with Him ." [Ref: 6:63/64] Mushrikeen instead of thanking Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) alone, giving credit to Him alone when they reach safety of land associate others with Him in what He did alone by directing their gratitude to gods/goddesses and give them the credit; saying our gods/god saved us. Question arises how can they thank, praise, and give credit of something which Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) did for them to other gods/goddesses beside Him IF they did not believe their gods/goddesses possessed powers of Rububiyyah? This establishes they did believe in powers of Rububiyyah for their gods/goddesses and that is why and how they associated others with Him in something which He did alone. And Mushrikeen did not ONLY believe their gods/goddesses can save them from calamities but they also believed their gods/goddesses have ability to inflict harm/punishment: “Is not Allah enough for his Servant? But they try to frighten thee with other besides Him! For such as Allah leaves to stray, there can be no guide.” [Ref: 39:36] "We say nothing but that (perhaps) some of our gods may have seized thee with imbecility. “He said: "I call Allah to witness, and do ye bear witness, that I am free from the sin of ascribing, to Him." [Ref: 11:54]  In another verse Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) associated punishment with Rububiyyah: And (remember) when your lord proclaimed: "If you give thanks, I will give you more (of My blessings); but if you are thankless (i.e. disbelievers), verily My punishment is indeed severe." [Ref: 14:7] This again establishes Mushrikeen committed Shirk al-Rububiyyah.

Mushrik Children Of Prophet Adam Committed Shirk al-Rububiyyah:

Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) says: “And recall when your Lord brought forth descendants from the loins of the sons of Adam, and made them witnesses against their own selves, asking them: 'Am I not your Lord?' They said: 'Yes, we do testify.' We did so lest you claim on the Day of Resurrection: 'We were unaware of this.' Or say: 'Our forefathers before us who associated; we were merely their offspring who followed them. And would You destroy us for that which the unrighteous did?’” [Ref: 7:172/173] The children of Adam (alayhis salam) admitted Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is their Lord but Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) says He had us testified that He is our only Lord so on day of judgment Mushrikeen don’t have excuse for engaging in Shirk al-Rububiyyah and say didn’t know it was Shirk, or say we saw our fathers/ancestors engaged in it thus we continued. This establishes once again Mushrikeen committed Shirk al-Rububiyyah.

Judgment Regarding Those Who Disbelieve While Claiming Islam:

(i) To believe Mushrikeen of Arabia believed in Tawheed al-Rububiyyah, or they did not commit Shirk al-Rububiyyah, or to believe they were monotheists in regards to Rububiyyah is major Kufr. And this invalidates claim one’s claim to Islam and believer in this is an apostate. Those who have believed Mushrikeen believed in Tawheed al-Rububiyyah due to lack of knowledge and truth of Islam did not reach them even IF they lived in Muslim lands, homes, and attended mosques may have excuse of ignorance, and Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) may accept their claim to Islam due to His limitless Mercy. Those who believed in this Kufr, and evidence, and arguments of Islam refuting Kufri belief (i.e. Mushrikeen believed in Tawheed al-Rububiyyah) reached them but they persisted these people have no excuse from us and neither from Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) because they have knowingly chosen another religion over the religion of Islam. Such people are apostates and disbelievers and have to be treated as such. (ii) We do not perform Salah behind them, we do not accept when they join our congregations, when they die we do not perform their funeral prayers, prohibit their burial in graveyard of Muslims, their kids do not inherit from them, their marriage is invalid IF it is with a Muslimah, we do not eat their slaughter, we do not respond to their salutations or to call-to-prayer when they pronounce it like we respond to Muslims, and we break all ties with them except those established invite them back to Islam. (iii) Punishment of apostasy in Islam is death and we ward it off in absence of righteous leadership who judges by what Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) revealed. And we excuse and lift this punishment in hope of gaining repentance even IF it takes years to achieve. And most importantly we do not inflict neither support punishment of apostasy to be inflicted on anyone. It is so because one whom we may judge apparently having no excuse may have valid excuse of ignorance (i.e. absence of correct knowledge) and his claim to Islam accepted by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Obstinate rejection of and willful rebellion against Qur’anic teaching (i.e. Mushrikeen committed Shirk al-Rububiyyah) and zealous attempts to propagate this Kufri creed amongst Muslims would legitimize taking of life and property. And that too when it is in accordance with Islamic state sanctioned due process, and judge/judges have the high level of Taqwa, and have complete awareness Shari’ah. Life of all Bani Adam is protected and it cannot be ended on basis of quick justice and instantaneous execution. And a Muslim has added protection provided by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and therefore we should not neglect our duty to protect it and LIFT capital punishments on basis of doubts. In conclusion we do not withdraw Takfir from one who has earned it due to his/her belief in Kufr but we stop short of inflicting punishment of apostasy due to uncertainty in our knowledge but in all other respects one who believes Mushrikeen believed in Tawheed al-Rububiyyah is to be treated as an apostate.


As evidence establishes Mushrikeen believed angels are females, daughters of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala), they made some idols to represent and worship them as gods. Verses also establish Mushrikeen took these angelic-god-idols as lords and partners of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has also made it clear that Rububiyyah/Lordship is a characteristic of Ilahiyyah. Hence the One, the Only and every Ilah partner which His creation ascribes Ilahiyyah to, and believe as an Ilah is by default a Rabb in Qur’anic theology. And it goes without saying ascribing a partner to the One and the Only Ilah warrants Shirk al-Rububiyyah. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) also informed us that Mushrikeen invoke Him when they are put in a trial at sea but He brings them to safety the Mushrikeen associate others with Him in which He did alone with powers of Rububiyyah. This is evidence Mushrikeen credited their Ilahs and said words similar to, our Ilahs have saved us, and this is proof of Shirk al-Rububiyyah. Mushrikeen also believed their Ilahs exercised powers of Rububiyyah to inflict harm and punishment. This is evident by verses in which he Mushrikeen are quoted as threatening Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) that their Ilahs would inflict harm upon them. The clear and explicit evidence against creed of disbelievers is verses Q6:1/2 in which Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) as says, then those who have disbelieved equate creations as lords and gods with their Lord.

Wama Alayna Ilal Balagh ul-Mubeen.
Muhammed Ali Razavi

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