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Praiseworthy Ijtihadi Innovations Of Sahabah (Alayhi Ridwaan)


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Praiseworthy Ijtihadi Innovations Of Sahabah (alayhi ridwaan).

 

Introduction:

 

Wahabi's/Deobandi's quote this hadith in support of their criticism of praiseworthy innovations in Islam:

 

Sunnan Abu Dawood, Book 40, Number 4590: “… for those of you who live after me will see great disagreement. You must then follow my sunnah and that of the rightly-guided caliphs. Hold to it and stick fast to it. Avoid novelties, for every novelty is an innovation, and every innovation is an error."

 

And they are firmly holding to the opinion that every innovation which is made part of deen therefore is reprehensible. Yet there were many praiseworthy innovations into Islam by Sahabah (alayhi ridwan) during the life time of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) as well as after.

 

Aim & Objective:

 

The aim of this article is to explain the meaning of Hadith in light of other Sahih Ahadith. This will help the readers in two fold, one, it will help the readers to defend the shair of Ahle Sunnat Wal Jammat, and it will refute the Rawafiz who use the Wahhabi idiocy to attack, defame, slander the companions of Sahabah (alayhi ridwaan), and accuse them of altering the deen based on heretical Wahhabi understandings of Qur’an, Sunnah.

 

Meaning Of “... Every Innovation Is Error ...”:

 

It is principle of deen that to make a general meaning specific, evidence in support of it from Qur’an, Ahadith is required otherwise the takhsees would be batal (i.e. false). In the context of this discussion evidence for praiseworthy innovations into Islam would be required to substantiate the takhseesi meaning.

 

Prophet of Allah (subhana wa tallah) stated:

 

Sahih Muslim, Book 034, Number 6466: “... on his (sacred) face. Thereupon Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect. And he who introduced some evil practice in Islam which had been followed subsequently (by others), he would be required to bear the burden."

 

One who introduces a good innovation into Islam, and those who adhere to this innovation there is reward for both groups without the reward diminishing. This proves that not all innovations into Islam are reprehensible but praiseworthy innovations can be made into Islam.

 

- Therefore the hadith: “Avoid novelties, for every novelty is an innovation, and every innovation is an error." should be understood to refer to the evil innovations because in the Arabic 'Qullu' means 'all, every' but according to the context of 'all, every' can mean 'all, every' in a certain category and not 'all, every' in absolute terms. Also considering what Prophet (salallahau alayhi was'salam) stated about reprehensible innovations into Islam: “And he who introduced some evil practice in Islam which had been followed subsequently (by others), he would be required to bear the burden."This would amount to sufficient evidence that statement of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'salam):“Avoid novelties, for every novelty is an innovation, and every innovation is an error." is in meaning of “Avoid [reprehensible] novelties, for every [such] novelty is an [reprehensible] innovation, and every [such] innovation is an error."

 

- Another interpretation can be derived which is more comprehensive, and it is also in harmony with fallowing ahadith:

 

Sahih Bukhari Book 49, Hadith 861: Narrated Aisha: Allah's Apostle said, "If somebody innovates something which is not in harmony with the principles of our religion, that thing is rejected."

Sahih Muslim, Book 18, Number 4266:'A'isha reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: He who innovates things in our affairs for which there is no valid (reason) (commits sin) and these are to be rejected.

 

Sahih Muslim, Book 18, Number 4267: ... one house; and then said: 'A'isha informed me that Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: He who did any act for which there is no (explicit or implicit) sanction from our behalf, that is to be rejected.”

 

In context of the above ahadith the meaning of statement: “Avoid novelties, for every novelty is an innovation, and every innovation is an error." would be: “Avoid [reprehensible] novelties [which are not in harmony with principles of deen, do not have a valid reason, and have no sanction from Allah, RasoolAllah] for every [such] novelty is an [reprehensible] innovation, and every [such] innovation is an error."

 

Evidence For Good Innovations:

 

- Allah (subhana wa tallah) narrates the story of followers of Jesus:

 

Surah Al Hadid {57} Verse 27: Then, in their wake, We followed them up with (others of) Our apostles: We sent after them Jesus the son of Mary, and bestowed on him the Gospel; and We ordained in the hearts of those who followed him Compassion and Mercy. But the Monasticism which they invented for themselves, We did not prescribe for them: (We commanded) only the seeking for the Good Pleasure of Allah but that they did not foster as they should have done.Yet We bestowed, on those among them who believed, their (due) reward, but many of them are rebellious transgressors.

 

Allah tells why the stories are:

 

Surah Yusuf {12} Ayaat 111: "Laqana fi'qisasi'him ibratulli u'lil albab ..." (“There is, in their stories, instruction for men endued with understanding.”)

 

Allah (subhana wa tallah) tells us that followers of Isa alayhis salam invented the Monasticism them selves with the intention of pleasing Allah (subhana wa tallah) even though Allah (subhana wa tallah) did not command them to do so, but those who did adhere to it, Allah (subhana wa tallah) rewarded them. The conclusion which the ulil albab (i.e. men of understanding) derive from 57:27 is best explained by what Prophet of Allah sallahu alayhi was'salam stated:

 

Sahih Muslim, Book 034, Number 6466: "... Then came another person and then other persons followed them in succession until signs of happiness could be seen on his (sacred) face. Thereupon Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect. And he who introduced some evil practice in Islam which had been followed subsequently (by others), he would be required to bear the burden."

 

Prophet of Allah (salllahu alayhi was'salam) gave us a rule: Who so ever invents something good (i.e. Sahih Bukhari) practice in Islam which was fallowed by him, and fallowed after him, both the follower, as well as the inventor, innovator will get the reward from Allah (subhana wa tallah).

 

- Hazrat Umar (radiallah ta'ala anh) said instructed that people perform their nawafil prayers under one Qari, and he exclaimed this is excellent/good innovation:

 

Sahih Bukhari, Book 32, Hadith 227: Narrated Abu Huraira: ... So, 'Umar said, 'In my opinion I would better collect these (people) under the leadership of one Qari (Reciter) (i.e. let them pray in congregation!)'. So, he made up his mind to congregate them behind Ubai bin Ka'b. Then on another night I went again in his company and the people were praying behind their reciter. On that, 'Umar remarked, 'What an excellent Bid'a (i.e. innovation in religion) this is; but the prayer which they do not perform, but sleep at its time is better than the one they are offering.' He meant the prayer in the last part of the night. (In those days) people used to pray in the early part of the night."

 

This conclusively proves that in deen of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) there is room for good innovations. Had there been no room for good innovation Messenger of Allah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) would not have given us a criteria to judge on, and Hazrat Umar (radiallah ta'ala anh) would not have remarked excellent innovation.

 

Some Good Innovations Of Sahabah (alayhi ridwan):

 

The correct understanding of the hadith presented and to go with that evidence on good innovation in Islam, it would be prudent to present some examples of good innovations which Sahabah (radiallah tallah anhuma) brought forward, in the time of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) or after.

 

Addition Into Prayer:

 

- Sahih Bukhari, Book 12, Hadith 764: Narrated Rifa'a bin Rafi AzZuraqi: One day we were praying behind the Prophet. When he raised his head from bowing, he said, "Sami'a-l-lahu Liman hamida."A man behind him said,"Rabbana walaka-l hamd hamdan Kathiran taiyiban mubarakan fihi" (O our Lord! All the praises are for You, many good and blessed praises). When the Prophet completed the prayer, he asked, "Who has said these words?"The man replied, "I." The Prophet said, "I saw over thirty angels competing to write it first." Prophet rose (from bowing) and stood straight till all the vertebrae of his spinal column came to a natural position.

 

The taught response to: “Sami allahu liman hamida!” by Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) was: “Rabbana wa lakal hamd.” which is supported by:

 

- Sahih Bukhari, Book 12, Hadith 701: “Narrated Abu Huraira: The Prophet said, "The Imam is to be followed. Say the Takbir when he says it; bow if he bows; if he says 'Sami a-l-lahu Liman hamida', say, ' Rabbana wa-laka-l-hamd', prostrate if he prostrates and pray sitting altogether if he prays sitting."

 

- Sahih Bukhari, Book 11, Hadith 656: “... when he raises his head and when he [Imam] says, 'Sami a-l-lahu liman-hamida ' (Allah heard those who sent praises to Him) say then 'Rabbana wa laka-l-hamd' (O our Lord! All the praises are for You), and if he prays sitting then pray sitting."

 

Sahabi (radiallah ta'ala anh) using his own ijtihad added the words: “... hamdan kaseeran, tay'yiban mubarakan fihi.” to what Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) had taught. Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) on completion of prayers asked who it was, and then informed him that angels competed to write this good innovation down.

 

Good Innovation Of Unifying Two Talbiyas:

 

Allah's Messenger (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) taught the fallowing Talbiya:

 

Sahih Bukhari, Book 26, Hadith 621: Narrated 'Abdullah bin 'Umar : The talbiya of Allah's Apostle was : 'Labbaika Allahumma labbaik, Labbaika la sharika Laka labbaik, Inna-l-hamda wan-ni'mata Laka walmu Lk, La sharika Laka'

 

Sahih Bukhari, Book 26, Hadith 622: “Narrated 'Aisha: I know how the Prophet used to say (talbiya) and it was: 'Labbaika Allahumma Labbaik, Labbaika la sharika Laka labbaik, Inna-l-hamda wan-ni'mata Laka walmu Lk, La sharika Laka'.”

 

Hadrat Abdullah Ibn Umar (radiallah ta'ala anh) reports another Talbiya recited by Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'salam):

 

Sahih Muslim, Book 7, Hadith 2670: “... And 'Abdullah b. 'Umar (Allah be pleased them) said that 'Umar b. Khattab (Allah be pleased with him) pronounced, the Talbiya of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) in these words of his (Prophet's words) and said: Here I am at Thy service, O Lord; here I am at Thy service, ready to obey Thee, and good is in Thy Hand, Here I am at Thy service. Unto Thee is the petition and deed (is also for Thee).

 

Abdullah Ibn Umar (radiallah ta'ala anh) unified the Talbiyas of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'salam), and this is affirmed in the fallowing ahadith:

 

Sahih Muslim, Book 7, Hadith 2667: 'Abdullah b. 'Umar (Allah be pleased with them) reported that the Talbiya of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) was this: “Here I am at Thy service. O Allah, here I am at Thy service, here I am at Thy service. There is no associate with Thee; here I am at Thy service. Verily all praise and grace is due to Thee, and the sovereignty (too). There is no associate with Thee.” He (the narrator) further said that 'Abdullah b. 'Umar (Allah be pleased with them) made this addition to it: “Here I am at Thy service; here I am at Thy service; ready to obey Thee, and good is in Thy Hand; here 1 am at Thy service; unto Thee is the petition, and deed (is also for Thee).”

 

Sahih Muslim, Book 7, Hadith 2668: 'Abdullah b. 'Umar (Allah be pleased with them) reported that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) entered upon the state of Ihram near the mosque at Dhu'l-Hulaifa as his camel stood by it and he said:“Here I am at Thy service, O Lord; here I am at Thy service: here I am at Thy service. There is no associate with Thee. Here I am at Thy service. All praise and grace is due to Thee and the sovereignty (too). There is no associate with Thee.” They (the people) said that 'Abdullah b. 'Umar said that that was the Talbiya of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him). Nafi' said: 'Abdullah (Allah be pleased with him) made this addition to it:Here I am at Thy service; here I am at Thy service; ready to obey Thee. The Good is in Thy Hand. Here I am at Thy service. Unto Thee is the petition and deed (is also for Thee).”

 

This proves that Sahabah (alayhi ridwan) made Ijtihad in regulated acts of worship and while fully being aware what Sunnahs of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) were. Note this addition of Hadhrat Abdullah Ibn Umar (radiallah ta'ala anh) was adopted by people at large but this does not mean he sinned or was upon error.

 

Collecting Of Sweet Smelling Sweat Of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'salam):

 

Beloved Prophet's (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) body emitted beautiful fragrance:

 

Sahih Muslim, Book 30, Hadith 5760: “Anas reported that Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) had a very fair complexion and (the drops) of his perspiration shone like pearls, ... and I never smelt musk or ambergris and found its fragrance as sweet as the fragrance of Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him).”

 

Sahih Muslim, Book 30, Hadith 5759:“Anas reported: I never smelt ambergris or musk as fragrant as the fragrance of the body of Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) and I never touched brocade or silk and found it as soft as the body of Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him).”

 

Sahih Bukhari, Book 31, Hadith 194: “... Anas further said, "I never touched silk or velvet softer than the hand of Allah's Apostle and never smelled Musk or perfumed smoke more pleasant than the smell of Allah's Apostle."

 

Naturally the beautiful fragrance of beloved Prophet's (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) body was fused into his blessed sweat. Hadhrat Umm Sulaim (radiallah ta'ala anha) collected the blessed sweat of beloved Messenger (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) in bottles and in perfumes:

 

Sahih Muslim, Book 30, Number 5763: “Umm Sulaim reported that Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) visited her house and (took rest) and she spread a piece of cloth for him and he had had a siesta on it. And he sweated profusely and she collected his sweat and put it in a perfume and in bottles. Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) said: Umm Sulaim, what is this? She said: It is your sweat, which I put in my perfume. Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) sweated in cold weather when revelation descended upon him.”

 

The collected blessed sweat was mixed with Suk, and Hadhrat Anas bin Malik (radiallah ta'ala anh) asked that some of the blessed sweat be mixed with his Hanut, so when he dies his body can be perfurmed with Hanut which had sweat of blessed Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'salam):

 

Sahih Bukhari, Book 74, Number 298: “... Anas added, "When the Prophet had slept, she would take some of his sweat and hair and collect it (the sweat) in a bottle and then mix it with Suk (a kind of perfume) while he was still sleeping. "When the death of Anas bin Malik approached, he advised that some of that Suk be mixed with his Hanut (perfume for embalming the dead body), and it was mixed with his Hanut.”

 

Also while Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) was sleeping when Hadhrat Umm Sulaim (radiallah ta'ala anha) collected the blessed sweat beloved Messenger (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) was startled and woke up:

 

Sahih Muslim, Book 30, Number 5762: “… It is Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) who is having siesta in your house, lying in your bed. She came and found him sweating and his sweat falling on the leather cloth spread on her bed. She opened her scent-bag and began to fill the bottles with it. Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) was startled and woke up and said: Umm Sulaim, what are you doing? She said: Allah's Messenger, we seek blessings for our children through it. Thereupon he said: You have done something right.”

 

He (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) questioned her: “What are you doing?” to which she replied: “Allah's Messenger, we seek blessings for our children through it.” meaning Allah's Messenger (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) through your blessed sweat we seek blessing from Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) for children. Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) replied: “You have done something right.” He approved the collecting of the blessed sweat for sake of seeking blessing from Allah (subhana wa tallah) through sweat.

 

The collection of blessed sweat into bottles of perfume and using it to gain blessings for the children from Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) by the means (i.e. Wasila) of Prophet's (salallahu alayhi was'salam) blessed sweat was not taught by RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) nor Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) instructed it in Quran. Also note Hadhrat Anas bin Malik (radiallah ta'ala anh) had the blessed sweat mixed with his Hanut so his body can be perfumed with it. Surely his intention of doing this was to gain the blessings of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala). These two instances are examples of praiseworthy innovations into deen of Islam.

 

Evil Eye & The Blessed Hair Of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam):

 

It is reported in Sahih of Imam Bukhari (rahimullah alayhi ta'ala) that Um Salama (radiallah ta'ala anha) collected the blessed hair and sweat of Prophet Muhammed (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam):

 

Sahih Bukhari, Book 74, Number 298: “... Anas added, "When the Prophet had slept, she would take some of his sweat and hair and collect it (the sweat) in a bottle and then mix it with Suk (a kind of perfume) while he was still sleeping. "When the death of Anas bin Malik approached, he advised that some of that Suk be mixed with his Hanut (perfume for embalming the dead body), and it was mixed with his Hanut.”

 

Sahih Bukhari, Book 72, Number 784: “Narrated IsraiI: Uthman bin 'Abdullah bin Mauhab said, "My people sent me with a bowl of water to Um Salama." Isra'il approximated three fingers ('indicating the small size of the container in which there was some hair of the Prophet. 'Uthman(ra) added, "If any person suffered from evil eye or some other disease, he would send a vessel (containing water) to Um Salama. I looked into the container (that held the hair of the Prophet) and saw a few red hairs in it,"

 

The blessed hair and sweat of Prophet (sallalahu alayhiw as'sallam) was collected in a bottle and mixed with a perfume and used to cure illnesses of people.

 

Cloak Of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) Curing Sick:

 

Honorable Prophet Yusuf (alayhis salam) instructed his brothers when he gave them his kamees (i.e. long tunic):

 

Surah Yusuf (12) Verse 93: "Go with this my shirt, and cast it over the face of my father: he will come to see (clearly). Then come ye (here) to me together with all your family."

 

When brothers of Yusuf (alayhis salam) reached their father Honorable Prophet Yaqoob (alayhis salam):

 

Surah Yusuf (12) Verse 96: Then when the bearer of the good news came. He cast (the shirt) over his face, and he forthwith regained clear sight. He said: "Did I not say to you, 'I know from Allah that which ye know not?'"

 

Honorable Prophet Yaqoob (alayhis salam) placed the shirt on his face and with tawassul of his sons kamees Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) restored the sight in the eyes of Honorable Prophet Yaqoob (alayhis salam).

 

- In a hadith recorded in Sahih of Imam Muslim (rahiumullah alayhi ta'ala) it is recorded that Asma the sister of Ummul Momineen Hadhrat Aysha (radiallah ta'ala anha) soaked the cloak of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) in water [and the water was drained from cloak and sick person was given to drink it] to cure them of illness they suffer:

 

Sahih Muslim, Book 24, Hadith 5149: Abdullah. the freed slave of Asma' (the daughter of Abu Bakr). the maternal uncle of the son of 'Ata, reported: Asma' sent me to 'Abdullah bin 'Umar saying: … I went back to Asma' and informed her. whereupon she said: Here is the cloak of Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him). and she brought out to me that cloak made of Persian cloth with a hem of brocade, and its sleeves bordered with brocade and said: This was Allah's Messenger's cloak with 'A'isha until she died, and when she died. I got possession of it. The Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) used to wear that, and "we soaked it for the sick and sought cure thereby."

 

The conclusion we reach is Hadhrat Um Salama (radiallah ta'ala anha), Hadhrat Aysha (radiallah ta'ala anha), Hadhrat Asma (radiallah ta'ala anha) and many other Sahabah practiced Tawassul via Tabarrukat of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam).

 

- The praiseworthy innovation of companions of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) was based on recommendation of a Prophet (i.e. Yusuf alayhis salam) and practice of another Prophet (i.e. Yaqoob alayhis salam). Had this practice been at odds with any principle of deen or contradicted teaching of Tawheed the Prophets and the companions would not have practiced it. This praiseworthy innovation was approved by Messenger of Allah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) in his life time.

 

The Third Adhan Addition:

 

- Before servant moves to the topic of actual third Adhan (i.e. call to prayer). Readers should know that second Adhan is Iqamah because the similarity in its wording:

 

Sahih Bukhari, Book 11, Hadith 579: “Narrated Anas: Bilal was ordered to repeat the wording of the adhan for prayers twice, and to pronounce the wording of the Iqamas once except "Qad-qamat-is-Salat".

 

Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) stated that prayer is between two Adhans he said that twice in one narration:

 

Sahih Bukhari, Book 11, Hadith 600: “Narrated 'Abdullah bin Mughaffal: The prophet said, "There is a prayer between the two adhans (adhan and Iqama), there is a prayer between the two adhans." And then while saying it the third time he added, "For the one who wants to (pray)."

 

Note the words of Prophet there is prayer between the two Adhans. The choice of words indicates that Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) was not talking about Fard prayer but Sunnah prayer which is to be performed after the first Adhan and before the second Adhan (i.e. Iqamah) for the Fard prayer is recited. The words of Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) indicate this: "For the one who wants to (pray)." because performing Sunnah prayers is optional, for which there is reward if performed, and no blame if abstained from.

 

The second Adhan is interpreted to mean Iqamah, and the prayer between the two Adhans is interpreted to mean two rakat Sunnah Moqadda prayers before the three rakat Fard of Maghrib prayer according in light of this Hadith:

 

Sahih Bukhari, Book 11, Hadith 598: Narrated Anas bin Malik: "When the Mu'adhdhin pronounced the adhan, some of the companions of the Prophet would proceed to the pillars of the mosque (for the prayer) till the Prophet arrived and in this way they used to pray two Rakat before the Maghrib prayer.There used to be a little time between the adhan and the Iqama." Shu'ba said, "There used to be a very short interval between the two (adhan and Iqama).”

 

- Hadhrat Usman Ghani (radiallah ta'ala anh) added the third Adhan which was recited in the market place:

 

Sahih Bukhari, Book 13, Hadith 35: Narrated As-Saib bin Yazid: In the life-time of the Prophet, Abu Bakr and Umar, the Adhan for the Jumua prayer used to be pronounced when the Imam sat on the pulpit. But during the Caliphate of 'Uthman when the Muslims increased in number, a third Adhan at Az-Zaura' was added. Abu 'Abdullah said, "Az-Zaura' is a place in the market of Medina."

 

It was Ijtihad of Hadhrat Usman Ghani (radiallah ta'ala anh): based on this verse of the Quran:

 

Surah Al Jumma (62) Verse 9: “O ye who believe! When the call is proclaimed to prayer on Friday (the Day of Assembly), hasten earnestly to the Remembrance of Allah, and leave off business (and traffic): That is best for you if ye but knew!”

 

To call the people of markets to worship of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) because due to business of market, the noise, the commotion, which could suppress the sound of Adhan and shaytan would make them forget performing of prayers. So on this basis Hadhrat Usman Ghani (radiallah ta'ala anh) made Ijtihad and started his praiseworthy ijtihadi sunnah of third Adhan in market.

 

Two Rakat Nawafil Before Execution:

 

- Hadhrat Khubaib (radiallah ta'ala anh) was sent with group of ten men to spy but they were found and surrounded. They were given word that if they surrender they will be spared but the leader of the party refused to surrender and fought until seven of them were honored with martyrdom. The three remaining Sahabis surrendered but two were killed for one reason or another. Hadhrat Khubaib (radiallah ta'ala anh) remained from the ten and he was to be executed when he sought permission to perform nawafil:

 

Sahih Bukhari, Book 59, Hadith 325: “… It was food Allah had provided Khubaib with." When they took him to Al-Hil out of Mecca sanctuary to martyr him, Khubaib requested them. "Allow me to offer a two-Rak'at prayer." They allowed him and he prayed two Rakat and then said, "By Allah! Had I not been afraid that you would think I was worried, I would have prayed more." Then he (invoked evil upon them) saying, "O Allah! Count them and kill them one by one, and do not leave anyone of them"' Then he recited: "As I am martyred as a Muslim, I do not care in what way I receive my death for Allah's Sake, for this is for the Cause of Allah. If He wishes, He will bless the cut limbs of my body." Then Abu Sarva, 'Ubqa bin Al-Harith went up to him and killed him. It was Khubaib who set the tradition of praying for any Muslim to be martyred in captivity (before he is executed). The Prophet told his companions of what had happened (to those ten spies) on the same day they were martyred. ...”

 

He performed the two nawafil and then made dua so that Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) punishes his killers after he is martyred.

 

- Performing of two nawafil before execution and then making dua to Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) to punish the executioners is a Sunnah of Hadhrat Khubaib (radiallah ta'ala anh) and the above hadith affirms this: “It was Khubaib who set the tradition of praying for any Muslim to be martyred in captivity (before he is executed).”. This is also affirmed by other ahadith:

 

Sahih Bukhari, Book 52, Number 281: “... They allowed him and he offered Two Rakat and then said, "Hadn't I been afraid that you would think that I was afraid (of being killed), I would have prolonged the prayer. O Allah, kill them all with no exception." (He then recited the poetic verse):-- "I being martyred as a Muslim, Do not mind how I am killed in Allah's Cause, For my killing is for Allah's Sake, And if Allah wishes, He will bless the amputated parts of a torn body" Then the son of Al Harith killed him. So it was khubaib who set the tradition for any Muslim sentenced to death in captivity, to offer a two-Rak'at prayer (before being killed). Allah fulfilled the invocation of Asim bin Thabit on that very day on which he was martyred. The Prophet informed his companions of their news and what had happened to them. Later on when ...”

 

Sahih Bukhari, Book 59, Number 412: “... Later on she used to say, "I have never seen a captive better than khubaib Once I saw him eating from a bunch of grapes although at that time no fruits were available at Mecca, and he was fettered with iron chains, and in fact, it was nothing but food bestowed upon him by Allah." So they took him out of the Sanctuary (of Mecca) to kill him. He said, "Allow me to offer a two-Rak'at prayer." Then he went to them and said, "Had I not been afraid that you would think I was afraid of death, I would have prayed for a longer time."So it was khubaib who first set the tradition of praying two Rakat before being executed. He then said, "O Allah! Count them one by one," and added, 'When I am being martyred as a Muslim, I do not care in what way I receive my death for Allah's Sake, because this death is in Allah's Cause. If He wishes, ...."

 

The beautiful thing is that this Wali of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala), sahib e kramat, muqarrib of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala), did not ask for longer life because he felt that this will dishonor him.

 

Excellent Innovation Of Umar (radiallah ta'ala anh):

 

- In the time of Hadhrat Abu Bakr As Sadeeq (radiallah ta'ala anh) the Sahabah performed Nawafil prayers in the masjid either individually. In the time Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta'ala anh) people were performing Nawafil in small groups each group led a Imam or individually:

 

Sahih Bukhari, Book 32, Hadith 227: Narrated Abu Huraira: Allah's Apostle said, "Whoever prayed at night the whole month of Ramadan out of sincere Faith and hoping for a reward from Allah, then all his previous sins will be forgiven." Ibn Shihab (a sub-narrator) said, "Allah's Apostle died and the people continued observing that (i.e. Nawafil offered individually, not in congregation), and it remained as it was during the Caliphate of Abu Bakr and in the early days of 'Umar's Caliphate." 'Abdur Rahman bin 'Abdul Qari said, "I went out in the company of 'Umar bin Al-Khattab one night in Ramadan to the mosque and found the people praying in different groups.A man praying alone or a man praying with a little group behind him. So, 'Umar said, 'In my opinion I would better collect these (people) under the leadership of one Qari (Reciter) (i.e. let them pray in congregation!)'. So, he made up his mind to congregate them behind Ubai bin Ka'b. Then on another night I went again in his company and the people were praying behind their reciter. On that, 'Umar remarked, 'What an excellent Bid'a (i.e. innovation in religion) this is; but the prayer which they do not perform, but sleep at its time is better than the one they are offering.' He meant the prayer in the last part of the night. (In those days) people used to pray in the early part of the night."

 

Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta'ala anh) on his one visit came to conclusion that it would be better to collect the different Jammats under one Imam: 'In my opinion I would better collect these (people) under the leadership of one Qari (Reciter). So, he made up his mind to congregate them behind Ubai bin Ka'b.' When he went to Masjid again he found that Sahabah (radiallah ta'ala anhuma ajma'een) were performing the nawafil (i.e. salatul taraweeh) in one Jammah as he instructed then he remarked: “What an excellent Bid'a (i.e. innovation in religion) this is; ...” From this we can conclude that performing of Salatul Taraweeh in one Jammah under the Imamat of one Qari was not a Sunnah of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam).

 

Sunnah Of Khulafa ar'Rashideen:

 

Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) in the Quran states that believer should obey Allah (subhana wa ta'ala), Messenger (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) and the ones who have been given authority:

 

Surah an'Nisa (4) Verse 59: “O ye who believe! Obey Allah, and obey the Messenger, and those charged with authority among you. If ye differ in anything among yourselves, refer it to Allah and His Messenger, if ye do believe in Allah and the Last Day: That is best, and most suitable for final determination.”

 

The people who have been given authority are of two types, religious scholars, and leadership of Muslims. Assumption is that Messenger (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) in Tafsir of: “... ulil amri ...” stated fallow the Sunnah of rightly guided Khulafah:

 

Sunan Abu Dawood, Book 40, Hadith 4590: “... One day the Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him) led us in prayer, then faced us and gave us a lengthy exhortation at which the eyes shed tears and the hearts were afraid. A man said: Apostle of Allah! It seems as if it were a farewell exhortation, so what injunction do you give us? He then said: I enjoin you to fear Allah, and to hear and obey even if it be an Abyssinian slave, for those of you who live after me will see great disagreement. You must then follow my sunnah and that of the rightly-guided caliphs. Hold to it and stick fast to it. Avoid novelties, for every novelty is an innovation, and every innovation is an error.”

 

Note Prophet (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) stated that fallow Sunnah of Khulafa ar'Rashideen, and this indicates that Khulafah ar'Rashideen will have their own Sunnahs which are not Sunnahs of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam). Here Prophet used the word Sunnah for the Ijtihadi praiseworthy innovations of Khulafa ar'Rashideen. Clearly if ever innovation was evil, reprehensible, misguidance then Messenger (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) would not have instructed the Muslims to fallow the Ijtihadi innovations of Khulafah ar'Rashideen. We also have clear proof that Sahabah in general as well as the Khulafah ar'Rashideen innovated practices which were not practices of RasoolAllah (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam), and examples of them already have been discussed.

 

Conclusion:

 

Prophet's (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) statement: “Avoid novelties, for every novelty is an innovation, and every innovation is an error." when interpreted in the light of the abundance of evidence mean that those innovations which are by their nature reprehensible, misguiding, evil, are to be avoided. Those innovations which do not contradict the spirit, essence of Islam, and have their basis in Islam directly or indirectly, which can be established with Ijtihadi evidence can be accepted as part of deen as well as practiced. In support of this interpretation there is a lot of evidence from praiseworthy innovations of Sahabah (alayhi ridwan) to Prophet's (sallalahu alayhi was'sallam) statements: “... He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, ...” and his statement also supports praiseworthy ijtihadi innovations: “You must then follow my sunnah and that of the rightly-guided caliphs.”

 

Allah guides whom He wills misguides whom He wills.Whom He guides none can misguide and whom He Misguides none can guide.

 

Wama alayna ilal balaghul mubeen.

Muhammed Ali Razavi

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