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MuhammedAli

In Depth Critical Analysis Of Second Principles In Qawaid Al Arba.

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Introduction:

Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab presented the definition of permitted and prohibited intercession. In this article these two definitions will be criticized from the perspective of Quran and Sunnah.

The Second Principle Of Qawaid Al Arba:

That they say: We do not call upon and turn towards them except to seek nearness and intercession. So the proof against seeking this nearness (through others like Awliyah) is the saying of the Most High: “And those who you take Awliyah besides Him (they say): ‘We worship them only that they may bring us near to Allah.” Verily, Allah will judge between them concerning that wherein they differ. Truly, Allah guides not him who is a liar, and a disbeliever.” [Ref: 39:3] And the proof of intercession (through Awliyah) is the saying of the Most High: And they worship besides Allah things that hurt them not, nor profit them, and they say: These are our intercessors with Allah.” [Ref: 10:18] And intercession is of two types; 1) the prohibited intercession, 2) and the affirmed intercession. The prohibited intercession is that which is sought from other than Allah concerning that which only Allah is able to do. And the proof is the saying of the Most High: “O you who believe! Spend from that which We have provided for you, before a Day comes when there will be no bargaining, nor friendship, nor intercession. And it is the disbelievers who are the wrong-doers.” [Ref: 2:254] And the affirmed intercession is that which is sought from Allah, and the intercessor is honored with the intercession and the one interceded for, is one whom Allah is pleased with; his speech and actions, after he gives permission, as He, Ta’aala, said: “Who is he that can intercede with Him except with His permission?” [Ref: 2:255]

Prohibited Type Of Intercession/Intercessors And Seeking Nearness:

Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab defines the prohibited type of intercession as: The prohibited intercession is that which is sought from other than Allah concerning that which only Allah is able to do.” This is contrary to teaching of Islam and result of foolishness. The disbelievers took idol-gods as their intercessors with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Taking these idol-gods as intercessors to Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and worshipping them is prohibited to gain nearness. The evidence of prohibition is: “And do not invoke besides Allah [idol-god intercessors] that which neither benefits you nor harms you, for if you did, then indeed you would be of the wrongdoers.'" [Ref: 10:106] Therefore the prohibited type of intercessor/intercession or seeking nearness according to Quran is where an Shafi/Wali is taken as a god besides Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and then believed to be a intercessor or believed to be means to nearness to Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala).

Permitted Type Of Intercession And Intercessor:

Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab’s incorrect definition of permitted intercession is; “And the affirmed intercession is that which is sought from Allah, and the intercessor is honored with the intercession and the one interceded for, is one whom Allah is pleased with; his speech and actions, …” The correct permitted intercession or seeking nearness is where the one who seeks intercession or seeking nearness affirms belief of Tawheed and seeks intercession or nearness from one who is believed to a created servant of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). In detail, the one who seeks intercession/nearness, believes; Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is One God, besides whom there is no God, and believes; Allah is One Allah besides whom there is no allah. Also believes Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is without likeness to creation in attributes etc. The seeker believes about intercessor; intercessor is a creation of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala), a servant of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and not human-god or idol-god.

Permitted Intercession Is Sought From Permitted Intercessors:

The Ahadith establish that on the judgment day the people will go to Prophets and ask them to intercede for them to Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Eventually they will come to Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) and will ask him to intercede to Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Then Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) will prostrate in worship of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and he will be granted the right of intercession. Our beloved Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) will be the first one to intercede. This establishes that affirmed intercession is which is sought from Prophets and the Prophets intercede on behalf of the sinners to Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Also note the verse of Quran employed to establish the innovative definition of affirmed intercession, states; “To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth. Who is it that can intercede with Him except by His permission? He knows what is [presently] before them and ...” [Ref: 2:255] The verse of Quran in light of other verses establishes; permitted intercession is where intercessor is granted the right to intercede to Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) for whom Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) permits intercession. In the light of Ahadith and Quranic verses then the affirmed intercession would be; where intercession is sought from a intercessor who has been permitted to intercede and sinners seek intercession from a intercessor who intercedes on their behalf to Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Such intercession seekers commit neither Kufr nor Shirk and anyone who charges those who seek intercession of creation of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) of Kufr/Shirk has himself fallen into it.

Fused Definition Of Prohibited Intercession:

Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab define prohibited intercession as: The prohibited intercession is that which is sought from other than Allah concerning that which only Allah is able to do.” It seems the Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab deliberately fused the issue of intermediation (i.e. Tawassul) with intercession (i.e. Shaf’at). Here he was thinking of innovative principles of aid which is sought with means (i.e. ma-teht al asbab) from a creation and aid which is sought without means (i.e. ma fawq al asbab) from Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Here is what Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab was intending to write; The prohibited intercession intermediation is that which is sought from other than Allah concerning that which only Allah is able to do.” In reality this entire principle is fusion of Tawassul and Shaf’at, which makes it impossible to correct it. If one was to consider the above correction as valid and replace the word intercession with intermediation in the principle. Then the evidence which Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab employed to argue against intermediation will have no relevance to the subject. Evidence is about polytheists not having intercessor to intercede for them on the judgment day because they took idol-gods as intercessors with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). In summary, on the basis the definition of prohibited intercession, the evidence employed does not support it therefore evidence used in context of definition is wrong and in the light of evidence the definition of prohibited intercession is clearly wrong.

Prohibited & Permitted Principles Analyzed:

Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab fused the issue of Shaf’at and Tawassul. Keeping the definition of prohibited type of intercession in mind; “The prohibited intercession is that which is sought from other than Allah concerning that which only Allah is able to do.” The definition of permitted type of intercession should have been: “And the affirmed intercession is that which is sought from Allah concerning that which others are able to do and the intercessor is honored with the intercession and the one interceded for, is one whom Allah is please with his speech and actions, after he gives permission …”[1] If one was to keep the definition of permitted type of intercession in mind; “And the affirmed intercession is that which is sought from Allah, and the intercessor is honored with the intercession and the one interceded for, is one whom Allah is pleased with; his speech and actions, after he gives permission …” Then the prohibited type of intercession should be something like this: The prohibited intercession is that which is sought from other than Allah, and the intercessor is not honored with right of intercession and one requiring intercession  is one whose speech and actions Allah is displeased ” Note, the following part is omitted from the prohibited type of intercession; “… concerning that which only Allah is able to do.” Two two’s of a fool never add up to five just like lies and distortions of a heretic will never add to equal Islam. If one looks at it logically, each definition should be diametric opposite of the other[2] because Tawheed is opposite of Shirk. Note, according to Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab’s methodology permitted intercession in line with Tawheed and prohibited intercession is Shirk. These two are opposites of each other therefore permitted intercession and prohibited intercession should be opposite of each other.

Prohibited Intercession Principle Under Microscope:

Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab defined prohibited intercession with following words: “The prohibited Shaf’at is that which is sought from other than Allah concerning that which only Allah is able to do.” The crossed out part of quote has no real or any significance in the context of intercession. Attempts to reconcile the crossed out part with the principle; “… Concerning which only Allah is able to do.”  Means “… concerning which Allah is only able to grant.” Allah is only able to permit who can intercede therefore; “the prohibited Shaf’at is that which is sought from other than Allah which only Allah is able to grant.” Hence Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab meant; “the prohibited Shaf’at is that which is sought from other then Allah, who have not been granted the right of intercession.” This exercise establishes; crossed out part of principle has no direct connection with the subject of intercession. If one resorts to Taweel of Taweel of Taweel, only then one can harmonize the principle in the context of the evidence. The correct Wahhabi solution would be to replace the word Shaf’at with Tawassul, example; “The prohibited Tawassul is that which is sought from other than Allah concerning that which only Allah is able to do.” Alhasil, the crossed out words can be reconciled with the evidence by resorting to reinterpretation but lengths one has to go to achieve it are more then a stretch. Therefore the Taweel is improbable and the suggested correction is according to Wahhabi methodology and would be better option. The finale Taweel of the prohibited principle and the version with word Shaf’at replaced by Tawassul, both are with their own faults which have been demonstrated.

Wrong Definition Of Permitted Intercession:

Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab wrote: “And the affirmed intercession is that which is sought from Allah, and the intercessor is honored with the intercession and the one interceded for, is one whom Allah is pleased with; his speech and actions …” He believes the intercession sought from intercessors is not permitted unless intercession is sought from Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala): “And the affirmed intercession is that which is sought from Allah …” Obviously the prohibited intercession in light of this statement would be one which is sought from anyone other then Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Here is the explicit confirmation of derived: The prohibited intercession is that which is sought from other than Allah concerning that which only Allah is able to do.”

Permitted Intercession Is Prohibited Intercession:

If the prohibited type of intercession is analyzed in the light of permitted type of intercession then true Khariji nature of Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab’s methodology is established. The prohibited intercession is defined as The prohibited intercession is that which is sought from other than Allah concerning that which only Allah is able to do.” and permitted intercession is defined as; “And the affirmed intercession is that which is sought from Allah, and the intercessor is honored with the intercession and the one interceded for, is one whom Allah is pleased with; his speech and actions, …” Therefore if one seeks intercession according to permitted type of intercession [i.e. Prophet Muhammad sallallahu alayhi was’sallam] then he/she seeks prohibited intercession which is seeking intercession of other then Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). This conclusion is explicitly stated by Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab in his another booklet: “So if he says, “The Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) was given the right of intercession and I am seeking from him that which Allah the Most High gave him,” then the reply is: “Allah gave him the right of intercession but has forbidden you from doing this (which you have just mentioned) – so He, the Most High, stated: “So do not call upon anyone besides Allah.“ So if you were to call upon Allah asking that He allow His prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) to intercede for you, then you would have obeyed Him in His statement: “So do not call upon anyone besides Allah.” [Ref: Kashf Ash-Shubuhat, Page: 16, Trans: Abu Abdir Rahman Nasser Ibn Najam Alvi] According to Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab seeking intercession of anyone other then Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is prohibited and engaging in seeking prohibited intercession in his methodology is Kufr/Shirk. Hence according to his methodology anyone who seeking intercession of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) or anyone else will be and is Mushrik/Kafir.

Permitted Intercession Is Not Kufr Or Shirk:

Supporter of disbelief will argue; Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab established the belief of intercession of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) with evidences and he believed in intercession of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam). Hence you do not represent his belief correctly. It is based on mutilation of principle mentioned by Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab and inferred via devious means. The response of believer should be; firstly, Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab explicitly affirmed what is deduced from the principle in; Kashf ash’Shubuhat, hence the accusations of employing devious means to make case against Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab is baseless. Secondly, according to Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab’s methodology he did not make distinction between the Tawassul of Awliyah-Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) by Muslims and between Shafa’at. And evidence of this is found in the following excerpt: “Amongst these objections is their saying: “We do not associate any partners with Allah, rather we testify that none creates, nor provides, nor benefits, nor harms except Allah alone, who has no partners. And that Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) cannot bring about any benefit for himself and nor bring about any harm, let alone the likes of Abdul-Qadir and those like him. But I am a sinner and the Righteous have position and status with Allah, hence I ask Allah though them.” So you should reply to him with what has preceded in that those whom the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alayhi wa salam) fought against affirmed everything you have mentioned (concerning Allah) and they affirmed that their idols do not control or regulate anything. But they (the Mushriks) merely desired [the use of] their status and their intercession. And recite to him what Allah has mentioned in His Book and explain it to him.” [Ref: Kashf Ash-Shubuhat, Page: 10, Trans: Abu Abdir Rahman Nasser Ibn Najam Alvi] To refute Tawassul he argues that polytheists sought Shafa’at from their idols. He would only establish this evidence against Tawassul if he believes both of these subjects are one and same. In light of this Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab believed; anyone who seeks aid via Tawassul or seeks Shafa’at from other then Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) seeks prohibited Tawassul/Shafa’at. A detailed representation would be; anyone who seeks aid via Tawassul from the dead or seeks intercession of the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) then he/she seeks prohibited Tawassul/Shafa’at. According to Wahhabism anyone seeking ‘prohibited Tawassul’ or ‘prohibited intercession’ is guilty of major Shirk which is disbelief. Alhasil, Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab wished to refute Tawassul while employing evidence of Shafa’at. With it he establishes two types of shafa’at/tawassul prohibited and permitted. Prohibited shafa’at/tawassul is which is sought from other than Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Regarding seeking of shafa’at/tawassul of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) he stated: “So if he says, “The Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) was given the right of intercession and I am seeking from him that which Allah the Most High gave him,” then the reply is: “Allah gave him the right of intercession but has forbidden you from doing this (which you have just mentioned) – so He, the Most High, stated: “So do not call upon anyone besides Allah.“ So if you were to call upon Allah asking that He allow His prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) to intercede for you, then you would have obeyed Him in His statement: “So do not call upon anyone besides Allah.” [Ref: Kashf Ash-Shubuhat, Page: 16, Trans: Abu Abdir Rahman Nasser Ibn Najam Alvi] Here Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab has criminalized the seeking of intercession from Prophets including Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam). Note, on the judgment day people will go to Prophets and seek their intercession. This seeking of intercession has been criminalized in the above mentioned quote. So according to the principles of Wahhabi’s as well as clear statement of Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab, Tawassul/Shafa’at of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) in dunya and aakhira is criminal offence which invalidates belief in Islam.

Reason Of Shirk Is Seeking Which Only Allah Is able To Do:

Apostate may argue, Shirk will not warrant until one seeks from other then Allah which only Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is able to do. The Muslim should respond; the Muslims and Wahhabis are in agreement that creed precedes the action. Therefore according to Wahhabism mere belief that one can seek aid from Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) via; Tawassul of the dead/prohibited Tawassul, is be major Shirk. And this verdict is before one starts asking which only Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is able to do. Now if one seeks what is termed as which is only Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) able to do [or in other words ma fawq al asbab aid] from the dead then according to Wahhabism one engages in worship commits Shirk in attributes. Alhasil, according to Wahhabism the definition of prohibited Tawassul does not depend on the crossed out part for one to be guilty of major Shirk. And just like this, according to Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab’s methodology Shaf’at of other than Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) does not depend on the crossed out part to be major Shirk. Mere belief that it is permissible to seek intercession from other then Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is enough to be guilty of major Shirk. This is also supported by Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab’s following statement: And the affirmed intercession is that which is sought from Allah, and the intercessor is honored with the intercession and the one interceded for …” Giving Allah’s right to a creation is major Shirk and seeking intercession according to Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab, is right of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) because he defines affirmed intercession as which is sought from Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Now if the seeks intercession from other than Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) then according to Wahhabism one is giving right of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) to a creation, hence intercession ghair of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) would be major Shirk.

Permitted Intercession Under The Microscope:

On the judgment day when the heat of sun becomes unbearable the believing people will decide to seek intercession to Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). They will go to various Prophets to seek their intercession but every Prophet will refuse to intercede and recommend another until people reach Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam). He will prostrate to Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and glorify Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) then he will be granted the right of intercession. Please bare previously mentioned information in mind to understand the following point. Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab defined permitted intercession as; “And the affirmed intercession is that which is sought from Allah, and the intercessor is honored with the intercession and the one interceded for, is one whom Allah is pleased with; his speech and actions, …” According to Ahadith the people will seek intercession of Prophets [i.e. Prophets; Adam, Ibrahim, Musa, Isa, etc] even when they have not been granted the right of intercession and those whom Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) will intercede for will be people who have earned displeasure of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). The evidence of this is that those whom Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) will intercede will be guilty of major sins and people of hellfire: "My intercession is for the people who committed the major sins in my Ummah." [Ref: Tirmadhi, B11, H2435] "On the Day of Resurrection I will intercede and say, "O my Lord! Admit into Paradise (even) those who have faith equal to a mustard seed in their hearts." Such people will enter Paradise, and then I will say, 'O (Allah) admit into Paradise (even) those who have the least amount of faith in their hearts.” [Ref: Bukhari, B93, H600]

Defense Of Muhammad Bin Abdul Wahhab’s Permitted Intercession:

If apostate argues; principle should include what is established from Quran/Ahadith and Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab included which is established from both these two sources. We Muslims should respond; the principle contradicts the established facts of Ahadith. The intercession is sought before the permission is granted and there is no proof that intercession was sought by anyone after Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) was granted the right to intercede. Ahadith indicate that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) will intercede on his own accord for which Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) will permit. Also the intercession is not being sought from Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) but from Prophets even before they have been permitted to intercede. Therefore nothing of Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab’s ‘permitted intercession’ is according to teaching of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam). Even if an aspect of belief is established from Quran/Ahadith does not legitimize its inclusion to a principle. The confession is; there is no god but Allah Muhammad is Messenger of Allah. Would it be correct to insert the following in the beginning of confession; all praise is for Allah the Rabb of universe? Or would it be correct to add the following; “Say: O disbelievers.” in the beginning? One who is educated about deen will realize; not all which is established from Quran and Ahadith can be made part of principle.[3] But the principle should be inclusive of all essential elements and exclusive of all which is not fundamental to ones Islam. Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab inserted the non-essential beliefs in his principle and excluded the essential.

Principle Should Be Inclusive Of Essential And Exclusive Of Superfluous:

The error of Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab derived principle and his lack of knowledge about extracting principles needs to be demonstrated so readers understand the fault in his principles. Here is example of a defective principle; one who believes in intercessors and believes in Allah is Muslim. If this principle was considered valid then the polytheists of Makkah would be Muslims. They believed in [their idols as gods and believed these gods are] intercessors and believed in Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Alhasil the principle is not exclusive enough to exclude the disbelievers from entering Islam and not inclusive enough to only allow the Muslims into fold of Islam. Now coming to Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab’s permitted intercession as; “And the affirmed intercession is that which is sought from Allah, and the intercessor is honored with the intercession and the one interceded for, is one whom Allah is pleased with; his speech and actions, …” The affirmed intercession’s first condition; “… which is sought from Allah”, will not be fulfilled by Muslims because they will seek intercession from ‘other than Allah’ i.e. Prophets. The intercessors at that time will not be honored with right of intercession and the ones who need intercession will be sinners. Alhasil, the principle which I presented to demonstrate my point is too flexible and allows non-Muslims to enter Islam but on other hand Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab’s principle is incorrect and excludes Muslims from Islam. If seeking intercession prior to the Prophets being granted the right of intercession was major Shirk then our beloved Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) would have informed us of it.

Interpreting Which Only Allah Is Able To Do:

Apostate may argue in context of the following hadith; “… and (last of all) the Almighty (Allah) will say, 'Now remains My Intercession. He will then hold a handful of the Fire from which He will take out some people whose bodies have been burnt, and they will be thrown into a river at the entrance of Paradise, called the water of life.” [Ref: Bukhari, B93, H532], this part of the first principle; “… concerning which only Allah is able to do.” and this part of second principle; “And the affirmed intercession is that which is sought from Allah …” Refers to act of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) indicated in the hadith. In other words it refers to act of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) taking people out of hellfire. In this context the following two principles; The prohibited intercession is that which is sought from other than Allah concerning that which only Allah is able to do.”, would mean; the prohibited intercession is which is sought from other than Allah about taking people out of hellfire which only Allah is able to do. In the context of following principle; “And the affirmed intercession is that which is sought from Allah, and the intercessor is honored with the intercession and the one interceded for, is one whom Allah is pleased with; his speech and actions, …”, would mean; the affirmed intercession is where entry into paradise is sought from Allah, and the intercessor is honored. The Muslims should respond; the people will seek intercession of Prophets they are ‘other than Allah’ and the intercession would be regarding taking people out of hellfire. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) will say; “… and (last of all) the Almighty (Allah) will say, 'Now remains My Intercession.” After which Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) will take out fire from which people will be taken out and thrown into river of paradise. Putting it simply Allah’s (subhanahu wa ta’ala) intercession is taking people out of fire and entering them in paradise. Therefore intercession of Prophets should be and it is of taking people out of fire and entering to paradise. As proof note, Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) is reported to have said: “I shall go towards Hell and knock at its door, so it will be opened for me. I will enter it - and praise Allah with such praise that has never been done by anyone before me, nor shall it ever be done by anyone after me …” As a result of which he will remove everyone who sincerely professed the first part of Shahadah: “… and shall remove from it every such person who has with a sincere heart said ‘None is worthy of worship except Allah’. [Ref: Al-Mau'jam Al Awsat, H3857, Vol. 4, Page 503] Hence these two interpretations only add the following; Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) will take people out of hellfire, to the already established inconsistency – on the judgment day people seeking intercession from ‘other than Allah’ and those who were not granted the right of intercession. Alhasil, if the permitted intercession principle is understood as; the affirmed intercession is where entry into paradise is sought from Allah, and the intercessor is honored. Then the entry into paradise isn’t sought by the person in hell-fire but he is interceded for and the intercessor is honored with right of intercession. Therefore the interpretation of principle does not truly represent Islamic teaching. If the prohibited intercession is interpreted as; the prohibited intercession is which is sought from other than Allah about taking people out of hellfire which only Allah is able to do. Then people would be seeking intercession from ‘other than Allah’ to take people out of hellfire which according to the principle only Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) can do. Hence people would be engaging in prohibited intercession. Yet according to Islam this type of intercession which Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab’s principle demonizes is Islam because Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) will take people out of hellfire.

Affirmed Intercession Is Sought From Allah By The Intercessor:

A apostate is likely to argue; by the following statement; “And the affirmed intercession is that which is sought from Allah …”, he meant; affirmed intercession is where intercessor is granted the right of intercession and intercessor seeks intercession from Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) for one with whom Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is pleased with. Therefore the argument that people will be seeking intercession from ‘other than Allah’ is invalid. The insertion of words in brackets gives the principle mentioned meaning; “And the affirmed intercession is that which is sought from Allah [by the intercessor] and the intercessor is honored with the intercession and the one interceded for, is one whom Allah is pleased with; his speech and actions, …” As Muslims we should say to apostate; Firstly, if your interpretation is granted nothing alters in reality because the people will still go to Prophets and seek their intercession. These people will go around seeking intercession until Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) is granted the right of intercession. Then Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) will seek intercession on behalf of Muslims. So in reality the people will be going to ‘other than Allah’ for intercession until one from these ‘other than Allah’s’ will be granted the right of intercession. Then this ‘other than Allah’ will be first one to be granted the right of intercession and as a result he will intercede to Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Secondly, the people will seek intercession before the right of intercession is granted to Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam). Hence according to Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab’s definition of prohibited intercession people will be engaged in polytheism on the judgment day. Lastly, the principle states Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) will be pleased with actions/speech of those residents who will be interceded for. Reality is they will be in hell because they would have earned displeasure of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) due to their actions and speech. Alhasil, the ‘permitted intercession’ states those who will be interceded for, will earn it due to their action/speech and this contradicts the reality and the permitted intercession is contradicted by prohibited intercession.

Allah Being Pleased With Speech And Actions Is Misunderstood:

The apostates may argue; the Quran states Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) will be pleased with the speech of those who are in hell and as a result Allah will permit the intercessors to intercede on their behalf. Muslim should inform the apostate; no where Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has stated He will be pleased with speech or actions of those in hell. Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab wrote; “… and the intercessor is honored with the intercession and the one interceded for is one whom Allah is pleased with; his speech and actions, after he gives permission …” The bold part of principle is based on the understanding of the following verses of Quran; “He knows what is [presently] before them and what will be after them, and they do not intercede except on behalf of one whom He’s satisfied.[4] And they, from fear of Him, are apprehensive.” [Ref: 21:28] The underlined is connected with the one being interceded where as in reality the underlined was stated about the intercessor i.e. Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam); “Upon that Day (the) intercession of none will profit except of him whom the Merciful has given permission, and with whose speech He is satisfied.” [Ref: 20:109] The verse states only whose speech pleases Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) will be given the right to intercede. There is no indication that Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) will be satisfied with actions or speech of those people in hell.

Seeking From Other Then-Allah Which Only Allah Is Able To Do:

Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab intended to establish that Tawassul of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) and Awliyah-Allah is major Shirk. He wrote prohibited Shaf’at/Tawassul is that which is sought from other than Allah which only Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) can enact: “The prohibited intercession is that which is sought from other than Allah concerning that which only Allah is able to do.” It is worth pointing out that in Wahhabism anything which is out of human limit is defined as; ‘which only Allah is able to do’. Anything which does not require supernatural powers but only human ability is ‘which human is able to do’. Seeking from human which is ‘which only Allah is able to do’ in Wahhabism is major Shirk. According to Muslim belief seeking anything from anyone, living or dead, human or Jinn, animal or bird, mentally-ill or sane, male or female and seeking any item including which the Wahhabi’s term; ‘which only Allah is able to do’ or ‘which human is able to do’ does not warrant major Shirk, unless it is combined with polytheistic creed. Once polytheistic creed is affirmed seeking anything from anyone is an act of worship because it becomes invocation in Shar’rai terms. To establish the error of Wahhabi ways I would like to demonstrate that there is evidence that monotheists sought from human beings what is in Wahhabi’s ‘which only Allah is able to do’. Hadhrat Abu Huraira (radiallah ta’ala anhu) came to Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) and complained that he forgets what he hears from Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam): "O Allah's Apostle! I hear many narrations from you but I forget them." Then Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) said to Hadhrat Abu Huraira (radiallah ta’ala anhu) and he did so: "Spread your covering sheet." I spread my sheet and …” Then Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam): “… moved both his hands as if scooping something and emptied them in the sheet and said, "Wrap it!" Hadhrat Abu Huraira (radiallah ta’ala anhu) states: “I wrapped it round my body and since then I have never forgotten a single Hadith.” [Ref: Bukhari, B56, H841]

Rebuking The Non-Muslim For Making Excuse Against The Obvious:

Non-Muslim is very likely to argue Hadhrat Abu Huraira (radiallah ta’ala anhu) did not ‘technically’ seek ‘which only Allah is able to do’ from Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) therefore he was not committing major Shirk. Our response would be one who visits a doctor due to an ailment to seek a medicine which will cure his illness. Doctor only enquires about the ailment and the patient only informs the doctor of his ailment. The patient does not state that he is there to seek a medicine for his ailment. The patient understands by informing the doctor of his ailment he will be prescribed a medicine and the doctor understands once he identifies an illness he will have to prescribe a medicine to cure ailment. Similarly Hadhrat Abu Huraira (radiallah ta’ala anhu) visited Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) to seek solution to his problem and Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) provided the solution. Therefore ‘technically’ Hadhrat Abu Huraira (radiallah ta’ala anhu) did visit Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) to seek from his ‘which only Allah is able to do’ from Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam). Had his intention not been so he would have remained home and beseeched Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) himself and surely Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) would have answered his invocation. Here I will be generous and consider the flimsy argument and forward the response to utterly disgrace the enemy of Islam. Prophet Suleiman (alayhis salaam) asked addressed the members of assembly and said: “[solomon] said, "O assembly which of you will bring me her throne before they come to me in submission?" [Ref: 27:38] In response to him a Jinn replied: “A powerful one from among the jinn said, "I will bring it to you before you rise from your place, and indeed, I am for this [task] strong and trustworthy." [Ref: 27:39] A Wali-Allah, Asif bin Barkhiyah, a human said: “One who had knowledge from the Scripture said: "I will bring it to you before your glance returns to you." And when [solomon] saw it placed before him, he said: "This is from the favor of my Lord to test me whether I will be grateful or ungrateful. And whoever is grateful - his gratitude is only for [the benefit of] himself. And whoever is ungrateful - then indeed, my Lord is free of need and Generous." [Ref: 27:40] Technically speaking this is a Karamat (i.e. saints-miracle) but still help ‘which only Allah is able to do’ was sought from him and technically in Wahhabism Prophet Suleiman (alayhis salaam) has committed major Shirk.

Allah Does His Will Via Karamat Therefore No Shirk:

Disbeliever may argue, miracle of a Wali is not performed by the Wali, but he is only outward means, in reality; Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) does the miracles. Therefore the miracle of Asif bin Barkhiyah is an act of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and Prophet Suleiman (alayhis salaam) understood this aspect of Tawheed. Hence he knew what he seeks is not done by the Jinn and Asif bin Barkhiyah but in reality from Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Therefore the creed of Tawheed of Prophet Suleiman (alayhis salaam) was not negated. There are two points a Muslim must understand and present as argument in defense of Islam. First, Mojzah/Karamat (i.e. prophet’s-miracle/saint’s-miracle) are not acts of God which Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) enacts through them. Rather the power to perform these wondrous acts has been bestowed upon the Prophets and Awliyah by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) as we are granted the ability to see, hear, walk, and talk. The difference is that Prophet’s utilize their supernatural ability when they are commanded by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) via Revelation (i.e. Wahi) and Awliyah-Allah are guided by intuitive knowledge (i.e. Ilm e Ladunvi) as it was in the case of Khidr (alayhis salaam). The proof for Prophets performing miracles themselves after permission of God is established from the following verse where Prophet Isa (alayhis salaam) claims to perform the miracles, note the usage of I’s by Prophet Isa (alayhis salaam):: “And [make him] a messenger to the Children of Israel, [who will say], 'Indeed I have come to you with a sign from your Lord in that I design for you from clay [that which is] like the form of a bird, then I breathe into it and it becomes a bird by permission of Allah . And I cure the blind and the leper, and I give life to the dead - by permission of Allah. And I inform you of what you eat and what you store in your houses. Indeed in that is a sign for you, if you are believers.” [Ref: 3:49] In another verse of Quran Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) attests the claim of Isa (alayhis salaam) performing the miracles with His permission: “… and [remember] when I taught you writing and wisdom and the Torah and the Gospel; and when you designed from clay [what was] like the form of a bird with My permission, then you breathed into it, and it became a bird with My permission; and you healed the blind and the leper with My permission; and when you brought forth the dead with My permission; and when I restrained the Children of Israel from [killing] you when you came to them with clear proofs and ...." [Ref: 5:110] Therefore to down play or even negate the part of Ambiyah and Awliyah in the performing wondrous feet is heretical. Prophet Suleiman (alayhis salaam) only did he not believe the doer of wonder is the Jinn/human he also believed the ability to do so is from God. Hence Asif bin Barkhiyah performed an act which according to Wahhabism; ‘which only Allah is able to do’, and Prophet Suleiman (alayhis salaam) did violate the Wahhabi principle of; ‘which only Allah is able to do’. Hence he should be termed as Mushrik as the principle leads one to conclude or dismiss this principle completely and believe Islamic teachings; actions do not warrant major Shirk but creed. Secondly, those who seek help what the Wahhabi’s define as; ‘which only Allah is able to do’ from a Wali of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). They seek it with belief that Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has granted the Wali with miraculous powers which enable the Wali to do; ‘which only Allah is able to do’. The proof of Awliyah-Allah possessing miraculous powers and Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) being the source of their powers is established by following Hadith: “And the most beloved things with which My slave comes nearer to Me, is what I have enjoined upon him; and My slave keeps on coming closer to Me through performing Nawafil till I love him, so I become his sense of hearing with which he hears, and his sense of sight with which he sees, and his hand with which he grips, and his leg with which he walks; and if he asks Me, I will give him, and if he asks My protection, I will protect him; and I do not hesitate to do anything as I hesitate to take the soul of the believer, for he hates death, and I hate to disappoint him." [Ref: Bukhari, B76, H509] So when Muslim seeks from a Wali he seeks keeping Tawheed in mind and seeks with belief that Wali grants via wondrous feet because Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has granted the Wali supernatural powers. Hence in creed of a Muslim Prophet Suleiman (alayhis salaam) sought aid which the Wahhabi’s term; ‘which only Allah is able to do’ but with correct creed therefore he was not guilty of Shirk like a Muslim is not guilty of major Shirk. Note, seeking from a creation; ‘which only Allah is able to do’ makes the request of help into supplication and such type of requests are worship in Wahhabism. Hence Prophet Suleiman (alayhis salaam) would be guilty of worshiping Asif bin Barkhiyah which makes him Mushrik.

[I Haq Quite Bit More To Write But I Have Lost The Train Of Thoughts. I Will Have To Rediscover It To Continue This Will Require Re-Reading The Entire Material Written And Alot Of Contemplation Over What Has Been Written And What Needs To Be Written. It Has Been Over Two Months I Had Not Read This Material Hence I Have Forgotten All The Connections I Made And All The Inconsistencies Realized. Once I Realize Them I Will Write Them If Anything Comes To Mind Of Readers Please Contact Me In Private.]

Conclusion:

The prohibited intercession and the permitted intercession definitions both contradict each other. For these two to be valid they must be opposite of the other. If prohibited intercession definition is the correct one then the permitted one should be exactly the opposite and if the permitted intercession definition was correct then the prohibited definition should be exactly the opposite.[5] These definitions are inconsistent with each other and evidences of Quran and Sunnah, hence heretical. More importantly these definitions are employed by apostates to undermine the monotheism of Muslims to declare them as non-Muslims. Anyone who engages or employs these principles or its derivatives to attack the sound creed of Tawheed of a Muslim is from these apostates.

Wama alayna alal balaghul mubeen.
Muhammed Ali Razavi.

Footnotes:


- [1] The crossed out part of the principle even though is part of permitted intercession technically should not be part of it.

- [2] To validate a doctrine one can infer the diametric opposite of a belief and use evidence of Quran/Ahadith to validate both beliefs. Diametric opposite of following Tawheedi statement; there is One God, would be Shirki statement; there are many gods.  If the diametric opposite of; there is One God, is stated to be; there are idols who cannot walk or talk, then it should be apparent that one from the two is incorrect. Or maybe correct Islamic teaching but not correct diametric opposite. Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab failed on the diametric opposite validation test. This establishes that he did not understand the process of developing a principle. Instead of presenting a true/correct principle he was more concerned about his takfir methodology being represented correctly.

- [3] A Shia started discussion with me about the validity of their version of Shahadah. He said; do you have proof for Shahadah? I replied; yes indeed. I quoted verses of Quran for the first and the second part of Shahadah. He said; Do you have a verse of Quran which explicitly affirms the entire Shahadah in one verse. I replied; no, not that I am aware of. He said; the way you picket up bits of verses even we can prove our Shahadah. I asked; what is your Shahadah? He replied; there is no god but Allah, Muhammad is Rasool of Allah, Ali is Wali of Allah. I said; your proof? He replied by quoting the verse of Quran about Wali’s. He reasoned; do you believe Hadhrat Ali (radiallah ta’ala anhu) is a Wali? I replied; without doubt he is Wali. He argued; the verses you quoted and the verse I quoted all contribute to prove our Shahadah. I replied; Shahdah is foundation without affirming which one cannot be Muslim and evidence for it is definite as well as explicit. Where as evidence for; Ali is Wali of Allah, is derived from Ahadith. If one who rejects explicit and definite of Quran is a Kafir. Denial of Mutawatir Hadith also amounts to Kufr. In regard of Hadhrat Ali (radiallah ta’ala anhu) being Wali there is no explicit or definite verse or Mutawatir Hadith but his being Wali is derived from Ahadith hence not Kufr. Therefore how can it be made part of which is definite and explicit when its denial amounts to heresy? But the denial of; there is no god but Allah, and denial of; Muhammad is RasoolAllah, amounts to Kufr. He said; it is proven from hadith therefore it is correct. I replied; then entire corpus of Quran and Sahih Ahadith should be part of your Shahadah as well as all that can be derived from these. [The discussion should have ended but like all foolish folks he continued.] The main point is; everything established with evidence should not be made part of a foundation/principle.

- [4] The ‘Sahih International’ translation has the verse; “… and they cannot intercede except on behalf of one whom He’s pleased/satisfied.” Imam Ahmad Raza’s translation of the verse is; “… and they do not intercede except on behalf of one whom ….” The ‘Sahih International’ conveys meaning that people cannot intercede due to lack of ability. Where as translation of Imam Ahmad Raza conveys meaning that they have the ability to intercede but only will intercede with whom Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is satisfied with. The following verse establishes that angel will have ability to intercede and they will intercede but their intercession will not benefit until after the right of intercession is granted to them; “And how many angels there are in the heavens whose intercession will not avail at all except [only] after Allah has permitted [it] to whom He wills and approves.” [Ref: 53:26] Establishing that with the intercessors the issue is not of ‘cannot’ but the issue is that they ‘do not’ intercede except for whom Allah is pleased.

- [5] Truth of matters of religions can be determined by judging by opposites. If the saying; I am absolutely confident there is no God what so ever, is Kufr, then its opposite; I am absolutely confident there is a God, is Islam. If saying; Allah is one God beside whom there are no other gods, is Tawheed, then saying; Allah is one God beside him there are many gods, is Shirk. In similar which ever out of the two principles is correct then it’s opposite should be true principle.

 

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