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Principles Which Explain Tawheed And Indicate Shirk.

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Fundamentally Tawheed of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is as fallow: He is Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala), the One and the Only! The eternal absolutely perfect and without defect. The One independent of need/want and none in the creation is equal to Him. He does not bear a child nor He was ever begotten by any parent. This much knowledge of Tawheed is suffient enough to be a Muslim. To aquire a grade of Momin it is important to know Tawheed comprehensively. There are ten principles derived from Quran according to which the Tawheed of Zaat (i.e. unity of being) and Sifaat (i.e. attributes) can be understood perfectly. Without knowing these fundamental principles, Tawheed of being and Tawheed Al Sifat (i.e. unity of the attributes) cannot be fully grasped. Hence learning these principles is a must for every Muslim wanting to further the understanding of Tawheed and Shirk.

The Fundamental Principles:

Attributes are divided into, Wajib Ul Wujud (i.e. existance is essential) and Momkin Ul Wujud (i.e. existance is likely), Zaati (i.e. personal) and Atahi (i.e. bestowed), Qulli (i.e. total) and Baaz (i.e. partial), Azli/Abdi (i.e. eternal) and Waqti (i.e. transient), Haqiqi (i.e. real) and Majazi (i.e. linguistical), Bi-Ghayr Izni (i.e. without permission) and Bi-Izni (i.e. with permission), Ghair-Muntahai (i.e. unlimited) and Muntahai (i.e. limited), Ghayr Makhlooq (i.e. uncreated) and Makhlooq (i.e. created), Muhaal Al Fana (i.e. impossible to anahilate) and Mumkin Al Fana (i.e. possible to anahilate), Bi-Ghayr Misl (i.e. without comparision) and Bi-Misli (i.e. with comparision), Khaliqi (i.e. Creator’s) and Makhlooqi (i.e. creations), and Akmal (i.e. perfect) and Nakis (i.e. defective).

Detailed Explanation Of  Principles:

Wajib Ul Wujud means, existance is absolutely fundamental requirement, absence/non-existance of which is impossible (i.e. muhaal) and Momkin Ul Wujud means, the existance is likely/possible but not absolute requirement nor fundamental. Zaati means, something which belongs to a y, in which no other shares ownership and Atahi means, bestowed/granted by one to another. Qulli means, something which is absolute, perfect (i.e. kamil), complete (i.e. mukamil), no amount is absent and Baaz means, some, something which is partial, uncomplete, less then full. Azli means something which is beginningless, or from eternity, Abdi means something which is endless, or to eternity and Waqti means, temporal or something which is to exist in time a period and then not exist. Haqiqi means, true, real, also can denote the meaning of pure (i.e. khalis), and Majaazi means, linguistical also commonly used to mean allegorical/metaphorical. Bi-Ghayr Izni, requires no permission from another, or independent from needing permission from another – equal or superior or lesser, and Bi-Izni requires permission from another, or else; is dependent upon permission of another – superior or equal or lesser. Ghair-Muntahai is unlimited, unrestricted, without a boundary, and Muntahai is limited, restricted, within a boundary. Ghayr Makhlooq in meaning of not being a creation, not being created by another or uncreated, and Makhlooq means a creation, being created by another. Muhaal Al Fana is in meaning of impossible; to anahilate y to non-existance, to cause it to not to exist, and Mumkin Al Fana is in meaning of it is possible; to anahilate x to non-existance, to cause x to not to exist. Bi-Ghayr Misl is in meaning of without comparision to another in meaning/detail and Bi-Misli is in meaning of with comparision in meaning/detail. Khaliqi is in meaning of attribute of Creator – Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala), attribute whose existance in creation is impossible because it is nature of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and Makhlooqi is in meaning of something which is in nature of creation of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Akmal in meaning of; perfect [by nature], faultless, flawless, and untainted by all defects and Naqis is in meaning of defective, tainted, imperfect and with fault.

Seperating Principles Reserved For Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) And For His Creation:

Being of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and attributes of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) are Wajid Ul Wujud and all attributes of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) are to be understood according to the categories of: Zaati (i.e. personal), Qulli (i.e. total), Azli/Abdi (i.e. eternal), Haqiqi (i.e. real), Bi-Ghayr Izni (i.e. without permission), Ghair-Muntahai (i.e. unlimited), Ghayr Makhlooq (i.e. uncreated), Muhaal Al Fana (i.e. impossible to anahilate), Bi-Ghayr Misl (i.e. without comparision), Khaliqi (i.e. Creator’s) and Akmal (i.e. perfect). Creation of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is Momkin Ul Wujud and all attributes of creation of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) are to be understood in the meaning of: Atahi (i.e. bestowed), Baaz (i.e. partial), Waqti (i.e. transient), Majazi (i.e. linguistical), Bi-Izni (i.e. with permission), Muntahai (i.e. limited), Makhlooq (i.e. created), Mumkin Al Fana (i.e. possible to anahilate), Bi-Misli (i.e. with comparision), Makhlooqi (i.e. creation’s) and Naqis (i.e. defective).

Application Of Principles To Tawheed Of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala):

Tawheed is to believe the being of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and His attributes are absolutely fundamental, absence/non-existance of His Zaat and Sifat is impossible. All His attributes are His own and none in creation shares ownership nor another has granted Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) His attributes. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) possesses attributes which are absolute, perfect, and complete. His every attribute is so perfect, complete, absolute that nothing can be added to improve it. The being of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and His attributes are all from eternity and will remain to eternity. He was beginningless and will be endless. The existance of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and His attributes is real/true in meaning of nothing exists as Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) exists. He alone and His attributes exist - truly and actually. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) requires no permission of another – superior, equal, lesser, to employ His attributes. He is independent of all, dependent upon none. Attributes of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) are without limits, without restrictions and without boundaries. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) nor His attributes are creation of another. He was eternal Creator of all but creation of none. It is impossible for another to cause Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) to not to exist nor it is possible for His attributes to be anahilated. He is the one who can obliterate/anahilate all that he has created and can cause non-existance but nothing transfers Him into state of non-existance. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and all His attributes are without comparision to creation in detail meanings. All attributes of Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) are perfect [by nature], faultless, flawless, and untainted by all defects associated with creation of Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala).

Applying Principles To Physical Being And Attributes Of Creation:

The creation of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and it’s attributes can possibly exist but if it does not exist it does not effect the existance of the Creator. The physical existance of a/all creation and the attributes have been bestowed by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) without His act of creating neither the physical nor the attributes of creation would exist. The attributes of all creation are partial, uncomplete, less then perfect. The physical being of creation and attributes will exist for a short period of time and then will cease to exist. These attributes are metaphoric/linguistical expressions reflecting to some degree the true/real attributes. Every action and attribute of creation of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is governed by the will and permission of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Without His permission, no being can act nor any attribute do the duty for which Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) created it for. Eyes see, due to permission of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Ears hear, due to permission of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Tongue does not taste the flavours due to receiving no permission of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Creation by nature is limited and restricted in physical nature as well as in attributes. All that exists according to our five senses and all that exists which these five senses cannot comprehend are a creation and created by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). The physical creation and its attributes can be anahilated into state of non-existance. Creation’s physical being and attributes all are comparable to other creation in detail/meaning. Creation of Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) possesses some defective attributes [as well as good] and these attributes which enable them to lie, cheat, abuse, steal, backbite etc. Some engage in such activities and others merely possesse the ability to but abstain from them. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is absolutely free from engaging in all types of defects and He is also absolutely free from having ability to over such defects.[1]

Applying Creator’s Principles To Creation:

It is utmost of importance that we do not exceed the status of creation of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and make them equal with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Nor should a servant degrade the status of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) so low; Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is accredited with attributes which are of His creation. If one was to understand Creator’s attributes according to creations characteristics then y commits Kufr which invalidates his belief in Islam. If a individual understood or believed creation’s attributes are to be understood with Creator’s characteristics then he would commit Shirk which would invalidate his belief in Islam.

Wama alayna ilal balaghul mubeen
Muhammed Ali Razavi

- [1] Heretics say; Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has ability to lie but does not lie. Having a ability over defect [but not performing the defective act] establishes existance of defective seed. A man who can tell a lie but does not tell a lie due to his concious decision – like Hadhrat Abu Bakr as-Sadeeq (radiallah ta’ala anhu), will be like Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) in this regard. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has no likeness which is explicitly stated in the Quran. Heretic may argue the verse of Quran says; laysaka mithli shay’in meaning; there is nothing like Him, and shay’i is used for material, therefore Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is nothing like a material thing. Granted shay’i is used for material object and the verse does mean Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is not like any material object or material being in creation. Shay’i is material object/being but objects/beings have certain characteristics and attributes. These attributes are essential part of material objects/beings and therefore the verse is also negating Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) being like creation in respect of attributes. Hence comprehensively the verse means there is no material thing or being in creation lik of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) in Zaat or Sifat. On basis of this Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and Hadhrat Abu Bakr as’Sadeeq (radiallah ta’ala anhu) having the ability to lie but not lieing establishes likeness between Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and His creation. One degrades Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) by equating Him to His creation yet we know Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is unique and nothing like His creation in any respect. In Tawheed of Muslims Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is so pure and perfect in His being and attributes and actions that having ability to perform ills is defect. The heretics argue; but if Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) does not have ability to perform it then creation is more powerful then creator. We should respond, having the ability to perform an ill is not itself a bad for creation but for Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) believing that He has power to perform ill acts but does not, is reprehensible innovation, and clear Kufr. Also some from the creation haved raped, stolen property of others, and have lied. Considering your rule, if Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has not already raped someone would it mean the rapist has more power then Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala)? A Muslim would agree that Creator does not need to engage in such act to be more powerful then creation. Then why does Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) not having the ability to commit a ill action makes creation superior to Him? All creation is given unqiue shapes/forms attributes and characteristics. Monkeys can easily climb trees, birds can fly, there these abilities make them superior to a human? Everything is created according to a nature and each performs actions according to their own nature. Mans ability to commit ills results in some committing these ill actions others don’t because this is the nature of human. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) not having the ability to lie and not lieing is according to His holy, pure and perfect nature. Establishing the ability of performing ills, is to establish a ill in Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) which does not take place but is part of Him. It is akin to believing Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is Al Kadhab (i.e. the Liar) but the Zahoor (i.e. manifestation) of attribute will not take place. Abilities are according to attributes if one does not possesses a attribute then ability will be absent. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) was and is not Al Kadhab hence He does not have ability to lie. Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) is Merciful, therefore He possesses the ability to show mercy and He will show mercy. He will show mercy to some on day of judgment and allow them to enter paradise. Others Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) will send to hell fire even though having the attribute of Merciful. This establishes Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) will show mercy and send people to paradise and refrain from showing mercy despite possessing the ability to show mercy and allow the sinners to enter paradise. When a attribute is possessed by Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) then He will act on it and the attribute will manifest itself eventually. If the possessed attribute does not manifest on a occasion then we can assume despite having the ability to act according to possessed attribute Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) wished not to demonstrate it. If the attribute is not part of attributes of Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) then having ability over the attribute cannot be established. Having ability to do something but not doing it is conditional upon possessing the attribute like it was in the case of Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) being Merciful. He demonstrates His mercy by forgiving and allowing entry to paradise and despite having the power/ability to forgive will not do so and will send people to hellfire. This establishes having ability to forgive, to be merciful, to lie, is based on possessing the attributes which enable these. If one does not possess the attribute, one does not possess the ability over the attribute, nor the manifestation of a attribute will will take place
. This is enough to establish the belief of Muslims;Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) does not lie nor with Him is the ability to lie. Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) is the Merciful therefore he has power/ability to show mercy, He must be Al Kadhab (i.e. the Liar) to possess the ability to lie and to actively engage in a lie, but Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) is Al Haq (i.e. the Truth).

Edited by MuhammedAli
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