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Analysis Of Attributes Of Allah (Subhanahu Wa Ta’Ala) To Explain How Shirk Of Attributes Is Warranted.

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Some attributes of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) are possessed by creation of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). This study will focus on how a Muslim is to differentiate between the attributes of Creator and the creation to stay clear of Shirk in attributes of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala).

Catergories Which Explain The Attributes Of Creator And Creation:

The following are some of the categories according to which attributes of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and His creation are to be understood; Khaliqi and Makhlooqi (i.e. Creator’s and Creation’s), Haqiqi and Majazi (i.e. real and linguistical), Azli and Waqti (i.e. eternal and transient), Zaati and Atahi (i.e. personel and bestowed), Qulli and Baaz (i.e. total and partial). All Asma (names) of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and Sifat (attributes) are in the categories of; Khaliqi, Haqiqi, Azli, Zaati, Qulli, and His creation posses all the attributes in meaning of; Makhlooqi, Majazi, Waqti, Atahi, Baaz.

Names And Attributes To Be Discussed:

Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is said to be seeing, hearing, knowing, Rauf and Raheem. Creation of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is also seeing, hearing, knowledge, and Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) is declared in Quran to be Rauf and Raheem. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is Al-Malik (i.e. the Owner) but commonly it is said creation of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is malik of something. We must distinguish between all these and more to keep our creed pure from Kufr and Shirk.

Methodology Involved In Interpreting The Names And Attributes:

Names/Attributes of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) will only be explained in one or two categories to demonstrat the difference between the Creator’s and His creation’s attributes. It is advised that reader using the mentioned categories as a excercise expands upon the uniqueness of Creator from His creation. Please bare in mind this is a brief explantion and not every aspect of Tawheed/Shirk will be stated. What is Shirk may only be stated to be Shirk in one aspect in one part this does not mean there are no other angles which are Shirk.

Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) And His Creation As Owners:

Haqiqi ownership of a object is of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and none can be owner of anything as Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is the Owner. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is the true/real Owner of the entire creation - their phisical being, their attributes, and the Owner of intellectual capacity the creation possess (i.e. knowledge). It is impossible for Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) to possess linguistical ownership of anything. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) was and will be the Malik e Haqiqi (i.e. real/true Owner). Every creation is owner of something and that ownership is Majazi because the object has been granted by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Language as evovled in such a way that ownership is attributed to creation of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). The cause of this is mankind being unaware of Tawheed and being unmindful of Tawheed. To state one owns a object is to attribute Majazi ownership to a creation as long as one does not claim to possess equal true/real ownership of material possession as Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) owns it. If one claims equal ownership with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) then Shirk of ownership occurs.

What Consitutes Kufr And Shirk:

It is important to remember that denial of Allah’s (subhanahu wa ta’ala) Haqiqi ownership is Kufr and attributing Haqiqi ownership to a creation of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is Shirk. Affirming the Haqiq ownership of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala), but ascribing to Him a equal/superior god-partner who also owns parts of creation in Haqiqi terms is also Shirk.

Hearing And Seeing Of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) And His Creation:

Makhlooqi hearing/seeing is limited and restricted toward a direction. Also hearing/seeing of creation is dependent upon ears/eyes. Creations hearing/seeing is possible due to light/sound rays/waves entering eyes/ears and absence of light prevents the eyes from seeing but Allah’s seeing/hearing is dependent upon nothing which creation depends upon. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is the hearing/seeing befitting his Khaliqi majestay. His hearing/seeing is not limited nor restricted to a particular direction nor dependent upon ears/eyes. In other words His seeing is not pictorial and his hearing is not sound. His hearing/seeing is according to His Khaliqi reality but not like His creations.

What Consitutes Kufr And Shirk:

Attributing to Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) seeing/haring of human eyes/ears with eyes/ears is Kufr. Kufr – for the reason of violating clear verse which says there is nothing like Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Attributing to any creation of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) seeing/hearing of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is Shirk.

Knowledge Of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) And His Creation:

Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is the knowing from eternity and He knew everything from eternity and will continue to know it to eternity. During which neither will His knowledge increase nor decrease. Creation Of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) knows from its beginning and only knows what the five senses feed it, thus the knowledge is limited. The knowledge of creation increases and due to forgetfullness decreases due circumstances in/out of human control.

What Consitutes Kufr And Shirk:

To attribute to creation of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) all His knowledge is Shirk. To attribute to Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) limited/restricted knowledge such as possessed by His creation is also Shirk.


All attributes of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) are His unique attributes/names. His creation may have linguistical similarity but not in meanings. To believe Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) possesses attributes in same way as His creation possesses is Kufr and to attribute His attributes in detail meanings to His creation is Shirk.

Wama alayna ilal balaghul mubeen.
Muhammed Ali Razavi.

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