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      IslamiMehfil Rules (Please Must Read, Before You Post Anything)   04/09/2017

        فورم کےعمومی قوانین آخری ترمیم: ۱۰ اپریل ۲۰۱۷ ۔۔۔عمومی فورم رول نمبر ۱۵ ایڈ کیا گیا ،جو نیچے آخر میںبولڈ فونٹ میں موجود ہے۔ فورم کی انتظامیہ کی طرف سے تمام ارکان کو خوش آمدید! پوسٹ ارسال کرنے سے پہلے تمام اراکین کو تاکید کی جاتی ہے کہ وہ مندرجہ ذیل قواعد و ضوابط کا مطالعہ کر لیں تا کہ مستقبل میں کسی قسم کا کوئی ابہام پیدا نہ ہو۔ اگر کوئی پوسٹ یا ٹاپکس فورم رولز کے خلاف نظر آئے تو تمام ممبرز سے گزارش ہے کہ رپورٹ کا بٹن استعمال کرکے انتظامیہ کی مدد کریں۔ ۱- اسلامی محفل ایک مکمل اسلامی سنی حنفی بریلوی مسلک سے منسلک فارم ہے جس میں کسی قسم کی غیر اسلامی و غیر اخلاقی پوسٹ کرنے کی اجازت نہیں ہے۔
      کسی قسم کی غلط پوسٹ کسی ممبر کو فارم پر نظر آئے تو رپورٹ بٹن کو استعمال کر کے انتظامیہ کو اطلاع کریں۔ اپنی طرف سے کسی ممبر پر نقطہ چینی کرنے کی اجازت نہیں۔

      ۲- اس فورم یا منتظمین کے متعلق کوئی شکوہ یا شکایت یا اعتراض واضح طور پر کسی بھی سیکشن میں بیان نہیں کرسکتے۔ اور شکوہ شکایت وغیرہ کرنے کیلئے ایڈمن سے براہ راست رابطہ کریں

      ۳- فورم میں دستخط استعمال کرنے کیلئے صرف ایک تصویر اور اس کی ازحد چوڑائی550پکسلز اور اونچائی145پکسلزسے زیادہ نہ ہو۔اور ساتھ میں کچھ لنکس کی اجازت ہے۔ سیگنیچر امیج میں یا لنکس میں کسی بد مذہب سائٹ کا لنک یا قابل اعتراض مواد پوسٹ کرنے کی اجازت نہیں۔

      ۴- کسی جاری گفتگو کے دوران ایسے روابط ارسال کرنے سے پرہیز کریں جن کا گفتگو سے تعلق نہ ہو۔

      ۵- بحث برائے بحث سے بچنے کی حتی الامکان کوشش کریں

      ۶۔ فورمز کی انتظامیہ آپ کو ہدایت کرتی ہے کہ براہ کرم کسی قسم کی ذاتی معلومات جیسے کہ اپنا پتا یا فون نمبر ارسال مت کریں جس سے تمام لوگوں کی اس تک رسائی ممکن ہو سکے۔ان معلومات کا غلط استعمال کیا جا سکتا ہے۔ اس لیے ہر ممکن طور پر ، اگر آپ اپنی معلومات کا تبادلہ کسی دوسرے رکن کے ساتھ کرنا چاہتے ہیں تو ذاتی پیغامات کا استعمال کریں۔ ۷۔ ٹاپک کے لئے مناسب ،موضوع سے متعلق ٹائٹل استعمال کریں۔  need answer,  jawab dejiye, please read it, must reply وغیرہ جیسے غیر موضوع ٹائٹل استعمال نہ کریں. ٹائٹل کی ایک بہتر مثال یہ ہے۔
      "A good example: "Help: I need "This" Book Scan
      "A bad example: "PLZZ HEEEEELP ۸۔ سرکار مدینہ صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم کا مبارک نام جہاں بھی استعمال کریں۔ درود شریف ضرور لکھیں۔ درود شریف والا ایموٹیکن بھی استعمال کرسکتے ہیں۔ (s.a.w) یا (pbuh) وغیرہ لکھنے کی اجازت نہیں۔ ۹۔ سنیوں کے آپسی اختلافات میں فورم کا *رجحان جمہور اور جید علماء کی طرف ہوگا۔ اس لئے ان موضوعات پر طویل بحث ممنوع ہے۔
      مثلاً...پیر کرم شاہ صاحب والا موضوع۔۔۔ اس جیسے موضوعات پر فورم کا رخ جید علماء اور جمہور علماء کی طرف ہوگا۔ دوسرا یعنی ویڈیو کا مسئلہ یا اسپیکر پر نمازوغیرہ کا مسئلہ(فروعی مسائل) ۔
      اس جیسے مسائل کو بنیاد کو بنا کر علماء کو برا بھلا کہنا ہرگز ممنوع ہےاور بلا وجہ بحث بھی ممنوع ہے۔ فروعی مسائل میں فورم کا رجحان بعض اوقات کسی عالم کی طرف یا بعض اوقات غیر جانبدار بھی ہوسکتا ہے۔

      ۱۰۔ غیر اخلاقی پوسٹ کرنے پر وارننگ یا بین کیا جا سکتا ہے۔

      ۱۱۔ کسی بھی عالم چاہے بد مذہبوں کا ہو ان کی بگاڑ کر تصویر شئیر کرنا منع ہے۔

      ۱۲۔ انگلش سیکشن کے علاوہ کسی بھی سیکشن میں انگلش پوسٹ کرنا منع ہے۔

      ۱۳۔ پوسٹ کو متعلقہ سیکشن میں کریں غیر متعلقہ سکیشن میں پوسٹ کرنے پر آپ کی پوسٹ کو موو (move) کر دیا جائے گا۔ ۱۴۔ عورتوں کی تصاویر ویڈیوز وغیرہ شئیر کرنا منع ہے۔ ۱۵۔ یہ فورم آپ کی سائیٹس کی تشہیر، بیک لنکنگ یا گوگل رینکنگ بڑھانے کے لئے نہیں ہے۔ جو بھی اسلامی مواد پوسٹ کریں اللہ اور اس کے حبیب صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم کی رضا کیلئے پوسٹ کریں۔ غیر متعلقہ لنکس ٹاپکس سے حذف کر دیے جائیں گے۔اگر کسی اسلامی سنی ویب سائیٹ کا لنک آپ پوسٹ کرنا چاہتے ہیں تاکہ دیگر ممبرز مستفید ہوں، تو سنی سائیٹس کے متعلقہ سیکشن میں نیا ٹاپک ویب سائیٹ ٹائٹل ہیڈنگ کے ساتھ  پوسٹ کریں۔

        مناظرہ سیکشن کے قوانین

      ۱۔ تمام ممبرز (خصوصاً سُنی ممبرز) مناظرہ سیکشن میں غلط زُبان کا استعمال نہ کریں اور اَدب کے دائرے میں رہ کر اعتراض کریں یا جواب دیں۔ غلط زبان استعمال کرنے پر آپکی پوسٹ میں ترمیم یا پوسٹ کو ڈیلیٹ کیا جاسکتا ہے۔ اور بار بار کرنے پر وارن یا بین بھی کیا جا سکتا ہے۔

      ۲۔ اگر کسی ممبر کے ایک موضوع پر دو مختلف ٹاپکس نظر آئے تو ایک ٹاپک بغیر اطلاع کے لاک یا ڈیلیٹ کیا جا سکتا ہے۔

      ۳۔ جن موضوعات سے متعلق پہلے سے ٹاپکس موجود ہیں، اپنا سوال،اعتراض یا جواب اُسی ٹاپک میں پوسٹ کریں۔ اگر الگ سے ٹاپک بنا کر پوسٹ کیا تو آپکے ٹاپک کو بند، ضائع یا دوسرے ٹاپک کے ساتھ یکجا کیا جاسکتا ہے۔

      ۴۔ مناظرہ سیکشن بحث برائے بحث کیلئے نہیں ہے۔ اگر کوئی پوسٹ بحث برائے بحث یا موضوع سے ہٹ کر محسوس ہوئی تو بغیر اطلاع کئے ڈیلیٹ کر دی جائے گی۔ بار بار ایسا کرنے پر وارن کیا جا سکتا ہے۔اور بین بھی کیا جاسکتا ہے۔

      ۵۔ ایسی سائٹ جن کا تعلق بد مذہبوں سے ہو یا ان سائٹ پر بد مذہبوں کا کوئی مواد موجود ہو ان کی کسی بھی قسم کی تشہیر کسی پوسٹ میں ان کا لنک وغیرہ شئیر کرنا پوسٹ کرنا سخت منع ہے ۔خلاف ورزی پر پوسٹ ڈیلیٹ یا ایڈیٹ کی جاسکتی ہے۔

      ۶۔ بدمذہبوں کی ویڈیوز شئیر کرنا منع ہے اگر کسی اعتراض کا جواب درکار ہو تو اس ویڈیو کا سکرین شاٹ لے کر بد مذہبوں کی سائٹ کا لنک ریمو کر کے امیج کی صورت میں پوسٹ کریں۔

      کسی سنی عالم کی تضحیک سخت منع ہے۔

      ۷۔ اگر کو ئی اعترض بھی ہو جس میں سنی عالم کے خلاف غلط زبان استعمال کی گئی ہو تو اس میں سے غلط زبان کو ریمو کر کے اعتراض پوسٹ کیا جائے۔

      ۸۔ صرف وہی سائٹ شئیر کی جائیں جو سنیوں کی ہوں صلح کلی مکتب فکر کی سائٹ بھی شئیر کرنا منع ہے۔

      ۹۔ اسلامی محفل کے کسی بھی ٹیم ممبر یا سینئر ممبر سے بدتمیزی ناقابل برداشت ہوگی اور بین بھی کیا جاسکتا ہے۔ ٹیم ممبرز بھی حدود کے دائرے میں رہ کر جواب دینے کے مجاز ہیں۔

      ۱۰۔ انتظامیہ کا فیصلہ حتمی ہے۔ اگر آپ کو کسی نقطے پر اعتراض ہے تو مناظرہ سیکشن میں پوسٹنگ کرکے اپنا اور ہمارا وقت ضائع نہ کریں۔ کسی بھی ممبر کو رولز کے خلاف کوئی پوسٹ نظر آئے تو فوراً رپورٹ کے بٹن سے ہمیں آگاہ کریں۔
         

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  1. Introduction: Muslims believe Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is Shahid (i.e. Hadhir Nazir). The opponents of Islam argue against this belief on the basis of their Satanic logic. Anti Hadhir Nazir arguments are composed of, or based on, half-baked truths. Following is one such argument which was presented during a discussion on this subject. Argument Against Hadhir And Nazir: Hadith records Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) said: "You will be gathered, bare-footed, naked and not circumcised." He then recited: “As We began the first creation, We, shall repeat it: A Promise We have undertaken: Truly we shall do it.” (21:104) He added, "The first to be dressed on the day of resurrection will be Abraham, and some of my companions will be taken towards the left side and I will say: My companions! My companions! It will be said: 'They renegade from Islam after you left them.' Then I will say as the pious slave of Allah said. 'And I was a Shaheed over them while I dwelt amongst them. When you took me up you were the Raqeeb over them, and you are a Shaheed to all things. If you punish them they are your slaves. And if you forgive them, Verily you, only you are the all-Mighty, the all-Wise." (5:117/118) [Ref: Bukhari, B55, H568] This establishes Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is not Shahid/Shaheed (i.e. Hadhir Nazir). If he was he would know that these people abandoned Islam after his death and were no longer his companions but they are apostates. Methodology Of Refutation: In order to refute the allegation we will have to establish that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) knew during his life time and will know on the judgment day that they are not companions but apostates. The other part connected to this is; why would Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) say these people are my companions when it is obvious they were not his companions. Answering this question would further clarify the confusion and if Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) permits a separate article will be written to give number of reasons. Prophet Knew They Are Not Companions: Following Hadith establishes that the apostates were amongst the companions: “Narrated Abdullah: The Prophet said, "I am your predecessor at the Lake-Fount and some men amongst you will be brought to me, and when I will try to hand them some water, they will be pulled away from me by force. Whereupon I will say: 'O Lord, my companions!' Then the Almighty will say, 'You do not know what they did after you left, they introduced new things into the religion after you.'" [Ref: Bukhari, B88, H173] Following Ahadith explains that the ‘you’ is directed toward companions: “Narrated Ibn Al-Musaiyab: The companions of the Prophet said, "Some men from my companions will come to my Lake-Fount and they will be driven away from it, and I will say, 'O Lord, my companions!' It will be said, 'You have no knowledge of what they innovated after you left: they turned apostate as renegades (reverted from Islam).” [Ref: Bukhari, B76, H586] “Some men from my companions will be brought and taken towards the left side, whereupon I will say, 'O Lord, (these are) my companions!' It will be said, 'You do not know what new things they introduced (into the religion) after you.' I will then say as the righteous pious slave …." [Ref: Bukhari, B65, H4740] We have established Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has made distinction between his companions and apostates by saying, some men from my companions will be taken toward the left side. This indicates Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) in the world knew they would be apostates and not companions. Also the Hadith itself is proof that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) knew they would be apostates because he has informed us of an event taking place in distant future. Once he refers to them as his companions Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) will pose a rhetorical question as to remind him about the identity of the men: “... Allah's Messenger said: I would be on the Cistern so that I would be seeing those who would be coming to me from you, but some people would be detained (before reaching me). I would say: My Lord, they are my followers and belong to my Ummah, and it would be said to me:فَيُقَالُ أَمَا شَعَرْتَ مَا عَمِلُوا بَعْدَكَ وَاللَّهِ مَا بَرِحُوا بَعْدَكَ يَرْجِعُونَ عَلَى أَعْقَابِهِمْ (i.e. Don’t you know what they did after you?) By Allah, they did not do good after you, and they turned back upon their heels. He …” [Ref: Muslim, B30, H5684] Then Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) will remember the Kufri innovations of the men and the identities. Prophet Will Recognize Apostates And They Will Recognize Him: Hadith states Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) would recognize the apostates and they would recognize him on day of judgment: " The Prophet said, "I am your predecessor (forerunner) at the Lake-Fount, and whoever will pass by there, he will drink from it and whoever will drink from it, he will never be thirsty. There will come to me some people, whom I will recognize, and they will recognize me, but a barrier will be placed between me and them.” [Ref: Bukhari, B76, H585] Hadith records Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) said: "While I was sleeping, a group (of my followers were brought close to me), and when I recognized them, a man (an angel) came out from amongst (us) me and them … Then behold! (Another) group (of my followers) were brought close to me, and when I recognized them, a man (an angel) came out from (me and them) he said (to them); Come along.' I asked: "Where?' He said, 'To the Fire, by Allah.' I asked, What is wrong with them?' He said …” [Ref: Bukhari, B76, H587] Further confirmation of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) recognizing the apostates and proof of apostates recognizing Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is in the following Hadith: "One will say: O Muhammad! I am so son of so. Another will say: O Muhammad! I am so son of so. I will say; without doubt I recognize your ancestry but you innovated after me and you became apostates by turning on your heels."[1] [Ref: Msnd Ahmad, Baqi Msnd Al Muksireen, Sa’id Khudri, Hadith 11284]They will address Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) by his name indicating they have recognized him and he will recognize them and will know about their ancestry and will be aware of their apostasy. The Apostates Are The Leaders/Creators Of Kufri Innovations: The Ahadith reveal those who were being turned away from the Hawd Al Kauthar were originators of innovations [in other words leaders of heretical sects] and this is evident from the rhetorical tone of question being asked: “Then some men from among my Ummah will be brought and will be taken toward the left. I will say: 'O Lord, my companions.' It will be said: 'Do you not know what they innovated after you were gone?’ And I shall say what the righteous slave said: 'And I was witness over … If You punish them, they are Your slaves, and if You forgive them, verily, You, only You, are the All-Mighty, the All-Wise.' And it will be said: 'These people kept turning away since you left them.'" [Ref: Bukhari, B21, H2089] Question itself implies that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) knew they created innovations which resulted in their apostasy. Similar meaning can also be taken from the following Hadith: "... Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: I shall be your harbinger on the Reservoir {Al Kauthar}; therefore, be cautious lest one of you should come (to me) and may be driven away like a stray camel. I would ask the reasons, and it would be said to me: You don't know what innovations they made after you? And I would then also say: Be away.” [Ref: Muslim, B30, H5686] It is recorded in Hadith of Hudhayfah Ibn Al-Yaman (radiallah ta’ala anhu) that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) will knows names of innovators, tribe they will belong to, and names of their: “I swear by Allah, I do not know whether my companions have forgotten or have been made to forget. I swear by Allah that the Apostle of Allah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) did not omit in his mention leader of any fitnah to appear up till the end of the world – each would have followers the number of three hundred and upwards, and he mentioned to us his name, his father's name and the name of his tribe.” [Ref: Abu Dawood, B35, H4231] And it is based on this earthly knowledge Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) will know the names of innovators, tribes, and names of their fathers when these innovators approach him on the Hawd. And proof of this is in the following Hadith: "One will say: O Muhammad! I am so son of so. Another will say: O Muhammad! I am so son of so. I will say; without doubt I recognize your ancestry but you innovated after me and you became apostates by turning on your heels." [Ref: Msnd Ahmad, Baqi Msnd Al Muksireen, Sa’id Khudri, Hadith 11284] Conclusion: It is obvious that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) knew in his earthly life that those being turned away from Hawd Al Kawthar are not his companions but apostates who introduced Kufri innovations. Also on judgment day Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) will know the people being prevented from reaching him are apostates. He will also know the names of these innovators, the tribes they belonged to, and will know the names of their fathers on judgment day. It is also evident that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) will recognize them and they will recognize him on the day of judgment. Hence there is no chance of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) not being truly aware of the reality of these people. At the very minimum it has been soundly established that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) did not address them as companions due to lack of knowledge about their innovations and apostasy. It is yet to be established, the reasons due to which he referred to apostates as his companions and that if Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) permits will be explained in another article, here. Wama alayna ilal balaghul mubeen. Muhammed Ali Razavi Footnotes: - [1]"You think my nearness to my tribe will not benefit them? By Allah, nearness to me [via blood relation] will be rewarded on earth and in hereafter. On judgment day a tribe will be raised who will be ordered to go toward the left. One will say: O Muhammad! I am so son of so. Another will say: O Muhammad! I am so son of so. I will say; without doubt I recognize your ancestry but you innovated after me and you became apostates by turning on your heels." [Ref: Msnd Ahmad, Baqi Msnd Al Muksireen, Sa’id Khudri, Hadith 11284]
  2. Introduction: Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has been quoted as saying in Ahadith, every innovation is misguidance. Muslims believe literally every innovation is not misguidance. Only every reprehensible innovation is misguidance and every reprehensible innovation is composed of components which are violating the prophetic teaching and contradict spirit of Islam. Contrary to Islamic belief, the anti-Islamic elements believe every innovation in literal sense is innovation even if it is composed of Islamicly sanctioned acts of worship, charity, etc. This is due to their literal interpretation of Hadith and their emphasis on qullu (i.e. every). Hence it is important to establish use of ‘every’ is not in respect of every innovation but ‘every’ has been limited and restricted to reprehensible type of innovations. Also the Ibn Fawzaan quoted renowned scholar to aid his position. He stated collection of Quran into a book and writing and collecting Ahadith into books is not a praiseworthy innovation. Saalih Al Fawzaan And Issue Of Translation: Ibn Fawzaan is a prominent scholar in Saudi Khariji State and member of Board Of Senior Scholars And Member Of Permanent Committee For Fatwah And Research. His works carry weight amongst the Khawarij hence it is crucial his writing is addressed from Islamic perspective and lays bare heretical understandings which he has purposed. Secondly, the translation of Ibn Fawzaan’s work by Maaz Qureshi at times was incoherent and bereft of contextual relevance. The points were poorly conveyed and lacked clarity hence original[1] was altered for sake of clarity by adding words and rephrasing sentences. Also discussion regarding Taraweeh prayer was separated into parts. Between which the subject of compilation of Quran was discussed. So material was connected with the relevant discussion and material regarding compilation of Quran was added after Taraweeh prayer discussion. Note, textual criticism skills were employed to reconstruct the message being conveyed in original Arabic and alterations were not result of reading Arabic text of original essay. Hence there is possibility errors might have been made in re-constructing of his point of view. I seek refuge in Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) from misguidance of Satan the cursed. In case of errors in representing his view, please do notify me and mistakes will be rectified. Part One: Saalih Al Fawzaan’s Short Essay: “Whoever divides innovation in the religion into good innovation (i.e. bid'ah hasanah), and sinful innovation (i.e. bid'ah Say’yah), then he has committed wrong, and has opposed Prophet’s (sallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) statement, "Every innovation is a misguidance", because the Messenger (sallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) ruled that innovation - all of it - is misguidance, and this says that not all innovation is misguidance, rather there is good innovation. Al-Haafidh Ibn Rajab said in his commentary in al Arba'een: 'So his (sallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) statement, “The best discourse is the Book of Allah, and the best guidance is the guidance of Muhammad, and the worst of affairs are those which are newly introduced, for every innovation is an error” is a comprehensive statement, nothing is excluded from it. And this is the greatest principle from the principles of the Religion and it is connected with his (sallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) following statement, "Whoever invents in this affair of ours, what is not from it, then it is rejected" So whoever invents things and attributes them to the religion, and it does not have an origin in the religion to return to then it is misguidance, and the Religion is free from those things. And equal to that are matters of beliefs, or actions, or statements whether hidden, or manifest.’ [Ref: Jaami'ul 'Uloom Wal Hikam, p. 233] And there is not a proof for them that there is good innovation, except for the statement of Umar (radiallaahu 'anhu) regarding the Taraweeh prayer, "What a good innovation this is!" (i.e. ni'imatul bida'atu hadhihi).”[2] Ibn Rajab’s Definition Of Innovation: Prior to Ibn Fawzaan’s quoted material Ibn Rajab stated: “Regarding the Holy Prophet’s saying: “Beware of newly introduced matters, for every innovation is a straying.” It is a warning to the community against following innovated new matters. He emphasized that with his words, “every innovation is a straying.” [Such type of] innovations are those things which are newly introduced, having no source in the Shari’ah to prove them.” Ibn Rajab believes any practice/belief which is termed as innovation is by default a Shar’ri innovation, and such innovation has no evidence from Quran or Hadith. Yet from his statement one can glimpse that according to Ibn Rajab, an innovation without evidence of Shari’ah is straying innovation, because he connected Hadith of; every innovation is misguidance, to his following statement: “[Such type of] innovations are those things which are newly introduced, having no source in the Shari’ah to prove them.” Of course this is not his actual position rather an in-depth observation. He also stated; an innovated practice/belief with evidence of Shari’ah is not an innovation from Shar’ri perspective, here: “As for whatever has a source in the Shari’ah, thereby establishing it, then it is not an innovation in the [sense of] Shari’ah, even though it might linguistically be an innovation.” And same was repeated bit later: “As for those things in the sayings of the right-acting first generations where they regard some innovations as good, that is only with respect to what are innovations in the linguistic sense, but not in the Shari’ah.” Here Ibn Rajab is gravely mistaken because the scholars of Islam have always considered good innovations to be from perspective of Shari’ah. Shari’ah defines the goodness and evilness of innovations hence what it judges to be good and bad is part of Shari’ah. Before continuing to next point it is important to state that linguistic meaning of innovation is; which is without precedent. Shar’ri meaning of innovation is; which is without precedent in Islam. The important point in is that those scholars who have divided innovation to be good have done so on basis of following Hadith: “Whoever sets a good precedent in Islam, he will have the reward for that, and the reward of those who acted in accordance with it, without that detracting from their reward in the slightest.” [Ref: Nisa’i, B23, H2555] When something is not part of Islam but it is being part of Islam than innovation is being made part of Islam. This is assertion is supported by linguistic and Shar’ri meaning of innovation. Considering this, meaning of the Hadith is when a good innovation which is not part of Islam is made part of Islam then the one who sets a good innovation in Islam [for others to follow] will receive reward and those who follow his good innovated precedent. Four Important Points Made By Saalih Al Fawzaan: There are four main points in the short essay produced by chief of Khawarij and they are as follow: i) One who divides innovation into categories of praiseworthy and blameworthy innovations has wronged teaching of Islam and opposed the statement of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). ii) Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) said: “And the most evil affairs are the innovations; and every innovation is misguidance." [Ref: Muslim, B4, H1885] Use of وَكُلُّ (i.e. and every) in the relevant Hadith is to include everything and nothing is excluded from it hence all innovations are misguidance. iii) There is no proof for good innovation except the statement of Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) regarding Taraweeh prayer. iv) Quote from Jami Ul Uloom Wal Hakim of Ibn Rajab Al Hanbali as quoted by Saalih Ibn Fawzaan. Scholars Always Divided Innovation In Two Main Branches: Early Muslim scholars have always and scholars continue to divide innovation to two main categories. Type one, which is composed of Islamicly sanctioned practices/beliefs. Type two, which is composed of Islamicly prohibited practices/beliefs. Type one, has been termed as, praiseworthy, permissible, righteous, guidance, and even termed it linguistic innovation.[3] Type two, has been stated to be, prohibited, evil, misguiding, sinful, and legal innovation.[4] Then these categories are subdivided into many categories.[5] The chief of Khawarij stated one who divides innovation into good and bad has wronged and opposed the Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) because he believes every newly invented matter, from perspective of Sharia if it is declared as an innovation than it is misguidance. Therefore it is important to point out who according to Ibn Fawzaan’s statement has wronged the religion of Islam and who in Ummah is guilty of opposing the teaching of Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). The Eminent Scholars Who Wronged And Opposed: Imam Shafi (rahimullah) stated innovations are of two types. The type which contradicts the teaching of Quran, the Sunnah, Hadith and Ijma, such one he classed as misguiding innovation. Concerning the type which does not contradict the teaching of Quran, Sunnah, Ahadith, and Ijma, he classed good and quoted Hadith where Hadhrat Umar (radiallah) had said Taraweeh is good innovation. Following is evidence of Imam Shafi (rahimullah) understanding on subject of innovation: “It was narrated to us by Muhammad ibn Musa ibn al-Fadl who had it narrated to him from Abul-Abbas Al-Asam who said Rabi ibn Sulayman narrated to us from Imam ash-Shafi’s that he said, “Innovated matters in religion are of two kinds: 1) Whatever is innovated and is contradicts the Book, or the Sunnah, or a narration, or Ijma – then this is an innovation of misguidance. 2) Whatever is innovated of good and that does not contradict any of these – then this is a novelty which is not blameworthy. And Umar (radiya Allahu ‘anhu) said concerning the night-prayer in the month of Ramadhan: نِعْمَتِ الْبِدْعَةُ هَذِهِ (i.e. what a good innovation this is!) meaning something new not previously present, and if done does not rebut anything which existed before.” [Ref: Reported by al-Bayhaqi in Manaqib ash-Shafi'i, 1/469] Imam Al-Ghazali (rahimullah), Imam Ibn Hajar Al-Asqalani (rahimullah), Imam Nawavi (rahimullah), Imam Qurtubi (rahimullah), Muhammad al-Shawkani (Khariji), Imam Suyuti (rahimullah), and countless others defined innovation into praiseworthy and blameworthy. Even Ismail Dehalvi (the apostate) divided innovation into good and bad in his Tazkira Al Ikhwan.[6] Position Of Muslims About Prominent Scholars: In light of Ibn Fawzaan’s statement it can be concluded that he believes the mentioned scholars and all those who divided innovation into good and bad categories are the ones who have wronged and opposed prophetic teaching. Considering this insolence of Ibn Fawzaan, effort is being made to defend the honor of prominent scholars of Islam from the indirect attack by supporting the definition of Muslims. As Muslims we believe, Imam Shafi (rahimullah), Imam Al Ghazali (rahimullah), Imam Ibn Hajar (rahimullah), and Imam Nawavi (rahimullah) scholars are not the ones who have wronged and opposed the teaching of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). It is Ibn Fawzaan who is opposing the prophetic Sunnah and if Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) wills the charge will be established. Valid Difference Of Opinion Over The Definition: It would be too much to say he was unaware of evidence which establishes the understanding of these scholarly giants but it is just and befitting his caliber to say; he is ignorant of their interpretations. Ibn Fawzaan failed to understand; the difference on definition of innovation is a valid difference of opinion and none from these two definitions is blameworthy because the evidence exists for both versions. As Muslims we believe those scholars whose understanding of innovation agrees with Ijtihad of these luminaries, they are upon the truth, like those who pioneered this understanding of innovation. Those who have pioneered the simple definition of innovation and those who employ it they are closer to the truth but missed the mark of perfection. The pioneers of this definition have erred in their Ijtihad and there is no blame upon them for this but only reward from Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) because mistakes of Mujtahid are rewarded. Hadith Of Every Innovation Is Misguidance: Ibn Fawzaan quoted the following Hadith: “And the most evil affairs are the innovations; and every innovation is misguidance." [Ref: Muslim, B4, H1885] And argued the words وَكُلُّ (i.e. and every) are used in the Hadith therefore nothing is excluded from this statement. There will be five approaches to answer this point: i) logical criticism to solve problem, ii) on usage of وَكُلُّ (i.e. and every), iii) concluding remarks regarding usage of ‘every’, iv) explaining the Hadith of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) with Ahadith which support the positions argued for first and second approach, v) and establishing category of good innovation. Note, out of the four important points of Ibn Fawzaan pointed in the beginning or article, three will be addressed in forth coming material and the last one will be addressed as a separate part. First Approach – The Counter Attack: If Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) had stated; all of innovations are misguidance literally, without restricting/limiting the meaning of ‘every’ to a specific genre of innovations then questions is: Are books of Ahadith (i.e. Bukhari, Muslim, Tirmadhi etc.) included in this ‘every’ or excluded from ‘every’? If you say they are excluded therefore not innovations, then you have eliminated the foundation of your argument because your argument was ‘every’ used in this Hadith is without Takhsees (i.e. specifics) yet you have made Takhsees in ‘every’ to accommodate the books of Ahadith. We Muslims affirm that ‘every’ is connected with a specific type of innovation and it is not to be understood on its generality. The point is; ‘every innovation’ is not in meaning of ‘absolutely every innovation’ but ‘every innovation’ is used to mean ‘every innovation in a specific context’. What that specific context is, if Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) permits will be explained in third approach. Second Approach – The Usage Of Every: Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) states: "As for the boat, it belonged to certain men in dire want: they plied on the water: I but wished to render it unserviceable, وَرَاءَهُم مَّلِكٌ يَأْخُذُ كُلَّ سَفِينَةٍ غَصْبًا (i.e. for there was after them a certain king who seized on every boat by force).” [Ref: 18:79] It is stated in the verse that a king has ordered every boat is to be ceased but order was to cease all usable boats. Hence Khidar (alayhis salaam) damaged the boat to prevent the livelihood of boat owner being ceased by inflicting damage which can be repaired with little effort. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) states: “And [recall] when Moses prayed for water for his people, so We said, "Strike with your staff the stone." And there gushed forth from it twelve springs, قَدْ عَلِمَ كُلُّ أُنَاسٍ مَّشْرَبَهُمْ (i.e. and every people knew its watering place). "Eat and drink from the provision of Allah, and do not commit abuse on the earth, spreading corruption." [Ref: 2:60] The verse states every people knew where to drink water from when Prophet Musa (alayhis salaam) struck the rock with his staff. Yet it was not every people in literal sense of the word but every tribe from the twelve tribes of tribe of Israeel. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) states: “They said, Postpone [the matter of] him and his brother and send among the cities gatherers. Who will bring you every learned magician? يَأْتُوكَ بِكُلِّ سَاحِرٍ عَلِيمٍ (i.e. And the magicians came to Pharaoh). They said, Indeed for us is a reward if we are the dominant." [Ref: 7:111/113] Logistics of undertaking such task at that time would make it impossible to reach every city of earth. Yet the verse says they were sent to every city which is too farfetched. The polytheists in time of Prophet Musa (alayhis salaam) sent for emissaries to every major city or to every city of Egypt to gather the best magicians to compete with Prophet Musa (alayhis salaam). Therefore literal reading of every city is not intended. Please bear with an example which would resonate with readers. Ali is carrying valet full of money, credit card, a brand new mobile phone, wearing on his 50 carat gold ring. Thief strikes and says: Hand over everything you have or you going to die. Does the thief want Ali to hand over all that he doesn’t carry with him as well or just what he is carrying with him? All that Ali is carrying at that moment. Third Approach – Summing Up The Findings: The word ‘every’ even though by itself is not limited/restricted and is inclusive of all but when it is used in a restrictive/limiting context then it is no longer on its natural meaning. Rather it is limited and restricted according to the context. Note the word ‘every’ was used but it was limited restricted by circumstances. Similarly in the verses ‘every’ was limited and restricted according to contextual relevance.[7] Hence it could be said, use of word ‘every’ in the following Hadith is not ‘absolutely every’ but in meaning of ‘every in specific context’, here: “And the most evil affairs are the innovations; and every innovation is misguidance." [Ref: Muslim, B4, H1885] Just as the context of verses limit and restrict the meaning of ‘every’ to ‘every in specific context’ the words ‘every innovation’ are limited and restricted by other Ahadith of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). Fourth Approach – Explaining Hadith With Ahadith: Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is reported to have said: “And he who introduces a فِي الإِسْلاَمِ سُنَّةً سَيِّئَةً (i.e. evil precedent in Islam), there is upon him the burden of that, and the burden of him also who acted upon it subsequently, without any deduction from their burden.” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] Linguistically innovation is what does not have precedent in Quran of Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). What is not part of Islam and is made part of Islam is innovation hence the mentioned Hadith is talking about one who introduces into Islam evil innovation. And tells for him who introduces evil innovation and those who follow his evil innovation will receive equal burden of sin. This understanding of above Hadith is supported by another Hadith found in Tirmadhi, here: "And whoever introduces a بِدْعَةَ ضَلاَلَةٍ (i.e. erroneous innovation) with which Allah is not pleased nor His Messenger then he shall receive sins similar to whoever acts upon it without that diminishing anything from the sins of the people.” [Ref: Tirmadhi, B29, H2677] In light of this, the following statement of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is not literal: “And the most evil affairs are the innovations; and every innovation is misguidance." [Ref: Muslim, B4, H1885] Rather it should be understood in context of Hadith of ‘evil precedent in Islam’ and ‘erroneous innovation’. Therefore the interpretation of Hadith is as follows: the most evil affairs are the evil precedents and erroneous innovations introduced into Islam and every evil/erroneous innovation is misguidance. Hence the word ‘every’ is restricted and limited in the phrase, “… every innovation is misguidance …” in specific context of evil and erroneous innovations. Now question must arise, how are evil innovations judged to be evil? Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) answered this question by saying: “Aishah reported the Messenger of Allah as saying: if any one introduces into this affair of ours anything which does not belong to it, it is rejected. Ibn Isa said: the prophet said: if anyone practices any action in a way other than our practice, it is rejected.” [Ref: Dawood, B41, H4589] And in another Hadith it is stated: “He who enacted any act for which there is no sanction from our behalf that is to be rejected.” [Ref: Muslim, B18, H4267] In other words if an innovation is composed of anything which is not from prophetic Sunnah it is evil innovation and it is to be rejected. Fifth Approach – Establishing The Good Innovation: It was previously said, innovation is which does not have precedent in Quran and Sunnah, and following words of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) point to permissibility of, and reward for, introducing good innovation into Islam: “He who introduces a فِي الإِسْلاَمِ سُنَّةً حَسَنَةً (i.e. good Sunnah in Islam), there is a reward for him for this and reward of that also who acted according to it subsequently, without any deduction from their rewards …”[8] [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] Note, the Hadith states one who introduces into Islam a good Sunnah, if a good Sunnah is being introduced into Islam then it means it is not part of Islam. What is not part of Islam and it is being made part of Islam is, innovation. Hence Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) told of reward for introducing good innovation into Islam. It was based upon understanding of the Hadith of good Sunnah in Islam that Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) declared his gathering of worshipers under leadership of an Imam as an excellent innovation, here: “Then on another night I went again in his company and the people were praying behind their reciter. On that, 'Umar remarked نِعْمَتِ الْبِدْعَةُ هَذِهِ (i.e. what an excellent innovation this is) but the prayer which they do not perform, but sleep at its time is better than the one they are offering.' He meant the prayer in the last part of the night. (In those days) people used to pray in the early part of the night." [Ref: Bukhari, B32, H227] These Ahadith establish the position of Muslims that to introduce praiseworthy innovations into Islam is permissible and reward worthy. Conclusion: We have established the prominent scholars of past have divided the innovation into two categories. It has been established those who have divided innovation into good and bad have not erred nor opposed the teaching of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) but rather have employed all evidence available on the topic of innovation to perfect their understanding. And it was minion of Iblis incarnate who actually opposed the teaching of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). The usage of ‘every’ has been explained in detail. The usage of ‘every’ is affected by context, which limits its absolute meaning and restricts it to a specific. The foolish assumption that Muslims do not have any evidence but the evidence related to Taraweeh was shattered with proper explanation of Hadith of introducing good Sunnah into Islam. As for the quote taken from Ibn Rajab it has been explained by the content of first, second and third approach. Ibn Fawzaan position is based on Ibn Rajab's quote and due to which no direct response is required. Instead, Ibn Rajab's understanding of innovation was explored and his error was pointed out in light of evidence of Hadith. Wama alayna ilal balaghul mubeen. Muhammed Ali Razavi Footnotes: - [1] To find out where the alterations have been made please use MSWord to compare original and revised versions. To see the original quote click, here. - [2] Clarification Of Doubts Concerning Innovation. Originally taken from; Kitab at-Tawheed, author; Saalih al Fawzaan, page 106/110 Translation; Maaz Qureshi, Amendments; Muhammed Ali Razavi. - [3] Those scholars who have labelled type one innovations as linguistic innovation they follow a different definition of innovation. Their definition accords the following principles: Any action/belief of which there is no Asal (i.e. foundation - explicit or implicit evidence) such is innovation. And the opposite was: Any action/belief which can be established from Quran/Sunnah from implicit or from generality of words is not an innovation. They maintain innovation is of two types, linguistic and legal. According to this classification when an innovation is classed as an innovation from legal perspective than it is in meaning of ‘type two’ innovation (i.e. reprehensible - which composed of that which contradicts teaching of Islam). So according to their understanding compiling Quran into a book after death of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and Hadhrat Umar’s (radiallah ta’ala anhu) gathering the people of Masjid to perform Taraweeh under one Qari for entire Ramadhan are not innovations [in legal sense]. And this is because Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) in his life time over saw the writing of revelation (i.e. Quran). Also there is precedent of performing Taraweeh under leadership of Imam because Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) in person led Taraweeh for three days. These scholars agree that these are innovations in linguistic sense. The vast majority of scholars have classified these two practices to be good innovations because of their division of innovation being divided as good and bad. Words of Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) are evidence of Taraweeh being innovation and being good innovation according to this definition: قَالَ عُمَرُ نِعْمَ الْبِدْعَةُ هَذِه.ِ [Ref: Bukhari, B32, H227] Therefore the real difference between the two parties is due to label and not of result. One group labels it linguistic innovation and other considers as good innovation. - [4] From Islamic perspective anti-Muslim element’s legal/Shar’ri innovation’s equivalent is reprehensible innovation. In Islamic terminology, all innovations are legal/Shar’ri innovations, be it praiseworthy or reprehensible. - [5] The details of sub-divisions and explanation of them can be found in the following book, What Is Innovation In Islam, by Mufti Ahmad Yar Khan Naeemi (rahimullah alayhi ta’ala). - [6] If Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) permits an article will be written on subject of innovation containing writings of these scholars. - [7] The word ‘every’ in its natural meaning cannot be used for creation without warranting major Shirk. The natural meaning of ‘every’ which is unlimited, unrestricted can only truly be used for Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). When the word ‘every’ is used for creation of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) it is always used with certain constraints implied from context or implied from inability of creation for whom it was used for. - [8] “Narrated Ibn Jarir bin 'Abdullah: from his father that the Messenger of Allah said: "Whoever starts a good tradition which is followed, then for him is a reward, and the likes of their rewards of whoever follows him, there being nothing diminished from their rewards." [Ref: Tirmadhi, B39, H2675] “It was narrated that Abu Juhaifah said: "The Messenger of Allah said: 'Whoever introduces a good practice that is followed after him, will have a reward for that and the equivalent of their reward, without that detracting from their reward in the slightest.” [Ref: Ibn Majah, B1, H207]
  3. Assalamo Alaikm Burma Myanmar mein jari muslim nsl kushi k hwaly sy amdad pr mustand malomat chahiey...Facebook ki malomat nakafi aor ghair mustanand hy........amdad k hwaly sy
  4. Introduction: According to Ahadith the collection of Quran into a single book was a praiseworthy innovation. Shaikh Abu Rumaysah of Salafi/Wahhabi sect believes otherwise and has penned/typed a refutation against Muslims. Apart from citing clear evidence which establishes the companions considered the collection of Quran in single book format as a good Sunnah servant will also directly address the key points of Shaikh Abu Rumaysah. This topic has already has been addressed in another article, here. Shaikh Abu Rumaysah’s Written Material: “The collection of the Qur'an into one book after the death of Rasulallah (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) and the statement of Abu Bakr, "How can we do that which was not done by the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam." [Ref: Bukhari] The proof, according to them, being that the companions collected the Qur'an in a book form after the time of the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) without him enjoining it. Hence it being an innovation which the companions agreed upon as being good. Upon closer examination this is actually evidence against these people, not for them. When Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) came to Abu Bakr (radiallah ta’ala anhu) and said that the Qur'an had to be collected as a book. He did not argue on the basis of bid'ah hasanah, rather he argued on the basis of necessity because many of the people who had memorized the Qur'an by heart were being martyred. Therefore the Qur'an was in danger of being lost and hence it had to be collected in book form. When Abu Bakr (radiallah ta’ala anhu) replied, he did not say, "Oh yes I agree with you, this is a bid'ah hasanah," Rather he argued that the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) did not do this, so how could they? It was only after the necessity was made clear to him that he agreed. So, in conclusion, the collection of the Qur'an as a book was something the companions agreed upon due to necessity, not considering it to a good bid'ah.” [Ref: MuslimConverts] Hadith On Subject Of Compiling Quran In Book Format: “Narrated Zaid bin Thabit: Abu Bakr sent for me owing to the large number of casualties in the battle of Al-Yamama, while `Umar was sitting with him. Abu Bakr said: `Umar has come to me and said, 'A great number of Qaris of the Holy Qur'an were killed on the day of the battle of Al-Yamama, and I am afraid that the casualties among the Qaris of the Qur'an may increase on other battle-fields whereby a large part of the Qur'an may be lost. Therefore I consider it advisable that you should have the Qur'an collected.' I said, 'How dare I do something which Allah's Messenger did not do?’ Umar said: هُوَ وَاللَّهِ خَيْرٌ (i.e. By Allah, it is good). `Umar kept on pressing me for that till Allah opened my chest for that for which He had opened the chest of `Umar and I had in that matter, the same opinion as `Umar had." Abu Bakr then said to me (Zaid), "You are a wise young man and we do not have any suspicion about you, and you used to write the divine inspiration for Allah's Messenger. So you should search for the fragmentary scripts of the Qur'an and collect it (in one Book)." Zaid further said: By Allah, if Abu Bakr had ordered me to shift a mountain among the mountains from one place to another it would not have been heavier for me than this ordering me to collect the Qur'an. Then I said (to `Umar and Abu Bakr), "How can you do something which Allah's Messenger did not do?" Abu Bakr said, هُوَ وَاللَّهِ خَيْرٌ (i.e. By Allah, it is beneficial.) Zaid added: So he (Abu Bakr) kept on pressing me for that until Allah opened my chest for that for which He had opened the chests of Abu Bakr and `Umar, and I had in that matter, the same opinion as theirs. So I started compiling the Qur'an by collecting it from the leafless stalks of the date-palm tree and from the pieces of leather and hides and from the stones, and from the chests of men (who had memorized the Qur'an). I found the last verses of Sirat-at-Tauba: "Verily there has come unto you an Apostle (Muhammad) from amongst yourselves--' (9.128/129) from Khuza`ima or Abi Khuza`ima and I added to it the rest of the Sura. The manuscripts of the Qur'an remained with Abu Bakr till Allah took him unto Him. Then it remained with `Umar till Allah took him unto Him, and then with Hafsa bint `Umar.” [Ref: Bukhari, B89, H301] Judge By Revelation And What Prophet Taught: Companions of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) judged, and the Muslim scholars continue to judge by what Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has revealed, and what Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) explained thereof. Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) provided principles which help the scholars of Islam to issue rulings regarding issues which have not been directly addressed by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala), or by Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). The collection of Quran in book format was one such issue which was not instructed by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) neither by the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). Hence the basis of collecting the Quran had to be established via ijtihadi reasoning which requires in-depth knowledge about the principles which can be employed to aid correct understanding. Something About The Hadith Quoted Above: Readers should be aware that Ahadith do not always provide comprehensive account of the events which they are narrating. Sometime a Hadith is briefed by a narrator, and in another version of Hadith, another narrator may add more detail. Sometimes details are completely eliminated. Hadith of Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) suggesting gathering of fragments to compile a book indicates part of material is not narrated and evidence of this is found in the following: “Umar kept on pressing me for that till Allah opened my chest for that for which He had opened the chest of `Umar and I had in that matter, the same opinion as `Umar had." [Ref: Bukhari, B89, H301] As far as my knowledge, there is no detailed account of what Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) said to Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radiallah ta’ala anhu) to convince him it is good to compile Quran as a book. Surely, he did not repeat again and again: هُوَ وَاللَّهِ خَيْرٌ“, until he annoyed Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radiallah ta’ala anhu) to submission. He must have argued his case employing prophetic guidance as evidence to strengthen his case. What is sure, whatever his argument was it was based on teaching of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). And Hadhrat Umar’s (radiallah ta’ala anhu) pressing Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radiallah ta’ala anhu) was not in form of violence. The Islamic Position On Gathering Of Quran As A Book: After battle of Al Yamama which was fought against the Musailmah the liar Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) approached Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radiallah ta’ala anhu) and suggested that Quran be collected in book format. Hadhrat Abu Bakr replied to him by asking: “How dare I do something which Allah's Messenger did not do?” It is important to point out his reluctance was not due to his disinterest in preserving Quran, or spreading of message of Islam. His not wanting to collect the fragmentary Quran into a single book has to be understood in light of subject of innovation and his reluctance was due to his fear of introducing a reprehensible innovation. In simple language Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radiallah ta’ala anhu) said, how can he dare to innovate something, such as collecting of Quran in a book, which the Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) did not do? Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) reasons with him by saying: “Umar said: هُوَ وَاللَّهِ خَيْرٌ (i.e. By Allah, it is good/beneficial).” Note, such high caliber companions would judge all instances of their life by what Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) revealed, and what Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) had taught. Therefore statement of Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) has to be understood in light of teaching of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). Islamic position is, that Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) was aware of the following statement of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and on basis of this he argued collection of Quran is [Sunnah] Khayr (i.e. good), here: “He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect..” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] And his persistence paid and Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radiallah ta’ala anhu) eventually realized the importance of collecting Quran and recognized collecting Quran is good Sunnah, and commissioned it. Shaikh Abu Rumaysah Argument Against Islamic Position: Shaikh presents position of Muslims on subject of gathering of Quran into a book format: “The proof, according to them, being that the companions collected the Qur'an in a book form after the time of the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was'sallam) without him enjoining it.” Then he goes on to present the position of Muslims in his own words: “Hence it [is] being an innovation which the companions agreed upon as being good.” Responding the position Shaikh continues to writes: “Upon closer examination this is actually evidence against these people, not for them.” Shaikh’s closer inspection yields that Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) argued on basis of necessity and not on grounds of Bid’ah/Sunnah Hasanah, here: “When Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) came to Abu Bakr (radiallah ta’ala anhu) and said that the Qur'an had to be collected as a book. He did not argue on the basis of bid'ah hasanah, rather he argued on the basis of necessity because many of the people who had memorized the Qur'an by heart were being martyred. Therefore the Qur'an was in danger of being lost and hence it had to be collected in book form.” Shaikh cites death of companions as being possible cause of Quran being lost and states this was the reason on basis of which fragmentary Quran had to be gathered in book format with intention of preserving Quran. Issue Of Danger Of Quran Being Lost Due To Death Qaris: Shaikh argued Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) suggested gathering of fragmentary Quranic texts to compile a book because he feared the Quran maybe lost and this is established from the text of Hadith in discussion: “… and I am afraid that the casualties among the Qaris of the Qur'an may increase on other battle-fields whereby a large part of the Qur'an may be lost.” [Ref: Bukhari, B89, H301] Other alternatives to compiling were also available, such as assigning new roles to the Hufadh in battle field rather than combative roles, or encouraging others to memorize to Quran, including the children and women folk. Death of seventy Hufadh was not major loss of lives to threaten disappearance of book of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) because there were thousands who had memorized the Quran in life of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). If there was ever chance of such disappearance, Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) would have provided precise instructions for its compilation into book format. In fact Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) took the responsibility of preserving the Quran Himself: “Indeed, it is We who sent down the Qur'an and indeed, We will be its guardian.” [Ref: 15:9] Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) thought about disappearance of Quran but maybe not realized the possibility of textual corruption and variant readings. Compiling Quran in book format the Quran was exposed to new dangers. The issue of preservation of Quran was by writing is not definitive because the Jews had Taurah written yet it has been completely distorted and lost. Written or memorization both were risk based and both came with benefits. Memorization, hard copies or combination of both, none of these were sure guarantee for preservation of Quran. Even if the written route was not taken, and Quran only had been committed to memory, deaths of Hufadh, or persecution would cause the Quran to be lost because Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) would not allow his promise to be falsified. Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) had good intention and Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) will reward him according to his intention and the good he achieved will earn him great reward. Yet it must be said, ground of his justification was invalid. Compiling Of Quranic Fragments Into Book Is Part Of Islam: First of all, Shaikh himself quoted a statement of Imam Shafi (rahimullah alayhi ta’ala) which is also being presented, here: "Whoever declares something to be good, he has declared it part of Shari’ah." [Ref: ar-Risaala] Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) declared gathering of Quranic fragments into one book as something good and evidence of it is here: “I said to `Umar, "How can you do something which Allah's Apostle did not do?" `Umar said: هَذَا وَاللَّهِ خَيْر. (i.e. By Allah, this is good.) `Umar kept on urging me to accept his proposal till Allah opened my chest for it and I began to realize the good in the idea which `Umar had realized." [Ref: Bukhari, B61, H509] In other words, Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) declared gathering of Quran into book format as a matter of Shari’ah. Note law of Shari’ah is Islam. Therefore what is part of Shari’ah cannot be judged on basis of necessity alone, and cannot be made part of religion of Islam on basis of necessity. There has to be a mechanism in Islam which allows it to be introduced into religion and if Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) permits it will be established. Necessity In Religion Is Not Mother Of Do Thou As You Wilt: Every necessity has to be met with ways which religion of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has permitted. A man fought extremely well against the polytheists in a war but Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) had informed the companions he will be in hell. Eventually he was injured and could not tolerate pain and committed suicide hence earning hell fire for eternity.[1] His requirement was to alleviate the extreme pain he is suffering and this necessitated medicine not suicide. Point here is, that necessity by itself is not valid basis of doing something. Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) introduced into Islam, or it should be said, Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) made part of Shari’ah something which was not part of it. How could it be accepted by Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radiallah ta’ala anhu) and how could he argue to compile fragments of Quran when there was no basis for making something part of religion in Shari’ah? Both these companions and generally all of the companions all agreed upon it because there was something in prophetic guidance which allowed it to be introduced into Islam. Statement Of Hadhrat Abu Bakr Is Evidence Against Position Of Muslims: Shaikh writes the incident mentioned in the Hadith is evidence against the Muslim position: “Upon closer examination this is actually evidence against these people, not for them.” Servant speculates Shaikh wrote the following underlined which he deemed evidence against us: “When Abu Bakr (radiallah ta’ala anhu) replied, he did not say, "Oh yes I agree with you, this is a bid'ah hasanah," Rather he argued that the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) did not do this, so how could they? It was only after the necessity was made clear to him that he agreed.” Shaikh is referring to the following words of Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radiallah ta’ala anhu) found in above quoted Hadith: "How can you do something which Allah's Messenger did not do?" [Ref: Bukhari, B89, H301] Firstly, question needs to be asked, why are these words against us? If these words are against us because Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radiallah ta’ala anhu) was asking, how he could introduce a Sunnah which Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) did not introduce then please inform me how could he agree to innovation being made part of religion on basis of necessity? Did Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) say, on basis of necessity one can introduce innovation, and on basis of necessity innovation will be accepted? If necessity legitimizes actions which Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) did not do then necessity is mother of all innovations. Coming to necessity argument, doing good deeds is a necessity to gain mercy of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) on day of judgment. Celebrating birth day of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is amalgamation of Sunnahs of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). Due to necessity of doing good deeds, celebration of Prophet’s (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) should be agreed by you, but do you? Secondly, if statement of Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radiallah ta’ala anhu) was not something which you considered against us but considered the argument which you based on it (i.e. argument of necessity) then answer the following question: Do you agree that Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radiallah ta’ala anhu) was asking, how can I introduce an innovation which Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) did not introduce as Sunnah. You’re very learned, and hopefully reasonable, and confidence is high enough to say, your learn-ship will agree his reluctance was due fearing that he may be introducing an innovation. In this context, considering your position of necessity forcing Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radiallah ta’ala anhu) to agree with Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) means he agreed that necessity is valid ground for introducing an innovation. This was the reason on which servant speculated that meat of matter against the Muslim position was the statement of Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radiallah ta’ala anhu) and it is because of this that the circle starts again with: How could he agree to innovation being made part of religion on basis of necessity? Did Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) say, on basis of necessity one can introduce innovation, and on basis of necessity innovation will be accepted? Answering The Questions On Behalf Of Muslims: Necessity of compiling fragmentary Quran into a single book format by itself is fine understanding but the context in which the Shaikh presents lacks the proper foundation from Sunnah of RasoolAllah (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). Our Shaikh cannot present the foundation because if he does so the dispute will be no more. There is no Hadith in which Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has explicitly stated one can introduce innovation into to religion on basis of necessity because in religion of Islam necessity is not basis of making something permissible or impermissible. Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) did say: “Messenger of Allah said, "Whoever guides someone to virtue will be rewarded equivalent to him who practices that good action." [Ref: Muslim, B1, H173] “Whoever introduces a good practice that is followed, he will receive its reward and a reward equivalent to that of those who follow it, without that detracting from their reward in their slightest.” [Ref: Ibn Majah, B1, H203] If one judges fairly, one can see Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) guided Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radiallah ta’ala anhu) to good deed by reasoning with him to compile Quran from fragments and from memory of Hufadh hence he will be rewarded. Both these companions worked together and reasoned with another companion who was then given the task of compile Quran from texts as well as memory of Hufadh. So a good Sunnah was introduced and those who read from this compiled Quran all earn equal reward to the one who compiled, and the one who initiated the idea, and the one who ordered the task to be carried out, and those who helped. Tackling The Key Points Of Shaikh By Horns: Shaikh believes, Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) and Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radiallah ta’ala anhu) none of them believed gathering fragmented Quran into a book is a good innovation and this is misguided understanding. The Ahadith record Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) said: “I said to `Umar, "How can you do something which Allah's Apostle did not do?" `Umar said: هَذَا وَاللَّهِ خَيْر. (i.e. By Allah, this is good.) `Umar kept on urging me to accept his proposal till Allah opened my chest for it and I began to realize the good in the idea which `Umar had realized." [Ref: Bukhari, B61, H509] Another version has the following words: “Then I said (to `Umar and Abu Bakr), "How can you do something which Allah's Messenger did not do?" Abu Bakr said, هُوَ وَاللَّهِ خَيْرٌ (i.e. By Allah, it is beneficial.) Zaid added: So he (Abu Bakr) kept on pressing me for that until Allah opened my chest for that for which He had opened the chests of Abu Bakr and…” [Ref: Bukhari, B89, H301] Note, he declared the compiling the Quran from fragmentary and memory as Khayr. This word is very important because it was used by Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) in context of innovating Sunnah Khayr (i.e. good Sunnah) in the following two Ahadith: “Whoever initiates a Sunnah خَيْرًا (i.e. good Sunnah) that is followed, he will receive a perfect reward for that, and a reward equivalent to that of those who follow it, without that detracting from their reward in the slightest. " [Ref: Ibn Majah, B1, H204] “Messenger of Allah said: "Whoever starts a سُنَّةَ خَيْرٍ (i.e. good Sunnah) which is followed, then for him is a reward, and the likes of their rewards of whoever follows him, there being nothing diminished from their rewards." [Ref: Tirmadhi, B39, H2675] This is clear proof that Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) was guiding Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radiallah ta’ala anhu) toward these Ahadith. Hadhrat Abu Bakr’s Reluctance And Hadhrat Umar’s Justification: When seventy Hufadh died in battle of Al Yamama then Hadhrat Umar approached and urged Hadhrat Abu Bakr to compile the Quran from various sources to preserve it. Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radiallah ta’ala anhu) replied: “How dare I do something which Allah's Messenger did not do?” [Ref: Bukhari, B89, H301] He said this because he feared introducing a reprehensible innovation into religion of Islam regarding which Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has said: "And whoever introduces an بِدْعَةَ ضَلاَلَةٍ (i.e. reprehensible innovation) with which Allah is not pleased nor His Messenger then he shall receive sins similar to whoever acts upon it without that diminishing anything from the sins of the people.” [Ref: Tirmadhi, B29, H2677] Regarding the ones who introduced the reprehensible innovation and those who follow it Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) said: “And whoever introduces a سُنَّةً سَيِّئَةً (i.e. reprehensible practice) that is followed, he will receive its sin and a burden of sin equivalent to that of those who follow it, without that detracting from their burden in the slightest.'" [Ref: Ibn Majah, B1, H203] Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) replied by saying that this is a Khayr: “Therefore I consider it advisable that you should have the Qur'an collected.' I said, 'How dare I do something which Allah's Messenger did not do?’ Umar said: هُوَ وَاللَّهِ خَيْرٌ (i.e. By Allah, it is good). `Umar kept on pressing me for that till Allah opened my chest for that for …” [Ref: Bukhari, B89, H301] By he was referring to those Ahadith which state about Sunnah Khayr being good and reward worthy: “Whoever initiates a Sunnah خَيْرًا (i.e. good Sunnah) that is followed, he will receive a perfect reward for that, and a reward equivalent to that of those who follow it, without that detracting from their reward in the slightest. " [Ref: Ibn Majah, B1, H204] “Messenger of Allah said: "Whoever starts a سُنَّةَ خَيْرٍ (i.e. good Sunnah) which is followed, then for him is a reward and the likes of their rewards of whoever follows him, there being nothing diminished from their rewards." [Ref: Tirmadhi, B39, H2675] In other words he told Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radiallah ta’ala anhu) that the task of compiling Quran is a good Sunnah which is reward worthy. One version uses the word Sunnah Salihah to mean good Sunnah: "Jarir b. 'Abdullah reported Allah's Messenger as saying: The servant does not introduce سُنَّةً صَالِحَةً (i.e. good practice) which is followed after him. The rest of the hadith is the same." [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6468] Yet another version has the words Sunnah Hasanah: “He who introduces a فِي الإِسْلاَمِ سُنَّةً حَسَنَةً (i.e. good practice in Islam), there is a reward for him for this and reward of that also who acted according to it subsequently, without any deduction from their rewards …” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] Note, the Hadith states, he who introduces into Islam, this is indication that what is being introduced is not already part of Islam, and what is not part of Islam is innovation.[2] It was this proof which convinced Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radiallah ta’ala anhu) that compiling Quran was introducing good Sunnah/Bid’ah into Islam. Conclusion: Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) debated with Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radiallah ta’ala anhu) to persuade him to compile Quran from various sources. Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radiallah ta’ala anhu) was reluctant due to fearing innovation but Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) managed to persuade him to commission the collection of Quran on grounds of it being a Sunnah Khayr (i.e. good Sunnah). Wama alayna ilal balaghul mubeen Muhammed Ali Razavi Footnotes: - [1] “Narrated Sa`d bin Sahl As-Sa`idi: The Prophet looked at a man fighting against the pagans and he was one of the most competent persons fighting on behalf of the Muslims. The Prophet said, "Let him who wants to look at a man from the dwellers of the (Hell) Fire, look at this (man)." Another man followed him and kept on following him till he (the fighter) was injured and, seeking to die quickly, he placed the blade tip of his sword between his breasts and leaned over it till it passed through his shoulders (i.e., committed suicide)." The Prophet added, "A person may do deeds that seem to the people as the deeds of the people of Paradise while in fact, he is from the dwellers of the (Hell) Fire: and similarly a person may do deeds that seem to the people as the deeds of the people of the (Hell) Fire while in fact, he is from the dwellers of Paradise. Verily, the (results of) deeds done depends upon the last actions." [Ref: Bukhari, B76, H500] - [2] For full detail read the following article which explains in great detail with corroborating evidence to prove Sunnah in this Hadith means innovation, here.
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