MuhammedAli

Introductory Article To Hadhir Nazir - Hearing And Seeing Type Of Witness.

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Introduction:

Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) establishes in his book; Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has been sent as Shahid (i.e. witness) to mankind. As result of this Muslims also believe Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) will give testimony on judgment day regarding events/actions that took place on earth because he has himself witnessed the events/actions as a first hand witness. Khawarij believes Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) was sent as a Shahid but will give testimony on account of being informed by others and not due to being first hand witness. In other words they negate for Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) the qualities which establish him as a Shahid and we Muslims affirm these qualities. Due to disagreement between Muslims and Khawarij it is important to establish Islamic position with combination of Quranic and rationally persuasive reasoning.

Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) Sent As A Shahid:

Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is reported to have said:
O Prophet, indeed We have sent you as a Shahid (i.e. witness) and a bringer of good tidings and a warner.” [Ref: 33:45] "We have truly sent thee as a witness, as a bringer of glad tidings, and as warner." [Ref: 48:8] How then (will the sinners fare on Judgment Day) when We shall bring forward witnesses from within every community, and bring thee (O Prophet) as witness (i.e. Shaheed) against them?” [Ref: 4:41] Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) being sent as a Shahid can only be on basis of two facts; i) Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) existed as a Prophet before he was sent, ii) Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has qualities which will enable him to be a witness; to be Hadhir (i.e. present) and to be Nazir (i.e. seeing), with ability of hearing.

Explanation Of Meaning Of Being Sent As A Shahid:

To believe Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) was not sent as a hearing/seeing type of Shahid/Shaheed amounts to; one believes Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) was sent as a deaf and blind Prophet. Note, Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) stated He has sent Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) as Shahid/Shaheed in the following verses: O Prophet, indeed We have sent you as a Shahid (i.e. witness) and a bringer of good tidings and a warner.” [Ref: 33:45] One who is sent as a Shahid/Shaheed must have capacity to be a witness – i.e. must be hearing/seeing and living. To illustrate this position, please suppose a certain, intellectual, is acting as a official witness of United Nations, sent to Palestine to document the actrocities and controlled systematic genocide of Palestinians by Nazi state of Israel. Can this person be sent as a Shahid if he/she does not hear, or see? And importantly would United Nations send a blind and deaf person as their representative as official witness? Yet some people believe Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala), the all-Knower of Ghayb, sent a Prophet to Arabs, as a Shahid and used intense form of Shahid; as Shaheed: How then (will the sinners fare on Judgment Day) when We shall bring forward witnesses from within every community, and bring thee (O Prophet) as witness (i.e. Shaheed) against them?”, but not as hearing, or seeing type of Shahid and Shaheed. Do you deem the United Nations body to be wiser then Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala)? And believe Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) did not know Arabic? Reason with youtself; if Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) intended to send a representative without hearing and seeing then He would have used words which denote equivlent meanings. And the type of representative He willed, He sent, and expressed it as He intended.

Logical And Rational Deductions From Meaning Of Words:

A police man is appointed to position of Chief Inspector and sent as a Chief Inspector. A certain intellectual and philosopher argues; Chief Inspector Biggles job description excludes inspection of any/every sort. And with this intellectual and philosopher agrees a regular Joe. Would any sane individual believe Inspector Biggles is inspector but not inspection type inspector? Or there is a manager who has been sent as a manager of a bank but this manager is manager without managing anything? Certain words denote a meanings which cannot be negated. Inspector is with inspection and inspector must be hearing, seeing, intelligent, sane, qualified and same apply to manager. In context of the article words Shahid/Shaheed also have certain meaning which cannot be negated. And these meanings cannot be negated for one who has been sent as Shahid/Shaheed. One who has been sent as a Shahid/Shaheed must be sane, intelligent, and have capacity of hearing and seeing. Otherwise he does not fill the position of Shahid.

Believing In Arabic Words Disbelieving In Word Meanings:

Those who claim Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) was sent as a Shahid but not as a seeing/hearing type of Shahid should note this. The Qadiyaniyyah believe Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is Khatm Un Nabiyeen but they do not ascribe to the words and to him finality/end of Prophet-hood due to which they are not Muslims. Is one who believes; Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is Rabb of the universe a Muslim when he does not believe any known meaning associated with the word Rabb in Quran and in Arabic language but ascribes to Rabb invented meaning? What if one ascribes to Rabb a meaning which is opposite of Rabbs lingustic usage – i.e. instead of Sutainer meaning of Sustained is ascribed? You will agree such a person is from disbelievers and not a Muslim. Then how can your claim is of Islam is valid when you negate that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is not hearing/seeing type of Shahid? Such a person is not from amongst Muslims.

The Requirement Of Being Muslim:

It is imperative to believe Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has been sent as a Shahid and Shaheed in meaning of hearing and seeing type of Shahid/Shaheed. In other words believe that when Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) was sent as Insaan (i.e. human), to Arabs of his own time, then he was Shahid in meaning of hearing and seeing type of Shahid. In this historical context, at the very least, affirmed/believed meaning of Shahid, should be hearing and seeing type of Shahid. One who rejects the meaning of hearing/seeing type of Shahid in this context is upon Kufr, and if one dies upon this beliefe then such a person dies a Kafir. In this regard there is no if, or but.

The Disputed Meaning Of Shahid And Its Verdict:

As stated earlier, Muslims believe Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is Shahid/Shaheed as hearing and seeing type. And Muslims use this fundamental meaning of verses to expand and interpret these and other verses of Quran in light of each other which results creed which is known as Hadhir Nazir. It is a belief that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) did not just witness the deeds of people with his eyes/ears in his immediate vinicity but he witnessed the deeds of his then entire Ummah – believing and disbelieving - and has continued to witness the deeds of his entire Ummah – believing and disbelieving - ever since his station of Shahid was perfected. If Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) wills detail explanations with evidences will follow at the end of introductory article series. This belief is result of Tafsir of Quran with Quranic and this type of Tafsir is considered to be the best form of Tafsir of Quran. And due to this belief not being explicitly stated in a single verse or Ahadith and it being result of combination of verses to disbelieve in this belief of Hadhir Nazir is not Kufr.

Scholars Of Ahlus Sunnah On Disputed Meaning Of Shahid:

Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is reported to have said: “Abu Dharr (Allah be pleased with him) reported from the Prophet (Peace be upon him) that,"Two are better than one, and three better than two; so stick to the Jama'ah for verily Allah, Most Great and Glorious, will only unite my nation on guidance." [Ref: Musnad Ahmad, Kitab Al-Ansar, Abu Zar Al Ghaffari, H20776] Out of three two is majority one is minority, and out of five three is majority two is minority therefore the Jamma mentioned in the Hadith composes majority. Hence the following Hadith is explanation of already quoted Hadith: “I heard the Messenger of Allah (subhanhu wa ta’ala) say: ‘My nation will not unite on misguidance, so if you see them differing, follow the great majority.[Ref: Ibn Majah, Vol.1, B36, H3950] Coming back to the topic, the scholars of Islam have stated to disbelieve in Hadhir Nazir is not Kufr. I specificly sought answer to this question from Shaykh Sayyidi Akhtar Raza Khan Al-Azhari. Apart from agreeing with disbelief of Hadhir Nazir not being Kufr he added one who disbelieves in this creed is not from Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jammah. And this is because Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) stated the Jamhoor (i.e. the majority), the Sawad Al Azam (i.e. group comprimising great majority) cannot be upon misguidance, and on this issue of Hadhir Nazir the majority has reached agreement of Hadhir Nazir being correct.

Conclusion:

Shahid fundamentally means a witness of hearing and seeing capacity. And Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) being sent as a Shahid denotes he was sent as a hearing/seeing type of Shahid. To negate this fundamental by attributing to Shahid any other meaning then obvious is Kufr which invalidates belief in Islam. Rejection of commonly associated belief of Hadhir Nazir associated with Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) being sent as a Shahid/Shaheed who witnesses the deeds of his Ummah and mankind in general takes rejector out of Ahlus Sunnah and into misguidede sects. Due to Hadhir Nazir being derivative of Tafsir of Quran and not being explicitly and emphatically being expressed by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala).

Wama alayna ilal balaghul mubeen.
Muhammed Ali Razavi.

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