• Announcements

    • Sag-e-Attar

      IslamiMehfil Rules (Please Must Read, Before You Post Anything)   04/09/2017

        فورم کےعمومی قوانین آخری ترمیم: ۱۰ اپریل ۲۰۱۷ ۔۔۔عمومی فورم رول نمبر ۱۵ ایڈ کیا گیا ،جو نیچے آخر میںبولڈ فونٹ میں موجود ہے۔ فورم کی انتظامیہ کی طرف سے تمام ارکان کو خوش آمدید! پوسٹ ارسال کرنے سے پہلے تمام اراکین کو تاکید کی جاتی ہے کہ وہ مندرجہ ذیل قواعد و ضوابط کا مطالعہ کر لیں تا کہ مستقبل میں کسی قسم کا کوئی ابہام پیدا نہ ہو۔ اگر کوئی پوسٹ یا ٹاپکس فورم رولز کے خلاف نظر آئے تو تمام ممبرز سے گزارش ہے کہ رپورٹ کا بٹن استعمال کرکے انتظامیہ کی مدد کریں۔ ۱- اسلامی محفل ایک مکمل اسلامی سنی حنفی بریلوی مسلک سے منسلک فارم ہے جس میں کسی قسم کی غیر اسلامی و غیر اخلاقی پوسٹ کرنے کی اجازت نہیں ہے۔
      کسی قسم کی غلط پوسٹ کسی ممبر کو فارم پر نظر آئے تو رپورٹ بٹن کو استعمال کر کے انتظامیہ کو اطلاع کریں۔ اپنی طرف سے کسی ممبر پر نقطہ چینی کرنے کی اجازت نہیں۔

      ۲- اس فورم یا منتظمین کے متعلق کوئی شکوہ یا شکایت یا اعتراض واضح طور پر کسی بھی سیکشن میں بیان نہیں کرسکتے۔ اور شکوہ شکایت وغیرہ کرنے کیلئے ایڈمن سے براہ راست رابطہ کریں

      ۳- فورم میں دستخط استعمال کرنے کیلئے صرف ایک تصویر اور اس کی ازحد چوڑائی550پکسلز اور اونچائی145پکسلزسے زیادہ نہ ہو۔اور ساتھ میں کچھ لنکس کی اجازت ہے۔ سیگنیچر امیج میں یا لنکس میں کسی بد مذہب سائٹ کا لنک یا قابل اعتراض مواد پوسٹ کرنے کی اجازت نہیں۔

      ۴- کسی جاری گفتگو کے دوران ایسے روابط ارسال کرنے سے پرہیز کریں جن کا گفتگو سے تعلق نہ ہو۔

      ۵- بحث برائے بحث سے بچنے کی حتی الامکان کوشش کریں

      ۶۔ فورمز کی انتظامیہ آپ کو ہدایت کرتی ہے کہ براہ کرم کسی قسم کی ذاتی معلومات جیسے کہ اپنا پتا یا فون نمبر ارسال مت کریں جس سے تمام لوگوں کی اس تک رسائی ممکن ہو سکے۔ان معلومات کا غلط استعمال کیا جا سکتا ہے۔ اس لیے ہر ممکن طور پر ، اگر آپ اپنی معلومات کا تبادلہ کسی دوسرے رکن کے ساتھ کرنا چاہتے ہیں تو ذاتی پیغامات کا استعمال کریں۔ ۷۔ ٹاپک کے لئے مناسب ،موضوع سے متعلق ٹائٹل استعمال کریں۔  need answer,  jawab dejiye, please read it, must reply وغیرہ جیسے غیر موضوع ٹائٹل استعمال نہ کریں. ٹائٹل کی ایک بہتر مثال یہ ہے۔
      "A good example: "Help: I need "This" Book Scan
      "A bad example: "PLZZ HEEEEELP ۸۔ سرکار مدینہ صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم کا مبارک نام جہاں بھی استعمال کریں۔ درود شریف ضرور لکھیں۔ درود شریف والا ایموٹیکن بھی استعمال کرسکتے ہیں۔ (s.a.w) یا (pbuh) وغیرہ لکھنے کی اجازت نہیں۔ ۹۔ سنیوں کے آپسی اختلافات میں فورم کا *رجحان جمہور اور جید علماء کی طرف ہوگا۔ اس لئے ان موضوعات پر طویل بحث ممنوع ہے۔
      مثلاً...پیر کرم شاہ صاحب والا موضوع۔۔۔ اس جیسے موضوعات پر فورم کا رخ جید علماء اور جمہور علماء کی طرف ہوگا۔ دوسرا یعنی ویڈیو کا مسئلہ یا اسپیکر پر نمازوغیرہ کا مسئلہ(فروعی مسائل) ۔
      اس جیسے مسائل کو بنیاد کو بنا کر علماء کو برا بھلا کہنا ہرگز ممنوع ہےاور بلا وجہ بحث بھی ممنوع ہے۔ فروعی مسائل میں فورم کا رجحان بعض اوقات کسی عالم کی طرف یا بعض اوقات غیر جانبدار بھی ہوسکتا ہے۔

      ۱۰۔ غیر اخلاقی پوسٹ کرنے پر وارننگ یا بین کیا جا سکتا ہے۔

      ۱۱۔ کسی بھی عالم چاہے بد مذہبوں کا ہو ان کی بگاڑ کر تصویر شئیر کرنا منع ہے۔

      ۱۲۔ انگلش سیکشن کے علاوہ کسی بھی سیکشن میں انگلش پوسٹ کرنا منع ہے۔

      ۱۳۔ پوسٹ کو متعلقہ سیکشن میں کریں غیر متعلقہ سکیشن میں پوسٹ کرنے پر آپ کی پوسٹ کو موو (move) کر دیا جائے گا۔ ۱۴۔ عورتوں کی تصاویر ویڈیوز وغیرہ شئیر کرنا منع ہے۔ ۱۵۔ یہ فورم آپ کی سائیٹس کی تشہیر، بیک لنکنگ یا گوگل رینکنگ بڑھانے کے لئے نہیں ہے۔ جو بھی اسلامی مواد پوسٹ کریں اللہ اور اس کے حبیب صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم کی رضا کیلئے پوسٹ کریں۔ غیر متعلقہ لنکس ٹاپکس سے حذف کر دیے جائیں گے۔اگر کسی اسلامی سنی ویب سائیٹ کا لنک آپ پوسٹ کرنا چاہتے ہیں تاکہ دیگر ممبرز مستفید ہوں، تو سنی سائیٹس کے متعلقہ سیکشن میں نیا ٹاپک ویب سائیٹ ٹائٹل ہیڈنگ کے ساتھ  پوسٹ کریں۔

        مناظرہ سیکشن کے قوانین

      ۱۔ تمام ممبرز (خصوصاً سُنی ممبرز) مناظرہ سیکشن میں غلط زُبان کا استعمال نہ کریں اور اَدب کے دائرے میں رہ کر اعتراض کریں یا جواب دیں۔ غلط زبان استعمال کرنے پر آپکی پوسٹ میں ترمیم یا پوسٹ کو ڈیلیٹ کیا جاسکتا ہے۔ اور بار بار کرنے پر وارن یا بین بھی کیا جا سکتا ہے۔

      ۲۔ اگر کسی ممبر کے ایک موضوع پر دو مختلف ٹاپکس نظر آئے تو ایک ٹاپک بغیر اطلاع کے لاک یا ڈیلیٹ کیا جا سکتا ہے۔

      ۳۔ جن موضوعات سے متعلق پہلے سے ٹاپکس موجود ہیں، اپنا سوال،اعتراض یا جواب اُسی ٹاپک میں پوسٹ کریں۔ اگر الگ سے ٹاپک بنا کر پوسٹ کیا تو آپکے ٹاپک کو بند، ضائع یا دوسرے ٹاپک کے ساتھ یکجا کیا جاسکتا ہے۔

      ۴۔ مناظرہ سیکشن بحث برائے بحث کیلئے نہیں ہے۔ اگر کوئی پوسٹ بحث برائے بحث یا موضوع سے ہٹ کر محسوس ہوئی تو بغیر اطلاع کئے ڈیلیٹ کر دی جائے گی۔ بار بار ایسا کرنے پر وارن کیا جا سکتا ہے۔اور بین بھی کیا جاسکتا ہے۔

      ۵۔ ایسی سائٹ جن کا تعلق بد مذہبوں سے ہو یا ان سائٹ پر بد مذہبوں کا کوئی مواد موجود ہو ان کی کسی بھی قسم کی تشہیر کسی پوسٹ میں ان کا لنک وغیرہ شئیر کرنا پوسٹ کرنا سخت منع ہے ۔خلاف ورزی پر پوسٹ ڈیلیٹ یا ایڈیٹ کی جاسکتی ہے۔

      ۶۔ بدمذہبوں کی ویڈیوز شئیر کرنا منع ہے اگر کسی اعتراض کا جواب درکار ہو تو اس ویڈیو کا سکرین شاٹ لے کر بد مذہبوں کی سائٹ کا لنک ریمو کر کے امیج کی صورت میں پوسٹ کریں۔

      کسی سنی عالم کی تضحیک سخت منع ہے۔

      ۷۔ اگر کو ئی اعترض بھی ہو جس میں سنی عالم کے خلاف غلط زبان استعمال کی گئی ہو تو اس میں سے غلط زبان کو ریمو کر کے اعتراض پوسٹ کیا جائے۔

      ۸۔ صرف وہی سائٹ شئیر کی جائیں جو سنیوں کی ہوں صلح کلی مکتب فکر کی سائٹ بھی شئیر کرنا منع ہے۔

      ۹۔ اسلامی محفل کے کسی بھی ٹیم ممبر یا سینئر ممبر سے بدتمیزی ناقابل برداشت ہوگی اور بین بھی کیا جاسکتا ہے۔ ٹیم ممبرز بھی حدود کے دائرے میں رہ کر جواب دینے کے مجاز ہیں۔

      ۱۰۔ انتظامیہ کا فیصلہ حتمی ہے۔ اگر آپ کو کسی نقطے پر اعتراض ہے تو مناظرہ سیکشن میں پوسٹنگ کرکے اپنا اور ہمارا وقت ضائع نہ کریں۔ کسی بھی ممبر کو رولز کے خلاف کوئی پوسٹ نظر آئے تو فوراً رپورٹ کے بٹن سے ہمیں آگاہ کریں۔
         

Search the Community

Showing results for tags 'wahhabi'.



More search options

  • Search By Tags

    Type tags separated by commas.
  • Search By Author

Content Type


Forums

  • Urdu Forums
    • Urdu Literature
    • Faizan-e-Islam
    • Munazra & Radd-e-Badmazhab
    • Questions & Requests
    • General Discussion
    • Media
    • Islami Sisters
  • English & Arabic Forums
    • English Forums
    • المنتدی الاسلامی باللغۃ العربیہ
  • Arabic Forums
  • IslamiMehfil Team & Support
    • Islami Mehfil Specials

Calendars

  • Community Calendar

Found 31 results

  1. Introduction: Muslims believe Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) foretold that a Khariji sect will emerge from central Saudi Arabia. Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) pointed to the direction of East and named Najd as place of its origin. In middle of 17th century this group emerged lead by Shaykh Muhammad Bin Abdul Wahhab. Seeing the prophesy was fulfilled and noting; creed of Tawheed/Shirk and deeds matched Khawarij, along side the description given by Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) fitted upon Shaykh of Najd, the Islamic scholarship warned the Muslims of his tribulation citing the Ahadith of Najd as proof. Supporters of Shaykh of Najd resorted to distorting the Ahadith which expose the reality of their sect. The core argument in defense is; Najd is not in Arabia but it is Iraq [or is part of Iraq]. Then they present various evidences in form of Ahadith, many of which are gross distortions of Ahadith, to establish their concocted narrative. BackGround And Way Of Response: Year and half ago a brother Syed Hammad Saifi mentioned another brother Muhammad Aamir Khan had written some articles on topic of Najd. Unfortunately I did not ask what and where these articles are. And told me that brother Abdullah, a supporter of Kharijism, from system_of_life responded to these articles, here. Brother Syed Hammad Saifi requested a response. I informed him everything which brother Abdullah has mentioned in the article comprehensively been refuted in various articles which number roughly twenty, here. And promised him something will be written in response to brother Abdullah’s distortions of Islam in future. In brother Abdullah’s article; there is material which is directly related to the topic of Najd and unrelated. Everything, related and unrelated all will be addressed in order of evidence quoted. 0.0 - Adu-Allah’s Opening Statement: “This Article is a brief response to those Sufis (Barewlis) who intentionally accusing the Ahle-Sunnah Wal-Jamaah of Hijaaz (Saudi Arabia). Abusing the great Scholars of Hijaaz (Saudi Arabia). They intentionally hide ing the Hadith related to Iraq and attributing those Ahadeeth to People of Hijaaz with intention of maligning them. Inshallah we shall expose these Liars.” [Ref: Alternative location of original article, here] 0.1 - Abdullah’s Opening Statement In Balance: He said Sufis (Barelwis) accuse and abuse the scholars of Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jammah of Hijaz (Saudi Arabia). And we the Muslims conceal the Ahadith which indicate group of Satan will emerge from Iraq with intention of maligning the Shuyukh of Najd. It is important that the very foundation of distortion and lies is exposed for what it is. The following parts will address everything that needs to be addressed. There are numerous factual errors in what brother Abdullah wrote in his opening statement. These errors are due to absence of knowledge and by establishing them objective is to prove brother Abdullah is poorly educated. And poor education religious or secular makes poor scholars and poor scholarship. By this I do not intend to insinuate brother Abdullah is an Aalim the truth is far from it. 1.0 - Sufi And Barelwis Accuse: Readers should note there are three major factions, Sufis/Sunnis, Wahhabis, and Shia. And in between there are many shades of grey for each faction. If you take away, Wahhabis, Shias, Deobandis, from equation everyone else is Sufi and everyone of them is member of Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jammah. Even if one takes away Deobandis and Shias and puts them in pro-Wahhabi basket, this still leaves an over whelming majority of Sufi/Sunnis who are against the Wahhabis. What I am trying to get at is when he says Sufis are against his version of Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jammah. In reality he means everyone from Ummah is against his sect with exception of dozen or so Deobandis because none everyone falls into these major labels and shades of grey which originate from them. 1.1 - Identity Of Ahlus Sunnah And The Jammah: Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) said: “After I am gone, you will see great conflict. I urge you to adhere to my Sunnah and the path of the Rightly-Guided Caliphs, and cling stubbornly to it.” [Ref: Ibn Majah, B1, H44] “Whoever among you lives will see great conflict. I urge you to adhere to what you know of my Sunnah and the path of the Rightly-Guided Caliphs, and cling stubbornly to it.” [Ref: Ibn Majah, B1, H43] Ahlus Sunnah (i.e. people of tradition) in Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jammah (i.e. people of tradition and main-body) referrs to those who follow the Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). And Wal Jammah referrs to one who holds to the Jammah (i.e. main-group) of companions and of Muslims. The identity of second is established by the following sayin of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam): “It was narrated from Thawban that: The Messenger of Allah said: "A group among my Ummah will continue to follow the truth and prevail, and those who oppose them will not be able to harm them, until the command of Allah comes to pass." [Ref: Ibn Majah, B1, H10] And this taifa (i.e. group) is of majority which will be upon Haq when there are differences: “Anas bin Malik said: “I heard the Messenger of Allah say: ‘My Ummah will not unite on misguidance, so if you see them differing, follow the great majority.’” [Ref: Ibn Majah, B36, H3950] In another Hadith Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) said that majority is better then minority and then instructed the Muslims to stick to the Jammah: “Abu Dhār (Allah be pleased with him) reported from the Prophet (Peace be upon him) that, “Two are better than one, and three better than two; so stick to the Jama'ah for verily Allah, Most Great and Glorious, will only unite my Ummah on guidance." [Ref: M.I.Ahmad, Al-Ansar, Abu Zar Al Ghaffari, H20776] From all this it is clear Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jammah are those who follow the prophetic Sunnah, and Jammah of companions, and Jammah of Muslim, and they are; Ummah agreeing upon guidance. And they are majority and there is continuity of theological lineage. 1.2 - Wahhabiyyah Are Ahlus Sunnah, Or Barelwis: In light of what has been established from Ahadith the Wahhabiyyah cannot be deserving of title of Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jammah because their belief system originated in 17th century and the core principles and teaching of this sect lack continuity. Also they as whole are and the Muslims amongst them are minority in Ummah who are disputing and rejecting the beliefs of majority. And Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) instructed the Muslims to fallow the majority in following Hadith: “My Ummah will not unite on misguidance, so if you see them differing, follow the great majority.” [Ref: Ibn Majah, B36, H3950] “Two are better than one, and three better than two; so stick to the Jama'ah for verily Allah, Most Great and Glorious, will only unite my Ummah on guidance." [Ref: M.I.Ahmad, Al-Ansar, Abu Zar Al Ghaffari, H20776] Note Hadith of Musnad Imam Ahmad (rahimullah) precisely establishes the majority is Jammah and also establishes majority Jammah is Ummah. Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) wouldn’t have instructed the believers to follow the majority if they were not group of truth and if they were not the Jammah. In contrast to Wahhabiyyah, Barelwism/Sufism of subcontinent alone is enough in numbers to compose a majority against the Wahhabiyyah. If one was to include Sufism of Arabian Peninsula, Syria, Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Africa, Malaysia, and other countries … They share with Barelwis, the Ashari and Maturidi heritage. Qadri, Naqshbandi, Chishti and Soharwardi Sufi paths. Hanafi, Shafi, Hanbali, and Maliki fiqh.[1] Despite their perpherial differences a core teaching unites all these scholars upon prophetic Sunnah and come togather to compose over whelming majority, the Jammah, and they are Ummah agreeing upon guidance. Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) said regarding those who deviate from the Jammah and Ummah: "I saw the Prophet on the Minbar addressing the people. He said: 'After me there will be many calamities and much evil behavior. Whoever you see splitting away from the Jama'ah or trying to create division among the Ummah of Muhammad, then kill him, for the Hand of Allah is with the Jama'ah, and the Satan is with the one who splits away from the Ummah[2], running with him.'" [Ref: Nisai, B37, H4025] 2.0 - Saudi Arabia And Hijaz: He says Muslims accuse the scholars of Hijaaz (Saudi Arabia) … The fact is Hijaaz is not name for Saudi Arabia. Hijaz historically only composed of a small area of Arabian Peninsula and modern Saudi Arabia. Please see the following map for Hijaz, Arabia and Najd, here. This reveals brother doesn’t actually know what Hijaz is and what Arabia is. We have nothing but good to say about the scholars of al-Hijaz. We the Muslims condemn the Wahhabi/Khariji scholars of Najd, hereThe tribulation and sternness of Najdi/Wahhabi hearts is established from where they emerged and what they did to Muslims of Arabian Peninsula, including Hijaz, during their pillaging raids and conquests. They put the Wahhabi ] And out of all the Khawarij followers of Shaykh Muhammad Bin Abdul Wahhab and his band of bandit Wahhabis, emerged with this distinguishing sign of shaven heads. Ref: Muslim, B5, H2338[ “Sahl b. Hunaif reported Allah's Apostle as saying: There would arise from the east a people with shaven heads.” One of tribulation was of a group of people with shaven heads:] Ref: Bukhari, B63, H217[ “Narrated Ibn Umar: I heard the Prophet saying: "Tribulationss will emerge from here." Pointing towards the East.”] Ref: Muslim, B1, H95[“The callousness of heart and sternness is in the East and faith is among the people of the Hijaz.” ) also said regarding inhabitants of Najd: sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam] Prophet (Ref: Bukhari, B88, H214[ “Narrated Ibn Umar: The Prophet said: … He said: "O Allah! Bestow Your blessings on our Sham (i.e. greater Syria)! O Allah! Bestow Your blessings on our Yemen." The people said: "O Allah's Apostle! And also on our Najd." I think the third time the Prophet said: "There (in Najd) is the place of earthquakes and afflictions and from there comes out the side of the Qarn (i.e. horn, head, group, an era) of Satan." ) said: is in East of Madinah and regarding it Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallamNajd 2.1 - East And Najd In Ahadith: , whom he deceptively counted amoungst people of Hijaz. This will be explained in on coming parts of article in detail but here for introductory purposes somethings will be mentioned.ISIS companions to shame with their actrocities and rape and murderous rampage. And this is why the Muslim scholarship of world, except Wahhabi, condemns Wahhabism, and are totally against it. 2.2 - Hijaz In Ahadith Of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam): Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) said: “The people of the West will continue to triumphantly follow the truth until the Hour is established.”[3] [Ref: Muslim, B20, H4722] “The callousness of heart and sternness is in the East and faith is among the people of the Hijaz.” [Ref: Muslim, B1, H95] Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) said the people of Hijaz and in other words people of Western part of Arabia will hold to truth until the day of judgment and vast majority of the Muslims of Hijaz are members of Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jammah, here. With aid of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) the Muslims of Hijaz will remain upon way of Ahlus Sunnah and victorious our the group of Satan of Najd. Also note Hijaz is refuge of Islam: “That the Messenger of Allah said: "Indeed the religion with creep into the Hijaz just like a snake creeps into its hole, and the religion will cling to the Hijaz just like the female mountain goat cling to the peak of a mountain.” [Ref: Tirmadhi, B38, H2630] 2.3 - The Contrast And The Deception: After noting the clear distinction and merits of people of Hijaz and truth regarding Najd and Wahhabism; the readers should imagine why the enemy of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and his beloved Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) would attempt to pass the tribulation of group of Satan and their scholars as scholars of Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jammah and of scholars of Hijaz. Brother Adu-Allah’s attempt in the science of Hadith is would be called Tadlees. Tadlees best can be destribed in modern magic (i.e. card tricks and stuff) terms of; misdirection, sleight of hand, and concealment. Where a narrator attempts to cover-up weakness of a Hadith by praising merits of a narrator or by with-holding information in order to create positive or negative image. In other words, the enemy of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) attempted elevate Wahhabism by associating it with Hijaaz and by disassociating it from Najd. Tadlees is subtle but brother Abdullah’s attempt to make East into West is grand deception. 3.0 - Ahadith Of Iraq And Najd: Brother Abdullah said: “They intentionally hide the Hadith related to Iraq and attributing those Ahadeeth to People of Hijaaz Najd with intention of maligning them.” The truth of matter is; Ahadith which foretold emergence of group of Satan from Iraq are about Khawarij just as Ahadith of Najd are. But they are about two different locations therefore we do not mix the reports nor interpret one to mean the other. Meaning we don’t say because group of Satan emerged from Iraq therefore Najd means Iraq which the Wahhabis are attempting to do. Suppose there is report on TV: There was bomb explosion in London, Enland, university. Right after it, or week later, or month later there is another news report: In university of New Jersey, America, there was bomb explosion. Year later these two news reports are pulbished on a website. You the reader reads both of them. Due to bomb explosions in mentioned cities would you conclude; i) University of New Jersey and university of London are one and the same, ii) or knowing better you would distinguish between the two reports and believe these are two different bomb explosions in two different cities, two different countries. In context of my scenario, Abdullah, the Wahhabi enemy of knowledge and reason, is complaining why do the Muslims hide reports of London bomb attack when they attempt to find location of New Jersey. Any educated and sane person would realise nothing is being hidden. The report of London attack is not related to New Jersey attack. Hence using London attack report and its location to mean New Jersey is in fact London would be dumbness of epic proportions. See the location of Najd and Iraq, here. We leave it upon the illiterate fools to confuse/make Najd into Iraq. You can’t but appreciate for laughs the foolishness of Wahhabi logic. Group of Satan in Iraq and group of Satan in Najd means Iraq is Najd. Am educumated too, and my educumation (lol!) says if group of Satan in Iraq and group of Satan is in Najd then this means Najd is Iraq. Victory for educumation! If A is sweet and liquidy and B is sweet and liquidy then A is B. If lion is furry and has tail, and donkey is furry and with tail, donkey is lion. 4.0 - Accuse, Abuse, And Maligning Scholars Of Najd: He said the Muslims accuse the scholars of Najd. And we do indeed accuse them of being Khawarij and evidence of what vast majority of Muslims believe about them is in their own books. And world terrorism so called in the name of Islam is all Wahhabi supported and all man power is of Wahhabism except those who have been forced into joining them under pain of death as it happened in Syria under rule of Wahhabi branch of ISIS. Please listen to major scholar of Wahhabis/Salafis say ISIS are Wahhabi, here. 5.0 - Abdullah Quoting Surah Baqarah (2) Verse 42: Brother Abdullah quoted the following verse: ''Do not mix the Truth with Falsehood nor Conceal the Truth when you Know.” [Ref: 2:42] And he quoted this verse in an attempt to imply that members of Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jammah mix the falsehood (i.e. Barelwi/Sufi teachings) with truth (i.e. Hadith) and conceal the truth [about Wahhabis]. And I am not going to comment on this. I rather let the readers decide on strength of evidence and sound argumentation to determine who is mixing the falsehood with truth and who was/is Mudallis (i.e. guilty of Tadlees). But what I will do is explain the verse in light of context and other verses of Quran. Then at the end of which I will establish brother Abdullah like all his Wahhabi, Salafi and Khariji co-religionists share trait which is unique to Khawarij and worst of creation. 5.1 - Context Of Surah Baqarah Verse 42: Allah (subhanhu wa ta’ala) stated: “And do not mix the truth with falsehood or conceal the truth while you know (it).” [Ref: 2:42] Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) revealed this verse as part of following six verses: "O Children of Israel! Remember My favor which I have bestowed upon you and fulfill My covenant (upon you) that I will fulfill your covenant (from Me), and be afraid of Me. And believe in what I have sent down confirming that which is (already) with you, and be not the first to disbelieve in it. And do not exchange My signs for a small price, and fear Me. And do not mix the truth with falsehood or conceal the truth while you know (it). And establish prayer and give zakah and bow with those who bow (in worship and obedience). Do you order righteousness of the people and forget yourselves while you recite the Scripture? Then will you not reason? And seek help through patience and prayer, and indeed, it is difficult except for the humbly submissive (to Allah). Who are certain that they will meet their Lord and that they will return to Him." [Ref: 2:40/46] Context of this verse reveals it was revealed regarding the Bani Israel (i.e. Jews). 5.2 - Explanation Of Surah al-Baqarah Verse 42 In Light Of Quran: Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) states: “And do not mix the truth with falsehood or conceal the truth while you know (it).” [Ref: 2:42] Now it is established verse was revealed with regards to Jews who were concealing the truth and mixing falsehood in truth. What the truth and the falsehood was; is yet to be determined. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) says: "Those to whom We gave the Scripture know him (i.e. Prophet Muhammad) as they know their own sons. But indeed a party of them conceal the truth while they know (it). The truth is from your Lord, so never be among the doubters." [Ref: 2:146/147] Alhasil the truth they conealed and distorted was regarding identity and Prophet-hood of Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) while the Rabbai’s knew too well; Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is Prophet from Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala): “And when there came to them a Book (this Qur'an) from Allah confirming what is with them (i.e. Taurat) and the Injeel, although aforetime they had invoked Allah in order to gain victory over those who disbelieved, then when there came to them that which they had recognised, they disbelieved in it. So let the Curse of Allah be on the disbelievers.” [Ref: 2:89] They were waiting for his arrival and invoked Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) for victory through Waseela (i.e. means) of RasoolAllah (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) but disbelieved in his Prophet-hood and hid information from Jewish layity which would have helped them identify him as Prophet of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala), and mixed the truth with falsehood to hide the truth of his Prophet-hood. 5.3 - Mixing The Truth With FalseHood And Concealing The Truth: From previous two sections it would be obvious following verse was revealed with regards to Jews: “And do not mix the truth with falsehood or conceal the truth while you know (it).” [Ref: 2:42] And specially Jewish scholarly elitehiding information and distorting information which establishes Prophet-hood of Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) even though they knew too well that he is Prophet of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Brother Abdullah applied and interpreted the verse in context of Muslims and employed it because he is of understanding; we the Muslims, the Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jammah, mix falsehood with truth, and conceal truth. Abdullah Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) had following to say about those people who interpret verses revealed regarding disbelievers as if they are about Muslims: “... and the Mulhidun (heretical) after the establishment of firm proof against them:"And the statement of Allah: 'Allah will not mislead a people after He has guided them, until He makes clear to them what to avoid.' (9:115) And Ibn Umar used to consider them (the Khawarij and the Mulhidun) the worst of Allah's creatures and said: "These people took some verses that had been revealed concerning the disbelievers and interpreted them as describing the believers.” [Ref: Bukhari, Vol 9, Page 49, Chap 6: Killing The Khawari] Muslims now can decide; if brother Abdullah, theWahhabi, was mixing the falsehood of Wahhabi/Khariji methodology into truth of Quran, and hiding information regarding verse [to insinuate Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jammah are guilty of distortion and concealment] or not. With regards to insinuation that members of Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jammah hide truth and distort it readers will have to wait till the completion of article to make a finale decision. 6.0 – DIY Tafsir And Sharh Of Quran And Hadith: What was required from brother Abdullah was that he explain and demonstrate why Najd isn’t the demonstrated Najd but it is Iraq. And to support his position he should have presented evidence of Hadith and maps to demonstrate his position. Then his position would have been established and we would have been under the burden to establish Islamic position and refute his Khariji distortion. What brother Abdullah has done is; what I have pointed to in section - 3.0. What he is attempting is to interpret Hadith with Hadith but DIY (i.e. Do It Yourself!) scholar doesn’t have any idea how to interpret Hadith or Quran. His effort is laughable because he is trying to apply rules of Tafsir (i.e. exegesis) on a matter of geography. Purpose of Tafsir is to bring clarity and remove ambiguity from a verse with another verse. And correct way to manage it is to employ relating set of verses to shed light on ambiguity. DIY scholars and Mujtahideen relying on Shaykh ul-Islam Wal Muslimeen Google (rahimullah alayhi ta’ala) due to zero knowledge rules of Tafsir. Are interpreting name of one region to mean another region due to commonality of detail between Iraq and Najd –: i.e. emergence of group of Satan. The commanlity of detail can be used to establish both groups are same in theology but this detail cannot legitimately be employed to argue Iraq is Najd. To do so would be foolishness however appealing and convincing it may seem to DIY scholars. If two unrelated Ahadith or verses are employed and interpreted then the out come naturally would be defective and invalid. 6.1 - Demonstrating Correct Methodology Of Tafsir: Years ago I had discussion with a extremely extremist Wahhabi [aka Usmaniyyah, Captain]. And he quoted the following verse to argued it referrs to deceased AwliyahAllah including companions and Prophets including Prophet Isa (alayhis salam): “And those they invoke mindu’nillah (i.e. other than Allah) who create nothing, and they (themselves) are created. They are (in fact) dead not alive, and they do not perceive when they will be resurrected.” [Ref: 16:21] My counter argument was the verse was revealed regarding polytheists and their idol-gods. The ambiguity was made clear via following verse: “Yet have they taken mindu’nillah gods that can create nothing but are themselves created; that have no control of hurt or good to themselves; nor can they control death nor life nor resurrection.“ [Ref: 25:3] Alhasil a related verse was employed to clarify the ambiguity and this is Tafsir of best type. Coming to invalid methodology of interpreting; following Hadith is proof that Satan’s group (aka Khawarij) would appear from Najd: “They said again: "Our Najd as well." On that the Prophet said: "There will appear earthquakes and afflictions, and from there will come out the side of the group of Satan." [Ref: Bukhari, B17, H147] To say following Hadith clarifies ambiguity of Najd through usage of Iraq would be a monstoracity because regions and geographical locations are not interpreted to mean another through interpretation: “I asked Sahl bin Hunaif: "Did you hear the Prophet saying anything about Al-Khawarij?" He said: "I heard him saying while pointing his hand towards Iraq: "There will appear in it some people who will recite the Quran but it will not go beyond their throats, and ..." [Ref: Bukhari, B84, H68] Correct way to interpret and find location and region of Najd should be something similar to following. Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) said: "Afflictions are there! Afflictions are there, from the side where group of Satan will come out." Or said: "... the group [from direction] of sun (rise) ..." [Ref: Bukhari, B88, H212] Based on this Hadith following article was written to demonstrate Iraq cannot be Najd, here. And also sunrises from East hence following Hadith is related to it: “Verily, afflictions (will start) from here," pointing towards the east, "whence the side of the group of Satan comes out." [Ref: Bukhari, B56, H714] Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) was residing on pulpit of Masjid of Nabvi (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and from there he pointed toward house of Aysha (radiallah ta’ala anha) and this is precisely toward East, here, therefore following Hadith is also related to the two: “The Prophet stood up and delivered a sermon, and pointing to Aisha's house (i.e. Eastwards): He said thrice: "Affliction (will appear from) here and from where the side of the Satan's head comes out (i.e. from the East).” [Ref: Bukhari, B53, H336] Maps and various Ahadith establish Najd is in Arabia and toward East of Madinah therefore it is connected with all the above Hadith: “They said again: "Our Najd as well." On that the Prophet said: "There will appear earthquakes and afflictions, and from there will come out the side of the group of Satan." [Ref: Bukhari, B17, H147] Alhasil all related Ahadith to Najd and East were brought togather and explained in light of each other to establish direction of Najd and location of Najd. 6.2 - Invalid Methodology Of Tafsir Of Quran And Sharh Of Ahadith: Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) stated:“And (remember) when Allah will say: "O Isa , son of Maryam! Did you say unto men: 'Worship me and my mother as two gods besides Allah?'” [Ref: 5:116] This verse indicates a group/sect of Christians worshipped Prophet Isa (alayhis salam) and his mother Maryam (salamullah alayha) as gods and on the day of judgment Prophet Isa (alayhis salam) will be questioned regarding it. In another verse Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) states: “Certainly you (disbelievers) and that which you are worshipping now besides Allah, are fuel for Hell! (Surely) you will enter it.” [Ref: 21:98] DIY scholar and DIY Tafsir would be prepared to send Prophet Isa (alayhis salam) and his mother to hell-fire. After all one plus one is indeed adding up to hell-fire. Yet the fact is both these verses are true and both these verses are unrelated. One is regarding the idols which the polytheists of Arabia worshipped and other is about a Prophet of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and about a righteous worshipper of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). With regards Prophets Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) says: “It is not (possible) for any human being to whom Allah has given the Book and Al-Hukm (laws of religion) and Prophethood to say to the people: "Be my worshippers rather than Allah's." On the contrary (he would say): "Be you Rabbaniyyun because you are teaching the Book, and you are studying it." [Ref: 3:79] With regards to men/women those who were worshipped during their lives or after their death Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) will ask them if they asked the people to worship them beside Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and if they answer the question in affirmative then Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) will send them to fire: “And if any of them should say: "Verily, I am an Ilah (i.e. god deserving of worship) besides Him." Such a one We should recompense with Hell. Thus We recompense the Zalimun (polytheists and wrong-doers).” [Ref: 21:29] If we rely on DIY scholars and DIY Tafsirs educated by Shaykh ul-Islam Google Ibn Yahoo Ibn Bing then you can imagine the destruction of Islam. Verses of Quran and Ahadith of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) must correctly be paired with related Ayaat/Ahadith to derive correct understanding. 6.3 – Brother Abdullah The Enemy Of Ahadith Of RasoolAllah: Brother Abdullah is DIY scholar and DIY Mufassir and Sha’reh. As a result the readers would readers would realize how mercilessly he is decimating teaching of Islam in order to protect Wahhabism. He will take two unrelated regions and based similarity in content of Hadith he will be declaring Najd is Iraq. My objective would be to separate Iraq from Najd and Najd from Iraq. Provide convincing geographical and evidence of Hadith to prove student of Shaykh Google Ibn Yahoo Ibn Bing is out of his depth and is sinking in ignorance of pre-Islamic era. 7.0 - Abdullah Quotes Ahadith Of Satan’s Group Appearing From Iraq: "Abdullah Ibn-Umar related that once, he saw the Prophet showing Iraq with his hand, and saying: "The Fitna (i.e. affliction) is here, the Fitna is here, the Fitna is here, three times, it is from here that will appear the devil's horns [alternative; devil’s group]." (Isnad considered Sahih by the Muhaddith Ahmad Shakir al-Masry) [Ref: Musnad-e-Ahmad, Vol10, P391, H6302, H6129] "Ibn Umar reported: The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, said, “O Allah, bless us in our Syria. O Allah, bless us in our Yemen.” He repeated it and on the third or fourth time they said: “O Messenger of Allah and in our Iraq.” The Prophet said: “Verily, from there will appear upheavals and tribulations and from there will rise the horn of Satan [alternative; Satan’s group]." [Ref: Tabarani, al-Mujjam Awsaat, H4230] 7.1 - Commenting On Ahadith Quoted By Brother Abdullah: Ahadith state group of Satan will emerge from Najd and brother Abdullah hopes to interpret Najd with Iraq. More accurately; due to usage of Iraq in above Ahadith brother Abdullah is replacing Najd with Iraq. The logic behind it goes something like this; if from A is group of Satan and from B is group of Satan; therefore A is alphabet B. This explains the mechanism employed by brother Abdullah and simultaneously delivers a smack of sanity to his insanity. Before venturing further it is important to point out; words Satan’s group referr to Khawarij. Muslims and Wahhabis have no dispute in this regard but if anyone questions this ascription then please read the following article, here. Coming to first Hadith quoted by brother Abdullah; I will not comment on chain of narration because the over-all meaning of Hadith agrees with following authentic Hadith: “Narrated by Yusair bin 'Amr:I asked Sahl bin Hunaif: "Did you hear the Prophet saying anything about Al-Khawarij?" He said: "I heard him saying while pointing his hand towards Iraq: "There will appear in it some people who will recite the Quran but it will not go beyond their throats,and they will go out from (leave) Islam as an arrow darts through the game's body." [Ref: Bukhari, B84, H68] Even though the Hadith does not use words group (i.e. Qarn) of Satan the description is regarding Khawarij. And principle of science of Hadith is when a weak Hadith is narrated or coroborated by stronger the weakness is lifted due to stronger Hadith. The second Hadith quoted by brother Abdullah; its wording is fabricated. Meaning event described in the said Hadith never occurred. Instead one of the narrators confused Najd/East with Iraq either due to forgetfullness. Or due to events that transpired in Iraq with regards to Khawarij confused Najd Ahadith with Iraq and replaced Najd with Iraq. Ignoring the confusion/distortion of actual Hadith of Najd it has to be said over-all meaning of Khawarij appearing from Iraq is in agreement with authentic Ahadith but the event it describes never happened. 7.2 - Ahadith Establish No Dua For Najd And Dua For Iraq: From following Hadith it is clear that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) refused to invoke Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) for region of Najd citing the emergence of group of Satan (aka Khawarij) for his refusal: “The Prophet again said, "O Allah! Bless our Sham and Yemen." They said again: "Our Najd as well." On that the Prophet said, "There will appear earthquakes and afflictions, and from there will come out the side of the group of Satan." [Ref: Bukhari, B17, H147] Even though Khawarij were to emerge from Iraq also Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) did invoke Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) for people of Iraq: “Narrated Anas bin Malik: The Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) looked toward Iraq, Syria, and Yemen, and made the Dua: O Allah accept their hearts on your obedience and place firmly your mercy around them.” [Ref: Tabarani, Mu'jam al-Sagheer, Chptr; Alif, Name; Ishaq, H273, here] Note Najd is absent from the second Hadith. What this alludes to is Najd had a special position and played a special role in tribulation of Khawarij due to which Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) did not invoke Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) on behalf of Najd. And that special role will be elaborated in two following sections. 7.3 - Emergence Of Satan’s Group From Najd And From Direction Of East: Identification of historical Najd is important because group of Satan was to originate from Najd. Islamic understanding of subject and location of Najd translates to; Wahhabism being the group of Satan which Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). For the uninitiated, it is adivsed to see location of Najd on maps, here. It will be evident Najd is toward East of Madinah and Makkah and is central region of Saudi Arabia and it surrounds Saudi capital Riyadh. With this basic information please read the following Ahadith: “Narrated Ibn `Umar: (The Prophet) said, "O Allah! Bless our Sham and our Yemen." People said, "Our Najd as well." The Prophet again said, "O Allah! Bless our Sham and Yemen." They said again: "Our Najd as well." On that the Prophet said, "There will appear earthquakes and afflictions, and from there will come out the side of the group of Satan." [Ref: Bukhari, B17, H147] “O Allah! Bestow Your blessings on our Yemen." The people said, "O Allah's Apostle! And also on our Najd." I think the third time the Prophet said, "There (in Najd) is the place of earthquakes and afflictions and from there comes out the side of the group of Satan." [Ref: Bukhari, B88, H214] Ahadith about East which tell about emergence of group of Satan from direction of East: “Narrated 'Abdullah bin 'Umar: I heard Allah's Apostle on the pulpit saying, "Verily, afflictions (will start) from here," pointing towards the east, "whence the side of the group of Satan comes out." [Ref: Bukhari, B56, H714] “Ibn Umar reported that he heard Allah's Messenger as saying (in a state) that he had turned his face towards the east: Behold, turmoil would appear from this side, from where the group of Satan would appear.” [Ref: Muslim, B41, H6938] One Hadith states East by pointing direction of sunrise: “Narrated Salim's father: The Prophet stood up beside the pulpit and said, "Afflictions are there! Afflictions are there, from the side where group of Satan will come out," or said, "... the group [from direction] of sun (rise) ..." [Ref: Bukhari, B88, H212] Alhasil the region of Najd and direction of East perfectly compliment each other. And emergence of group of Satan from Najd/East are about the same region. The only difference in one group of Ahadith direction is mentioned and in the other name of region is mentioned. Following article contains seventeen facts; if all put into perspective precisely establish the direction from where the group of Satan was to emerge, here. Alhasil all this reveals why a Wahhabi/Khariji would distort the truth and mix falsehood into Ahadith Najd. And would want Iraq to be Najd and not the land of their beloved Shaykh Muhammad Bin Abdul Wahhab. 7.4 - Group Of Satan From Iraq And Group Of Satan From Najd: Briefly; it a group of Satan was to emerge from Najd and another one from Iraq. The first Satan’s group to abandoned Ali (radiallah ta’ala anhu) when after arbitration at Siffin and assembled as a separate faction at Harura [alternative name for Khawarij connected with; Haruriyyah] in Iraq. These people were mostly from tribe of Banu Tamim which was/is mainly situated in central Saudi Arabia, in other words in historical Najd. Abdullah aka Dhil Khuwaisirah at-Tamim was leader of Khawarij in Iraq - see map depicting location of Banu Tamim in Najd and evidence of Dhil Khuwaisirah being form Najd and him leading Khawarij of Iraq, here. Following article comprehensively explains in light of authentic Ahadith how and why Ahadith of Najd are connected, and how Shaykh Muhammad Bin Abdul Wahhab is part of Khariji apostasy. To let the cat out the bag; it is not due to Iraq being Najd, here. From Ahadith of Najd and Iraq it becomes apparent there will be two [major] groups of Khawarij from Najd and both would originate from Najd: "… Messenger of Allah pointed towards Yemen with his hand and said: Verily Iman is towards this side, and harshness and callousness of the hearts is found amongst the rude owners of the camels (i.e. Rabia and Mudar) who drive them behind their tails (to the direction) where emerge the two horns of Satan, they are the tribes of Rabi'a and Mudar." [Ref: Muslim, B1, H83] Please note locations of tribes of Rabia and Mudhar were also depicted on the maps of previous section. Moving on; there were to appear many minor off-shoots of Khawarij in light of following Hadith: "There will emerge people (i.e. Khawarij) who will recite the Qur'an but it will not go any deeper than their collarbones. Whenever a group of them appears, they should be cut off (i.e. killed)." Ibn 'Umar said: "I heard the Messenger of Allah say: 'Whenever a group of them appears, they should be killed.' - More than twenty times - 'until Dajjal emerges among them.'" [Ref: Ibn Majah, B1, H174] Alhasil the first group of Khawarij appeared in Iraq but the main source of man power and ideological leadership of Khawarij were from central Arabia and to be precise from province of Najd. The second major infestation of Khawarij was to appear from Najd. And when it appeared, in the beginning, almost entire man power of Khawarij was from Najd and from ranks of Bani Tamim. Please read the above linked article to properly and comprehensively understand how Shaykh Muhammad Bin Abdul Wahhab at-Tamim the Najdi is part of earlier Khawarij yet created a unique blend of Kharijism (i.e. excessiveness characterised by Mushriking Muslims, accusing them of innovation) and Sunnism. Sooner or later articles establishing methodological and theological uniformity between Khawarij and Wahhabism will be published but following is only a starter, here. 8.0 - Abdullah Quoting Ahadith Of Flies And Mosquitoes: "Narrated Ibn Abi Nu'm: A person asked Abdullah bin Umar whether a Muslim could kill flies. I heard him saying (in reply): "The people of Iraq are asking about the killing of flies while they themselves murdered the son of the daughter of Allah's Messenger. The Prophet said: They are my two sweet basils in this world." [Ref: Al-Adab al-Mufrad, B5, H2] "Narrated Ibn Abi Na'm: I was present when a man asked Ibn Umar about the blood of mosquitoes. Ibn Umar said: "From where are you?" The man replied: "From Iraq." Ibn Umar said: "Look at that! He is asking me about the blood of Mosquitoes while they (the Iraqis ) have killed the (grand) son of the Prophet. I have heard the Prophet saying: "They (Hasan and Husain) are my two sweet-smelling flowers in this world." [Ref: Bukhari, B73, H23] "Ibn Fudail reported on the authority of his father that he heard Salim bin Abdullah bin Umar as saying: O people of Iraq! How strange it is that you ask about the minor sins but commit major sins? I heard from my father Abdullah bin Umar narrating that he heard Allah's Messenger as saying while pointing his hand towards the East: Verily, the turmoil would come from this side, from where appear the group of Satan and you would strike the necks of one another." [Ref: Muslim B41, H694] “Ibn Fudail reported on the authority of his father that he heard Salim, bin Abdullah, bin Umar as saying: O people of Iraq! How strange it is that you ask about the minor sins but commit major sins? I heard from my father Abdullah bin Umar narrating that he heard Allah's Messenger as saying while pointing his hand towards the east: Verily. the turmoil would come from this side, from where appear the group of Satan and you would strike the necks of one another; and Moses killed a person from among the people of Pharaoh unintentionally and Allah, the Exalted and Glorious said: "You killed a person but We relieved you from the grief and tried you with (many a) trial." (20:40). Ahmad bin Umar reported this hadith from Salim, but he did not make a mention of the words: "I heard". [Ref: Muslim, B41, H6943] 8.1 - Commenting On Hadith Of Killing Of Flies And Mosquitoes And Minor Sins: Abdullah Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) mentions death of Hassan (radiallah ta’ala anhu) and Hussain (radiallah ta’ala anhu) and quotes a prophetic statement indicating love of RasoolAllah (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and merits of these two companions. Therefore the setting of these quoted Ahadith is after poisoning of Imam Hassan (radiallah ta’ala anhu) which lead to his death and after the heart breaking events of Karbala had already transpired. And maybe the event of Karbala had recently transpired hence it was still fresh in mind of Abdullah Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) which resulted the material we read in Hadith. It is also worth noting Khawarij became a departed from Jamah in Syria but were recognised as Khawarij in Iraq. And the event of Hadith took place long after appearance of Khawarij. Note Khawarijwere recognised as a distinct sect after arbitration of Siffin and during the life and Khilafat of Ali (radiallah ta’ala anhu). Finally brother Abdullah is attempting insinuating Abdullah Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) applied the Hadith of East upon people of Iraq. This Hadith has already been explained in detail in the following article, here. 8.2 - Iraqis Concerned With Minor Sins And Group Of Satan: Abdullah Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) was asked about killing of flies/masquitoes (i.e. minor sin) and he said: “O people of Iraq! How strange it is that you ask about the minor sins but commit major sins?” Minor sins is killing of flies/mosquitoes and major sin is killing a believer. And in the context he is insinuating that people of Iraq you’re more concerned with minor sins yet you should be more worried about major sins in general and sin of mudering Hussain (radiallah ta’ala anhu) to be specific. 8.3 - Prophet Musa (alayhis salam) Put Into Trials Due To Unintentional Death: Abdullah Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) says: “…and Moses killed a person from among the people of Pharaoh unintentionally and Allah, the Exalted and Glorious said: …” Prophet Musa (alayhis salam) unintentionally killed an Egyptian. He then went on to quote the verse related to it: “(And We favored you) when your sister went and said, 'Shall I direct you to someone who will be responsible for him?' So We restored you to your mother that she might be content and not grieve. And you killed someone, but We saved you from retaliation and tried you with a (severe) trial. And you remained (some) years among the people of Madyan. Then you came (here) at the decreed time, O Moses.” [Ref: 20:40] His intention is to insinuate; people of Iraq realise for killing of one person unintentionally Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) put Prophet Musa (alayhis salam) intro trial. You people of Iraq not only intentionally killed Hussain (radiallah ta’ala anhu) but also members of his family [brutally and barbaricly]. And Prophet Musa (alayhis salam) killed a disbeliever and he was put into trial for many years of his life; you people of Iraq killed those who were beloved to Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and he quotes following prophetic words: "They (Hasan and Husain) are my two sweet-smelling flowers in this world.” Implying your trial and your suffering as result of killing of these Hassan (radiallah ta’ala anhu) and Hussain (radiallah ta’ala anhu) would be severe and harsh. 8.4 - Prophet Pointing Toward East Satan’s Group Will Emerge From It: Hadith narrates the following Prophetic words: “… he heard Allah's Messenger as saying while pointing his hand towards the east: Verily the turmoil would come from this side, from where appear the group of Satan and you would strike the necks of one another and …” Note the referrence point of East is where Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) was located and the people whom he was with when he uttered the above words and not where Abdullah Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) was. Even though the words of Hadith establish Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) was not in Iraq but a Iraqi man had come to him [in Makkah]: “I was present when a man asked Ibn Umar about the blood of mosquitoes. Ibn Umar said: "From where are you?" The man replied: "From Iraq." Ibn Umar said: "Look at that! He is asking me about the blood of Mosquitoes while they (the Iraqis ) have killed the (grand) son of the Prophet.” [Ref: Bukhari, B73, H23] Ahadith establish he stood beside the pulpit [of Masjid Nabvi] and pointed direction of sunrise, toward East, and toward house of Aysha (radiallah ta’ala anha): “Narrated Salim's father: The Prophet stood up beside the pulpit and said, "Afflictions are there! Afflictions are there, from the side where group of Satan will come out," or said, "... the group [from direction] of sun (rise) ..." [Ref: Bukhari, B88, H212] “Narrated 'Abdullah: The Prophet stood up and delivered a sermon, and pointing to 'Aisha's house, he said thrice, "Affliction (will appear from) here," and, "from the side, where Satan's head will come out." [Ref: Bukhari, B53, H336] And we have already established that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) pointed toward East, toward Najd, and Saudi capital of Riyadh. In this context if you interpret the following words Abdullah Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) then it obviously mean Muslims/companions would fight each other after the group of Satan emerges from East: “Verily the turmoil would come from this side, from where appear the group of Satan and you would strike the necks of one another and …” And after the emergence of Khawarij, they murdered Uthman (radiallah ta’ala anhu), Muslims killing each other, Ali (radiallah ta’ala anhu) VS Muawiyah (radiallah ta’ala anhu), started. Another interpretation of same portion is that Muslims VS Khawarij will kill each other. And this will be explained in the last section. Alhasil in context of question about killing flies/mosquitoes Abdullah Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) is implying you should be more concerned about killing people and who you kill. 8.4 - Iraqis Were Not Group Of Satan But They In Fact Killed Khawarij: Kharijis subjected the Muslims of Iraq to barbaric murderous rampage and therefore Ali (radiallah ta’ala anhu) took the task of eliminating first spawns of Kharijism. In following Hadith Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) explained the traits of companions of Dhil Khuwaisirah at-Tamimi: “... Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) made a mention of a sect that would be among his Ummah which would emerge out of the dissension of the people. Their distinctive mark would be shaven heads. They would be the worst creatures or the worst of the creatures. The group who would be nearer to the truth out of the two would kill them.” [Ref: Muslim, B5, H2324] “... be smeared by dung and blood. The sign by which these people will be recognized will be a man whose one hand (or breast) will be like the breast of a woman. These people will appear when there will be differences among the people (Muslims)." Abu Sa'id added: I testify that I heard this from the Prophet and also testify that 'Ali killed those people while I was with him. The man with the description given by the Prophet was brought to 'Ali. The following Verses were revealed in connection with that very person: 'And among them are men who accuse you (O Muhammad) in the matter of (the distribution of) the alms.” (Surah 9:58) [Ref: Bukhari, B84, H67] Note this Dhil Kuwaisirah at-Tamimi and his companions are very same Khawarij aka Satan’s group which emerged from Najd and fought against Ali (radiallah ta’ala anhu) in Iraq. See following detailed article to this regard, here. Hadith establishes the group closer to truth was of Ali (radiallah ta’ala anhu) but it was composed of Iraqis and the Iraqis had killed members of Satan’s group aka Khawarij: ”A man throws an arrow at the prey (or he said at the target), and sees at its iron head, but finds no sign (of blood there), or he sees at the lowest end, but would not see or find any sign (of blood there). He would then see into the grip but would not find (anything) sticking to it. Abu Sai'd then said: People of Iraq. it is you who have killed them.” [Ref: Muslim, B5, H2324] 8.5 - Truth About Iraq And Falsehood Of Abdullah: Earlier it was established the Khawarij were over whelmingly from Bani Tamim. A tribe which was/is situated in Arabian Peninsula, East of Madinah, around modern Saudi capital Riyadh, which is precisely the historical Najd from which Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) foretold Satan’s group would emerge. They marched with Ali’s (radiallah ta’ala anhu) army to Syria to fight Muawiyah (radiallah ta’ala anhu) and after arbitration became disillusioned with Ali (radiallah ta’ala anhu) and parted his company. They then gathered in Iraq in village of Harura and due to their actrocities Ali (radiallah ta’ala anhu) confronted them in battle. The bulk of his army was composed of Iraqis because his capital was Baghdad. And it was the Iraqis who dealt the death blow to Khawarij [at Nahrawan]. All this establishes Iraqis were not Khawarij but the Iraqis were responsible for killing Khawarij. They in fact were from Najd and from Bani Tamim. Our brother Abdullah attempted to make Muslims believe Iraqis were Khawarij but the truth is Khawarij were outsiders who assembled in Iraq and were recognised as a new sect in Iraq. 9.0 - Hadith Of Dajjal In Iraq, Syria And In East: “We said: Yes. Thereupon he said: If it is so that is better for them that they should show obedience to him. I am going to tell you about myself and I am Dajjal and would be soon permitted to get out and so I shall get out and travel in the land, and will not spare any town where I would not stay for forty nights except Mecca and Medina as these two (places) are prohibited (areas) for me and … Behold he (Dajjal) is in the Syrian sea (Mediterranean) or the Yemen sea (Arabian sea). Nay, on the contrary, he is in the East, he is in the East, he is in the East, and he pointed with his hand towards the east.” [Ref: Muslim, B41, H7028] Comments:- Just take a glance at World Map,Saudi Arabia comes no where between Syria and Iraq and now read the below Hadith.“Thereupon he said: I harbor fear in regard to you in so many other things besides the Dajjal. If he comes forth while I am among you, I shall contend with him on your behalf, but if he comes forth while I am not amongst you, a man must contend on his own behalf and Allah would take care of every Muslim on my behalf. He would be a young man with twisted, contracted hair, and a blind eye. I compare him to `Abd-ul-`Uzza b. Qatan. He who amongst you would survive to see him should recite over him the opening verses of Sura Kahf (xviii). He would appear on the way between Syria and Iraq and would spread mischief right and left. O servant of Allah! adhere (to the path of Truth). We said: Allah's Messenger, how long would he stay on the earth? He said: For forty days, one day like a year and one day like a month and one day like a week and the rest of the days would be like your days.” [Ref: Muslim, B41, H7015] “Narrated Salim's father: The Prophet stood up beside the pulpit and said, "Afflictions are there! Afflictions are there, from the side where group of Satan will come out," or said, "... the group [from direction] of sun (rise) ..." [Ref: Bukhari, B88, H212] “Narrated Ibn 'Umar: I heard Allah's Apostle while he was facing the East, saying, "Verily! Afflictions are there, from where the side of the head of Satan comes out." [Ref: Bukhari, B88, H213] “Thawban said: If you see the black flags coming from Khurasan then go there even if you have to crawl because there is the Khalifah of Allah, the Mahdi." [Ref: Mustadrak al-Hakim, Book Of Tribulations H8578, here] Comments:- It is crystal clear from above Ahadith that ''East'' refers to ''IRAQ''.If still Barelwi disagree 'East as Iraq',then they must go to Saudi Arabia(Hijaz) to Give Bayat to Imam Mehdi in Saudi Arabia not in Khurasan.” 9.1 - Something Related And Unrelated To Above Content: I have only quoted in above Ahadith numbered by brother Abdullah as; seven, eight, nine, and ten. Following are being omitted because they add nothing new to his point: Ahadith number eleven, fourteen, sixteen, seventeen are about tribulation of East. And Ahadith number twelve, thirteen, fifteen are about Khawarij but do not explicitly referr to East. Despite this there is no objection on my part if they are applied upon tribulation of East because they do referr to Khawarij. Brother Abdullah distorting this Hadith kind of hurt because he made me realize how desperate and degraded human can become when there is no way out. And it was first time when I raised my hands in Dua for his guidance. May Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) open our eyes, and hearts, and minds to truth of Islam and guide us to straight path of Islam. Coming to his comment; I cannot comprehend why Saudi Arabia should be between Syria and Iraq. Or how it would help his cause. I assume he misread the Hadith. It says Dajjal will appear between Syria and Iraq. And Dajjal appearing between Syria and Iraq is possible ofcourse because borders of both countries are connected. After bit of head banging I think I figured what the relationship of comment to content is. According to Ahadith Dajjal will approach and appear in Arabia from a way which is between Syria and Iraq. And in this context he is saying that information of his second Hadith doesn’t fit into it. It is very likely brother Abdullah isn’t aware that modern Syria is only about sixty percent of what it originally was. Al-Sham comprimised of Lebanon, Israel, Jordon, and parts of present day Syria. If you put all these into context then Dajjal coming to Arabia from between Syria and Iraq would become apparent. 9.2 - Commenting On Hadith Of Dajjal In Iraq And East: Brother Abdullah is insinuating Iraq is East of Madinah because Dajjal is to come from Iraq and Prophet also said Dajjal will emerge from East. Putting one and one togather with healthy dose of logic he arrived at the sum of Iraq is East [therefore by Najd intended region was Iraq and due to this Ahadith of Najd referr to Iraq]. At the end of Hadith eighteen Abdullah stated: “It is crystal clear from above Ahadith that ''East'' refers to ''Iraq''. If still Barelwi disagree 'East as Iraq',then they must go to Saudi Arabia(Hijaz) to Give Bayat to Imam Mehdi in Saudi Arabia not in Khurasan.” Glad that he wasn’t insinuating but he stated what he believed. Even though Hadith clearly establishes East is direction of sunrise. And if you recall a resident of Madinah will never and can never see sunrise from Iraq. Revisit following link to refresh your memory why that would be so; here. 9.3 - Dajjal In East And Its True Meaning Explained By Prophet: It is stated in above quoted Ahadith and underlined; Dajjal will enter/visit every [major] city of world in forty days. This points to Dajjal going to all over the world; East, West, North, and South from place of his origin but the place of Dajjals origin is East: “Nay, on the contrary, he is in the East, he is in the East, he is in the East, and he pointed with his hand towards the east.” Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) explained what he meant by East in following Ahadith: “It was narrated that Abu Bakr Siddiq said: "The Messenger of Allah told us: 'Dajjal will emerge in a land in the East called Khorasan, and will be followed by people with faces like hammered shields.'" [Ref: Ibn Majah, B36, H4072] “Abu Bakr As-Siddiq said: "The Messenger of Allah narrated to us, saying: 'The Dajjal shall emerge from a land in the East called Khurasan. He is followed by a people whom appear as if their f aces are shields coated with leather.'" [Ref: Tirmadhi, B7, H2237] 9.4 - Imam Mahdi Coming From East And Khorasan: For some weird reason brother Abdullah the DIY Shaykh decided to quote following Hadith: “Thawban said: If you see the black flags coming from Khurasan then go there even if you have to crawl because there is the Khalifah of Allah, the Mahdi." [Ref: Mustadrak al-Hakim, Book Of Tribulations H8578, here] I haven’t been able to figure out how this would have helped his cause of Najd being Iraq and Iraq being East but whatever. My objective in quoting the following Ahadith would be to only establish Khurasan is East and it is only for purpose of attesting to what was already quoted: “It was narrated from 'Abdullah bin Harith bin Jaz' Az-Zabidi that the Messenger of Allah said: "People will come from the East, paving the way for Mahdi." Meaning (paving the way) for his rule.” [Ref: Ibn Majah, B36, H4088] “It was narrated from Thawban that the Messenger of Allah said: "Three will fight one another for your treasure, each one of them the son of a caliph, but none of them will gain it. Then the black banners will come from the East, and they will kill you in an unprecedented manner." Then he mentioned something that I do not remember, then he said: "When you see them, then pledge your allegiance to them even if you have to crawl over the snow, for that is the caliph of Allah, Mahdi." [Ref: Ibn Majah, B36, H4084] And Khorasan is in East of Madinah:“Thawban said: If you see the black flags coming from Khurasan then go there even if you have to crawl because there is the Khalifah of Allah, the Mahdi." [Ref: Mustadrak al-Hakim, Book Of Tribulations H8578, here] Maps in the following sections depict location of land of Khorasan and where Khorasan is in relationship to Arabia. 9.4 - Ancient Land Of Khorasan Is In East Of Madinah: 9.5 - Dajjal In East Of Madinah In Land Of Khorasan Established: All the above establishes what Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) meant when he said Dajjal will emerge from East. And he then himself explained; he meant Dajjal will emerge from East a land called Khurasan. And maps perfectly establish that indeed Khorasan is in almost exactly East of Madinah. And this evidence is enough to puncture the logical conclusion of our DIY Shaykh Abdullah. It is also important to point out for fourth time; brother Abdullah’s understanding is that Iraq is East is established via logic and not from factual interpretation of Hadith with Hadith. Propositions: i) Dajjal is to emerge from East. ii) Dajjal is to emerge from Iraq. Conclusion: Therefore Iraq is in East and will emerge from Iraq. This has nothing to do with interpreting Hadith with Hadith. Its pure logic of type that you would meet in online IQ tests. Two statements of esident of Saudi Arabia: i) There will be fight in East. ii) There will be fight in England. Conclusion: There will be in England because it is in East. This way of interpreting data completely ignores geographical locations of cities, provinces, countries and cardinal directions but purely based on bad understanding of logic. Interpretation of Hadith with Hadith refutes brother Abdullah’s position. Even though he assumes he is interpreting Hadith with Ahadith in reality he is only distorting the Ahadith with his faulty logic driven interpretations. Finally following article briefly explains Hadith of Dajjal coming from East and Iraq, here. And following one comprehsively explains why Dajjal will come to Iraq/Syria and you are strongly advised to read it, here. 9.6 - Final Word On Strategy Of DIY Shaykh Abdullah: DIY Shaykh Abdullah’s strategy is to take focus of Ahadith of Najd away from Saudi/historical province of Najd and put the all negativity toward Iraq is purely for basis of protecting Wahhabism and Shaykh Muhammad Ibn Abdul Wahhab. And to achieve this hook and crook is all good. This is not scholarship nor display of sincerity in studying religion. Rather this type of DIY scholarship tightly shuts the door on face of ray of guidance that had made it way to door seeker. Brother Abdullah quoted Ahadith numbered nineteen and twenty and they have already been addressed in section 7.0 to 7.4. And it is advised you referr to that section. Remaining Article Of Brother Abdullah And Its Reality: The material directly relating to making Najd into Iraq was upto mentioned Ahadith. The remaining article of brother Abdullah is basicly implying all the evil things happened in Iraq therefore Ahadith of Najd referr to Iraq. And that Banu Tamim are portrayed in positive light in some Ahadith and man of Najd was told of entry to paradise therefore Banu Tamim are not [all] Khawarij and bad. And people of Iraq are most/all are bad and most/all tribulation and Khawarij emerged from there therefore Ahadith of Najd are about Iraq. We have already demonstrated where Iraq is, and where Najd is, and how Bani Tamim of Najd were part of Iraqi Khawarij. Najd and Iraq cannot legitimately be blendered into one and same however eagerly DIY Shaykh wants it to be. The perpherial issues of brother Abdullah, if Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) wills will be addressed in second article: Response To Abdullah The Khariji Of A’du-Allah- Evil And Virtues Of Iraqis-Najdis, And What It Is Established From Them. Conclusion: Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) pointed toward East, he mentioned direction of sunrise, and he pointed toward the house of Aysha (radiallah ta’ala anha) to pin point direction from which Satan’s group was to emerge. In addition to all he also mentioned name of region in direction of East, toward the direction house of Aysha (radiallah ta’ala anha) as Najd. Ahadith also indicate; Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) pointed toward Iraq and foretold emergence of Satan’s group from Iraq. Considering the name and location of Iraq and Najd it is evident both reffer to two different regions. Iraq Hadith referrs to first group of Satan and Najd Hadith referrs to second manifestation of Satan’s group from Najd. Wama alayna ilal balaghul mubeen. Muhammed Ali Razavi. FootNotes: - [1] Note all Barelwis, who adhere to teaching of Sayyidi Ala Hadhrat (alayhi rahma) are Sufis and from Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jammah, in principle mehodology and core teachings, but not all Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jammah is Barelwi. Barelwism fundamentally is those to adhere to teaching of prophetic Sunnah and of Jammah under the guidance of Sayyidi Ala Hadhrat Imam Ahmad Raza Khan al-Qadri (alayhi rahma). And those who supported Sayyidi Ala Hadhrat (alayhi rahma) against the Deobandis and Ahle Hadith [a non-conformist Wahhabi sect] heresies of these sects which originated in subcontinent. The sole distinguishing feature between Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jammah and Barelwism; is Takfir of Sayyidi Ala Hadhrat (alayhi rahma) of Deobandi scholars; who insulted and disrespected Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam), also believe in possibility (i.e. imkan) of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) lieing, stated finality of Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) would not be effected of another Prophet is born. To name them; Shaykh Ashraf Ali Thanvi, Shaykh Ismail Dehalvi, Shaykh Khalil Ahmad Saharanpuri, Shaykh Rasheed Ahmad Gangohi, and Shaykh Muhammad Qasim Nanotavi. Even though Fatawah Hussam al-Haramayn was attestted by scholars of Arab world during the life time of Sayyidi Ala Hadhrat (alayhi rahma) it did not become a international controversy. The result of Sayyidi Ala Hadhrat’s (alayhi rahma) fatwah greatly impacted subcontinent and the antangonism between Barelwis and Deobandis remained and was transmitted to future generations. As a result Barelwis of subcontinent have certain positions regarding Deobandis [based on core principles of Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jammah] which non-subcontinent members of Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jammah may not hold. And this maybe due to either being misinformed by Deobandis or having absolutely no knowledge of their beliefs. But there is no doubt they would support Barelwi positions when they are informed about Deobandi beliefs like they supported Sayyidi Ala Hadhrat (alayhi rahma) in his life time. - [2] The Wahhabism originated in middle of 17th century lead by Najdi Shaykh Muhammad Bin Abdul Wahhab. He split from the Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jammah and created band of bandits blundering Muslim cities and kill Muslims mercilessly because Shaykh of Najd had declared that over whelming majority of Muslims of Arabia are polytheists except his own followers. Note prior to this Wahhabism and its teaching didn’t exist. Their method of determining major Shirk was never heard before them nor did the belief; vast majority of Muslim Ummah is upon major Shirk and has fallen into innovation. Authentic Ahadith contradict both these teachings. - [3] (i) This means; Western part of Arabia, the region of Hijaz, its inhabitants will remain upon truth of Islam uptil the day of judgment. (ii) Wahhabism emerged in central Arabia, region surrounding Saudi capital Riyadh, and their leader accused the people of Makkah and Madinah and their scholars of being polytheists, and claim none other then him knows meaning of; There is none worthy of worship except Allah: “And I inform you about myself – I swear by Allah whom there is none worthy to worship except Him – I have sought knowledge and those who knew me believed that I had knowledge while I did not know the meaning of La Ilaha Illa Allah at that time and did not know the religion of Islam before this grace that Allah favored. As well as my Shaikhs (teachers) no one among them knew that. And if someone from the scholars of al-Arid (the lands of Najd and surrounding areas) claims that he knew the meaning of La Ilaha Illa Allah or knew the meaning of Islam before this time, or claims on behalf of his teachers that someone from them knew that, then he has lied and said falsehood and deceived people and praised himself with something he does not possess.“ [Ref: al-Darur al-Saniyyah, here] And he explicitly stated this and meaning of this is that he alone knew Tawheed and implication of which is everyone but him was disbeliever because Tawheed is fundamental requirement to be a Muslim absence of which means Kufr. iii) Compare what the Hadith states and what Shaykh Muhammad Bin Abdul Wahhab, the Iblees of Najd has stated, and think for yourself and ask: Were the people of Hijaz upon truth of Islam, or was Shaykh of Najd upon truth of Islam?
  2. Introduction: Typically it is assumed that Muslims believe Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) to be Hadhir Nazir with jismani (i.e. bodily) sense. But reality is Ahlus Sunnah believe him to be Hadhir Nazir in number of ways. And this article will shed some light on the details. Hadhir Nazir And Its Categories: Hadhir Nazir is another way of saying witness. Every kamil (i.e. perfect) witness in essences and attributes is Hadhir (i.e. present), Nazir (i.e. observing) and hearing. There are four ways in which Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is believed to be Hadhir Nazir: i) Nooraniyyah, ii) Roohaniyyah, iii) and Jismaniyyah. Nooraniyyah and Roohaniyyah involve continously witnessing deeds before and after birth. Jismaniyyah is connected with witnessing of the deeds by Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) around him and supernaturally witnessing deeds of all of his Ummat to come till the day of judgment. Hadhir Nazir Nooraniyyah: Nooraniyyah, for lack of better word, means LIGHT. Please note, every Noor is visible light. Angels are Noor but not visible light and they are a form of light which cannot be detected and will never be detected with instruments. Nooraniyyah is referring to Haqiqat al-Muhammadiyyah – the reality of Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) – which according to scholars of Ahlus Sunnah and Hadith is; Noor of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) was the first creation created by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). It was divided into four parts one was kept and other three were used to create the remaining creation. And in this sense the living and the dead matter [dead from our perception of life but in reality it is also alive and worships Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala] are all connected with their source [the Noor from where they were seperated]. Ulamah explain just as a limb is connected with body and body/soul knows what the limb does in the similar sense Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is connected with the creation and he was/is aware of actions of Jinn and mankind. As well as all the happenings in the universe. Hadhir Nazir Jismaniyyah: Jismaniyyah referrs to body (i.e. jism) of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and is related to his earthly life. There are two types of witnessing: i) Natural, ii) and supernatural. Natural witnessing is seeing with eyes hearing with ears of events which take place around the person. Supernatural, as evidenced by Ahadith, is seeing all the good/bad actions of his entire Muslim Ummah during in his life time. Hadhir Nazir Roohaniyyah: Roohaniyyah is related to Ruh (i.e. soul) of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). It has two components: i) Before birth, ii) and after death. First -: Soul of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) existed after its creation and it observed the good/bad actions of all nations before birth of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) while adressing Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) about past events questions: Have you not seen? Did you not see? Ulamah have explained this is because soul of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has seen good/bad actions of nations before his birth. And Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) refferences so Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) can recall events so he can closely relate the verses to events which the verses referr to. Second -: It involves observing the deeds iia) of believing Ummah iib) and Ummah to which he was sent to guide – i.e. mankind. In the case of (iia) Rooh of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) without middle observes good/bad deeds and as evidenced by Ahadith angels also present to him good/bad deeds of his Ummah after his departure from earth. With regards to (iib) Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) directly observes their good/bad deeds [just like the first group] because he has been sent to mankind as a witness (i.e. Shahid/Shaheed) which nessceiates witnessing of good/bad actions to be a truthful witness. Conclusion: Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is believed to be witness (i.e. Hadhir Nazir) over the actions of Jinn and mankind in three ways. Nooraniyyah is connected with being personally aware of deeds of mankind as one is aware of one’s limbs. Roohaniyyah is connected with witnessing of soul of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) of events before and after his birth and death. And Jismaniyyah is related to earthly life of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) where he ordinarily and supernaturally witnessed the good/bad deeds of his Ummah. Note the evidences for each is different and if Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) wills all three categories will be explained in light of relating evidences. Wama alayna ilal balaghul mubeen. Muhammed Ali Razavi
  3. Introduction: Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has stated in Quran; Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has been sent as a Shahid/Shaheed (i.e. witness). One sent as a witness is sent to witness with eyes/ears. And Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has been sent to mankind hence natural conclusion is that he witnesses deeds of entire mankind. Deobandis/Salafis believe he indeed is sent as a witness to mankind but does not see/hear the actions of mankind. In other words they believe he is witness but ascribe no quality to him which establish that he is witness. Its like believing Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is Rabb (i.e. Lord) without qualities of Rububiyah. Or believing Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is Khaliq (i.e. Creator) without believing He creates. Affirmation of word but without believing the natural meaning. Muslims believe in the word and its implications. And as result we believe Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) fullfils the criteria which he needs to be a witness. To put it simply he sees and hears the actions of those whom he was sent as a witness – i.e. mankind. Heretical Reasoning For Their Belief: I had stated in a discussion: “Prophet (sallalahu alayhi wa aalihi was'sallam) is Shahid (i.e. witness) and a witness must posess two qualties; Hadhir (i.e. present phisically) as well as Nadhir (hearing, seeing). And without these qualities one can not be a truthful witness. Our belief is that Prophet (sallalahu alayhi wa aalihi was'sallam) is Hadhir in his heavenly resting place in Madinah ash'shareef but soul is able to move as soul of Musa (alayhis salam) was able to move from place to place while keeping touch with the body of Musa (alayhis salam) and Nadhir upon his Ummah. Ability of Hadhir Nadhir is a mojzaati qudrat which …” With regards to underlined a Deobandi brother with the name of Mustafvi wrote the following while discussing with me on topic of Hadhir Nazir: “It is true that your above mentioned two qualities have some weight but these two are not compulsory in all the cases. One can be a witness without being present physically and can give witness on the basis of his knowledge provided to him by some truthful and trustworthy.” [Ref: Mustafvi, Private Discussion, Publicised, Post 1.] Mustafvi brother in context of my evidences is attempting to argue that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) does not need to directly witness events as they happen rather he can/will bear witness upon being informed by truthful/reliable witnesses of his Ummah. This establishes hearing/seeing is not essential to be a witness rather receiving news of event is enough to bear witness. If Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) wills this position would be criticised within Shar’ri boundaries. Note arleady this quote was addressed in another response, here, and this response will focus another aspect. The Baseless Deobandi/Salafi Position: Neither Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and nor the Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has stated in Quran or Sunnah that a witness is one who has been informed by another nor said witness can bear witness upon being informed by another. This principle of heretics is based on elevating their self to status of gods beside Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala): “Have you seen the one who takes as his god his own desire?[1] Then would you be responsible for him?” [Ref: 25:43] And are worshiping their own whims and desires instead of submitting to Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Making religion of Islam how they want it to be instead of making themselves into image of Islam. There is no evidence whatsoever which establishes or suggests - in Dunya or Aakhira - that if Zayd saw x y z happening and Zayd truthfully informs Amr of x y z then Amr would also become a witness of the event. Nor there is evidence which establishes or suggests - in Dunya or Aakhira - that Amr would be deemed as first hand witness due to receiving news from Zayd. Belief that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) will qualify to be a witness upon being told by his Ummatis can only be valid if the mentioned rule can be established from Quran and Sunnah. Witnessing Of No-Witness And Its Worth: Take the following scenario into account: Zayd has been accused of murder. Amr and Bakr hear the news from Khalid that Zayd has murdered Akhtar. Amr and Bakr are truthful and upstanding members of community. Amr and Bakr testify in court Zayd has killed Akhtar. Note the two witnesses criteria has been met by witnessing of Amr and Bakr. In court of Shari’a will Zayd receive capital punishment or any punishment due to witnessing of Amr and Bakr? Well in light of following the head of Zayd would role like a football: “One can be a witness without being present physically and can give witness on the basis of his knowledge provided to him by some truthful and trustworthy.” A intelligent person even with basic understanding of Islamic judicial system will know; Zayd will not be charged or punished because of Amr and Bakr’s testimony unless Khalid bear witness and then takes an oath [to fulfill the criteria of two witnesses] that he saw Zayd committ the murder. Amr and Bakr’s testimony is nill and void in murder case. Same scenario but different dispute, with addition of Uthman: Khalid and Uthman both saw the murder taking place. Khalid wasn’t aware that Uthman witnessed the murder and saw Khalid at the crime scene. Khalid denies being at the crime scene in court. Uthman claims Khalid also witnessed the murder. In this case Amr and Bakr can truthfully testify that Khalid informed them of the murder. In other words Amr and Bakr would be coroborating the account of Uthman. Once truth of matter is established that Khalid was afraid of bearing witness but he was witness. Supportive evidence of Amr/Bakr will establish Khalid was also witness to murder then Zayd will receive punishment. But Amr’s and Bakr’s witnessing to murder on account of being informed by Khalid is nill and void. Their testimony will only become cause for Khalid to be summoned by court to give testimony but it will not serve basis for judgment of murder case. Apart from following Deobandi/Salafi rule being completely and absolutely against the established procedures of Islamic legal system: “One can be a witness without being present physically and can give witness on the basis of his knowledge provided to him by some truthful and trustworthy.” This rule opens door injustice: Truthful/Trustworthy members of community end up believing in town gossip [and without verifying it] report the incident to police and when incident is presented to Qadhi they testify Akhtar stole x y z. The result would be Akhtar getting his hand chopped off. Firstly in this judgment Islamic requirements of eye-witnesses werent met. Secondly being truthful/trustworthy is not sole requirement for witnessing rather the fundamental requirement is witnessing the events with eyes/ears. Islamic judicial systems first requirement is witnessing and then truthfulness trustworthiness would be considered. Thirdly the victim of crime has to exist and his complain has to be genuine. Mere testimony of truthfull and trustworthy bearded Arabic speaking Tasbih rolling Muslims is not enough against another believer/disbeliever. Prophets Will Testify Against Their Own Nations: Truthful Prophets will testify in court of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) that they delivered the message given to them but Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) will ask them to produce witness. It is recorded in Hadith that Prophet Nuh (alayhis salam) will testify in court of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) that he delivered the message given to him by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) to his nation. And his Ummah will negate this and Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) will ask Nuh (alayhis salam) to bring forth witness in his own defence: “Allah's Messenger said, "Noah will be brought (before Allah) on the Day of Resurrection, and will be asked: 'Did you convey the message of Allah?" He will reply: 'Yes, O Lord.' And then Noah's nation will be asked: 'Did he convey Allah's message to you?' They will reply: 'No warner came to us.' Then Noah will be asked: 'Who are your witnesses?' He will reply: 'Muhammad and his followers.' Thereupon you …” [Ref: Bukhari, B92, H448] The above Hadith only gives example of Prophet Nuh (alayhis salam) and his Ummah. In actuality Ummah f every Prophet will be questioned and every single one of them would deny reicieving the message from their Prophet and we the Muslims and Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) will testify they delivered the message:“So how (will it be) when We bring from every nation a witness and we bring you (O Muhammad) against these (people) as a witness?” [Ref: 4:41]“And thus we have made you a just community that you will be witnesses over the people and the Messenger will be a witness over you. And We did not make the qiblah which you used to face except that We might make evident who would follow the Messenger from who would turn back on his heels. And indeed, it is difficult except for those whom Allah has guided. And never would Allah have caused you to lose your faith. Indeed Allah is, to the people, Kind and Merciful.” [Ref: 2:143] Please note these truthful and trustworthy Prophets of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) are testifying in court of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) that they have delivered the message given to them by Him. If following rule was true then wouldn’t Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) accept the testimony of His trustworthy and truthful servants:“One can be a witness without being present physically and can give witness on the basis of his knowledge provided to him by some truthful and trustworthy.” Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) asking His truthful and trustworthy servants the Prophets to produce a witness in support of their claim is suffient evidence to refute the invented innovated principle. There are roughly hundered twenty-four thousand Prophets/Messengers and this amounts to roughly same numbers of reasons why this principle is wrong. Conclusion: Brother Mustafvi’s statement is completely without basis. There are no textual evidences which support bearing witness without seeing/hearing the event. Islamic legal system will not use the testimony of two truthful witnesses who haven’t seen the events to which they bear witness even if they claim they have been informed by two more first hand witnesses. And the greatest evidence against brother Mustafvi’s understanding is witnessing of Prophets against their own nations and Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) demanding witness from them. If truthful/trustworthy person bearing witness was legitimate concept then who would be more truthful/trustworthy then the Prophets? But despite their truthful/trustworthiness Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) will not accept their testimony and will demand witnesses to coroborate his testimony. Alhasil this concept of brother Mustafvi is invalid and against established teaching of Islam. Wama alayna ilal balaghul mubeen. Muhammed Ali Razavi Footnotes: - [1] “Then Allah tells His Prophet that if Allah decrees that someone will be misguided and wretched, then no one can guide him except Allah, glory be to Him: “Have you seen him who has taken as his god his own vain desire?” Meaning whatever he admires and sees as good in his own desires becomes his religion and his way.” [Ref: Tafsir Ibn Kathir, 25:43]
  4. Introduction: Deobandi brother with the name of Mustafvi made a statement in order to argue against Islamic belief of Hadhir Nazir. This article will focus on the statement and try to understand on which basis brother Mustafvi made the statement and how his statements could be interpreted in light of creed of Hadhir Nazir. Please note he might not have intended the details derived and beliefs attributed to him from his statement [in 1.0 and refuted in 1.1 to 1.2] because it is very unlikely he would be familiar with the topic of Hadhir Nazir comprehensively as a educated believer would be. But despite possibility of lack of knowledge his statement is being interpreted as if he was fully aware of all in’s and out’s this belief and implications of his statement. Objective is to comprehensively explore all possible angles of topic of Hadhir Nazir and his statements happens to be a mean to one such detail. The only material directly related to his statement and to him is from 0.1 to 0.2. 0.0 - My And Brother Mustafvi’s Statements: In my discussion with brother Mustafvi on topic of Hadhir Nazir I had written the following: “Prophet (sallalahu alayhi wa aalihi was'sallam) is Shahid (i.e. witness) and a witness must posess two qualties; Hadhir (i.e. present phisically) as well as Nadhir (hearing, seeing). And without these qualities one can not be a truthful witness. Our belief is that Prophet (sallalahu alayhi wa aalihi was'sallam) is Hadhir in his heavenly resting place in Madinah ash'shareef but soul is able to move as soul of Musa (alayhis salam) was able to move from place to place while keeping touch with the body of Musa (alayhis salam) and Nadhir upon his Ummah. Ability of Hadhir Nadhir is a mojzaati qudrat which …” He responded with the following: “It is true that your above mentioned two qualities have some weight but these two are not compulsory in all the cases. One can be a witness without being present physically and can give witness on the basis of his knowledge provided to him by some truthful and trustworthy.” [Ref: Mustafvi, Private Discussion, Publicised, Post 1.] 0.1 - Chain Of Transmission And Its Major Components: To be a truthful and trustworthy person witnessing of event is essential. If Bakr is truthful and trustworthy and he witnesses x y z and informs Amr x y z has happened. Then for his truthfulness and trustworthiness to be established it is important that event has taken place and that Bakr witnessed it for himself. Even though the chain of transmission of Khabr (i.e. news/report) may not from eye-witness to eye-witness but it is reiable because Bakr has witnessed it and on account of his eye-witnessing it has passed from eye-witness to truthful to truthful. This is how chain of transmission in Hadith works. A authentic Hadith via many narrators it goes back to a companion who heard and saw Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) acted in such a fashion or utter the words of Hadith. Alhasil -: A truthfull and trustworthy individual witnesses a event and then transmits this information to a truthfull person. Then this report is transmitted continously from truthful to truthful. And this report will be trustworthy and truthfull, and is to be believed.’[1] Note this is the foundation on which brother Mustafvi made his statement. 0.2 - Error In Brother Mustafvi’s Statement: Brother Mustafvi’s statement is based on valid principle from principles of Hadith but his statement is incorrect because he inserted into it his error. Firstly the very basic error is that he does not mention witnessing by an eye-witness. One who originates the Khabr must be eye witness to the event he reports otherwise he is lieing or at least spreading rumours as actual events. Secondly one who hears a Khabr does not become witness to the event nor he qualifies to testify as an eye-witness, or as a non-eye-witness. Note which he claims having truthful Khabr qualifies the knower of news as a witness and can bear witness: “One can be a witness without being present physically and can give witness on the basis of his knowledge provided to him by some truthful and trustworthy.” There are thousands of Sahih (i.e. authentic) Ahadith and there are Mutawatir [is grade above, authentic] Ahadith but none claims to be witness on basis of them. Nor can claim to qualify as an eye-witness of event narrated in Hadith. Being informed by another and testifying on account of it is testimony of one’s own faith.[2] And its worth in court of law is no greater then it. 1.0 - Two Contexts His Statement Can Be Interpreted: There are two ways brother Mustafvi’s statement can be interpreted: i) From Prophet Adam (alayhis salam) to Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). ii) And from Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) to the present. Note brother Mustafvi’s statement was written in effort to refute Islamic belief of Hadhir Nazir. Therefore in the 1st case it implies, brother Mustafvi believes, Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) was informed by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) what the nations did before he was sent as last/final Nabi and he will bear witness on account of this learnt knowledge . And in the 2nd case it means, brother Mustafvi believes, we the Ummah will educate Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) about what nations did after him and he will testify on account of what we tell him. In both cases Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) direct witnessing of the events has been removed and replaced with being informed by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and by his own Ummah. In other words Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) directly witnessing events is being negated. 1.1 - The Error Of Brother Mustafvi’s Understanding: There is no evidence to suggest that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) will be bearing witness on account of being informed by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Or in other words will be giving testimony of his faith in Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). This is Qiyas (i.e. analogy) based on Hadith which states Ummah of RasoolAllah (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) will testify in defence of Prophets upon being informed by last/final Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam): “… It will be said to him: ‘Did you convey the message to your people?’ And he will say: ‘Yes.’ Then his people will be called and it will be said: ‘Did he convey the message to you?’ They will say: ‘No.’ Then it will be said: ‘Who will bear witness for you?’ He will say: ‘Muhammad and his nation.’ So the nation of Muhammad will be called and it will be said: ‘Did this man convey the message?’ They will say: ‘Yes.’ He will say: ‘How did you know that?’ They will say: ‘Our Prophet told us that the Messengers had conveyed the message, and we believed him.’ This is what Allah says: ‘Thus We have made you, a just (and the best) nation, that you be witnesses over mankind and the Messenger be a witness over you.’” [Ref: Ibn Majah, B37, H4284] Qiyas was/is not foundation of Islamic creed. Nor there is proof that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) will testify on account of being informed by his own Ummah regarding events transpired after him. Again this is also based on Qiyas and both of these are against clear emphatic teachings of Quran. 1.2 - Islamic Verdict On 1st Scenario: Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) states: “So how (will it be) when We bring from every nation a witness and we bring you (O Muhammad) against these (people) as a witness?” [Ref: 4:41]“And thus we have made you a just community that you will be witnesses over the people and the Messenger will be a witness over you. And We did ...” [Ref: 2:143] “Allah named you Muslims previous (scriptures) and in this (revelation) that the Messenger may be a witness over you and you may be witnesses over the people.” [Ref: 22:73] The Ummah will bear witness in defence of Prophets. Note following Hadith explains what type of testimony they will give: “He will say: ‘Muhammad and his nation.’ So the nation of Muhammad will be called and it will be said: ‘Did this man convey the message?’ They will say: ‘Yes.’” Then Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) will question the Ummah about how they know Prophets delivered the message to their nations and they will say Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) informed them of it: “He will say: ‘How did you know that?’ They will say: ‘Our Prophet told us that the Messengers had conveyed the message, and we believed him.’ This is what Allah says: ‘Thus We have made you, a just (and the best) nation, that you be witnesses over mankind and the Messenger be a witness over you.’” [Ref: Ibn Majah, B37, H4284] This establishes Ummats testimony is of their Iman. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) does not question Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam): Who informed you? Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) ensured that Muslims know Ummah of RasoolAllah (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has not witnessed the events regarding which they have testified. For Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) this route is not taken and this indicates Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) had witnessed these events spiritually.[3] And proof of this is are those verses in which Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) within context of historical events says: “Have you not seen[4] how your Lord dealt with Aad.” [Ref: 89:6] “Have you not seen how your Lord dealt with the companions/army of elephant.” [Ref: 105:1] “Have you not seen those elders of the children of Israel after the time of Moses …” [Ref: 2:246] And these verses are supported by Hadith a narrated in Musnad of Imam Ahmad (rahimullah alayhi ta’ala): “عرضات الأنبيا أممها و اتباعها من أممها” Which means: “Presented before me were [all] Prophets and their nations along side [their believing] followers.” This goes on to establish Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) witnessed the deeds of those before him and use of, ‘ألم تر’ , is referrence to seeing if Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). Alhasil the first belief of brother Mustafvi is refuted. Islamic Verdict On 2nd Scenario: Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) states: “Indeed, We have sent you as a witness and a bringer of good tidings and a warner.” [Ref: 48:8] "O Prophet! Truly We have sent you as a Witness, a Bearer of Glad Tidings, and Warner." [Ref: 33:45] And he is sent to mankind: "Whatever of good reaches you, is from Allah, but whatever of evil befalls you, is from yourself. And We have sent you as a Messenger to mankind, and Allah is Sufficient as a Witness." [Ref: 4:79] He is a Prophet sent to mankind as a witness like Musa (alayhis salam) was sent to Firawn: "We have sent to you an apostle to be a witness concerning you, even as We sent an apostle to Pharaoh." [Ref: 73:15] Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is sent as a hearing and seeing witness to mankind like Prophet Musa (alayhis salam) was sent to Fir’awn. Note one who is sent as a witness must witness over whom he was sent to witness and without his witnessing he is not witness. Yet Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) states Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is witness and sent as a witness. Hence his witnessing of deeds of mankind is established from ever since he was sent as last/final Prophet and Messenger. There are number of Ahadith which establish that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has witnessed everything: "Then I saw Him put his palms between my shoulder blades till I felt the coldness of his fingers between the two sides of my chest. Then everything was illuminated for me and I recognized everything. He said: Muhammad! I said: At Thy service, my Lord. He said: What do these high angels contend about? I said: In regard to expiations. He said: What are these? [...]" [Ref: Tirmadhi, Vol5, H3246, Tafsir Surah Sad] "Narrated Hakim Bin Nafi, Saeed Bin Sinan, narrated Abu Zahriyat, Kathir Bin Murra Abu Shajara al-Hadhrami, Ibn Umar said: Abdullah bin Umar (radi Allahu anhuma) that Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said: "Indeed this entire world is in front of me so that I can observe everything in it. I can see everything in this world and everything that will take place till the Day of Qiyamah. I see the entire world as I see the palm of my hand". [Ref: Kitab al-Fitan, 1st Chapter, Hadith No. 2, by Hafidh Naeem Bin Hammad al-Marwazi] On account of this knowledge Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) informed all that was to transpire from beginning of creation till the entering of people in paradise/hell: “Narrated Umar: One day the Prophet stood up amongst us for a long period and informed us about the beginning of creation (and talked about everything in detail) till he mentioned how the people of Paradise will enter their places and the people of Hell will enter their places. Some remembered what he had said, and some forgot it.” [Ref: Bukhari, B54, H414] Alhasil all this evidence goes on to refute the notion mentioned in second belief of brother Mustafvi. Conclusion: If brother Mustafvi’s statement is interpreted in light of science of Hadith even then it fails to meet the criteria because the originator of chain must be witness the event and then to narrate it to others. If Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) bore witness without witnessing himself then the rule of chain originator being first hand witness to event is broken. Yet verses of Quran and Hadith of Musnad Ahmad establishes Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) witnessed Prophets and their nations and their beleiving followers and their actions. In light of this the chain originator is actual witness and he narrated and Ummah believed and bore witness. But whole objective of inventing ‘bearing witness without witnessing the events’ was to negate actual witnessing of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) which has failed even if your philosophy of bearing witness without witnessing the event was believed. Even then it would be true for the Ummah and not for Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). Also if Ummah informing Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) about what transpired after him is considered in light of your rule then implication is Ummah has seen it and it will inform Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). This was invented with objective to refute actual witnessing of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). Yet the Quranic verses and quoted Ahadith establish Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) himself witnesses and had witnessed the deeds of all happenings till the judgment day. If we disregarding the fact Ummat informing Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is without scriptural support. Even then it would imply, Ummat witnessed the events, and they informed Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam), who also had witnessed the events himself. Therefore scenario would be similar to angels presenting deeds of people to Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) despite the fact that He is already aware of them. Or similar to, angels presenting to Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’salam) salutations of his Ummah despite the fact that good/bad deeds were already seen by him and are seen by him. Alhasil however the ball is rolled the witnessing of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) cannot be refuted. Hence it would be better to let go of innovative concept of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) testifying for what is established from textual evidences. Wama alayna ilal balaghul mubeen. Muhammed Ali Razavi Footnotes: - [1] A example: Truthful and trustworthy people have transferred Quran and authentic Ahadith and on basis of information in these we believe and testify; there is no Ma’bud (i.e. deserving of worship) except Allah and Prophet Muhammad is Messenger of Allah. Note this testimony is of ones own Iman (i.e. faith) and not of an out side event. Testimony of faith only the person can express none else because one is aware of his own belief. Hence person testifying as such is first hand witness. - [2] Like it is in the case of following Hadith: “He will say: ‘Muhammad and his nation.’ So the nation of Muhammad will be called and it will be said: ‘Did this man convey the message?’ They will say: ‘Yes.’ He will say: ‘How did you know that?’ They will say: ‘Our Prophet told us that the Messengers had conveyed the message, and we believed him.’ This is what Allah says: ‘Thus We have made you, a just (and the best) nation, that you be witnesses over mankind and the Messenger be a witness over you.’” [Ref: Ibn Majah, B37, H4284] Note the Ummah will testify and the Ummah of Prophet Nuh (alayhis salam) will question the testimony of Ummah of RasoolAllah (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). Ummah would be questioned who informed you and they will say Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). Note He will not question Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) testifying against Ummah of Prophet Nuh (alayhis salam). Ummah will bear testimony on basis of their own faith in truthfullness and trustworthiness of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). - [3] Two logical conclusions can be made because of this: i) RasoolAllah (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) will be testifying on account of being informed like his Ummah. And there was no difference between testimony of Ummah and RasoolAllah (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) hence there was no need to pursue it further. ii) Testimony of RasoolAllah (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) was in result of actually witnessing the events therefore Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) did not pursue to negate his actual witnessing. But Ummah had testified on account of being informed by RasoolAllah (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) ensured it was pointed out. Resolution -: Firstly please note Qiyas is not foundation of creed and to believe in first contention is to put faith in Qiyas. This is why I only mentioned the second contention in my main article. Secondly there are numerous places in Quran where Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) mentions events which had transpired long before birth of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). In some cases Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) while adressing Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) begins the narrative with: “Did you not see!” And this is to attest that he saw and he is being reminded. From this scholars of Ahlus Sunnah assume position; Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) witnessed the events prior to his brith and he is being asked to recall the events. Alhasil -: This goes on to establish the Islamic position taken in the article. - [4] The older translations of Quran in English and Urdu translated the words, ‘ألم تر’ , to denote seeing but new Wahhabi translation, Sahih International, has started the tradition of translating these verses: “Have you not considered …” The objective is to do away with the natural meaning of words due to the implications. They, insha Allah, will never succeed in distortion of Quran because Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has made it clear that he saw the Prophets and their nations before him.
  5. Introduction: Muslims believe Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has been sent as a Shahid/Shaheed in meaning of hearing/seeing type of witness. The opponents of Islam reject and argue against this belief on account that witnessing does not require him to be first hand witness. Rather Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) can bear witness without being an actual witness. They believe Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) will bear witness on judgment day upon being informed by members of his Ummah. To substantiate their position they quote various evidences which indicate person/people bearing witness without having to see/hear anything of the event. This short article, if Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) wills, will expose the error of their methodology and in-appropriateness of their evidence. Two Types Of Witnessing: There are two types of events to which a Muslim can bear witness, the external and the internal. External witnessing involves sight/sound and it involves an event being heard/seen by an individual. And then this individual bears witness in court recollecting from memory what was seen and heard. The second type, the internal, witnessing is based on knowledge. Knowledge derived from senses, other then eye/ear, without external event, which involves ability of self assessment and then declaration of what was found internally. Situational Appropriate Witnessing: First type of witnessing - or external – involves yourself/another, and always involves an event unfolding, visually/audibly, which you/another can see/hear. This type of witnessing requires being first hand witness to bear truthful witness in court of law and in this context the greatest court of law, aka judgment day. And it is connected with crime/sin and punishment aspect of law of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). And the one who does not meet this criterion is not truthful witness. The second type - internal - witnessing involves no audible/visual event, nor it involves another person, it is strictly about one’s oneself. And the type of witnessing involves personal belief to which none can be witness with their eyes/ears. The one who can bear witness about his own belief/faith is the person’s self. Abdul Wahid cannot bear witness about the true state of belief of Abdullah. He can bear witness to what Abdullah declares. The true knowledge of belief/faith of Abdullah, only Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and Abdullah know. The internal type of witnessing is for declaring personal belief, and it cannot be used, and is not used in criminal trials. Hadhir Nazir And The Two Types Of Witnessing’s: Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) will bear witness regarding the actions of his Ummah and the actions of previous nations on judgment day as established in the Quran and Ahadith. And as per rule the type of witness required is - external witness - one who is has heard/seen the events as a first hand witness. Any witnessing of - internal witness – is not acceptable because individual/people are bearing witness about their personal beliefs/convictions which they have. Conclusion: In Islam there are two types of witnessing’s, a type which is related to court, crime, and punishment. And this witnessing requires one bearing witness about actions/events does so after audibly or visually witnessing the details of events. In context of court - bearing witness when person has not seen/heard the events, but has bore witness after being informed by another, such a person is not truthful witness. One who bears witness of his inner belief/faith, does so based on the first hand knowledge, which none can have other than the person, making the statement. And such witnessing is not and was never binding in court. The required type of witnessing for ciminal activity and for punishment is first hand witnessing. Wama alayna ilal balaghul mubeen. Muhammed Ali Razavi
  6. Introduction: The vast majority Muslim scholarship are of understanding that Shaykh Muhammad Bin Abdul Wahhab, the founder of Wahhabi sect, and all adherents of this sect in any form or label are an off-shoot of Khariji apostasy. And this understanding is fully in accordance with teaching of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). Number of articles were written in which Islamic position was established with backing of Ahadith. But a Salafi/Wahhabi brother wrote an angry email in which he protested the innocence of Shaykh Muhammad Bin Abdul Wahhab and argued that Ahadith of Khawarij were wrongfully applied to him. 0.0 - The Ahadith Of Najd Subject Of This Disscussion: “Narrated Ibn 'Umar: (The Prophet) said, "O Allah! Bless our Sham and our Yemen." People said, "Our Najd as well." The Prophet again said, "O Allah! Bless our Sham and Yemen." They said again, "Our Najd as well." On that the Prophet said, "There will appear earthquakes and afflictions, and from there will come out the side of the group of Satan." [Ref: Bukhari, B17, H147] “Narrated Ibn 'Umar: I heard Allah's Apostle while he was facing the East, saying, "Verily! Afflictions are there, from the side where group of Satan will come out." [Ref: Bukhari, B88, H213] 0.1 - His Position In Shortest Expression: I) The Ahadith which predict emergence of horn (or group) of Satan from Najd are regarding Iraq and Khawarij which emerged from Iraq. II) Even if these Ahadith are imposed on central Arabia, or Saudi province of Najd, area surrounding Saudi capital Riyadh, even then these Ahadith are to be applied upon Khawarij of Iraq who were supported by members of Banu Tamim. And this establishes that Shaykh Muhammad Bin Abdul Wahhab is free of blame of being Khariji. 0.2 - The Role Of Banu Tamim In First Khariji Uprising: Muslim scholars are of the opinion that Khawarij from Banu Tamim marched from Saudi Arabian region of Najd [area surrounding Riyadh] to Syria and after falling out with Hadhrat Ali (radiallah ta’ala anhu) returned with his army to Iraq but camped at Harura and later Nahrawan.Where they fought against rightly guided Khalifah Hadhrat Ali (radiallah ta’ala anhu). Amongst these Kharijis of Banu Tamim was Dhil Khuwaisirah at-Tamimi, the Najdi. Keeping this Islamic position in mind the Salafi brother stated: “Even if these Ahadith are imposed on central Arabia, on Saudi province of Najd, area surrounding Saudi capital Riyadh, even then these Ahadith are to be applied upon Khawarij of Iraq who were supported by members of Banu Tamim.” Indicating he is assuming this position for sake of argument but does not actually believe this. And for his benefit and others like him, if Allah permits, the Islamic position will be established with sound reasoning and evidence in the following sections but as a starter refer to, here. 0.3 - What Is Being Said In The Argument: Brother connected tribe of Banu Tamim to Riyadh, and Tamimi’s to Khawarij of Iraq, because this would establish, Khawarij emerged from Najd, and marched to Syria and than to Iraq from Najd, long before Shaykh Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab. And due to this; the condition of Ahadith were fulfilled before birth of Shaykh Muhammad Bin Abdul Wahhab and to be specific in life time of Hadhrat Ali (radiallah ta’ala anhu). And therefore by default Shaykh of Najd is innocent of being part of Khariji sect. And to be honest this argument (II) is a very potent argument. It demonstrates brother had evaluated arguments presented against his belife and argued his case with sound deductive tools. This is by far the most academic argument presented in defence of Shaykh of Najd. But it is in vain and does nothing to vindicate the Shaykh nor those who follow his footsteps. 0.4 - Systematic Steps Leading To Refutation Of Second Argument: In order to successfully and comprehensively refute second argument. And to establish Islamic position that Shaykh Muhammad Bin Abdul Wahhab was indeed from group of Satan aka Khawarij: Firstly - It needs to be established that Dhil Khuwaisirah at-Tamimi and his companions existed in Arabian province of Najd in during the life time of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). And Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa alahi was’sallam) referred to them as group of Satan, aka Khawarij. Secondly - They went to Syria with army of Hadhrat Ali (radiallah ta’ala anhu) to fight against Amir ul-Momineen Muawiyah (radiallah ta’ala anhu). And they disagreed with Hadhrat Ali’s (radiallah ta’ala anhu) decision of arbitration and were disenchanted with him. Thirdly - They returned to Iraq and camped at Harura then Nahrawan and fought against Hadhrat Ali (radiallah ta’ala anhu) and the Iraqi’s killed the Khawarij. Fourthly - Dhil Khuwaisirah at-Tamimi and his companions were killed in Iraq [and not Khawarij to emerge from his progeny]. Fifthly - Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) foretold of two groups of Satan would emerge from land of Banu Rabia and Banu Mudhar [situated in East of Madinah, in region of Najd]. Sixthly - Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) told from posterity/descendents of Dhil Khuwaisirah at-Tamimi a group will arise [again]. Seventhly - Shaykh Muhammad Bin Abdul Wahhab is considered Khawarij to emerge from progeny/posterity of Dhil Khuwaisirah at-Tamimi and not from his companions. Eightly – If Hadith of group of Satan emerging for Najd means man power of Najd would appear from Najd or a sect would appear from Najd. Finally – How these steps establish charge levelled against Shaykh Muhammad Bin Abdul Wahhab will be concluded in accordance established facts. 1.0 – First Argument - Khawarij Toward Sunrise/East, And In Najd: Prophet (sallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) was by the side of pulpitof Masjid Nabvi and pointed out direction from which the group of Satan will emerge: “The Prophet stood up beside the pulpit and said, "Afflictions are there! Afflictions are there, from the side where ‘group of Satan will come out’, or said, ‘the side of the sun’." [Ref: Bukhari, B88, H212] "Verily, afflictions (will start) from here" pointing towards the east; "whence the side of the group of Satan comes out." [Ref: Bukhari, B56, H714] Another Hadith establishes Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) was pointing toward the house of Hadhrat Aysha (radiallah ta’ala anha) to indicate the precise direction of East: “Narrated 'Abdullah: The Prophet stood up and delivered a sermon, and pointing to 'Aisha's house, he said thrice, "Affliction (will appear from) here," and, "from the side, where Satan's group will come out." [Ref: Bukhari, B53, H336] Alhasil from pulpit to East and East in direction of Hadhrat Aysha’s (radiallah anha) house is precisely toward Saudi capital Riyadh and toward the birth town Shaykh Muhammad Bin Abdul Wahhab [Uyaynah], and toward missionary centre activity centre [Dir’riyyah]. This fact has been depicted on the maps in following article, here. And this area is precisely the Najd regarding which Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) foretold group of Satan will emerge from it: “Narrated Ibn 'Umar: (The Prophet) said, "O Allah! Bless our Sham and our Yemen." People said, "Our Najd as well." The Prophet again said, "O Allah! Bless our Sham and Yemen." They said again, "Our Najd as well." On that the Prophet said, "There will appear earthquakes and afflictions, and from there will come out the side of the group of Satan." [Ref: Bukhari, B17, H147] Following two articles depict where Najd is; here and here. 1.1 – Grounds Of Refution And Rejection Of First Argument: In an attempt to point the region from which group of Satan was to emerge Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) had pointed toward house of Hadhrat Aysha (radiallah ta’ala anha). That is to say, he pointed toward East, and pointed toward the region of Najd. Hence Shaykh Muhammad Bin Abdul Wahhab cannot excluded from being leader of group of Satan on grounds; intended Najd is Iraq and therefore Ahadith of Najd apply upon Khawarij of Iraq. Because Ahadith have indicated a precise direction and a region. And both, the name of Najd and direction of East cannot be applied to Iraq.Therefore the argument by Najd Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) intended Iraq is invalid. And nautrally Ahadith of Najd can be applied to the group of Khawarij which were to appear from Iraq. This leaves me with argument number two and to refute this argument evidence on which it is based needs to be explained properly. 2.0 – The Origin Of Khawarij: Evidence establishes Dhil Khuwaisirah and his companions even existed during the life time of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’salam) because when permission was sought to kill Dhil Khuwaisirah at-Tamimi Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) had stated he has companions: “… While the Prophet was distributing (war booty – raw gold) one day, Dhul Khawaisira, a man from the tribe of Bani Tamim, said, "O Allah's Apostle! Act justly." The Prophets said, "Woe to you! Who else would act justly if I did not act justly?" 'Umar said (to the Prophet ), "Allow me to chop his neck off." The Prophet said, "No, for he has companions (who are apparently so pious that) if anyone of (you compares his prayer with) their prayer, he will consider his prayer inferior to theirs, and similarly his fasting inferior to theirs, ... Abu Sa`id added, "I testify that I heard that from the Prophet, and also testify that I was with Ali when Ali fought against those people.” [Ref: Bukhari, B73, H184] And in another Hadith following is narrated: “Leave him, for he has companions, and if you compare your prayers with their prayers and your fasting with theirs, you will look down upon your prayers and fasting, in comparison to theirs. Yet they will go out of the religion as an arrow darts through the game's body in which case, …” [Ref: Bukhari, B84, H67] So the Khawarij already existed in Arabia. 2.1 - Dhil Khuwaisirah at-Tamim In Najd: Where were the companions of Dhil Khuwaisrah at-Tamimi? They were in province of Najd during the life of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) said: “The Prophet stood up beside the pulpit and said, "Afflictions are there! Afflictions are there, from the side where ‘group of Satan will come out’, or said, ‘the side of the sun’." [Ref: Bukhari, B88, H212] "Verily, afflictions (will start) from here" pointing towards the east; "whence the side of the group of Satan comes out." [Ref: Bukhari, B56, H714] In another Hadith Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) refused to supplicate for people of Najd and he explains why: “Narrated Ibn 'Umar: (The Prophet) said, "O Allah! Bless our Sham and our Yemen." People said, "Our Najd as well." The Prophet again said, "O Allah! Bless our Sham and Yemen." They said again, "Our Najd as well." On that the Prophet said, "There will appear earthquakes and afflictions, and from there will come out the side of the group of Satan." [Ref: Bukhari, B17, H147] “The people said, "O Allah's Apostle! And also on our Najd." I think the third time the Prophet said, "There (in East) is the place of earthquakes and afflictions and from there comes out the group of Satan." [Ref: Bukhari, B88, H214] Important note, during the life time of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) Islam did not reach Iraq nor Iraq was conquered: “Iraq will be conquered and some people will migrate (from Medina) and will urge their families and those who will obey them to migrate although Medina will be better for them; if they but knew." [Ref: Bukhari, B30, H99] Therefore the people who requested Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) to supplicate for Najd could not have been residents of Iraq. But Najd was conquered by Islamic armies and its inhabitants had accepted Islam. The Najd of Hadith in dicussion is in the direction of East from Madinah, here. Detailed information with numerous old and new maps in connection to Najd can be accessed in the following articles, here. The native lands of Banu Tamim to which Dhil Khuwaisirah at-Tamim belonged to is said to be on otherside of ad-Dahna: “Apostle of Allah, he did not ask you for a true border when he asked you. This land of Dahna is a place where the camels have their home, and it is a pasture for the sheep. The women of Banu Tamim and their children are beyond it.” [Ref: Abu Dawood, B19, H3064] Ad-Dahna is name of dessert in Najd to certify please see the following map, here. And following map depicts Banu Tamim with other tribes, here, here. 2.2 – Conclusion: Khuwaisirah And His Sect Is Group Of Satan’s From Najd: Based on the bare facts: Dhil Khuwaisirah at-Tamim belonged to tribe of Banu Tamim. Najd is East of Madinah and, native land of Bani Tamim is Najd, Dhil Khuwaisirah and his companions existed during the life time of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) -: It can be concluded Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) pointed toward East, in direction of Najd, and told of group of Satan, meaning Dhil Khuwaisirah at-Tamim and his followers/companions. 3.0 – Group Of Satan Appeared In Syria At Battle Of Siffeen: In the following Hadith it is same Dhil Khuwaisirah who charged Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) of distributing war booty unjustly and also take note Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has told when his group would emerge: “While we were with Allah's Messenger who was distributing there came Dhul Khuwaisira. A man from the tribe of Bani Tamim and said: "O Allah's Messenger! Do Justice." The Prophet said, "Woe to you! Who could do justice if I did not? I would be a desperate loser if I did not do justice." In one Hadith Khalid Ibn Walid and in the following Hadith Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) sought permission to kill Dhil Khuwaisirah but Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) did not give permission: “Umar said, "O Allah's Messenger! Allow me to chop his head off." The Prophet said, "Leave him, for he has companions who pray and fast in such a way that you will consider your fasting negligible in comparison to theirs. They recite Qur'an but it does not go beyond their throats and they will desert Islam as an arrow goes through a victim's body.” Than Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) goes on to give description of how they will be identified: “The sign by which they will be recognized is that among them there will be a black man, one of whose arms will resemble a woman's breast or a lump of meat moving loosely. Those people will appear when there will be differences amongst the people." [Ref: Bukhari, B56, H807] According to Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) Dhil Khuwaisirah at-Tamimi and his group would appear as a sect and group near to truth would kill them [and army of Ali radiallah ta’ala anhu killed them at Nahrawan – see H807]: “Abu Sa'id al-Khudri reported that the Messenger of Allah said: A group would secede itself (from the Ummah) when there would be dissension among the Muslims. Out of the two groups who would be nearer the truth would kill them.” [Ref: Muslim, B5, H2325] And another Hadith states the sect [of Dhil Khuwaisirah] will leave one of two Muslim parties: “Abu Sa’id reported the Messenger of Allah as saying: In the event of the dissension among Muslims an emerging sect will emerge one of the two parties that is nearer to the truth will kill it.” [Ref: Abu Dawood, B41, H4650] The two parties were of Khalifah al-Rashid Ali (radiallah ta’ala anhu) and Amir Muawiyah (radiallaht a’ala anhu): “Narrated Al-Amash: I asked Abu Wail: "Did you witness the battle of Siffin between Ali and Muawiyah?" He said: "Yes," and added: "Then I heard Sahl bin Hunaif saying: 'O people! Blame your personal opinions in your religion. […] "Abu Wail said, "I witnessed the battle of Siffin, and how nasty Siffin was!” [Ref: Bukhari, B92, H411] 3.1 - Section Of Ali’s Deserts Him At Siffin And Heads For Iraq: At Siffin [Raqqa, Syria] Ali (radiallah ta’ala anhu) and Muawiyah (radiallah ta’ala anhu) agreed to judge the dispute between them on basis of book of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). And a party of Ali (radiallah ta’ala anhu) agreed with decision and a party of Ali’s (radiallah ta’ala anhu) army disagreed. Out of those who disagreed they were in two groups. One group wanted to fight to end the disharmony and for the unity of Ummah and were sincere and true followers of Ali (radiallah ta’ala anhu) – Abu Wail was from this group. And the other group [companions of Dhil Khuwaisirah] disagreed becaused they deemed action of Ali (radiallah ta’ala anhu) against the book of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) – man who questioned Ali (radiallah ta’ala anhu) in the following Hadith was from the second group and from Dhil Khuwaisirah at-Tamimi’s companions -: "Narrated Habib bin Abi Thabit: I went to Abu Wail to ask him (about those who had rebelled against `Ali). On that Abu Wail said, "We were at Siffin. A man said, "Will you be on the side of those who are called to consult Allah's Book (to settle the dispute)?" `Ali said, 'Yes." ' Some people objected to Ali's agreement and wanted to fight. On that Sahl bin Hunaif said, 'Blame yourselves! I remember how, on the day of Al-Hudaibiya, if we had been allowed to choose fighting, we would have fought (the pagans)." [Ref: Bukhari, B60, H367] The basis of their disagreement was that it [meaning Dhil Khuwaisirah’s companions] deemed consulting the book of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) for a judgement/command as an act of playing Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). And they said to Ali (radiallah ta’ala anhu): "There is no command but that of Allah." Upon this Ali said: The statement is true but it is intentionally applied (to support) a wrong (cause).” [Ref: Muslim, B5, H2334] After the event of arbitration disenchanted members of Ali’s (radiallah ta’ala anhu) army [which composed of Dhil Khuwaisirah’s companions aka goup of Satan from Najd] deserted Ali (radiallah ta’ala anhu) and camped at Harura [earning them name Haruriyyah – near Kufah, later became known as Khawarij] and this is evident from following Hadith: “When Haruria (the Khawarij) set out (from Syria for Iraq – Harura) and as he was with Ali bin Abu Talib they …” [Ref: Muslim, B5, H2334] And from there the Khawarij Dhil Khuwaisirahs companions began to raid villages of Muslims killing anyone that did not adhere to their sectarian belief. Ali (radiallah ta’ala anhu) gathered forces to combat them and both armies camped at Nahrawan: "Ubaidah (al-salman) said: ‘Ali mentioned about the people of al Nahrawan, saying: Among them there will be a man with a defective hand or with a small hand. if you were not to overjoy. I would inform you of what Allah has promised (the reward for) those who will kill them at the tongue of Muhammad. I asked : Have you heard this from him? He replied : Yes, by the lord of the Ka’bah." [Ref: Abu Dawood, B41, H4745] 3.2 – Conclusion: Dhil Khuwaisirah And His Companions From Syria To Iraq: In the conclusion of section 2.2 evidence of what preceded it established Dhil Khuwaisirah at-Tamimi and his companions were referred by Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) as the group of Satan. In section 3.0 it was established that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) foretold; Dhil Khuwaisirah and his companions would appear when there will be difference between Muslims. And it was established the difference was between Ali (radiallah ta’ala anhu) and Muawiyah (radiallah ta’ala anhu). In section 3.1 it was established that a faction – composing of Dhil Khuwaisirahs companions, or group of Satan - from Ali’s (radiallah ta’ala anhu) army deserted him and headed for Iraq and camped at Harura [a village near Kufah]. And due to their raids which resulted in deaths of Muslims Ali (radiallah ta’ala anhu) decided to confront Dhil Khuwaisirah’s group of Satan and both armies camped at Nahrawan. 4.0 - Dhil Khuwaisirah And His Companions Meet Their End: Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) was distributing gold amongst the people until a man called Abdullah Bin Dhil Khuwaisirah at-Tamimi came said; Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has not distributed it fairly. Companions sought permission to kill him and it was refused: “Narrated Abu Sa'id:While the Prophet was distributing something, 'Abdullah bin Dhil Khawaisira At-Tamimi came and said, "Be just, O Allah's Apostle!" The Prophet said, "Woe to you ! Who would be just if I were not?" 'Umar bin Al-Khattab said, "Allow me to cut off his neck ! " The Prophet said, " Leave him, for he has companions, and …” He then described the level of adherance to religious teaching Dhil Khuwaisirah and his companions will have: “Leave him, for he has companions, and if you compare your prayers with their prayers and your fasting with theirs, you will look down upon your prayers and fasting, in comparison to theirs. Yet they will go out of the religion as an arrow darts through the game's body in which case, if the Qudhadh of the arrow is examined, nothing will be found on it, and when its Nasl is examined, nothing will be found on it; and then its Nadiyi is examined, nothing will be found on it.” Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) then went on to indicate how Dhil Khuwaisirah and his companions will be recognised: “The sign by which these people will be recognized will be a man whose one hand (or breast) will be like the breast of a woman (or like a moving piece of flesh).” [Ref: Bukhari, B84, H67] Another Hadith gives bit more detail about Dhil Khuwaisirah:“This man with the crippled hand was on that day with us in the mosque. We would sit with him by day and by night, and he was a poor man. I saw him attending the meals of Ali which he took with the people, and I clothed him with a cloak of mine. Abu Maryam said: The man with the crippled hand was called Nafi` Dhu al-Thadyah (Nafi`, man of nipple). He had in his hand something like a female breast with a nipple at it ends like the nipple of the female breast. If had some hair on it like the whiskers of cat. Abu Dawud said: He was known among the people by the name of Harqus.” [Ref: Abu Dawood, B41, H4752] Another Hadith has unique details with regards to grou of Satan of Najd who had gone to Syria and returned to Iraq after being disenchanted from Ali (radiallah ta’ala anhu): “When Haruria (the Khawarij) set out (from Syria for Iraq – Harura) and as he was with Ali bin Abu Talib they said: "There is no command but that of Allah." Upon this Ali said: The statement is true but it is intentionally applied (to support) a wrong (cause). The Messenger of Allah described their characteristics and I found these characteristics in them. They state the truth with their tongue, but it does not go beyond this part of their bodies. The most hateful among the creation of Allah is one black man among them (Khawarij). One of his hand is like the teat of a goat or the nipple of the breast. When Ali bin Abu Talib killed them he said: Search! They searched for him but they did not find it (his dead body). Upon this he said: Go (and search for him). By Allah, neither I have spoken a lie nor has the lie been spoken to me. Ali said this twice and thrice. They then found him (the dead body) in a ditch. They brought (his dead) body till they placed it before him (i.e. Hadrat Ali). 'Ubaidullah said: And, I was present at (that place) when this happened and when 'Ali said about them. A person narrated to me from Ibn Hanain that he said: I saw that black man.” [Ref: Muslim, B5, H2334] It is also stated in other Ahadith that Dhil Khuwaisirah and his companions were killed by Ali (radiallah ta’ala anhu) and a verse was revealed regarding the man Dhil Khuwaisirah: “Abu Sa'id added: I testify that I heard this from the Prophet and also testify that 'Ali killed those people while I was with him. The man with the description given by the Prophet was brought to 'Ali. The following Verses were revealed in connection with that very person (i.e., 'Abdullah bin Dhil-Khawaisira At-Tarnimi): 'And among them are men who accuse you (O Muhammad) in the matter of (the distribution of) the alms.'” [Ref: Bukhari, B84, H67] And group of Ali (radiallah ta’ala anhu) was closer to truth in comparision to Muawiyah (radiallah ta’ala anhu) because his army killed off Khawarij – i.e. Dhil Khuwaisirah and his companions: “Abu Sa'id al-Khudri said that the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) made a mention of a sect that would be among his Ummah which would emerge out of the dissension of the people. Their distinctive mark would be shaven heads. They would be the worst creatures or the worst of the creatures. The group who would be nearer to the truth out of the two would kill them.” [Ref: Muslim, B5, H2324] 4.1 - Banu Tamims Khawarij Killed By People Of Iraq: Ahadith describes appearance of Dhil Khuwaisirah as: "He (i.e. the Prophet, ) gives the chief of Najd and does not give us." The Prophet said, "I give them so as to attract their hearts (to Islam)." Then a man with sunken eyes, prominent checks, a raised forehead, a thick beard and a shaven head, came (in front of the Prophet ) and said, "Be afraid of Allah, O Muhammad!" [Ref: Bukhari, B55, H558] “Then there stood up a person with deep snnken eyes, prominent cheek bones, and elevated forehead, thick beard, shaven head, tucked up loin cloth, and he said: Messenger of Allah, fear Allah. He (the Holy Prophet) said: Woe to thee. do I not deserve most to fear Allah amongst the people of the earth?” [Ref: Muslim, B5, H2319] Note shaven head was the distinctive mark of Khawarij. Dhil Khuwaisirahs followers – aka group of Satan, or Haruriyyah - shaved their head like their leader and it became a distinctive sign by which they were recognised: “Abu Sa'id al-Khudri said that the Messenger of Allah made a mention of a sect that would be among his Ummah which would emerge out of the dissension of the people. Their distinctive mark would be shaven heads. They would be the worst creatures or the worst of the creatures. The group who would be nearer to the truth out of the two would kill them. The Apostle of Allah gave an example (to give their description) or he said: … Abu Sai'd then said: People of Iraq. it is you who have killed them.” [Ref: Muslim, B5, H2324] Note the Hadith states, [out of two groups of Muslims disputing amongst themselves –: Ali radiallah ta’ala anhu and Muawiyah radiallah ta’ala anhu] the group closer to truth would kill the companions of Dhil Khuwaisirah at-Tamimi and this group was none other then army of Ali (radiallah ta’ala anhu) composed of Iraqis: “The group who would be nearer to the truth out of the two would kill them.” [Ref: Muslim, B5, H2324] 4.2 – Conclusion: Dhil Khuwaisirah Group Of Satan Killed: Continuing and building upon earlier established position and conclusions – in section 2.2, and 3.2 .It was established in section 4.0 that Dhil Khuwaisirah at-Tamimi was the man who is said to have said to Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) to fear Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). And Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi wa’ssallam) intended to indicate emergence of Dhil Khuwaisirah and his companions as a sect. And referred to them as group of Satan. This sect appeared during the battle of Siffin. And abandoned the side of Ali (radiallah ta’ala anhu) and returned to Iraq. At Nahrawan this group of Satan met the army of Ali (radiallah ta’ala anhu) and were completely anahilated. Amongst the dead of Khawarij – aka group of Satan – body of Dhil Khuwaisirah was found. And it was his hand which resembelled a woman’s breast. He was part of army of Khawarij and he his companions were killed by the hands of Iraqi army – group near to truth - lead by Ali (radiallah ta’ala anhu). 5.0 - Emergence Of Two Groups Of Satan: Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) said: “The belief is among the Yemenites, and the unbelief is towards the East. And tranquillity is among (i.e. Yemeni’s) those who rear goats and sheep. And pride and tribulation is among the uncivil and rude owners of horses and camels (i.e. in East).” [Ref: Muslim, B1, H88] In another Hadith Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) says with regards to Yemeni’s: “It is narrated on the authority of Ibn Mas'ud that the Messenger of Allah pointed towards Yemen with his hand and said: Verily Iman is towards this side.” [Ref: Muslim, B1, H83] And with regards to ahlul Kufr (i.e. people of disbelief) in East, the owners of camels Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa alaihi was’sallam) says: “And harshness and callousness of the hearts is found amongst the rude owners of the camels, who drive them behind their tails (to the direction), where emerge the two horns of Satan, they are the tribes of Rabi'a and Mudar.” [Ref: Muslim, B1, H83] 5.1 – The Two Groups Of Satan From Banu Rabia And Mudhar: Prophet (sallalahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) stated: “And harshness and callousness of the hearts is found amongst the rude owners of the camels, who drive them behind their tails (to the direction), where emerge the two horns of Satan, they are the tribes of Rabi'a and Mudar.” [Ref: Muslim, B1, H83] In context of following Ahadith: “The sun rises between the two horns of Satan.” [Ref: Ibn Majah, B5, H1253] “… and it rises between the two horns of Satan.” [Ref: Ibn Majah, B5, H1251] “… then do not pray until the sun has risen, for it rises between the two horns of Satan.” [Ref: Ibn Majah, B5, H1252] The words of - H83 – can mean Banu Rabia and Mudhar are the two horns of Satan and the sun rises between their territorial boundaries. Or it could mean the rude owners of camels/horses are tribes of Rabia and Mudhar and two groups of Satan will emerge from their lands [but not necesserily from them] and sun rises between northern and sourthern boundaries of these two tribes. 5.2 - Why Only Mention Of Two Groups Of Satan aka Khawarij: It should be explained why Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) pointed to emergence of two groups of Satan aka Khawarij when in reality there are more then fifteen which originated from Khawarij of Iraq. The reason is simple, the first sect of Khawarij spawned many variations in their teachings but all had central core uniting them. And the second group of Khawarij would also spawn many variations but like the first one these mutations will share a central core. The only difference would be that second major resurgance of Kharijism will have a core connection which would link them with the first sect of Khawarij. 5.3 – The Sunrises Between The Northern And Southern Boundaries: For a detailed study please also refer to article related to the Hadith of two groups of Satan, here. But do note it is not important, skipping it will not impede your understanding of this article. It is fundamentally important you refer to following map which depicts where various tribes were situated during the life time of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam), here. Take note how the two tribes of apart from each other and then compare their location with regards to northern and southern sunrise boundaries, here. If you have paid attention you will realize siutation of these two tribes roughly correlates to northern and southern sunrise boundaries. And this establishes Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) intended to indicate boundary of sunrise by using the location of these two tribes. Alhasil the two groups of Satan to emerge would emerge from the Northern and Southern boundaries of sunrise of Banu Rabia and Banu Mudhar: “And harshness and callousness of the hearts is found amongst the rude owners of the camels, who drive them behind their tails (to the direction), where emerge the two horns of Satan, they are the tribes of Rabi'a and Mudar.” [Ref: Muslim, B1, H83] And Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) used the location of these two tribes to give general direction from where the two groups of Satan would emerge – between the Northern and Southern boundaries of Banu Rabia and Banu Mudhar – but in another Hadith Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) precisely pointed the direction from which the group of Satan would emerge: “Narrated 'Abdullah: The Prophet stood up and delivered a sermon, and pointing to 'Aisha's house, he said thrice, "Affliction (will appear from) here," and, "from the side, where Satan's head will come out." [Ref: Bukhari, B53, H336] And the direction he pointed toward is pretty precisely of al-Uyayna and al-Dirriyyah, here. One is birth place of Shaykh Muhammad Bin Abdul Wahhab and other later became his missionary activity centre. 5.4 – Conclusion: Banu -: Rabia & Mudhar Situtated In East In Region Of Najd: It has been established, Banu -: Rabia and Mudhar are situated in East of Madinah, in the direction of sunrise, and in region of Najd. And Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) foretold two groups of Satan would emerge from the lands of these two tribes. And in light of findings presented in conclusion of section, 2.2, 3.2, and 4.2, Rabia and Mudhar were situated in Najd. And the first group which originated from Najd [and from tribe of Banu Tamim] was of Abdullah, also known as, Dhil Khuwaisirah, the Tamimi. Who along with his seemingly pious/righteous companions was killed by Iraqi’s at Nahrwan. 6.0 – Second Satan’s Group - Near End Of Time - From Dhil Khuwaisirah: It is recording in Hadith: “While we were with Allah's Messenger who was distributing there came Dhul Khuwaisira. A man from the tribe of Bani Tamim and said: "O Allah's Messenger! Do Justice!" [Ref: Bukhari, B56, H807] In another narration it is recorded that he said, Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) should fear Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala): “Then there stood up a person with deep sunken eyes, prominent cheek bones, and elevated forehead, thick beard, shaven head, tucked up loin cloth, and he said: Messenger of Allah, fear Allah!” [Ref: Muslim, B5, H2319] There are many narrations of this incident each giving slightly different wording. After Dhil Khuwaisirah at-Tamimi uttered these words: “There stood up Umar bin Khattab and said: ‘Should I not strike his neck?’ Upon this he said: ‘No! Then he turned away and Khalid the Sword of Allah stood up against him and said: ‘Prophet of Allah! Shall I not strike off his neck?’ He said: No!” [Ref: Muslim, B5, H2320] And when Dhil Khuwaisirah noted companions have desired to kill him, and Khalid bin Walid (radiallah ta’ala anhu) is arguing his case a, Dhil Khuwaisirah left the gathering and Ahadith record the following words of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) with regards to him: “Upon this the Messenger of Allah said: I have not been commanded to pierce through the hearts of people, nor to split their bellies (insides). He again looked at him (i.e. Dhil Khuwaisirah at-Tamimi) and he was going back. Upon this he said: There would arise a people from the progeny of this (man) who would recite the Qur'an glibly, but it would not go beyond their throats; …” [Ref: Muslim, B5, H2319] “Then the Prophet looked at him while the latter was going away and said, "From the offspring of this who will recite the Qur'an continuously and elegantly but it will not exceed their throats. They would go out of the religion as an arrow goes through a game's body." [Ref: Bukhari, B59, H638] In another Hadith Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) indicated the same and verbally demonstrated the desire of killing them: “And then said: A people would rise from his progeny who would recite the Book of Allah glibly and fluently. 'Umar said: I think he also said this: If I find them I would certainly kill them like Thamud." [Ref: Muslim, B5, H2320] " They will kill the Muslims but will not disturb the idolaters. If I should live up to their time' I will kill them as the people of 'Ad were killed." [Ref: Bukhari, B55, H558] This group to emerge from progeny of Dhil Khuwaisirah at-Tamimi would appear near the end of times and this group would be as if Dhil Khuwaisirah at-Tamimi is one of them: "A people will come at the end of time; as if he is one of them, reciting the Qur'an without it passing beyond their throats. They will go through Islam just as the arrow goes through the target. Their distinction will be shaving.” Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) goes on to says group of Satan/Khawarij to emerge from Dhil Khuwaisirah progeny near the end of times will continue to appear [as Isis, Al-Qaidah, Boko Haram, Al-Shabab and in form of various other names, labels] until last of the group join forces with Dajjal - and serves the ultimate Zionist Jewish lobby –: “They will not cease to appear until the last of them comes with Al-Masih Ad-Dajjal. So when you meet them, then kill them, they are the worst of created beings." [Ref: Nisa’i, B37, H4108] 6.1 - Muhammad Bin Abdul Wahhab’s Geneology Meets Dhil Khuwaisirah: Mawlana Ismail Shaf’ee Malibari (hafidullah) investigated the geneology of Shaykh Muhammad Bin Abdul Wahhab in his, Aqeedat us-Sunnah, pages 15/16, presented following brief geneology of Shaykh of Najd: “Muhammad, bin Abd al-Wahhab, bin Sulayman, bin Ali [bin Muhammad, bin Ahmad, bin Raashid, bin Burayd, bin Muhammad, bin Mashraf, bin Umar, bin Mi'daad], bin Ra’ees, bin Zakhir, bin Muhammad, bin Ali, bin Wuhayb, bin Dhil Khuwaisirah, bin Zuhayr, [bin Shihaab, bin Rabee'ah, bin Abee Saud] …” Note additions in brackets is my own to expand the geneology to its full length. Currently I am working on article which will be titled: Kharijism And Wahhabism -: Shaykh Muhammad Ibn Abdul Wahhab Descendant Of Dhil Khuwaisirah - The Infamous Hurqus - Ibn Zuhayr. If Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) permits me to complete this article than in due time research with supporting evidence will be published. Long before Shaykh Ismail Shafa’ee (hadfidullah), and myself contempories of Shaykh Muhammad Bin Abdul Wahhab such as Shaykh Syed Alvi Haddad Shafa’ee (rahimullah), and Shaykh Syed Ahmad Dahlan Shafa’ee had charged him of being group of Satan to emerge from posterity of Dhil Khuwaisirat at-Tamim and this is nothing new. 6.2 – Conclusion: Shaykh Of Najd - A Descendent Of Dhil Khuwaisirah: Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) foretold near the end of times from the progeny of Dhil Khuwaisirah at-Tamimi a group of Khawarij would [re-appear]. Geneological research of Shaykh Muhammad Bin Abdul Wahhab’s reveals he indeed is from the progeny of Dhil Khuwaisirah, also mentioned as, Abdullah in Ahadith of Sahih Bukhari, Hurqus Ibn Zuhayr, in Hadith of Sunan Abu Dawood. 7.0 - If Shaykh Of Najd Not From Progeny Of Dhil Khuwaisirah: If there is no justifiable and evidenced basis to apply the - progeny - prophecy of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) upon Shaykh Muhammad Bin Abdul Wahhab than by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) it will not be attempted. Nor a Muslim should apply the prophecy upon Shaykh of Najd if he/she knows Shaykh is not a descendent of Dhil Khuwaisirah at-Tamimi. It would be unacademic and it would prevent the true culprit of the prophecy to escape recognition. This does not mean Shaykh of Najd would not and is not Khariji, Shaykh surely is Khariji. 7.1 - Shaykh Of Najd From Khawarij To Re-Appear More Then Twenty Times: Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has stated: “The Prophet said, "There will emerge from the East some people who will recite the Qur'an but it will not exceed their throats and who will go out of the religion as an arrow passes through the game, and they will never come back to it unless the arrow, comes back to the middle of the bow.” [Ref: Bukhari, B93, H651] "Did you hear the Messenger of Allah making a mention of the Khawarij? He said: I heard him say and he pointed with his hand towards the east that there would be a people who would recite the Qur'an with their tongues and it would not go beyond their collar bones. They would pass clean through their religion just as the arrow passes through the prey." [Ref: Muslim, B5, H2336] In Ahadith Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has stated: From East [of Madinah] a people would appear who would recite the Quran with their tongues but Quran would not exceed their throats/collar-bone and they will cleanly go out of religion of Islam like an arrow passes through the prey and they will not revert back to true Islamic teachings until it becomes possible for the arrow to return to the bow – or impossible becomes possibe. And about these same people Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) stated in the following Hadith: “It was narrated from Ibn Umar that: The Messenger of Allah said: "There will emerge people who will recite the Qur'an but it will not go any deeper than their collar bones. Whenever a group of them appears, they should be killed/eliminated." Ibn Umar said: "I heard the Messenger of Allah say: 'Whenever a group of them appears, they should be killed/eliminated.' [He said they will appear] more than twenty times - until Dajjal emerges among them.'" [Ref: Ibn Majah, B1, H174] In light of this Hadith, if impossible becoming possible – i.e. Shaykh of Najd not being from progeny of Dhil Khuwaisirah – than he is from the Khawarij which were to re-appear again and again – more then twenty times – from the direction of East. And undeniable historical fact is; Najd and Banu Tamim consistently have been in fore front of Khariji resurgance who subjected the Muslims with barbaric violence. As a result of their barbarity the Muslim leaders made their mission to completely and utterly anahilate them but only to re-appear again. 7.2 – A Major Sign Which Establishes Kharijism Of Shaykh Of Najd: Anyhow proof of Shaykh of Najd’s Kharijism is his methodology –: applying the verses revealed for disbelievers upon Muslims. And demonstrating this truth is Kitab at-Tawheed of Shaykh of Najd. But the choiciest from many examples is -: Shaykh of Najd applying the verses of Quran upon Muslims of Arabia which were in actuality regarding polytheists who did not believe in judgment day – verses such as; 22:5, 23:33/38, 23:80 - : “He who does not enter in to this religion, nor act upon it, nor provide support to its people, nor show enmity against its opponents, according to us is a disbeliever (kafir) in Allah, and the last day.” [Ref: Durar al-Saniyyah, 1/314, See, here] “It’s known regarding the people of our land (i.e. Najd) and the land of al-Hijaz, that those among them who reject the resurrection [after death] are more than those who accept it and that those [among them] who know the religion are less than those who do not, and those who perform Salah are fewer than those who do not perform it …” [Ref: al-Durar al-Saniyyah 10/43, here] Imam Bukhari (rahimullah alayhi ta’ala) brings a statement of Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) under the heading of – Killing Of Khawarij And Mulhidun. This indicates Imam Bukhari (rahimullah) believed it was with regards to Khawarij, the apostates. Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) indicates applying the verses revealed for disbelievers upon Muslims is habbit of worst of creatures in creation of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) - Khawarij: “And the statement of Allah: 'Allah will not mislead a people after He has guided them, until He makes clear to them what to avoid.'And Ibn Umar used to consider them (the Khawarij and the Mulhidun) the worst of Allah's creatures and said: "These people took some verses that had been revealed concerning the disbelievers and interpreted them as describing the believers.” [Ref: Bukhari, V9, P49, Chap6: Killing The Khawarij And Mulhidun] Note there are number of other Ahadith in which the Khawarij have been said to be worst of creatures. 7.3 – Conclusion: If Shaykh Of Najd Wasn’t Geneologically Related: If - just entertaining the impossible with this if - Shaykh of Najd was not geneological desecendent of Dhil Khuwaisirah Ibn Zuhayr even then there is no excuse for Shaykh of Najd. He is from Khawarij and part of re-appearing Khawarij destined to resurface more then twenty times. 8.0 – How Second Argument Was Refuted: In section - 0.3 - seven steps were given. In here I will explain the significance of these steps. The first step confirms basic premise (i.e. group of Satan Hadith referrs to Dhil Khuwaisirah who was resident of Najd and from Bani Tamim) on which you argued your case (i.e. Najdi’s from Banu Tamim fought in Iraq – hence they are the group of Satan aka Khawarij, and Hadith of Najd applies to Dhil Khuawaisirah and his companions). Step two establishes from Najd this group of Satan went to Syria (i.e. Siffin) as part of Ali’s (radiallah ta’ala anhu) army and were disenchanted by Ali’s (radiallah ta’ala anhu) decision to arbitrate between himself and Muawiyah (radiallah ta’ala anhu). Step three partly confirms an aspect on which your argument was based on (i.e. Khawarij fought in Iraq) and refutes common misconception and the allegation of Wahhabis (i.e. that Khawarij were Iraqi’s). Step four establishes Dhil Khuwaisirah and his companions were killed in Iraq. And implication of all this was; indeed Dhil Khuwaisirah was from the Khawarij, and he along his companions (i.e. members of his tribe) were from group of Satan, and they were in Najd, and from there they fought in Iraq, and were killed, only few survived. This over all establishes Islamic position and confirms the basis of your argument. Steps five, six and seven establish that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) foretold appearance of two (i.e. major) groups of Satan from direction/lands of Banu Rabia and and Banu Mudhar which happens to be toward East of Madinah and region of Najd. First group of Khawarij was of Dhil Khuwaisirah and his companions. And regarding second group Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) said from progeny/posterity of Dhil Khuwaisirah a group of people would emerge who would recite Quran but it will not go beyond their throat. And with this Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) pointed; second emergence group of Satan would be from his progeny/posterity. And geneological datal establishes Dhil Khuwaisirah at-Tamimi was ancestor of Shaykh Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab. And if he was not descendent of Dhil Khuwaisirat at-Tamim even then at very least Shaykh of Najd is most certainly from the Khawarij which were to continously re-appear until last of them would side with Dajjal.[1] 8.1 - Conclusion: Islamic Position And Refutation In Nutshell: It is true; Dhil Khuwaisirah at-Tamimi marched from Saudi province of Najd along side his companions to Syria and than to Iraq where he along side his tribes mates fought against Ali (radiallah ta’ala anhu) and were anahilated. But this fact cannot absolve the Shaykh of Najd from being a Khariji. And it should be evident to you why Muslims accuse the Shaykh of Najd of being a Khariji. He is from posterity of Dhil Khuwaisirah at-Tamimi, or at the very least from more then twenty manifesations to appear [from Najd], and his teachings and actions earned him ascription of being a leader of Khariji sect. If Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) permits then twenty plus articles will be produced to show how methodologically and fundamentally Wahhabism and Kharijism are one and the same thing. But for now the connection established between Shaykh of Najd and Dhil Khuwaisirah is suffient evidence of his Kharijism. Conclusion: Dhil Khuwaisirah was from tribe of Tamim and this tribe was situated in East of Madinah in central Arabia and in province of Najd. Dhil Khuwaisirah at-Tamimi angered Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) told this man has companions so pious; they would embrass even the companions but they will become disbelievers. After this event some time Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) invoked blessings for Syria, and Yemen and despite repeated requests refused to supplicate for Najd. Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) refused to invoke Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) for the inhabitants of Najd stating from Najd the group of Satan will emerge and tribulations. And it should be noted this group of Satan was none other than Dhil Khuwaisirah at-Tamimi and his companions. While he was leaving Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) foretold; from progeny of Dhil Khuwaisirah a group of people would emerge who would recite the Quran [but it will not reach their heart] but get stuck in the collar bone, or throat. In another Hadith Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) foretold about appearance of two groups of Satan. The first group of Khawarij seperated from the main body of Muslims – i.e. from Ali radiallah ta’ala anhu – at Siffin and appeared as a distinct sect in Iraq. And this first group was composed of Dhil Khuwaisirah at-Tamimi and his companions. They fought against the Iraqi army of Hadhrat Ali (radiallah ta’ala anhu) and the Iraqis killed them. Dhil Khuwaisirah and his companions were completely butchered in battle field only few escaping death. The second group of Khawarij was to emerge from Najd as mentioned in the Hadith. And Muslim position based on the explained evidence is Shaykh Muhammad Bin Abdul Wahhab at-Tamimi is from the progeny of Dhil Khuwaisirah at-Tamimi which is corroborated by the geneological records. And even if Shaykh of Najd was not a direct descendent of Dhil Khuwaisirah there is no doubt in his Kharijism because Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) had foretold the resurfacing the Khawarij more then twenty times. There is mountain of evidence such as methological ressemblance to Khawarij: Applying the verses of Kafirs upon Muslims, declaring Muslims as Mushriks, permitting the blood and property of Muslims upon himself and his army. Declaring Muslims Kafir/Mushrik for major sins, rebellion against Islamic state and religious order. Going against the majority like the Khawarij, insulting and disrespecting Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) like Dhil Khuwaisirah did. Shaved their heads extremely closely like the Khawarij, fold the trouser or regional equivlent from the waist, killing Muslims but leaving non-Muslims at a time when the British were at their door step in Yemen. And not forgetting Najd and Banu Tamim have played prominent role in insurrections and rebellions of Khawarij through out centuries. Wama alayna ilal balaghul mubeen. Muhammed Ali Footnote: - [1] And current Saudi and Wahhabi alliance with minions of Dajjal and Zionist state of Israel proves how Saudi family and their Wahhabi Ulamah would join forces with Dajjal in a bid to prevent Imam Mahdi (alayhis salam) resting the rule from their clutches. And due to Fatwah of ‘Jihad’ issued by the Wahhabi scholars belonging to, Aal al-Shaykh, and in response the Khawarij from Najd and other regions of earth would join forces with their ally -: Al Dajjal and Zionist state of Israel. This is most likely reason why Khawarij would join forces with Dajjal.
  7. Introduction: Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has stated Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has been sent as a Shahid and stated he will bear witness in defence of Prophets passed before him. And being sent as a Shahid, and being sent to mankind means he is witness upon actions of mankind. A true testimony requires the witness with his own eyes/ears witnesses the events. Due to this Muslims believe Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is Shahid aka Hadhir Nazir upon actions of Jinn and mankind. And testimony without being actual witnessing the events is bearing false witness and Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is the flag bearer of truth and he will not give false testimony. Khawarij accuse Muslims of being guilty of major Shirk for believing Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is Hadhir Nazir. The reason they give is; Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) alone is Shahid in a manner which you Muslims believe Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) to be Shahid aka Hadhir Nazir. In other words they declare the Muslism to be worst type of disbelievers for believing that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) witnesses the deeds of Jinn and Mankind as a first hand witness hears/sees the events unfold in form of sounds and images. And their accusaton is proof of their ignorance of true Islamic belief, and ignorance of principle methodology of determining Tawheed and complete ingorance of principle of determing Shirk. If Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) permits a detailed explanation will be given in this article. Witnessing Of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam): All natural and supernatural powers which manifested during the life time of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) including his witnessing of deeds of Jinn and mankind is with permission of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). With power being given by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is completely and absolutely like every creation dependent upon Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) in his essences, attributes and actions. Including his ordinary and extraordinary ability of Hadhir Nazir. Muslims believe this extraordinary ability of Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is of miracolous nature. He is dependent upon existence of creation to exercise his ability of Hadhir Nazir and is limited restricted to creation. And his ability is dependent upon existence of place, direction and time. And as a creation his means of acquiring knowledge are limited restricted to his state of being. And each state has its own limitations and restrictions and in no way possesses his supernatural power of Hadhir Nazir equale to or greater then Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). To believe as such would be Shirk. Witnessing Of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala): In comparision, Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is Shahid in accordance with His Essence. He was/is Shahid independently of anyone and is subsisting in all His attributes. He was/is present (i.e. Hadhir) without a place and was/is hearing and seeing (i.e. Nazir) without needs of created means (i.e. organs). There is no authority above Him controlling limiting His capacity of Shahid and Sami (i.e. hearing) and Baseer (i.e. seeing). And to equate Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) with Allah’s (subhanahu wa ta’ala) ability of Shahid and Sami and Baseer in absolute terms would be major Shirk. And Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is knower of all Ghayb that is in perserved Tablet and that will happen in hereafter. In addition to this Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) possesses knowledge of all Mumkinaat (i.e. possibilities). And to equate any being with all knowledge of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala), including knowledge of all possibilities, or limitless possibilites, is major Shirk. The Clear Distinction Between Station Two Shahids: The above two sections make it abundantly clear in which way Muslims believe Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) to be Shahid is clearly apart from how Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is believed to be Shahid. But this two sections require intermediate level knowledge of Tawheed and Shirk and good deductive skills to figure out why and how belief of Hadhir Nazir is not Shirk. Therefore it is important to make this topic simpler and make it easier for readers to easily understand the subject. Following sections will attempt to deal with the topic from simple perspective and it should allow readers to properly understand the error of Khawarij. Two Principles One Of Tawheed And One Of Shirk: Tawheed of Sifaat (attributes) and of Afaal (i.e. actions) is extreme perfection beyond which attribute/action cannot be perfected. And Shirk is extremly perfected - unimprovably perfected - attribute/action being given to creation of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). A person believes Kiraman Katibeen - two angels - witness the actions of entire Jinn and Mankind on earth and then record these good/bad actions. Has this person made these two angels partners with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala)? Please read the two rules again and try to figure out before continuing. It is not Shirk because witnessing can be perfected/improved to include moon and entire universe. Hence the believer has not attributed the two angels the attributes of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). A person believes, Gibraeel (alayhis salam) has limitless knowledge. There is no beginning nor end to his knowledge. Is this belief Shirk? It is indeed Shirk because limitless knowledge, without beginning, and without end, such perfection level that it cannot be improved or further perfected. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) possesses limitless knowledge, which is without beginning and without end and attributing it to Gibraeel (alayhis salam) is an act of major Shirk. Hadhir Nazir In Light Of Two Principles: Muslims believe Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is Shahid upon actions of Jinn and Mankind. He was witnessing the actions before his birth when he existed in form of Ruh (i.e soul) and witnessed the actions in his life time ordinarily and extraordinarily after his station of Shahid was perfected as much as Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) willed. And continues to observe the actions mankind [including his believing and disbelieving Ummah] after his departure from earthly life. And in light of this belief it should be apparent; perfection of station of Shahid is of such level that it can be improved to include actions creatures of land, see, air, and angels. Hence level of perfection of Shahid granted to Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and believed for him by Muslims is improvable. Therefore Hadhir Nazir is not Shirk of attributes – polytheism in attribute of Shahid. Note we Muslims believe Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is Shahid over all creatures of universe and every spec of universe. And Shahid over the paradise and hell and over all occupants of paradise and hell. In nutshell He is Shahid limitless, timeless, without beginning and without end. His station of Shahid is perfected to a level that it is above improvement. Two Important Points Worth Remembering: Firstly diametric opposite of love is hate, of light is darkness, of good is bad, of sweet is bitter, and of Tawheed is Shirk. As such the description of each is exactly the opposite of the other. To believe in One Ilah (i.e. God/Mabud) is Tawheed. And two believe in many is Shirk. To believe is no Ilah is Shirk and to believe in One is Tawheed. Secondly it is important to point out that belief of Khawarij will be implied based on what we the Muslims believe and by backtracking from their allegations. And it is very unlikely they believe what would be unearthed. Therefore do not charge them of believing it unless they profess it with their tongue. Their principles methodology of determining Shirk is definitely defective which casts doubts on their understanding of Tawheed. Khawarij In Light Of Their Own Accusation: Muslims believe Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) observed the actions of nations - Jinn and Mankind - before him and continues to observe the actions of nations after his earthly life. The Khawarij accuse the Muslims of being guilty of major Shirk due to this belief. And Tawheed is diametric opposite of Shirk. We know what Muslims believe, which the Khawarij declare to be major Shirk. Based on this natural deduction would be; belief of Tawheed of Khawarij regarding attribute of Shahid is; Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) only observes the actions of Jinn and Mankind - of people before Prophet’s (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) birth and after his death. And considering this belief of Shahid as Tawheed - the pinnacle of perfection beyond which there can be no perfection - is utterly/absolutely preposterous and nothing less then Kufr. This preposterious beliefe cannot and is not the Tawheed of Shahid, nor it can be, nor it is, criteria on which Tawheed/Shirk can be determined. Allah’s (subhanahu wa ta’ala) station of Shahid is perfected to such extant improvement is impossible. Alhasil in context of Islamic belief and in context of accusation of Khawarij we backtrack to find charge of Shirk is based on defective understanding of Tawheed of Shahid. Conclusion: Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is Shahid over all things. He witnesses all actions of all creatures: creatures of land, sea, air, angels, Jinn, and wives of paradise (i.e. Hoori’s). And Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) witnesses all universe, paradise, hell and their occupants, every spect, atom, particle, lesser, or greater then these. He was Shahid from eternity, self suffient, independent, perfected beyond improvements … Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is Shahid over the actions of those creations of whom he will bear witness on judgment day – including actions of Jinn and Mankind before birth and after his departure from earth. His this extraordinary ability is granted to him by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and it is limited restricted to his actions of Jinn and mankind. He is entirely dependent upon Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). There was beginning and there is end to his station of Shahid. The criteria of determining Shirk for Shahid is; a perfection of Shahid which is beyond improvements. And those who judge Islamic belief Hadhir Nazir to be Shirk have defective understanding of principle methodology of determining Shirk and Tawheed because they employ an understanding of Shahid as criteria of determining Shirk of attributes when it is not. Wama alayna ilal balaghul mubeen. Muhammed Ali Razavi.
  8. Introduction: Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) believed Salat ad-Duha to be an innovation because he was unaware that it was Prophetic Sunnah. He deemed it to be an excellent innovation. On basis of such statements of companions of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) Muslims have come to believe; companions did not believe in absolute literalism of Hadith, every invention is innovation and every innovation is misguidance, but they made Takhsees of ‘every’ to a specific type of innovation. On basis of his statements Muslims have argued; companions in general, and Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) in specific, believed in concept of good innovations, and permissibility of introducing good innovations in Islam. Khawarij on other hand, in an attempt to discredit the Islamic teaching argue, his statements were made linguistically and not in Shar’ri sense. Therefore he did not believe in permissibility of introducing good innovations into Islam nor did he believe good/evil innovation category. And recently two articles, here, here, were produced regarding Ibn Umar’s (radiallah ta’ala anhu) statements made about Salat ad-Duha. And these two articles have created a tiny stir amongst the Khawarij. One supporter of innovation and distortion sent a message in which he argued; Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) believed Salat ad-Duha is Prophetic Sunnah and believed it was a good/fine innovation in linguistic sense and not Shar’ri innovation. And to support his position he quoted Hadith from Sahih of Imam Al Bukhari (rahimullah alayhi ta’ala). This is an out of box, a novel argument, and deserves a proper response. The Hadith Quoted Evidence: “Narrated Nafi: Ibn `Umar never offered the Duha prayer except on two occasions: (1) whenever he reached Mecca; and he always used to reach Mecca in the forenoon (i.e. al-Duha). He would perform Tawaf round the Ka`ba and then offer two rak`at at the rear of Maqam Ibrahim. (2) Whenever he visited Quba, for he used to visit it every Saturday. When he entered the Mosque, he disliked to leave it without offering a prayer.“ [Ref: Bukhari, B21, H283] What Did Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) Say About Salat ad-Duha: It is recorded in a Hadith of Bukhari that Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) he deemed Salat ad-Duha as innovation: “… and I entered the Mosque (of the Prophet) and saw Abdullah bin Umar sitting near the dwelling place of Aisha and some people were offering the Duha prayer. We asked him about their prayer and he replied that it was an innovation.” [Ref: Bukhari, B27, H4] Following Hadith explains why he believed Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and first two Khulafah did not perform Salat ad-Duha, and this is reason why he didn’t perform Salat ad-Duha, and deemed it innovation: “Narrated Muwarriq: I asked Ibn `Umar "Do you offer the Duha prayer?" He replied in the negative. I further asked, "Did `Umar use to pray it?" He (Ibn `Umar) replied in the negative. I again asked, "Did Abu Bakr use to pray it?" He replied in the negative. [Ref: Bukhari, B21, H271] Not only did he deem it as an innovation but he deemed it to be good/fine innovation: "It is an innovation and what a fine innovation it is!" [Ref: Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah, Kitab Of Prayer – Salat ad-Duha, 3] And following Hadith establishes Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) believed Salat ad-Duha was innovated in the Khilafat of Uthman (radiallah ta’ala anhu): "At the time Uthman was killed no-one considered it desirable and the people did not innovate anything that is dearer to me than that prayer." [Ref: Musannaf Abd Razzaq, Vol3, Pages 78/79] Note the underlined words, Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) is saying the people of have innovated Salat ad-Duha. Alhasil, he believed Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) did not perform Salat ad-Duha and it was people innovated Salat ad-Duha then how can he believe it was Prophetic Sunnah and how can he practice it as a Prophetic Sunnah? The answer to this question will, if Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) wills, will follow. Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) Or The Narrator Of Hadith: In contradiction to Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) the narrator of Hadith 283 states Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) performed Salat ad-Duha. Does the narrator, who claims Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) performed Salat ad-Duha on two occasions, knows if Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) performs Salat ad-Duha, or does Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) know if he performed Salat ad-Duha? Narrator of Hadith - 283 - cannot know better about Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) then Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) himself. Negation by Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) is proof of belief and action of Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) not what someone else as attributed to him. Performing Two Rak’at Nawafil In Masjid At al-Duha Time: Evidence of following Hadith establishes Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) performed two Rak’at Nawafil when he returned from a journey: “Narrated Ka`b: Whenever the Prophet returned from a journey in the forenoon, he would enter the Mosque and offer two rak`at before sitting.” [Ref: Bukhari, B52, H321] This Hadith is the basis on which Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) based his action of performing 2 Rak’at Nawafil at the time of al-Duha after under taking a journey. Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) Performed Nawafil At Time Of al-Duha: Following Hadith establishes Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu), used to undertake journey from Madinah, and reach Makkah at the time of al-Duha (i.e. forenoon), and he performed two Rak’at Nawafil in Masjid Haram: “Narrated Nafi: Ibn `Umar never offered the Duha prayer except on two occasions: Whenever he reached Mecca; and he always used to reach Mecca in the forenoon (i.e. al-Duha). He would perform Tawaf round the Ka`ba and then offer two rak`at at the rear of Maqam Ibrahim.” [Ref: Bukhari, B21, H283] And the reason why he performed two Rak’at in Masjid Haram at Maqam of Prophet Ibrahim (alayhis salam) is because Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) performed it there: “Ibn Umar said, "I went in front of the Ka`ba and found that Allah's Messenger had come out of the Ka`ba and I saw Bilal standing by the side of the gate of the Ka`ba. I said, 'O Bilal! Has Allah's Apostle prayed inside the Ka`ba?' Bilal replied in the affirmative. I said, 'Where?' He replied, 'Between these two pillars and then he came out and offered a two rak`at prayer in front of the Ka`ba.' "Abu `Abdullah said: Abu Huraira said, "The Prophet advised me to offer two rak`at of Duha prayer.” Itban (bin Malik) said, "Allah's Messenger and Abu Bakr, came to me after sunrise and we aligned behind the Prophet and offered two rak`at." [Ref: Bukhari, B21, H268] Note even though the Hadith does not explicitly indicate Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) performed 2 Rak’at Nawafil after the journey this is to be implied because Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) was resident of Madinah and he must under take a journey to reach Makkah – Masjid Haram. Therefore the Hadith is proof for Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) performing two Rak’at Nawafil at the time of ad-Duha. In simple words, Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) performed two Rak’at Nawafil in Masjid Al Haram, at the time of al-Duha after taking a journey because he knew it was Prophetic Sunnah. And He Performed Nawafil At Time Of al-Duha In Masjid Quba: The Hadith in discussion indicates Masjid Quba as second place where Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) performed Salat ad-Duha: “Whenever he visited Quba, for he used to visit it every Saturday. When he entered the Mosque, he disliked to leave it without offering a prayer.“ [Ref: Bukhari, B21, H283] The fact is that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) used to visit Masjid Quba on Saturday, and in there he performed two Rak’at Nawafil as evidenced by following Ahadith: “Narrated Abdullah bin Dinar: Ibn Umar said, "The Prophet used to go to the Mosque of Quba every Saturday walking and riding." Abdullah (Ibn `Umar) used to do the same.” [Ref: Bukhari, B21, H284] “Narrated Ibn Umar: The Prophet used to go to the Mosque of Quba walking and sometimes riding. Added Nafi (in another narration), "He then would offer two rak`at." [Ref: Bukhari, B21, H285] Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) merely imitated Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) performing two Rak’at Nawafil in Masjid Quba. And he seems to have combined Rak’at Nawafil Sunnah with following Hadith: “Narrated Ka`b: Whenever the Prophet returned from a journey in the forenoon, he would enter the Mosque and offer two rak`at before sitting.” [Ref: Bukhari, B52, H321] Ibn Umar’s Position And Confusion Caused By Narrator: Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) deemed Salat ad-Duha to be an innovation which he believed neither Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) nor the first two Khulafah had performed, and therefore he did not intend to perform Salat ad-Duha [even when he performed Nawafil at the time of al-Duha]. And this is established from following part of Hadith: “I asked Ibn `Umar "Do you offer the Duha prayer?" He replied in the negative. I further asked, "Did `Umar use to pray it?" He (Ibn `Umar) replied in the negative. I again asked, "Did Abu Bakr use to pray it?" He replied in the negative. [Ref: Bukhari, B21, H271] And Ibn Umar performed two Rak’at Nawafil at the time of al-Duha (i.e. forenoon) in Masjid based on the following Hadith: “Narrated Ka`b: Whenever the Prophet returned from a journey in the time of al-Duha, he would enter the Mosque and offer two rak`at before sitting.” [Ref: Bukhari, B52, H321] But these two Nawafil were not performed with intention of performing Salat ad-Duha. If these two Nawafil performed at time of al-Duha were termed Nawafil of Salat ad-Duha then this would contradict, what Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) himself negated. Therefore only acceptable and non-contradictory understanding possible is that he performed them at the time of al-Duha without intending to perform Salat ad-Duha. And following statement of Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) establishes that Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) only intended to perform what his companions did (i.e. performing 2 Rak’at Nawafil at the time of al-Duha in Masjid after journey) and he did not forbid Nawafil being performed at any times - including Salat ad-Duha – except on the forbidden times, which the following portion of Hadith establishes: "I do only what my companions used to do and I don't forbid anybody to pray at any time during the day or night except that one should not intend to pray at sunrise or sunset." [Ref: Bukhari, B21, H283] Hence it is safe to conclude that the narrator of Hadith - 283 - erroneously assumed on part of Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) that he performs Salat ad-Duha on two occasions. Where as the fact is Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) was enacting on other Sunnahs of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) but due to routinely of reaching destination of Masjid Al Haram and Masjid Quba at the al-Duha time gave impression he performs Salat ad-Duha. Salat ad-Duha Said To Be Linguistic Innovation Or Shar’ri Innovation: When it is evident that Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) did not perform Salat ad-Duha, and deemed it as fine innovation, which was beloved to him. Then the argument that Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) performed it believing as a Prophetic Sunnah fails to achieve its objective. In other words, it does not support the argument; Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) made following statements in linguistic usage: "It is an innovation and what a fine innovation it is!" [Ref: Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah, Kitab Of Prayer – Salat ad-Duha, 3] "At the time Uthman was killed no-one considered it desirable and the people did not innovate anything that is dearer to me than that prayer." [Ref: Musannaf Abd Razzaq, Vol3, Pages 78/79] And therefore established proof of Islam stands that Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) believed in introducing good innovations into Islam and held to definition of innovation which is of majority of Islamic scholarship. Meaning he believed in good/evil innovation classification and not what Shaykh Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali (rahimullah alayhi ta’ala) had taught. And this in turn establishes Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) did not believe in absolute literalism of following Hadith: “Avoid novelties, for every novelty is an innovation, and every innovation is an error." [Ref: Abu Dawood, B40, H4590] “And the most evil affairs are the innovations; and every innovation is error." [Ref: Muslim, B4, H1885] But rather he understood the innovation in question in according to Hadith of – erroneous innovation (i.e. بِدْعَةَ ضَلاَلَةٍ): “And whoever introduces an erroneous innovation, which Allah is not pleased with nor His Messenger, then he shall receive sins similar to whomever acts upon it, without that diminishing anything from the sins of the people.” [Ref: Tirmadhi, B29, H2677] And concept of evil innovative Sunnah is also supported by following Hadith: “And he who introduces a evil precedent (i.e. Sunnah) in Islam there is upon him the burden of that, and the burden of him also who acted upon it subsequently, without any deduction from their burden.” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] Alhasil – he believed; ‘every erroneous innovation is misguidance’ and not ‘every innovation is misguidance’ in literal sense. And he believed good innovative Sunnahs can be made part of Islam/Shari’ah which is evident from his statements about Salat ad-Duha. And these statements are in accordance with following Hadith: “He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.”[Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] Innovation is not part of Islam and reward being told is for a Sunnah which is introduced into Islam. Therefore the reward being told is about good innovative Sunnah and not for which is already part of Islam. Alhasil – Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) made the statement about Salat ad-Duha in light of Ahadith like this. This Hadith establishes category of good innovative Sunnah [in other words good innovation] in Shari’ah of RasoolAllah (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) therefore his statements about Salat ad-Duha were made in context of Shari’ah. Conclusion: The Hadith in which it is stated Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) performed Salat ad-Duha on two occasions is misunderstanding of one who narrated it. The fact is that Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) was acting on Prophetic Sunnah by performing two Rak’at Nawafil in Masjid after undertaking a journey but the timing he reached his destination was always at the time of al-Duha. This gave impression to onlookers that Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) is performing Salat ad-Duha but he merely performed two Rak’at Nawafil after under taking journey at the Masajid mentioned in the Hadith. Where as his actual position on Salat ad-Duha is narrated in Ahadith; Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) believed Salat ad-Duha was a fine innovation which originated at the time of Khariji revolt against the Uthman (radiallah ta’ala anhu). And he believed Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and two of his Khulafah did not perform Salat ad-Duha and in imitation to their way he did not perform it either. Wama alayna ilal balaghul mubeen. Muhammed Ali Razavi.
  9. Introduction: Recently [on 09 Nov 2014 - 5:55 PM] a heretic with the name of Zia Bashir created a thread on IslamiMehfil forum titled; 'Honorable Prophet Muhammad’s Invitation To Tawheed And Shirk Of Arabs.', which you can read, here. Brother Zia Bashir basically presented the following principles to indicate how a Ilah is made – which will be presented in my own words: ‘To believe any being has control over benefit and harm, or can alleviate every type of hardship/upsetting [matter] or has the power in the kingdom of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) to utilize the means in the skies and earth (i.e. such as sends rain from clouds and grows crops from earth), is elevating the being to status of God. Or to believe a being grants sustenance, or is in charge of distributing sustenance and grants to which the being wills, or believing a being grants son/daughter, or a being is part of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) as son/daughter, is elevating the being to status of God. Worshiping the being in any way (i.e. invoking a being for help) or believing the being is acting attorney/disposer of all [affairs of creation] is elevating the being to status of God. To give life to the dead, to [breath] life into a clay figurine is in power of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala), life and death’s owner is only Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and to believe this power for anyone other then Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is elevating the being to status of god, it is polytheism.’ In response myself and other Muslims responded to him pointing out faults and incompatibility of his principles with teaching of Quran/Hadith. It became apparent to Muslims engaged in discussion with him that he does not understand the concepts of Islam which explain Tawheed/Shirk. Hence it was realized there is need for Islamic principles which should indicate how a creation is elevated to status of an Ilah. This effort is to fill the void felt during the discussion. Continuing, just when the tide turned against him and faults of his principles became apparent to him and strength of Islamic arguments forced him to retreat toward the principles of Muslims, he quit. 1.0 - Linguistic Meaning Of The Word Ilah And Its Usage In Quran: Word Ilah commonly is translated to mean God but the actual meaning derived considering its root is; one deserving of worship (i.e. Mabud). Its equivalent singular ‘Ilahan’ and plural ‘Aalihatun’ have been used as synonyms for idols/idol. The evidence of this is when nation of Prophet Musa (alayhis salaam) reached a certain group of people who worshipped idols, they demanded Prophet Musa (alayhis salaam) create for them an Ilah (i.e. an idol to) which they can devout their acts of worship.[1] Also the word Ilah is synonym for Rabb (i.e. Sustainer) and Khaliq (i.e. Creator).[2] 1.1 - Reasons Why Polytheists Took Idols As Ilah: The polytheists believed their idols have the power to benefit/harm and that they have the power to intercede and will intercede for them to Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) on the day of judgment.[3] On basis of this belief they believed their idol can be taken as an Ilah in meaning of; deserving worship. This establishes polytheists had certain belief on basis of which they believed their idols are worthy of worship.[4] In the belief of polytheists Ilah is encompassed by certain attributes and as a result they took the idols as objects of worship. Hence Ilah is not just one that is worshipped but one that possesses certain traits due to which it is worshipped. 1.2 - Understanding Why The Muslims Take Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) as Ilah: According to some scholars the name ‘Allah’ is derivative of Al-Ilah (i.e. the God) and Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is possessor of [ninety-nine] beautiful names and attributes. [5] Hence comprehensively Al-Ilah is inclusive of all ninety-nine names and attributes of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) not just, Rabb and Khaliq. If the name ‘Allah’ is not derived from the word Al-Ilah as some scholars have stated even then the true Ilah must be associated with ninety-nine names and attributes. As Muslims we believe Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is the Creator (i.e. Al Khaliq), the Evolver (i.e. Al Bari), and the Provider (i.e. Ar-Razzaq), and the Life-Giver (i.e. Al Mu’hayi), and the One (i.e. Al Ahad) … all the ninety-nine attributes. Belief in names and attributes of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is essentially connected with believing in Him as an Ilah. We believe Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) to be our Ilah and we ascribe all beautiful names/attributes to Him. Therefore true Ilah is not just Mabud (i.e. one deserving of worship) but possessor of all attributes/names established for Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Due to Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) having mentioned attributes/names we have accepted Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is deserving of worship and believe it is proper to direct acts of worship to Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Hence the linguistic meaning of Ilah is to be applied in the strict sense. But considering the fact; belief [n possesses x attributes is able to harm/benefit …] must exist before appointing of an Ilah therefore [such] beliefs are fundamental part of appointing an Ilah.[6] Would anyone take a potato to be their Ilah? Or take their fridge as their Ilah? Certainly not because a person understands they do not possess godly qualities and cannot benefit or harm. Alhasil, Ilah is taken when it is believed the one taken as Ilah has ability to hear/see, is able to harm/benefit and an intelligent being will not take a creation to be Ilah if one does not expect any harm/benefit. Hence naturally if one is worshipped then belief of Ilah must pre-exist in the heart of worshipper.[7] 1.3 - Comprehensive Meaning Of Word Ilah: It is important to note; the word Ilah is encompassed by the attributes/actions and it on basis of these attributes/actions an Ilah is taken. Hence linguistic meaning is applicable on every usage but attributes/actions which force a believer to choose Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) as his Ilah are inclusive in the meaning of Ilah.[8] Therefore in Islam the Ilah cannot be separated from His attributes/actions. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is Ilah with all of His attributes and actions. Also the Ilah of polytheists are Ilah with the attributes and actions which polytheists attributed to them. 2.0 – Thirteen Concepts Which Explain Attributes And Actions Of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala): Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is Wajib Ul Wujud and the being of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and all attributes, actions of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) are to be understood in meaning of zaati (i.e. personal), qulli (i.e. total), azli/abdi (i.e. eternal), haqiqi (i.e. real), bi-ghayr izni (i.e. without permission), ghayr muntahai (i.e. unlimited), ghayr makhlooq (i.e. uncreated), muhaal al fana (i.e. impossible to annihilate), bi-ghayr misl (i.e. without comparison), and khaliqi (i.e. creator’s), akmal (i.e. perfect), mustaqil (i.e. independent). If any attribute or action of any creation is understood according to these then the creation is elevated to status of god and has been made partner with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) as a god. 2.1 – Explaining Some Concepts From Thirteen To Facilitate Better Understanding: When the Qull (i.e. total) is applied to Allah’s (subhanahu wa ta’ala) owner-ship then Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is Malik (i.e. Owner) of all creation, in other words His Malikiyyah (i.e. owner-ship) of all creation. When it is applied to His hearing it means Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) hears everything and when it is applied to His Seeing it means He See’s everything. When it is connected with His Rubbubiyyah (i.e. Sustainer-ship, Provider-Ship) it means He is sustainer and provider of all creation. When Zaati (i.e. personal) is applied to Allah’s (subhanahu wa ta’ala) ownership then Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is believed to be Malik by His own-self.[9] When Zaati is applied to His Hearing it means ability of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) hearing is His own and non-other has given Him the power to hear. When it is applied to His seeing it means He See’s by His own self and none has given Him the ability to see. When it applied to His Lordship/Sustainer-Ship then it means Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is Rabb by His self and His act of sustaining is His own. When Azli is applied to ownership of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) it means He was/is Malik from eternity. When it applies to His Hearing it means Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) was Hearing from eternity and when it is applied to His Seeing then it means Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) seeing from eternity. When it is applied to Rubbubiyyah of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) it means He had the ability to provide/sustain from eternity. 3.0 - Fundamental Way A Creation Is Taken As An Ilah: (i) To believe a creation is an Ilah-partner with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) or the Ilah then the creation has been elevated to status of an Ilah-partner with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). (ii) To believe a creation has the right to be worshipped is to elevate the creation to status of an Ilah-partner with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). (iii) To worship a creation, with intention of worship, without believing one being worshipped is an Ilah, is taking the being to be an Ilah-partner with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). 3.1 – Deriving Ilah-Determining Principles From Thirteen Concepts: (i) To believe one is wajib ul wujood (i.e. existence is essential), or the being possesses certain actions/attributes or all attributes/actions according to understanding of zaati (i.e. personal), qulli (i.e. total), azli/abdi (i.e. eternal), haqiqi (i.e. real), bi-ghayr izni (i.e. without permission), ghayr muntahai (i.e. unlimited), ghayr makhlooq (i.e. uncreated), muhaal al fana (i.e. impossible to annihilate), bi-ghayr misl (i.e. without comparison), and khaliqi (i.e. creator’s), akmal (i.e. perfect), mustaqil (i.e. independent), is elevating the creation to status of an Ilah-partner with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). (ii) To believe a creation can benefit/harm, or remove hardship, or has power to utilize means in creation, or grants and distributes sustenance, or grants male/female children, or manages affairs of creation, or gives life to the dead, or sends rain from clouds, or has power over ma teht al asbab[10] (i.e. according to natural means) / ma fawq al asbab (i.e. according to supernatural means) as an Ilah-partner with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is taking the being to be an Ilah-partner with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). (iii) To believe a creation possessing atahi (i.e. bestowed), baaz (i.e. partial), waqti (i.e. transient), majazi (i.e. linguistical), bi izni (i.e. with permission), muntahai (i.e. limited), makhlooq (i.e. created), mumkin al fana (i.e. possible to annihilate), bi misli (i.e. with comparison) and makhlooqi (i.e. creations) attributes/actions no longer requires permission from Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) to utilize his attributes/actions, or to make use of what is provided in creation, and engages in ma teht al asbab and ma fawq al asbab without requiring permission from Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is elevating the creation to status of being an Ilah besides Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). (iv) To believe a creation possessed all attributes/actions in according to understanding of; atahi (i.e. bestowed), baaz (i.e. partial), waqti (i.e. transient), majazi (i.e. linguistical), bi izni (i.e. with permission), muntahai (i.e. limited), makhlooq (i.e. created), mumkin al fana (i.e. possible to annihilate), bi misli (i.e. with comparison) and makhlooqi (i.e. creations), but now has become equal to Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) in his one or more or all attributes/actions, or has been elevated to status of an Ilah by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is elevating the creation to status of Ilah-partner of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). (v) To believe a creation possessing atahi (i.e. bestowed), baaz (i.e. partial), waqti (i.e. transient), majazi (i.e. linguistical), bi izni (i.e. with permission), muntahai (i.e. limited), makhlooq (i.e. created), mumkin al fana (i.e. possible to annihilate), bi misli (i.e. with comparison), and makhlooqi (i.e. creations) attributes/actions can provide ma teht al asbab and ma fawq al asbab type of harm/benefit without permission and granting of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is elevating the creation to status of being god partner to Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). (vi) To believe a creation possessing atahi (i.e. bestowed), baaz (i.e. partial), waqti (i.e. transient), majazi (i.e. linguistical), bi izni (i.e. with permission), muntahai (i.e. limited), makhlooq (i.e. created), mumkin al fana (i.e. possible to annihilate), bi misli (i.e. with comparison), and makhlooqi (i.e. creations) qualities can provide ma fawq al asbab (i.e. according to supernatural means) type of harm/benefit without permission and granting of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is elevating the creation to status of being god partner to Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). 4.0 – Guide To Interpreting The Six Principles: The following principle should be used to understand and expand six principles stated in 3.1. Thumb rule is, if one, or more, or all concepts, from the thirteen mentioned, are attributed to a creation’s Zaat (i.e. being), or Sift (i.e. attribute) or some/all Sifaat (i.e. attributes), or Fehl (i.e. action) or some/all Afaal (i.e. actions), then creation is made Ilah-partner of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). 4.1 – Explaining The Thumb Rule: Najd says: Zahid can hear by his own self (i.e. Zaati) and Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) did not give him the ability to hear. Najd has attributed Zaati hearing to Zahid, therefore Najd has affirmed one concept from thirteen, for one attribute, and hence he elevated the Zahid to status of Ilah. Najd says: Zahid can hear by his own self (i.e. Zaati) and Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) did not give him the ability to hear and Zahid can hear absolutely everything (i.e. Qulli). This time Najd has affirmed Zaati and Qulli concepts for one attribute (i.e. hearing) of Zahid hence he has elevated Zahid to status of Ilah. Thumb rule is; if one or more concepts are attached to a attribute/action, or one concept but one or more attributes/actions are connected then creation is elevated to status of Ilah. 4.2 – An Important Note For The Students Of Knowledge: Please note, mentioned six principles in 3.1 are just a guide to understanding the principles of Islam regarding Shirk. These principles do not cover every aspect of major Shirk therefore Muslims dedicated to learning should explore the thirteen concepts in light of section 4.0 and 4.1 in order to unlock more principles. In section 3.1 Zaat (i.e. being) aspect of Tawheed/Shirk is not brought into the principles.[11] If I had done so the principles would have become excessively complex and difficult for the readers to understand. Hence readers can expand on the Tawheed/Shirk of Zaat using section 4.0. 5.0 - Interpreting 1st Ilah-Determining Principle To Demonstrate Methodology Of Interpretation: (i) To believe Zahid is Wajib Ul Wujud is elevating the creation to status of an Ilah-partner with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). (ii) To believe Zahid possesses Zaati attributes/actions is elevating the creation to status of an Ilah-partner with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). (iii) To believe Zahid possesses Qulli attributes/actions is elevating the creation to status of an Ilah-partner with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). (iv) To believe Zahid possesses Azli attributes/actions is elevating the creation to status of an Ilah-partner with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). (v) To believe Zahid possesses Haqiqi attributes/actions is elevating the creation to status of an Ilah-partner with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). (vi) To believe Zahid possesses bi-Ghayr Izni attributes/actions is elevating the creation to status of an Ilah-partner with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). (vii) To believe Zahid possesses Ghayr Muntahai attributes/actions is elevating the creation to status of an Ilah-partner with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). (viii) To believe Zahid possesses Ghayr Makhlooq attributes/actions is elevating the creation to status of an Ilah-partner with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). (ix) To believe Zahid possesses Muhaal Al fana attributes/actions is elevating the creation to status of an Ilah-partner with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). (x) To believe Zahid possesses bi-Ghayr Misl attributes/actions is elevating the creation to status of an Ilah-partner with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). (xi) To believe Zahid possesses Khaliqi attributes/actions is elevating the creation to status of an Ilah-partner with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). (xii) To believe Zahid possesses Akmal attributes/actions is elevating the creation to status of an Ilah-partner with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). (xiii) To believe Zahid possesses Mustaqil attributes/actions is elevating the creation to status of an Ilah-partner with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). 5.1 – Explaining Various Interpretations Of 1st Ilah-Determining Principle: Here some difficult to grasp aspects will be explained to clarify them and in order to demonstrate how they are to be understood. The first interpretation of first Ilah-Determining principle is: To believe Zahid is Wajib Ul Wujud is elevating the creation to status of an Ilah-partner with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). It is interpreted as: Zahid’s Zaat (i.e. being), Sifaat (i.e. attributes), Afaal (i.e. actions) are absolutely/fundamentally necessary, non-existence is impossible and to believe this is to elevate Zahid to status of Ilah because Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is alone Wajib Ul Wujud and apart from his existence everything and their attributes and their action can/cannot exist. The ninth interpretation of first Ilah-Determining principle is: To believe Zahid possesses Muhaal Al Fana attributes/actions is elevating the creation to status of an Ilah-partner with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Firstly, one whose attributes/actions are Muhaal Al Fana then automatically his Zaat is also Muhaal Al Fana because the attributes/actions cannot exist without the Zaat. If Zaat can be annihilated/destroyed then attributes/actions will also be destroyed/annihilated hence Zaat of one possessing Muhaal Al Fana attributes/actions must be Muhaal Al Fana. Secondly, To believe Zahid’s abilities of hearing/seeing and his action of walking/talking cannot be annihilated/destroyed [to put is simply – to eliminate their existence from creation] is elevating Zahid to status of Ilah because only attributes/actions of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) are impossible to annihilate/destroy along His Zaat everything else beside Him can be removed from state of existence into state of non-existence. Wama alayna ilal balaghul mubeen. Muhammed Ali Razavi. Footnote: - [1] “We took the Children of Israel (with safety) across the sea. They came upon a people devoted entirely to some idols they had. They said: "O Moses, design for us like unto the gods they have." He said: "Surely you’re a people without knowledge.” [Ref: 7:138] - [2] In the following verse words Ilah and Rabb have been used interchangeably: “Say, "I am only a man like you, to whom has been revealed that your Ilah is One Ilah. So whoever would hope for the meeting with his Rabb - let him do righteous work and not associate in the worship of his Rabb anyone.” [Ref: 18:110] Following verse uses the word Ilah in context of creating and harm/benefit: “Yet they have taken besides Him other gods (i.e. alihah) who created nothing but are themselves created, and possess neither harm nor benefit for themselves, and possess no power (of causing) death, nor (of giving) life, nor of raising the dead.” [Ref: 25:3] - [3] “Is not Allah enough for his Servant? But they try to frighten thee with other (gods) besides Him! for such as Allah leaves to stray, there can be no guide.” [Ref: 39:36] "We say nothing but that (perhaps) some of our gods may have seized thee with imbecility. “He said: "I call Allah to witness, and do ye bear witness, that I am free from the sin of ascribing, to Him." [Ref: 11:54] “And they have taken gods besides Allah that they might give them honor, power and glory.” [Ref: 19:81] "We only worship them so that they may bring us closer to Allah." [Ref: 39: 3] - [4] Alhasil, belief precedes the act of appointing Deity and engaging in worship. - [5] “And (all) the Most beautiful names belong to Allah , so call on Him by them, and leave the company of those who belie or deny (or utter impious speech against) His names. They will be requited for what they used to do.“ [Ref: 7:180] - [6] n possesses x, y, z attributes as well as ability to harm/benefit … hence Zahid decides n deserves worship therefore Zahid takes n as a Deity/Ilah in other words Mabud. - [7] Fiqhi verdict is stated in 3.0, principle 3, on the basis of Hadith; actions are determined according to intentions incase the belief of Ilah does not exist for what ever freak of nature reason but y has the intention of worshiping a creation. - [8] Quran is testimony to how Arabic words have evolved due to revelation of Quranic verses. Countless words in Arabic have evolved to mean something specific. In Arabic the word ‘Qibla’ means ‘direction’. The word ‘Qibla’ is used in context of facing Masjid Al Haram in prayer and as a result Muslims associate the word Qibla with direction which indicates Kabah. The word ‘Salah’ is used in meaning of ‘Dua’ (i.e. supplication) but now it has is associated with five daily prayers. Alhasil, linguistic meaning remain part of the Shar’ri meaning but depending on for whom the word is used and what context the word is used the meaning evolves. The implication here is; word Ilah linguistically means Mabud but its usage for Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) adds to its linguistic meaning. Therefore the names and attributes of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) become part of Shar’ri meaning of Ilah. - [9] Creation of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is made Malik (i.e. owner) of various objects by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) via means He has created. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is the Malik (i.e. Owner) by His own-self meaning none has made Him Malik over creation. He was the Creator and is the Owner of what He created. - [10] Ma teht al asbab are – cure through use of medicine, strength through eating food, quenching of thirst with water, burning with fire, cutting with sharp instrument, light with bulb, walking with legs, lifting wit hands … in all these the; cure, strength, satisfying thirst, burning, cutting, light, walking, lifting is done with means available and not supernatural means. Ma fawq al asbab are actions - such as raising the dead, bringing rain from clouds, breathing life into clay bird figures, healing the blind instantly, splitting the moon, turning the staff into snake, bringing water out of fingers, growing trees from ash of seeds, rising the sun from the place of it’s setting. - [11] In section 5.1 Zaat aspect of Muhaal Al Fana has been discussed as a separate point even though it was not part of the first Ilah-Determining principle nor part of ninth interpretation. So you can certainly expand on this aspect to further your understanding of Tawheed with your private study.
  10. Introduction: Muslims believe Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is Shahid (i.e. Hadhir Nazir). The opponents of Islam argue against this belief on the basis of their Satanic logic. Anti Hadhir Nazir arguments are composed of, or based on, half-baked truths. Following is one such argument which was presented during a discussion on this subject. Argument Against Hadhir And Nazir: Hadith records Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) said: "You will be gathered, bare-footed, naked and not circumcised." He then recited: “As We began the first creation, We, shall repeat it: A Promise We have undertaken: Truly we shall do it.” (21:104) He added, "The first to be dressed on the day of resurrection will be Abraham, and some of my companions will be taken towards the left side and I will say: My companions! My companions! It will be said: 'They renegade from Islam after you left them.' Then I will say as the pious slave of Allah said. 'And I was a Shaheed over them while I dwelt amongst them. When you took me up you were the Raqeeb over them, and you are a Shaheed to all things. If you punish them they are your slaves. And if you forgive them, Verily you, only you are the all-Mighty, the all-Wise." (5:117/118) [Ref: Bukhari, B55, H568] This establishes Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is not Shahid/Shaheed (i.e. Hadhir Nazir). If he was he would know that these people abandoned Islam after his death and were no longer his companions but they are apostates. Methodology Of Refutation: In order to refute the allegation we will have to establish that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) knew during his life time and will know on the judgment day that they are not companions but apostates. The other part connected to this is; why would Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) say these people are my companions when it is obvious they were not his companions. Answering this question would further clarify the confusion and if Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) permits a separate article will be written to give number of reasons. Prophet Knew They Are Not Companions: Following Hadith establishes that the apostates were amongst the companions: “Narrated Abdullah: The Prophet said, "I am your predecessor at the Lake-Fount and some men amongst you will be brought to me, and when I will try to hand them some water, they will be pulled away from me by force. Whereupon I will say: 'O Lord, my companions!' Then the Almighty will say, 'You do not know what they did after you left, they introduced new things into the religion after you.'" [Ref: Bukhari, B88, H173] Following Ahadith explains that the ‘you’ is directed toward companions: “Narrated Ibn Al-Musaiyab: The companions of the Prophet said, "Some men from my companions will come to my Lake-Fount and they will be driven away from it, and I will say, 'O Lord, my companions!' It will be said, 'You have no knowledge of what they innovated after you left: they turned apostate as renegades (reverted from Islam).” [Ref: Bukhari, B76, H586] “Some men from my companions will be brought and taken towards the left side, whereupon I will say, 'O Lord, (these are) my companions!' It will be said, 'You do not know what new things they introduced (into the religion) after you.' I will then say as the righteous pious slave …." [Ref: Bukhari, B65, H4740] We have established Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has made distinction between his companions and apostates by saying, some men from my companions will be taken toward the left side. This indicates Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) in the world knew they would be apostates and not companions. Also the Hadith itself is proof that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) knew they would be apostates because he has informed us of an event taking place in distant future. Once he refers to them as his companions Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) will pose a rhetorical question as to remind him about the identity of the men: “... Allah's Messenger said: I would be on the Cistern so that I would be seeing those who would be coming to me from you, but some people would be detained (before reaching me). I would say: My Lord, they are my followers and belong to my Ummah, and it would be said to me:فَيُقَالُ أَمَا شَعَرْتَ مَا عَمِلُوا بَعْدَكَ وَاللَّهِ مَا بَرِحُوا بَعْدَكَ يَرْجِعُونَ عَلَى أَعْقَابِهِمْ (i.e. Don’t you know what they did after you?) By Allah, they did not do good after you, and they turned back upon their heels. He …” [Ref: Muslim, B30, H5684] Then Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) will remember the Kufri innovations of the men and the identities. Prophet Will Recognize Apostates And They Will Recognize Him: Hadith states Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) would recognize the apostates and they would recognize him on day of judgment: " The Prophet said, "I am your predecessor (forerunner) at the Lake-Fount, and whoever will pass by there, he will drink from it and whoever will drink from it, he will never be thirsty. There will come to me some people, whom I will recognize, and they will recognize me, but a barrier will be placed between me and them.” [Ref: Bukhari, B76, H585] Hadith records Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) said: "While I was sleeping, a group (of my followers were brought close to me), and when I recognized them, a man (an angel) came out from amongst (us) me and them … Then behold! (Another) group (of my followers) were brought close to me, and when I recognized them, a man (an angel) came out from (me and them) he said (to them); Come along.' I asked: "Where?' He said, 'To the Fire, by Allah.' I asked, What is wrong with them?' He said …” [Ref: Bukhari, B76, H587] Further confirmation of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) recognizing the apostates and proof of apostates recognizing Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is in the following Hadith: "One will say: O Muhammad! I am so son of so. Another will say: O Muhammad! I am so son of so. I will say; without doubt I recognize your ancestry but you innovated after me and you became apostates by turning on your heels."[1] [Ref: Msnd Ahmad, Baqi Msnd Al Muksireen, Sa’id Khudri, Hadith 11284]They will address Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) by his name indicating they have recognized him and he will recognize them and will know about their ancestry and will be aware of their apostasy. The Apostates Are The Leaders/Creators Of Kufri Innovations: The Ahadith reveal those who were being turned away from the Hawd Al Kauthar were originators of innovations [in other words leaders of heretical sects] and this is evident from the rhetorical tone of question being asked: “Then some men from among my Ummah will be brought and will be taken toward the left. I will say: 'O Lord, my companions.' It will be said: 'Do you not know what they innovated after you were gone?’ And I shall say what the righteous slave said: 'And I was witness over … If You punish them, they are Your slaves, and if You forgive them, verily, You, only You, are the All-Mighty, the All-Wise.' And it will be said: 'These people kept turning away since you left them.'" [Ref: Bukhari, B21, H2089] Question itself implies that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) knew they created innovations which resulted in their apostasy. Similar meaning can also be taken from the following Hadith: "... Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: I shall be your harbinger on the Reservoir {Al Kauthar}; therefore, be cautious lest one of you should come (to me) and may be driven away like a stray camel. I would ask the reasons, and it would be said to me: You don't know what innovations they made after you? And I would then also say: Be away.” [Ref: Muslim, B30, H5686] It is recorded in Hadith of Hudhayfah Ibn Al-Yaman (radiallah ta’ala anhu) that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) will knows names of innovators, tribe they will belong to, and names of their: “I swear by Allah, I do not know whether my companions have forgotten or have been made to forget. I swear by Allah that the Apostle of Allah (sallalahu alayhi was'salam) did not omit in his mention leader of any fitnah to appear up till the end of the world – each would have followers the number of three hundred and upwards, and he mentioned to us his name, his father's name and the name of his tribe.” [Ref: Abu Dawood, B35, H4231] And it is based on this earthly knowledge Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) will know the names of innovators, tribes, and names of their fathers when these innovators approach him on the Hawd. And proof of this is in the following Hadith: "One will say: O Muhammad! I am so son of so. Another will say: O Muhammad! I am so son of so. I will say; without doubt I recognize your ancestry but you innovated after me and you became apostates by turning on your heels." [Ref: Msnd Ahmad, Baqi Msnd Al Muksireen, Sa’id Khudri, Hadith 11284] Conclusion: It is obvious that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) knew in his earthly life that those being turned away from Hawd Al Kawthar are not his companions but apostates who introduced Kufri innovations. Also on judgment day Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) will know the people being prevented from reaching him are apostates. He will also know the names of these innovators, the tribes they belonged to, and will know the names of their fathers on judgment day. It is also evident that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) will recognize them and they will recognize him on the day of judgment. Hence there is no chance of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) not being truly aware of the reality of these people. At the very minimum it has been soundly established that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) did not address them as companions due to lack of knowledge about their innovations and apostasy. It is yet to be established, the reasons due to which he referred to apostates as his companions and that if Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) permits will be explained in another article, here. Wama alayna ilal balaghul mubeen. Muhammed Ali Razavi Footnotes: - [1]"You think my nearness to my tribe will not benefit them? By Allah, nearness to me [via blood relation] will be rewarded on earth and in hereafter. On judgment day a tribe will be raised who will be ordered to go toward the left. One will say: O Muhammad! I am so son of so. Another will say: O Muhammad! I am so son of so. I will say; without doubt I recognize your ancestry but you innovated after me and you became apostates by turning on your heels." [Ref: Msnd Ahmad, Baqi Msnd Al Muksireen, Sa’id Khudri, Hadith 11284]
  11. Introduction: Muslims believe companions of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) introduced praiseworthy innovations/practices into religion of Islam. One such innovation was introduced by Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) in form Taraweeh prayer during the month of Ramadhan. Our opponents believe there is no such a thing as praiseworthy innovation in Islam. Hence they argue Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) only revived/reinstated a Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). Therefore the objective of this article would be to present the Islamic position in light of Islamic sources and critically examine evidence of anti-Islamic elements to demonstrate their misguided belief. Ahadith At The Centre Of Dispute: “Malik related to me from Ibn Shihab from Urwa ibn az-Zubayr that Abd ar-Rahman ibn Abd al-Qari said, "I went out with Umar ibn alKhattab in Ramadhan to the mosque and the people there were spread out in groups. Some men were praying by themselves, whilst others were praying in small groups. Umar said, 'By Allah! It would be better in my opinion if these people gathered behind one reciter.' So he gathered them behind Ubayy ibn Kab. Then I went out with him another night and the people were praying behind their Qur'an reciter. Umar said, نِعْمَتِ الْبِدْعَةُ هَذِهِ (i.e. How excellent this innovation is!) But what you miss while you are asleep is better than what you watch in prayer.' He meant the end of the night, and people used to watch the beginning of the night in prayer." [Ref: Muwatta Malik, B6, H3] “Abdur Rahman bin 'Abdul Qari said, "I went out in the company of 'Umar bin Al-Khattab one night in Ramadhan to the mosque and found the people praying in different groups. A man praying alone or a man praying with a little group behind him. So, 'Umar said, 'In my opinion I would better collect these (people) under the leadership of one Qari (Reciter)’. So, he made up his mind to congregate them behind Ubai bin Ka'b. Then on another night I went again in his company and the people were praying behind their reciter. On that, 'Umar remarked نِعْمَتِ الْبِدْعَةُ هَذِهِ (i.e. what an excellent innovation this is) but the prayer which they do not perform, but sleep at its time is better than the one they are offering.' He meant the prayer in the last part of the night. (In those days) people used to pray in the early part of the night." [Ref: Bukhari, B32, H227] Shaikh Abu Rumaysah’s Position On The Issue: “When Umar (raddi Allaahu anhu) was the Khalifah, he collected the Muslims to pray in congregation for Tarawih prayers, and said, "What a good bid'ah this is." [bukhari] From this, they derive their belief of a good innovation. Firstly, it becomes necessary to explain the context of what happened. When the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) first emigrated to Madeenah, the Muslims prayed tarawih individually, and then for three nights they prayed in congregation behind the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam). After this, he stopped them doing so saying, "I feared that it would become obligatory upon you." So after this the Muslims would pray individually or in small congregations throughout the rule of Abu Bakr, and the beginning of Umar's (raddi Allaahu anhu) rule. Then Umar (raddi Allaahu anhu) came to the masjid and saw the Muslims praying in small groups behind different Imams, so he collected them together in one congregation behind one Imam and made the aforementioned statement [Ref: Bukhari, B32, H227]. So how can this action of 'Umar (raddi Allaahu anhu) be understood to be a new act of worship when the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) did it during his lifetime? Secondly, the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) gave the reason why he stopped the congregational prayer, because revelation was still descending, and he feared that praying in congregation might become obligatory upon his nation and hence make the religion hard upon them. After the death of Rasulallaah (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) revelation ceased so this concern was no longer necessary. Hence Umar (raddi Allaahu anhu) reinstated the Tarawih prayer in congregation during his rule because he knew that his action could not be made obligatory upon the Ummah. Thirdly, all the companions agreed upon this action of ‘Umar (raddi Allaahu anhu), thus there was a consensus (ijma) on it. And the scholars of Usool (fundamental principles) have stated that ijma cannot occur except when there is a clear text for it in the Sharee'ah. So what is the correct understanding of 'Umar's (raddi Allaahu anhu) words, "a good bid’ah”? The word bid'ah here is to be understood in its linguistic sense, "something new," because Tarawih in one congregation was not present during the rule of Abu Bakr (raddi Allaahu anhu) and the beginning of 'Umar's (raddi Allaahu anhu) rule, hence in that sense it was something new. The Sharee'ah sense (defined earlier) cannot be understood here because it does not fulfil the conditions of being a new act of worship. Abu Yusuf said, "I asked Abu Hanifah about the tarawih and what 'Umar did and he said, 'The tarawih is a stressed Sunnah, and 'Umar did not do that from his own opinion, nor was there in his action any innovation, and he did not enjoin it except that there was a foundation for it with him and authorization from the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam.'" (Sharh Mukhtaar as quoted from him in al- Ibdaa of Shaikh Ali Mahfooz P80) [Ref: MuslimConverts] Common Ground Between Position Of Muslims And Anti-Islam Element: It is true that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) had performed Taraweeh for three days consecutively and on the fourth night did not attend the Masjid, and next day he informed the companions that he did not lead them in prayers because he felt it will be made compulsory. Following Hadith is evidence of this: "Allah's Messenger went out in the middle of the night and prayed in the mosque and some men prayed behind him. In the morning, the people spoke about it and then a large number of them gathered and prayed behind him (on the second night). In the next morning the people again talked about it and on the third night the mosque was full with a large number of people. Allah's Messenger came out and the people prayed behind him. On the fourth night the Mosque was overwhelmed with people and could not accommodate them, but the Prophet came out (only) for the morning-prayer. When the morning-prayer was finished he recited Tashah-hud and said, "Amma ba'du, your presence was not hidden from me but I was afraid lest the night prayer should be enjoined on you and you might not be able to carry it on." So, Allah's Apostle died and the situation remained like that." [Ref: Bukhari, B32, H229] The last part of Hadith high-lighted indicates that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) did not lead the companions for Taraweeh prayers after first three days. This establishes Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) to perform Taraweeh in congregation, under leadership of a Qari is for three days. Taraweeh Is Not A New Act Of Worship: Our Shaikh writes: “Then Umar (raddi Allaahu anhu) came to the masjid and saw the Muslims praying in small groups behind different Imams, so he collected them together in one congregation behind one Imam and made the aforementioned statement [Ref: Bukhari, B32, H227]. So how can this action of Umar (raddi Allaahu anhu) be understood to be a new act of worship when the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) did it during his lifetime?” Did we claim that Taraweeh was new act of worship? Your question is based on your faulty understanding that we believe Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) introduced an innovation. Saying it emphatically, we Muslims do not believe Taraweeh is new act of worship. We believe that Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) took a Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and issued it for entire month. This brought about recitation of entire Quran and Taraweeh under leadership of an Imam for entire month. This action of Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) was without precedent of prophetic Sunnah hence it is نِعْمَتِ الْبِدْعَةُ (i.e. excellent innovation) سُنَّةَ خَيْرٍ (i.e. good precedent), سُنَّةً حَسَنَةً (i.e. good practice), سُنَّةً صَالِحَةً (i.e. righteous practice) and there is reward for one who issued it for entire month and for those who follow it.[1] Hadhrat Umar’s Reinstating Taraweeh: Our Shaikh writes: “Secondly, the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) gave the reason why he stopped the congregational prayer, because revelation was still descending, and he feared that praying in congregation might become obligatory upon his nation and hence make the religion hard upon them. After the death of Rasulallaah (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) revelation ceased so this concern was no longer necessary. Hence Umar (raddi Allaahu anhu) reinstated the Tarawih prayer in congregation during his rule because he knew that his action could not be made obligatory upon the Ummah.” Firstly, it is agreed by both parties that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) did not wish to make religion hard for his followers therefore he abstained from Taraweeh after the initial three days. Secondly, Shaikh claims Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) reinstated a Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). Reinstate, means to restore something to former position or state. He would be reinstating prophetic Sunnah of Taraweeh if the amount was three days lead by an Imam. Or if Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) had left instructions saying, after my departure from this world reintroduce the Qiyam/Taraweeh for entire month of Ramadhan. He took a prophetic Sunnah and increased number of days for which it is performed – entire month of Ramadhan, with an Imam leading, reciting entire Quran and declaring that he ‘reinstated’ the Taraweeh prayer in congregation is deception. Thirdly, our Shaikh should be presenting evidence to justify why Taraweeh prayer is not innovation in religion of Islam, or why Taraweeh is not innovation in terms of Shari’ah. The reason given, why Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) reintroduced Taraweeh – ceasing of revelation is relative between Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radiallah ta’ala anhu) and Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu).[2] Does this reason justify the Salafi/Wahhabi belief; Taraweeh is not an innovation in terms of Shari’ah? This point is hardly an argument in defense Salafi/Wahhabi position. Shaikh attributed to Imam Ash-Shafi (rahimullah alayhi ta’ala) the following statement: "Whoever declares something to be good he has declared it part of Shari’ah." [Ref: ar-Risala] Hence it would be appropriate to respond to him with something from him. Judging on this statement one is forced to admit Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) introduced an excellent innovation into Shari’ah. Imam Shafi (rahimullah alayhi ta’ala) had following position regarding the Taraweeh prayers being initiated for entire month: “It was narrated to us by Muhammad ibn Musa ibn al-Fadl who had it narrated to him from Abul-Abbas Al-Asam who said Rabi ibn Sulayman narrated to us from Imam ash-Shafi’s that he said, “Innovated matters in religion are of two kinds: 1) Whatever is innovated and is contradicts the Book, or the Sunnah, or a narration, or Ijma – then this is an innovation of misguidance. 2) Whatever is innovated of good and that does not contradict any of these – then this is a novelty which is not blameworthy. And Umar (radiya Allahu ‘anhu) said concerning the night-prayer in the month of Ramadhan: نِعْمَتِ الْبِدْعَةُ هَذِهِ (i.e. what a good innovation this is!) meaning something new not previously present, and if done does not rebut anything which existed before.” [Ref: Reported by al-Bayhaqi in Manaqib ash-Shafi'I, 1/469][3] This establishes Imam Shafi (rahimullah alayhi ta’ala) believed Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) had introduced an innovation but it did not contradict teaching of Islam and such innovations are considered praiseworthy innovations. Companions Agreed Upon Action Of Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’al anhu): Our Shaikh wrote: “Thirdly, all the companions agreed upon this action of Umar (raddi Allaahu anhu), thus there was a consensus (ijma) on it. And the scholars of Usool (fundamental principles) have stated that ijma cannot occur except when there is a clear text for it in the Sharee'ah.” There are two points that need to be addressed here. Firstly, Ijma does not require clear text from Quran or Sunnah. Rather Ijma on something which the Muslim scholars come to agree on even if the evidence of it is implicit would be valid based on the Hadith of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) which states: “Anas bin Malik said: “I heard the Messenger of Allah say: ‘My nation will not unite on misguidance, so if you see them differing, follow the great majority.’” [Ref: Ibn Majah, B36, H3950] Ijma can only be beneficial if it is based on issues which are lacking strong evidence and scholars come to reconcile them via indirect evidences. There is no need for Ijma on issues which are stated in clear emphatic texts. Coming to issue of Taraweeh, it is clearly established that the Sunnah Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) was to lead Taraweeh for three days as an Imam, and then Taraweeh was abandoned in single Jammat form. Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) issued it for entire month under leadership of an Imam. Considering these facts it is obvious our Shaikh is fabricating Ijma to support his position. Where is the clear text on which companions agreed upon full Ramadhan month Taraweeh deeming it to be prophetic Sunnah? Bring forward your proof if you are truthful. Absence of proof for your claim can be used to argue; Ijma of companions over full month Taraweeh was based on the fact that it is a praiseworthy innovation/practice, evidence of which has been quoted in footnote one. Word Innovation Is Used In Linguistic Sense: Shaikh has conceded that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) only performed it for three days, here: “When the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) first emigrated to Madeenah, the Muslims prayed tarawih individually, and then for three nights they prayed in congregation behind the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam). After this, he stopped them doing so saying …” Shaikh also writes that Taraweeh under single Imam was absent during time of Hadhrat Abu Bakr’s (radiallah ta’ala anhu) Khilafat: “… because Tarawih in one congregation was not present during the rule of Abu Bakr (raddi Allaahu anhu) and the beginning of Umar's (raddi Allaahu anhu) rule, hence in that sense it was something new.” In other words Shaikh agrees that, prophetic Sunnah of Taraweeh was three days because Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) led the prayers as Imam for only three days and then it was abandoned. After which it was not performed under leadership an Imam during the Khilafat of Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radiallah ta’ala anhu) neither in the beginning period of Hadhrat Umar’s (radiallah ta’ala anhu) Khilafat. Considering meaning of innovation in linguistic sense (i.e. something new, something new which does not have a precedent), and in Shar’i sense of something new which does not have precedent from Quran or Sunnah, one is forced to conclude that Taraweeh as performed, is a praiseworthy innovation for following reasons. It is performed for entire month of Ramadhan, under leadership of an Imam/Qari, and recitation of entire Quran takes place. Therefore Shaikh’s saying that usage of نِعْمَتِ الْبِدْعَةُ هَذِهِ by Hadhrat Umar was in linguistic sense is grand lie: “The word bid'ah here is to be understood in its linguistic sense, "something new," because Tarawih in one …” Imam Abu Hanifah (rahimullah alayhi ta’ala) Said Its Not Innovation: Shaikh wrote: “The Sharee'ah sense (defined earlier) cannot be understood here because it does not fulfil the conditions of being a new act of worship. Abu Yusuf said, "I asked Abu Hanifah about the tarawih and what 'Umar did and he said, 'The tarawih is a stressed Sunnah, and 'Umar did not do that from his own opinion, nor was there in his action any innovation, and he did not enjoin it except that there was a foundation for it with him and authorization from the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam.'" [Sharh Mukhtaar as quoted from him in al- Ibdaa of Shaikh Ali Mahfooz p80] It is hard for to accept what is being attributed to Imam Abu Hanifah (rahimullah alayhi ta’ala) because Salafi’s are known for altering texts of classical books so the point of view expressed conforms to their sectarian understanding. Note my explanation is not authentication of the statement attributed to Imam Abu Hanifah (rahimullah alayhi ta’ala). My comments are valid if the statement is verified and genuinely attributed to Imam Abu Hanifah (rahimullah alayhi ta’ala). There are number of things which need to be pointed out. Firstly, Imam Abu Hanifah (rahimullah alayhi ta’ala) used a definition of innovation according to which anything which is established from indirect/implicit evidence is not innovation even if part of it is established. His definition of innovation was: Any action/belief which can be established from Quran/Sunnah via implicit or via generality is not an innovation. And the opposite was: Any action/belief of which there is no Asal (i.e. foundation - explicit or implicit evidence) such is innovation. There is clear evidence of Qiyam/Taraweeh being performed under leadership of an Imam. Imam being Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) hence it was prophetic Sunnah for three days. According to Imam Abu Hanifah’s (rahimullah alayhi ta’ala) definition of innovation Taraweeh would not be innovation even if it was performed for entire month of Ramadhan or just three days because the foundation of it exits. Following article sheds some light onto the methodology employed by Imam Abu Hanifah (rahimullah alayhi ta’ala) and explains why he did not deem it as innovation, here. Secondly, the statement of Imam Abu Hanifah (rahimullah alayhi ta’ala) is to be understood in following meaning: “Abu Yusuf said, "I asked Abu Hanifah about the Tarawih [being Sunnah of Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam] and what Umar did [in form of gathering people under one Qari] and he [Abu Hanifa] said, 'The Tarawih is a stressed Sunnah, and 'Umar did not do that from his own opinion, nor was there in his action any innovation [because Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam lead Taraweeh as an Imam for three days and companions followed him], and he did not enjoin it [for entire month of Ramadhan] except that there was a [Ijtihadi] foundation for it with him and authorization from the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam [in form of follow my Sunnah and the Sunnah of rightly guided Khulafah].” There is reason for this, Imam Abu Hanifah (rahimullah alayhi ta’ala) only commented on the concept of Taraweeh being Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). He did not state Taraweeh for entire month of Ramadhan had foundation in Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). Rather his statement is to be understood in light of fact that there is no evidence that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) ever performed Taraweeh for entire month. Hence the foundation being stated is of Ijtihad, and Hadhrat Umar’s (radiallah ta’ala anhu) Ijtihad to issue Taraweeh under leadership of an Imam for entire month of Ramadhan is praiseworthy innovation because prophetic Sunnah is of three days. Thirdly, did Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) perform Taraweeh for entire Ramadhan? Even our Shaikh Abu Rumaysah agrees that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) performed it for three days. Shar’i meaning of innovation are, something which is new and without precedent in book of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and Sunnah of RasoolAllah (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). Entire month Ramadhan Taraweeh under leadership of a Qari is without precedent hence an innovation, and in words of Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) excellent innovation. Fourthly, note the strategy used by Shaikh to strengthen his position. When it suited his interest he quoted Imam Shafi (rahimullah alayhi ta’ala) or at the least he thought so and ignored Imam Shafi (rahimullah alayhi ta’ala). He was aware that Imam Shafi (rahimullah alayhi ta’ala) used a definition of innovation according to which Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) introduced a praiseworthy innovation. Please take note of it for the second time: “It was narrated to us by Muhammad ibn Musa ibn al-Fadl who had it narrated to him from Abul-Abbas Al-Asam who said Rabi ibn Sulayman narrated to us from Imam ash-Shafi’s that he said, “Innovated matters in religion are of two kinds: 1) Whatever is innovated and is contradicts the Book, or the Sunnah, or a narration, or Ijma – then this is an innovation of misguidance. 2) Whatever is innovated of good and that does not contradict any of these – then this is a novelty which is not blameworthy. And Umar (radiya Allahu ‘anhu) said concerning the night-prayer in the month of Ramadhan: نِعْمَتِ الْبِدْعَةُ هَذِهِ (i.e. what a good innovation this is!) meaning something new not previously present, and if done does not rebut anything which existed before.” [Ref: Reported by al-Bayhaqi in Manaqib ash-Shafi'I, 1/469] Fifthly, after Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) had introduced Taraweeh for entire month, and people had followed it hence he declared it as an excellent innovation because he knew the saying of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) regarding introducing good innovations/practices: “He who introduces a فِي الإِسْلاَمِ سُنَّةً حَسَنَةً (i.e. good Sunnah in Islam), there is a reward for him for this and reward of that also who acted according to it subsequently, without any deduction from their rewards …” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] And he was aware what Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) had stated regarding introducing evil innovations: “And whoever ابْتَدَعَ بِدْعَةً(i.e. introduces an innovation) that is acted upon, will have a burden of sins equivalent to that of those who act upon it, without that detracting from the burden of those who act upon it in the slightest.'" [Ref: Ibn Majah, B1, H209] “And he who introduces a فِي الإِسْلاَمِ سُنَّةً سَيِّئَةً (i.e. evil precedent in Islam), there is upon him the burden of that, and the burden of him also who acted upon it subsequently, without any deduction from their burden.” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] So he wanted it to be known his innovation was praiseworthy and not blameworthy. Islamic Understanding Of The Matter: Hadith records Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) attended Masjid in month of Ramadhan and decided to gather the companions under Hadhrat Ubayy ibn Kab (radiallah ta’ala anhu). When he attended the Masjid again he saw the practice had taken its root amongst the companions hence he remarked it was excellent innovation. It is established Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) performed Taraweeh as an Imam for three days. Yet Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) instructed Taraweeh under leadership of an Imam for entire month and this was excellent innovation of Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu). Note, there are two excellent innovations, i) Taraweeh being performed for extra 26/27 days, ii) 26/27 days of Taraweeh with an Imam. Also note Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) must have recited number of chapters of Quran. In 26/27 extra days of Taraweeh prayers from first Surah to last is recited, and this certainly is another excellent innovation. Hence Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) can be accredited with three excellent innovations. The Shar’ri meaning of innovation is that which does not have precedent in Quran or Sunnah. Considering the meaning of innovation and following details of Taraweeh prayers it is evident, performing Taraweeh for entire month, under leadership of a Qari, reciting entire Quran [and more], is without prophetic precedent hence it is an innovation in terms of Shari’ah. This realization leads Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) to exclaim, what an excellent innovation Taraweeh prayers is. Conclusion: Servant has established Taraweeh for entire month of Ramadhan, and under leadership of a Qari, and recitation of Quran from the beginning till the end, is an excellent innovation because there was no prophetic precedent in form of Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). Statement of Imam Shafi (rahimullah alayhi ta’ala) supports the position of Muslims; Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) introduced an excellent innovation. Also according to criteria of Imam Shafi (rahimullah alayhi ta’ala) to declare something good is to make it part of Shari’ah hence Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) made Taraweeh via Ijtihad a part of religion of Islam.[4] Statement of Imam Abu Hanifah (rahimullah alayhi ta’ala) has been reconciled via point of Ijtihad to Islamic position because basis of Ijtihad in this context is innovation hence outcome of Ijtihad of Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) was praiseworthy innovation. Wama alayna ilal balaghul mubeen. Muhammed Ali Razavi Footnotes: - [1] “Then on another night I went again in his company and the people were praying behind their reciter. On that, 'Umar remarked نِعْمَتِ الْبِدْعَةُ هَذِهِ (i.e. what an excellent innovation this is) but the prayer which they do not perform, but sleep at its time is better than the one they are offering.' He meant the prayer in the last part of the night. (In those days) people used to pray in the early part of the night." [Ref: Bukhari, B32, H227] “Messenger of Allah said: "Whoever starts a سُنَّةَ خَيْرٍ (i.e. good Sunnah) which is followed, then for him is a reward and the likes of their rewards of whoever follows him, there being nothing diminished from their rewards." [Ref: Tirmadhi, B39, H2675] "Jarir b. 'Abdullah reported Allah's Messenger as saying: The servant does not introduce سُنَّةً صَالِحَةً (i.e. good Sunnah) which is followed after him. The rest of the hadith is the same." [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6468] Another Hadith establishes that good Sunnah for which the reward is being told is being made part of Islam: “He who introduces a فِي الإِسْلاَمِ سُنَّةً حَسَنَةً (i.e. good Sunnah in Islam), there is a reward for him for this and reward of that also who acted according to it subsequently, without any deduction from their rewards …” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] "Jarir b. 'Abdullah reported Allah's Messenger as saying: The servant does not introduce سُنَّةً صَالِحَةً (i.e. good Sunnah) which is followed after him. The rest of the hadith is the same." [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6468] - [2] Didn’t the revelation cease during the time of Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radiallah ta’ala anhu)? Did he not know that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is the last/final Prophet and Messenger, and there is no Messenger or Prophet after him? And did he not know nothing can become compulsory for the Ummah without a Prophet or Messenger? So why did he not reintroduce Prophetic Sunnah of performing Taraweeh for three days behind a Qari or introduce it for entire month? Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radiallah ta’ala anhu) knew there is no Prophet or Messenger after the last and the final Prophet and the Messenger Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam), and he knew nothing can be made part of religion as obligation after him. Despite knowing this he did not reintroduce Taraweeh, not three day Taraweeh under leadership of an Imam, and not of entire month. The mind set of Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radiallah ta’ala anhu) was demonstrated on issue of compiling Quran. When it was suggested to him by Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) to compile Quran from all fragments Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radiallah ta’ala anhu) remarked: “How dare I do something which Allah's Messenger did not do?” [Ref: Bukhari, B89, H301] If it occurred to him to introduce Taraweeh then he abstained from it because he did not wish to do anything which Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) did not do. Hence it can be said that he feared it would be an innovation. - [3] Opponents of Islam have argued, Muhammad ibn Musa ibn al-Fadl is unknown hence the narration is weak and cannot be evidence of Imam Shafi’s (rahimullah alayhi ta’ala) position. Unknown to them, Muhammad ibn Musa ibn Al-Fadl as-Sayrafi (rahimullah alayhi ta’ala) has been mentioned by Imam Dhahabi (rahimullah alayhi ta’ala) in his, Siyar Al A’laam An-Nubala, as trustworthy and reliable narrator. Shaikh Salahud-Din as-Safadi (rahimullah alayhi ta’ala) in his, Kitab Al-Wafi bil-Wafiyat, stated about him; he is well known and trustworthy scholar. If Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) permits a separate article will be written to prove the reliability of these narrators. - [4] Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is reported to have said regarding introducing a good Sunnah into religion of Islam: “He who introduces a فِي الإِسْلاَمِ سُنَّةً حَسَنَةً (i.e. good practice in Islam), there is a reward for him for this and reward of that also who acted according to it subsequently, without any deduction from their rewards …” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] Knowing this Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) declared gathering Quran in a book format is good, and evidence is here: “I said to `Umar, "How can you do something which Allah's Apostle did not do?" `Umar said: هَذَا وَاللَّهِ خَيْر. (i.e. By Allah, this is good.) `Umar kept on urging me to accept his proposal till Allah opened my chest for it and I began to realize the good in the idea which `Umar had realized." [Ref: Bukhari, B61, H509] This was the basis on which Imam Shafi (rahimullah alayhi ta’ala) based his principle: "Whoever declares something to be good he has declared it part of Sharee'ah." [Ref: ar-Risaala]
  12. Introduction: Shaikh Abu Rumaysah wrote an extensive article in which he presented his sects Khariji understanding on subject of innovation. Part of this article is dedicated to refuting arguments which Muslims present to refute his understanding of innovation. At explanation number three he attempts to explain the Hadith from Sahih of Imam Muslim (rahimullah alayhi ta’ala) regarding followers of good Sunnah being rewarded equal to one who introduced it. Briefly, his position on this Hadith is to be understood according to context, and that charity was already part of Islam hence the phrase was uttered for sake of reviving a Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam), and this principle is not for introduction of praiseworthy innovations. His position will be judged from Islamic perspective so the truth of matter is revealed for the Muslims. An Invitation To Access Evidence And Dialogue: In the beginning of the article the writer/compiler Abu Hanna wrote why this article was penned. There is mention of many accusations hurled against them, which is of no interest of servant. The author of first statement continued to write: “We ask the brothers and sisters to look for the 'clear argument', to consider the evidence that is provided herein. Do not let this article be a cause for creating more fitna (trials), but instead an opportunity to see a way forward for some reconciliation.” He continues to write: “If you do disagree with this article, then let this be a chance to start a dialogue between us and you rather than a war of words. You know our evidence, please show us yours and let us approach the issue with the scholastic behavior of our predecessors.” As a Muslim one cannot agree with the content of article because it contradicts words of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam), and is based on distortion of clear and emphatic teaching of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). Hence it is in spirit of fair academic sincere dialogue, servant will present the Islamic approach to understanding the set of Ahadith in question. We are commanded to change the evil in following ways: “Whoever among you sees an evil action and can change it with his hand (by taking action), let him change it with his hand. If he cannot do that, then with his tongue (by speaking out); and if he cannot do that, then with his heart (by hating it and feeling that it is wrong), and that is the weakest of faith.” [Ref: Ibn Majah, B36, H4013] And if writing can be considered internet form of speech then the most befitting way to rectify the misguidance is by writing a response pointing to misguidance. The objective is, to guide to path of Islam, neither to humiliate nor to hurt the feelings of those who follow the path contrary to Prophetic teaching. Effort has been made to maintain an academic decorum, but if there is slip, then servant humbly requests; you bare it knowing companions suffered far greater for sake of religion of Islam then a stinging word. Servant ends with: “Remember that at times, due its inherent power the truth can be somewhat painful at first, but acceptance and submission to it is ultimately the objective of every sincere student of knowledge. As Allah the Truth says (what means), "Nay, we fling down the truth against falsehood so it smashes through its mind, and behold, it vanishes." “[Ref: Surah al-Anbiya 21:18] If Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) permits the author of this article will be notified and given opportunity to respond. Any beneficial developments will be published on the forum. Articles On This Subject Which Support Islamic Position: Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) gave many principles in numerous Ahadith which are in a specific context but those principles are generally applied by Muslims and Khawarij to judge all modern issues. The following article shows Khariji sectarian bias remains in regards to Ahadith of good Sunnah but the generality of Ahadith is maintained in other Ahadith, here. Yet Khawarij only restrict the principles given in the Ahadith of good Sunnah to their context because these Ahadith establish legitimacy of introducing praiseworthy innovations into Islam and tell of reward for emulating these Sunnahs. Next one demonstrates that the words of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) can be taken literally and interpreted, and both methodologies are valid, and presents Islamic position, here. Also by contextualizing Ahadith can negate the generality and this means all principles which Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) are according to the context and cannot be used as a guiding principle outside of contextual relevance as demonstrated, here. It is established from Hadith that word Sunnah is being used in meaning of innovation and the benefit of this is that it eliminates the argument; the Ahadith of good Sunnah are about reviving Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam), here. Lastly another article argues words of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) are part of revelation and regarding revelation Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) said that it is jawami al kalim in nature (i.e. meaning shortest expression with vast meanings). Therefore the principles which Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) gave in Ahadith of good Sunnah and bad Sunnah are short but express vast meanings. For these principles to be in line with jawami al kalim nature they must not be restricted to context but all valid interpretations must be accepted. May they be historical, contextual, and intertextual, here. Full Explanation Of Shaikh Abu Rumaysah: The Hadith: “He who sets a good Sunnah in Islam, there is a reward for him for this and reward of that also who acted according to it subsequently, without any deduction from their rewards; and he who sets in Islam an evil Sunnah, there is upon him the burden of that, and the burden of him also who acted upon it subsequently, without any deduction from their burden.” [Ref: Muslim, B5, H2219] The evidence that they derive from this hadith is that people can invent new practices in Islam which are either good or bad. Of course, if they were to take the hadith in its full context then it is not possible to derive this meaning. The context of the hadith states that a group of poor people came to the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) so he asked those around him to give charity, but no one came forward - so much so that signs of anger could be discerned on the face of RasoolAllah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam), so one of the companions stepped forward and gave charity, so the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said the above hadith. Firstly, the word 'Sunnah' which is used in this hadith cannot be understood to mean the Sunnah of RasoolAllah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam), because that would imply that there is something bad in the Sunnah; rather it is to be understood in its linguistic meaning of 'practice’. Secondly, this action the companion did was not something new in Islam, since giving charity was already legislated from the very first days of Islam; rather he was simply implementing it, so the statement of the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) "a good Sunnah" was said at a time when the people were reluctant to give charity, so one man started to give the charity and others followed him in it. Thus, he revived a Sunnah at a time when the people were reluctant to practice it, and this is the meaning of "a good Sunnah” Hence, in the early works of 'Aqeedah, this hadith was included under the chapter headings, "The reward of the one who renews the Sunnah." [For example Sharh Usool I'tiqaad 1/50] The meaning of "a bad Sunnah" is similar. It is renewing or starting something that the Shari’ah has already declared to be bad, and the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) gave the example of the two sons of Adam (alayhis salaam wa 'alaa nabiyina), one killing the other. So upon the murderer was the sin of the killing and the sin of all those that killed after him, without their sins being reduced. Thirdly, the hadith uses the terms 'good' and 'bad', and the Shari’ah has already defined in its totality all that is good and all that is bad. This is what is pointed to in the statement of Imam ash-Shaafi'ee in his refutation of Istihsaan (declaring something to be good) when he said, "Whoever declares something to be good, he has declared it part of Shari’ah." [Ref: ar-Risala][!] [Ref: MuslimConverts] The Hadith In Discussion: “Jarir bin Abdullah reported that some desert Arabs clad in woolen clothes came to Allah's Messenger. He saw them in sad plight as they had been hard pressed by need. He (the Holy Prophet) exhorted people to give charity, but they showed some reluctance until (signs) of anger could be seen on his face. Then a person from the Ansar came with a purse containing silver. Then came another person and then other persons followed them in succession until signs of happiness could be seen on his (sacred) face. Thereupon Allah's Messenger said: He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect. And he who introduced some evil practice in Islam which had been followed subsequently (by others), he would be required to bear the burden like that of one who followed this (evil practice) without their being diminished in any respect.” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] Key Points Of Shaikh Abu Rumaysah’s Explanation: i) Statement of Hadith in discussion is to be understood in the context of historical event. ii) Word Sunnah is not in meaning of Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) but in linguistic meaning of practice. iii) The charity was part of Islam even before the event took place. iv) Companion of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) implemented the charity when people were reluctant. v) He revived a Sunnah/the Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) by giving charity. Key Points Of Hadith Of Sahih Muslim: i) Poor people came to Masjid Nabvi belonging to tribe of Mudar. ii) Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) gave khutbah (i.e. speech) reminding the companions about their bond with one another through Prophet Adam (alayhis salaam)[1] and exhorted them to give charity. iii) Companions were reluctant which angered Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and signs of it showed on his face. iv) A companion came with purse of silver and donated it. This started a chain reaction and all companions contributed according to their capacity. This continued until signs of happiness Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) were visible on his face. v) Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) told of equal reward for one who sets/introduces a good Sunnah in Islam and those who follow this good Sunnah. Meaning Of Word Sunnah In Hadith Of Good And Bad Sunnah: Both of us agree, word Sunnah in Hadith of bad Sunnah in literally means way and practice. Shaikh Abu Rumaysah has stated: “… the word 'Sunnah' which is used in this hadith cannot be understood to mean the Sunnah of RasoolAllah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam), because that would imply that there is something bad in the Sunnah; rather it is to be understood in its linguistic meaning of 'practice’.” If the word Sunnah is considered in context of the phrase, he who introduced a bad Sunnah into Islam, then implication of this is; bearing of burden being told is for something which is not already part of Islam. Note innovation is not part of Islam hence the word way/practice is in meaning of innovation. A Hadith from Tirmadhi which has exactly same meaning uses the word Bid’ah (i.e. innovation) instead of Sunnah (i.e. practice), here: “ And if anyone introduces a misguiding innovation with which Allah and His Messenger are not pleased then he gets a sin like the sins of those who observe it and nothing is deducted from the sins of the people.” [Ref: Tirmadhi, B39, H2677] This establishes part of Hadith of Muslim (i.e. bad Sunnah) is about innovation and note both parts of Hadith of Muslim (i.e. good Sunnah and bad Sunnah) are grammatically exactly same apart from words which give each principle a distinctive meaning. Therefore in the Hadith of Muslim the word Sunnah phrase, good Sunnah, is in meaning of innovation. To strengthen the Islamic position note, if the word Sunnah is considered in context of the phrase, he who introduced a good Sunnah into Islam, then implication of this is; reward being told is for something which is not already part of Islam innovation is not part of Islam hence the word way/practice is in meaning of innovation. Good Sunnah Is Reviving Which Is Already Part Of Islam: Considering the following part of quote: “Second, this action the companion did was not something new in Islam, since giving charity was already legislated from the very first days of Islam; rather he was simply implementing it, so the statement of the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) "a good Sunnah" was said at a time when the people were reluctant to give charity, so one man started to give the charity and others followed him in it. Thus, he revived a Sunnah at a time when the people were reluctant to practice it, and this is the meaning of "a good Sunnah.” And considering the following: “The meaning of "a bad Sunnah" is similar [to good Sunnah]. It is renewing or starting something that the Shari’ah has already declared to be bad …” I have come to conclusion that brief position of Shaikh Abu Rumaysah would be two possibilities: i) Meaning of a good Sunnah is renewing or reviving something that the Shari’ah has already declared to be good. ii) Meaning of a good Sunnah is renewing or reviving something that the Shari’ah has already made part of Islam. Question for Shaikh, is reciting Salat (i.e. sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) after mentioning Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) a good Sunnah? You will agree it is good Sunnah. Did Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) or Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) declare this as good Sunnah? Is reciting Salat after mentioning Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) part of Islam? No it isn’t! Yet you agreed it is a good Sunnah. The people of knowledge know; reciting Salat after mentioning of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) was started by Imam Ma’lik (rahimullah alayhi ta’ala) and this practiced continued to be enjoined by Muslims ever since. There is reward for Imam Ma’lik (rahimullah alayhi ta’ala) due to starting this good Sunnah and those who follow his example, according to following: “He who introduces a good Sunnah in Islam, there is a reward for him for this and reward of that also who acted according to it subsequently, without any deduction from their rewards …” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] Point to note is, your definition of good Sunnah is invalid. Introducing good Sunnah into Islam does not mean reviving a prophetic Sunnah rather it means something which was not part of Islam but is made part of Islam via Ijtihad. Claiming Of Reviving Prophetic Sunnah Of Charity: Ahadith record Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) exhorted the companions to give charity, here: “Jarir bin Abdullah reported that some desert Arabs clad in woolen clothes came to Allah's Messenger. He saw them in sad plight as they had been hard pressed by need. He (the Holy Prophet) exhorted people to give charity, but they showed some reluctance until (signs) of anger could be seen on his face. Then a person from the Ansar came with a purse containing silver. Then came another person and …” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] There was no need of reviving of prophetic Sunnah of charity. It was alive amongst them, and Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) was alive, encouraging good and forbidding evil. Reviving is of those prophetic Sunnahs which have been erased from the memory of Muslims, and reviving of prophetic Sunnahs is only after death of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam), here: "I am ready to know O Messenger of Allah!" He said: "That indeed whoever revives a Sunnah from my Sunnah which has died after me, then for him is a reward similar to whoever acts upon it without diminishing anything from their rewards." [Ref: Tirmadhi, B39, H2677] "I heard the Messenger of Allah say: 'Whoever revives a Sunnah of mine that dies out after I am gone, he will have a reward equivalent to that of those among the people who act upon it, without that detracting from their reward in the slightest." [Ref: Ibn Majah, B1, H210] Shaykh interpreted the reluctance of companions to give charity has death of prophet Sunnah. Reluctance of companions to give charity cannot be interpreted to mean prophetic Sunnah of giving charity was dead amongst them and which needed reviving. Burden of proof is upon Shaykh to establish; prophetic Sunnah of giving charity was forgotten/dead in life time of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) which was being revived by companion. As for the Islamic position, servant has already established it with evidence. Note, there was no need for reviving the prophet Sunnah of giving charity because it was known to companions and by establishing this position the basis of Abu Rumaysah’s argument has been refuted. Hence the literal meaning of prophet words in Hadith of, whoever introduces good Sunnah in Islam, stands: “He who introduces a good Sunnah in Islam, there is a reward for him for this and reward of that also who acted according to it subsequently, without any deduction from their rewards …” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] Companion Introduced Nothing New Into Islam: He writes: “…this action the companion did was not something new in Islam, since giving charity was already legislated from the very first days of Islam; rather he was simply implementing it …” Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) said: “He who introduces a good Sunnah in Islam, there is a reward for him for this and reward of that also who acted according to it subsequently, without any deduction from their rewards …” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] So my question is, the first person who initiated the donation process what was his contribution to Islam? Note, the words of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) are clear that one who introduces a good practice in Islam he will get reward equal to those who follow his Sunnah. By giving charity he merely initiated a process of giving charity and he did not introduce this practice into Islam because charity and giving charity was already part of Islam. Companion Revived A Prophetic Sunnah: He writes further: “… so the statement of the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) "a good Sunnah" was said at a time when the people were reluctant to give charity, so one man started to give the charity and others followed him in it. Thus, he revived a Sunnah at a time when the people were reluctant to practice it …” Abu Rumaysah saying that he revived a Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) by being the first one to donate does not fit the statement of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). If the words of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) were, he who introduces a good Sunnah of Islam, then the context would fit the statement of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) but the words of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) are: he who introduces a good Sunnah in Islam. Note the Hadith states, one who introduces a good Sunnah in Islam and implication of which is; the Sunnah being introduced into Islam is not part of it already. Therefore the arguments that this statement of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) was about reviving the Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is incorrect. The position of Abu Rumaysah; this statement of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is to be understood in the historical context is proven wrong. It is wrong on the basis that this statement is about which is not part of Islam and the companion only initiated charity which was part of Islam. Hadith Was Part Of Reviving A Sunnah: He wrote: “Thus, he revived a Sunnah at a time when the people were reluctant to practice it, and this is the meaning of "a good Sunnah” Hence, in the early works of 'Aqeedah, this hadith was included under the chapter headings, "The reward of the one who renews the Sunnah." [For example Sharh Usool I'tiqaad 1/50] Answer to this is; there are two components of the following Hadith, one is introducing into Islam [which is not part of it already] and the other is connected with reviving good/bad innovated Sunnah, here: “He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect. And he who introduced some evil practice in Islam which had been followed subsequently (by others), he would be required to bear the burden like that of one who followed this (evil practice) without their being diminished in any respect.” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] The Hadith has an innovating component and reviving component, and it was part of reviving corpus cause of reviving component. It is due to foolishness that one ignores the following part of Hadith: “… He who introduced some good practice in Islam …”, and is only focusing at the following part only: “… which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect, …” Also note, reviving component of the Hadith is connected with innovating component of Hadith hence it means, those who revive the newly introduced practice into Islam will have equal reward to one who introduced it. Hence it was part of reviving corpus not because of reviving Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) but it was in such collections due to reviving newly introduced Sunnah into Islam. Bad Sunnah Is Renewing Which Is Already Declared Bad: He wrote: “The meaning of "a bad Sunnah" is similar. It is renewing or starting something that the Shari’ah has already declared to be bad …” According to Shaikh Abu Rumaysah meaning of bad Sunnah is renewing something which Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) already declared sinful/bad. Question for Shaikh, could you guide me to a verse of Quran or Hadith in which pole dancing almost naked in presence of none family males is declared bad/sinful? No! I didn’t think you could quote me a Hadith or Ayah either but is watching pole dancing bad/sinful or not? Sinful! Has the Shari’ah already declared it bad? An honest answer is, no! Point here is pole dancing is not renewing which Shari’ah has declared bad/sinful but it is still bad and this refutes your position, quoted above. Another question, was oral ###### declared bad by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) or by Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam)? No! Is oral ###### bad or not? Bad![2] Has the Shari’ah declared oral ######, bad? Another honest and truthful answer is, no! The point is renewing or starting something Shari’ah has already declared to be bad is not the definition of bad Sunnah. Engaging in something which Shari’ah has declared bad, is sinful. Bad Sunnah is, a Sunnah which is introduced into religion of Islam and is composed religious/non-religious activities but component of which is engaging in Haram, or Shirk, or Kufr. To explain this with an example, filthy rich money-Shaikh goes to perform Hajj. He takes with him the finest quality wine bottles, 20k a piece. An imported infidel butler and the money-Shaikh is accompanied by 10 of the sluttiest sluts of Europe in sluttiest clothes possible. Monkey-Shaikh is fit as a fiddle but he is carried by these sluttiest sluts on a throne made out of gold thread embroidery and on his head is diamond crown. His sluts carry him around the Kabah for first Tawaf, and the butler pours the fine wine in glass for him. He sips bit by bit until second Tawaf begins and butler being professional pours the second glass of cold fine wine. The money-Shaikh ends his seventh Tawaf with his seven glass of fine wine. His behavior becomes a yardstick for filthy rich Arabs and all emulate his Sunnah closely as they can. Now question is, is this renewing or starting something which Shari’ah has declared bad, or is it a new bad Sunnah? It is a new bad Sunnah into religion of Islam. Will money-Shaikh earn the equal sin of those who follow his newly invented reprehensible Sunnah? Damn right he will because Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) said: “And he who introduced some evil Sunnah in Islam which had been followed subsequently (by others), he would be required to bear the burden like that of one who followed this (evil practice) without their being diminished in any respect.” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] Important point here is that principle is not just for historical context but it is to be applied generally to all new reprehensible innovations/practices. The Issue Of Relevance Of Second Sentence Of Statement: Now if the first sentence of good Sunnah in Islam was said in context of historical event then it must be that the second sentence was also in context of historical event. The second sentence of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) statement is: “And he who introduced some evil Sunnah in Islam which had been followed subsequently (by others), he would be required to bear the burden like that of one who followed this (evil practice) without their being diminished in any respect.” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] What is the reprehensible Sunnah which the companions introduced which resulted in Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) telling them that they will be bearing the burden of introducing evil Sunnah? Shaikh Abu Rumaysah does not answer this question but instead he interprets the Hadith out of the context. An educated estimation would be that his response would be as follows: companions were eliminating the Sunnah of giving charity in the way of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) due to their reluctance and this was evil Sunnah. Does this statement apply to all types of reprehensible Sunnahs or just the one you pointed out? If he says to all types of reprehensible Sunnahs then note he has taken this statement out of historical context. This statement was in context of reluctance to give charity according to his methodology hence it can only be applied to similar event. If he was to interpret it generally he is going against his own position of interpreting the Hadith according to context, and he did go against his own principle. He interpreted the second sentence of the Hadith in light of Hadhrat Adam’s (radiallah ta’ala anhu) son murdering his brother, he wrote: “The meaning of "a bad Sunnah" is similar. It is renewing or starting something that the Shari’ah has already declared to be bad, and the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) gave the example of the two sons of Adam (alayhis salaam wa alaa nabiyina), one killing the other. So upon the murderer was the sin of the killing and the sin of all those that killed after him, without their sins being reduced.” This establishes that Shaikh Abu Rumaysah interpreted the Hadith and went against what he complained about in the beginning of his response (i.e. words of Hadith are interpreted out of context). If the context was so fundamental to understanding the statements of Hadith in discussion why would he leave it and interpret it with Hadith of son of Adam (alayhis salaam)? Point here is; context is important but the principles are not limited restricted to the context only. Interpretation Of Bad Sunnah Critically Analyzed: Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) said: "Whenever a person is murdered unjustly, there is a share from the burden of the crime on the first son of Adam for he was the first to start the tradition of murdering." [Ref: Bukhari, B55, H552] It is clear that son of Prophet Adam (alayhis salaam) was the first person to start murder and one who follows his footsteps receives equal sin to him and this agrees with the following principle: “And he who introduced some evil Sunnah in Islam which had been followed subsequently (by others), he would be required to bear the burden like that of one who followed this (evil practice) without their being diminished in any respect.” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] Note the word underlined here: “And he who introduced some evil Sunnah in Islam which had been followed subsequently …” This points to reprehensible Sunnah which was not part of Islam before but is being made part of Islam by son of Adam (alayhis salaam). Murder was an evil Sunnah which did not exist prior to incident mentioned in Hadith of Bukhari. In this context the meaning of Hadith of Bukhari compliments the following perfectly: And he who introduced some evil Sunnah in Islam which had been followed subsequently (by others), he would be required to bear the burden like that of one who followed this (evil practice) without their being diminished in any respect.” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] Hence if a bad practice is introduced in Islam then continuously revived by others then all those who renew it are equally sinful for emulating it and son of Prophet Adam (alayhis salaam) did introduce a bad Sunnah of murder which was without a precedent. Therefore this incident of Bukhari is proof of Islamic position not Khariji position because an evil Sunnah is introduced and then followed. And in part of good Sunnah the Shaikh Abu Rumaysah’s position is that nothing new was introduced only an old practice was revived. Note he wrote meaning of bad Sunnah is similar to good Sunnah: The meaning of "a bad Sunnah" is similar. It is renewing or …” If this is indeed the case then companion must have introduced a good Sunnah into Islam which was not part of it prior to the event. The Companion Introduced An Innovation Into Islam: The companion acted on the Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) amongst reluctant group of people. It maybe that it was first occasion where the companions were reluctant to give charity to their fellow Muslims. Hence he is the first one to give charity amongst reluctant people, and this can be deemed as a good Sunnah, and in context of reluctance of companions, and in context of being first companion stepping up to give charity, Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) said: “He who introduces a good Sunnah in Islam, there is a reward for him for this and reward of that also who acted according to it subsequently, without any deduction from their rewards …” [Ref: Muslim, B5, H6466] Implication of which would be that in context of reluctance of all companions Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) termed the action of companion as a good Sunnah in Islam. This explanation holds to the literal meaning of statement of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and keeps in touch with the historical event. Also note, Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) introduced the concept of charity in Islam and those who follow his example will have reward. With both interpretations a Sunnah is being introduced into Islam which is followed by others or revived by others. The Issue Of Context And Generality: Sa’d bin Ubada (radiallah ta’ala anhu) is reported to have said: "If I saw a man with my wife, I would strike him (behead him) with the blade of my sword." In context of this Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) said: "You people are astonished at Sa`d's Ghira. By Allah, I have more Ghira than he, and Allah has more Ghira than I …” He continued to inform us: “… and because of Allah's Ghira, He has made unlawful shameful deeds and sins done in open and in secret. And there is none who likes that the people should repent to Him and beg His pardon than Allah, and for this reason He sent the warners and the givers of good news.” [Ref: Bukhari, B93, H512] In the context of Sa’d bin Ubada’s statement the following words mean, Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has prohibited adultery [which is a sin] done openly or secretly: “He has made unlawful shameful deeds and sins done in open and in secret.” Yet these words are not restricted to context but apply to all shameful deeds [according to Shari’ah] and sins. Even though the words can be interpreted according to context yet generality of these words remains intact allowing for application of these words to other shameful and sinful actions. Note, the words of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) quoted in Hadith do not entirely fit the context but do have some connection with context. In similar fashion the following words of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) have relevance to context because reviving a practice (i.e. of giving charity) by engaging in it by others is part of Hadith: “He who introduces a good Sunnah in Islam, there is a reward for him for this and reward of that also who acted according to it subsequently, without any deduction from their rewards …” [Ref: Muslim, B5, H6466] This statement of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) does not entirely fit into context like statement of shameful deeds but has loose connection with context. And similar to Hadith of shameful deeds the generality of meaning of the statement cannot be negated because the statement begins with, he who introduced a good Sunnah in Islam, which is indication that reward being told further on is for a practice which is not already part of Islam. An Exhortation To One Who Distorts Prophetic Words: It was Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) to give general guidance relating to an event but provide a principle on basis of which the Muslims can judge issues which are were not addressed by Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). The principle of good Sunnah and bad Sunnah are part of these principles and to limit and restrict their understanding to an era, or a people, or event, takes away from Muslims a source of guidance. The one who negates the generality of these words, opposes what the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) said about his Prophetic words: "I have been sent with the shortest expressions bearing the widest meanings, and …” [Ref: Bukhari, B52, H220] The principles of good and bad Sunnah carry wide range of meanings which your sectarian entrenched mind cannot comprehend and refrain from what your intellect cannot grasp and fear Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and not oppose His beloved Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has stated about such people: “And whoever opposes the Messenger after guidance has become clear to him and follows other than the way of the believers - We will give him what he has taken and drive him into Hell, and evil it is as a destination.” [Ref: 4:115] You have no excuse, neither of lack of knowledge, nor of those who are in state of oblivion and as a reminder note the following words of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam), here: "The best speech is Allah's Book and the best guidance is the guidance of Muhammad." [Ref: Bukhari, B73, H120] The guidance of Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is in form of principles and his guidance is best guidance. He has told of reward for one who brings into Islam good innovation and for those who follow this innovated Sunnah has declared equal reward. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has stated: "It is not fitting for the believing man nor for the believing woman, that whenever Allah and His Messenger have decided any matter, that they should have any other opinion." [Ref: 33:36] Believe in Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) as he was to believed, and accept the guidance of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) as it was to be accepted, and have no opinion over the verdict of Messenger of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Conclusion: It is true the statement of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) about good Sunnah into Islam can be loosely interpreted in light of the historical context but the statement itself establishes its generality which allows multiple interpretations, including literal. To force the historical context upon a statement which is general, and to restrict the generality, and to reject the generality based on context is heretical. As matter of principle, a general statement can be interpreted in a context but it cannot be limited by the contextual interpretation, neither the generality can be altered due to contextual interpretation. The generality remains unaffected by contextual interpretations or theological expositions. Footnotes: - [1] Alterations have been made into the text. The first alteration is the text of Hadith in discussion has been inserted instead of paraphrased translation with reference. Salawat have been bracketed and some Arabic words have been capitalized and spelling of the words has been altered also. The last part of the content has been omitted because it was not connected with explanation of Hadith in discussion. There may be other alterations but none effects the original meaning of content. - [2] “Mundhir bin Jarir reported on the authority of his father: While we were in the company of the Messenger of Allah in the early hours of the morning, some people came there (who) were barefooted, naked, wearing striped woolen clothes, or cloaks, with their swords hung (around their necks). Most of them, nay, all of them, belonged to the tribe of Mudar. The color of the face of the Messenger of Allah underwent a change when he saw them in poverty. He then entered (his house) and came out and commanded Bilal (to pronounce Adhan). He pronounced Adhan and Iqima, and he (the Holy Prophet) observed prayer (along with his Companion) and then addressed (them reciting verses of the Holy Qur'an): '" 0 people, fear your Lord, Who created you from a single being" to the end of the verse," Allah is ever a Watcher over you" (iv. 1). (He then recited) a verse of Sura Hashr:" Fear Allah. and let every soul consider that which it sends forth for the morrow and fear Allah" (lix. 18). (Then the audience began to vie with one another in giving charity.) Some donated a dinar, others a dirham, still others clothes, some donated a sa' of wheat, some a sa' of dates; till he (the Holy Prophet) said: (Bring) even if it is half a date. Then a person from among the Ansar came there with a money bag which his hands could scarcely lift; in fact, they could not (lift). Then the people followed continuously, till I saw two heaps of eatables and clothes, and I saw the face of the Messenger glistening, like gold (on account of joy). The Messenger of Allah said: He who sets a good Sunnah in Islam, there is a reward for him for this and reward of that also who acted according to it subsequently, without any deduction from their rewards; and he who sets in Islam an evil Sunnah, there is upon him the burden of that, and the burden of him also who acted upon it subsequently, without any deduction from their burden.” [Ref: Muslim, B5, H2219] - [3] It is bad due to implicit evidence of following Hadith: “… and because of Allah's Ghira, He has made unlawful shameful deeds and sins done in open and in secret.” [Ref: Bukhari, B93, H512]
  13. Introduction: This article has been written in form of question and answer. These questions are product of my Wahhabi mind. Questions are fairly basic and get complex as the article progresses. After question nine Wahhabi side in me kicked in and asked really tough questions and Sunni side replied with best of my knowledge and ability. Objective was that someone with basic knowledge of subject of innovation can read this and use it as a spring board for further study into subject. Question And Answer Session: Q1: What is innovation? Answer: Linguistically anything newly invented is innovation. Technically anything not explicitly stated by name/label in neither Quran nor it was by taught by Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is innovation. Q2: Is there a Shar’ri definition of innovation as opposed to linguistic definition of innovation? Answer: Yes, there are Shar’ri definitions of innovations but these definitions depend on type of innovation. Q3: How many types of innovations are there? Answer: Islam divides innovations into two major categories; i) praiseworthy ii) and blameworthy. Praiseworthy innovation is permissible and blameworthy is prohibited. Q4: What are the definitions of these two types of innovations? Answer: The definition of praiseworthy innovation is as follows: Any innovated practice/custom which has implicit evidence from Quran/Hadith. Other side of praiseworthy innovation is: Any innovated practice/custom which is composed of acts of worship, charity, preaching, and other Sunnahs of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is praiseworthy innovation. Definition of blameworthy innovation is as follows: Anything innovated which does not have implicit evidence from Quran/Hadith. Other side of reprehensible innovation is: Any innovated practice/custom which is composed of Shirk, or Kufr, or engaging in Haram, or eating Haram, or any sinful activity is blameworthy innovation. Q5: What is implicit/indirect evidence in context of subject of innovation? Answer: Implicit/Indirect evidence fundamentally is corroborating activities in a custom/practice from Quran and Hadith. A properly corroborated practice/custom will be amalgamation of various Islamicly sanctioned practices. Q6: What type innovation is permissible? Answer: If an innovated practice is composed of, acts of worship, charity and other Islamicly sanctioned activities then it is permissible Q7: What type of innovation is prohibited? Answer: If an innovated practice is composed of acts which lead to Shirk/Kufr, engaging in or eating Haram and other sinful activities then the innovation is reprehensible. Q8: Will there be reward for engaging in praiseworthy innovations and punishment for blameworthy? Answer: Yes, there will be reward from Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) for engaging in praiseworthy innovations and punishment for acting upon blameworthy innovations. Q9: If an innovation is composed of islamicly sanctioned activities and Islamicly condemned activities then what would be the judgment regarding the innovation? Answer: The polytheists of Makkah performed Tawaf of Kabah naked and chanted a polytheistic Talbiyah. Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) instructed the companions to perform Tawaf with Ihram and corrected the Talbiyah to conform to Tawheed. Hence it would be appropriate to remove the aspects which contradict teaching of Islam and practice it with aspects which conform to teaching of Islam. Q10: Hadith indicates; every innovation is misguidance, [1] therefore Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) will not reward innovations/misguidance. Question is how can there be reward for [praiseworthy] innovation? Answer: Hadith of every innovation is misguidance is in context of misguiding innovation.[2] Misguiding innovations are those which contradicts teaching of Islam and every innovation which is composed of polytheistic, sinful, activities is [evil, reprehensible, blameworthy, erroneous, and] misguiding innovation. Reward is not based on the name of innovation but based on what it is composed of. Praiseworthy innovations are composed of Islamicly sanctioned activities such as Dua (i.e. supplication), Nawafil (i.e. optional prayers), Tilawah (i.e. recitation of Quran), Sadqah (i.e. optional charity), Bayanaat (i.e. speeches), and distribution of food to poor, family and friends. These are practices which are Sunnahs of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) hence reward is guaranteed. Engaging in these Sunnahs under a new name (i.e. Urs, Milad, and Khatam) does not make the practice of them a sinful activity. Q11: You have restricted the application of every invention is innovation [and] every innovation is misguidance, in context of blameworthy innovation. Is there any evidence for this interpretation of Hadith? Answer: The evidence for this Takhsees/interpretation is found in another Hadith where Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is reported to have said: “And whoever introduces a سُنَّةً سَيِّئَةً (i.e. reprehensible practice) that is followed, he will receive its sin and a burden of sin equivalent to that of those who follow it, without that detracting from their burden in the slightest.'" [Ref: Ibn Majah, B1, H203] In another Hadith the word innovation (i.e. bidda) is used: "And whoever introduces an ضَلاَلَةٍ بِدْعَةَ (i.e. reprehensible innovation) with which Allah is not pleased nor His Messenger then he shall receive sins similar to whoever acts upon it without that diminishing anything from the sins of the people.” [Ref: Tirmadhi, B29, H2677] Based on these Ahadith it is clear that Islam recognises blameworthy innovations/practices. Hence in the Hadith of every invention is innovation, every innovation is misguidance, Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) was stating about innovations which are Dhalalah/Say’yah. Only reprehensible innovations which are composed of Shirki/Kufri or sinful activities can earn displeasure of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and take the practitioner to hellfire. Q12: Is there evidence for the concept of ‘good innovation’ in religion of Islam? Answer: It has been narrated that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) said: "Whoever introduces a good Sunnah (i.e. practice) that is followed, he will receive its reward and a reward equivalent to that of those who follow it, without that detracting from their reward in their slightest.” [Ref: Ibn Majah, B1, H203/209] In the Hadith recorded in Sahih Muslim Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is reported to have explicitly stated that one who introduces good Sunnah into religion of Islam, hadith: “He who introduced some good Sunnah (i.e. practice) in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] Note that in the above two Ahadith word Sunnah has been used but the meaning in context is obvious of innovation. To put it simply the Hadith means; he who introduced some good innovation into religion of Islam then the innovator and the followers would earn equal reward without their rewards being diminished in any way. There is Hadith in which Hazrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) gathered the companions under leadership of one Qari and remarked this was an excellent innovation: "I went out in the company of 'Umar bin Al-Khattab one night in Ramadan to the mosque and found the people praying in different groups. A man praying individually, or a man (i.e. Imam) praying with a small group behind him. So Umar said, in my opinion I would better collect these [people] under the leadership of one Qari. So, he made up his mind to congregate them behind Ubai bin Ka'b. Then on another night I went again in his company and the people were praying behind their reciter. On that, 'Umar remarked: هَذِهِ الْبِدْعَةُ نِعْمَ عُمَرُ قَالَ (i.e. What an excellent innovation this is) but the prayer which they do not perform, but sleep at its time is better than the one they are offering.' He meant the prayer in the last part of the night. [in those days] people used to pray in the early part of the night." [Ref: Bukhari, B32, H227] This statement of Hazrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) goes to establish that religion of Islam has place for praiseworthy innovations on basis of which he declared his innovation as excellent. Q13: Hadith records Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) stated regarding newly invented innovations: « من أحدث في أمرنا هذا ما ليس منه فهو ردٌّ» Translation: "Whoever innovates something in this matter of ours (i.e. Allah and RasoolAllah) that is not part of it, will have it rejected." [Ref: Muslim, B18, H4266] In another Hadith it is stated: « وَمَنْ عَمِلَ عَمَلًا لَيْسَ عَلَيْهِ أَمْرُنَا فَهُوَ رَدٌّ » Translation: “He who does an act which we (i.e. Allah and RasoolAllah) have not commanded, will have it rejected (by Allah).” [Ref: Muslim, B18, H4267] It is apparent from both these Ahadith that all ‘praiseworthy’ innovated practices will be rejected by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) yet you say they will be rewarded. Could you explain this contradiction? Answer: You have misunderstood the Ahadith of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). Suppose Yoga is made part of Islam as means of worshipping Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Would this be valid form of worship in religion of Islam? Will Yoga be accepted by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and rewarded? Yoga is not Islamicly accepted mode of worship nor it was sanctioned by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and whosoever worships Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) employing it, will have his worship rejected. Rejected on the basis that Yoga is not from the Sunnahs of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) nor it is from commandments of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Regarding which is not from commandments of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) nor from not his Sunnahs, Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has said: “He who does an act which we (i.e. Allah and RasoolAllah) have not commanded, will have it rejected (by Allah).” [Ref: Muslim, B18, H4267] "Whoever innovates something in this matter of ours (i.e. Allah and RasoolAllah) that is not part of it, will have it rejected." [Ref: Muslim, B18, H4266] Now coming to the praiseworthy innovated practices, as stated earlier are composed of acts of worship such as performing of optional prayers, recitation of Quran, supplication, and fasting. In addition, they consist of acts of charity, distribution of food, and are educational. All this is established from the Quran and Hadith, and many are Sunnahs of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) hence they will not be rejected and will be rewarded because these are good deeds. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) says: “Indeed, this Qur'an guides to that which is most suitable and gives good tidings to the believers who do righteous deeds that they will have a great reward.” [Ref: 17:9] “They believe in Allah and the Last Day, and they enjoin what is right and forbid what is wrong and hasten to good deeds. And those are among the righteous.” [Ref: 3:114] The Saliheen (i.e. righteous) are told of good return from Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala): “Those who have believed and done righteous deeds - a good state is theirs and a good return.” [Ref: 13:29] Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) states those who do good Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) will not darken their faces nor they will be humiliated and they are people of paradise: “For them who have done good is the best [reward] and extra. No darkness will cover their faces, nor humiliation. Those are companions of paradise; they will abide therein eternally.” [Ref: 10:26] The reward on good deeds is promised by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and he has promised entry into paradise for those who do good. The innovations which are composed of acts of worship, charity, Islamic education are good deeds and will be rewarded and will be accepted in light of Quranic teaching. Q14: If one abstains from praiseworthy innovated practices is one sinful? Answer: The innovated practices such as celebration of birthday of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam), wide range of Esal Al Sawab (i.e. sending of reward) practices, under various names/labels, all are optional. If one does not take part in them there is no blame of sin upon an individual. Q15: If one believes the indicated innovated practices are reprehensible is this sinful? Answer: Islam judges based on content and not on the label. These practices are made up of worship, charity and various other Sunnahs. Therefore to consider these practices sinful/blameworthy is to consider the Islamic acts of worship, charity and Sunnahs of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) as sinful/blameworthy. If one consider these innovated practices reprehensible/sinful due to his ignorance and lack of knowledge, without understanding what the implications of his belief are then one is heretic. If one fully understands the implications of his belief and deems the entire praiseworthy innovation as blameworthy/sinful. Including name and the components which make praiseworthy innovation as whole, such as acts of worship, charity and Sunnahs of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) then the person is guilty of disbelief, which invalidates belief in Islam. Q16: Salafism judges on label and based on the contents of practice. Both the name and components of practice have to be explicitly stated for it to be permissible. Hence if the name of practice is not found in the Quran and Hadith then according to Salafi methodology the practice is [reprehensible] innovation. How do you respond to this line of argument? Answer: Technically permissibility is not judged on explicit mention of name and methodology of an innovated practice. Explicit name and methodology of a practice is requested when one has to establish if a practice is Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) or not. Anyone asking for explicit evidence of name as well as methodology of an innovated practice to establish permissibility is foolish and unqualified to issue a judgment on aspects related to Islam. If permissibility is established based on name and the content then note that name of Sahih of Imam Bukhari (rahimullah alayhi ta’ala) has not been mentioned in Quran or in any Hadith and nor there is any explicit named reference for any other Hadith book. Should we prohibit the reading of Ahadith books because these collections are [reprehensible] innovations and warn people against reading these Ahadith books just on the basis that names of these Ahadith collections have not been stated in Ahadith of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam)? [3] The label in Islam is not essential for establishing permissibility but the components which make a practice are essential for permissibility. Moving on, Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) states in Quran regarding the Christian monks that they invented monasticism: “Then We sent following their footsteps Our messengers and followed [them] with Jesus, the son of Mary, and gave him the Gospel. And We placed in the hearts of those who followed him compassion and mercy, and monasticism which they innovated We did not prescribe it for them except [that they did so] seeking the approval of Allah. But they did not observe it with due observance. So We gave the ones who believed among them their reward, but many of them are defiantly disobedient.” [Ref: 57:27] Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) goes on to state, the monks invented it to please Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) but they did not act upon their innovation as they should have. From among those who practiced monasticism and believed in the message of Prophet Isa (alayhis salaam) were rewarded by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). This interpretation is supported by Hadhrat Ibn Abbas (radiallah ta’ala anhu): “(Then We caused Our messengers) one after the other (to follow in their footsteps) to follow Noah and Abraham from their respective offspring; (and We caused Jesus, son of Mary, to follow) these Messengers, (and gave him the Gospel, and placed compassion and mercy) towards each other (in the hearts of those who followed him). (But monasticism they invented) they built monasteries and cloisters to escape the sedition of Paul, the Jew. (We ordained it not for them) We did not enjoin monasticism upon them. (Only seeking Allah's pleasure) they did not invent it except to seek Allah's good pleasure, (and) had We enjoined it upon them (they observed it not with right observance) they would not have given it its right due. (So We give those of them who believe) among the monks (their reward) double for their faith and worship; these are the ones who did not contravene against the religion of Jesus. 24 among these were in the Yemen and when they heard of the Prophet (pbuh) they believed in him and joined his religion, (but many of them) of the monks (are evil-livers) disbelievers, these are the ones who went against the religion of Jesus.” [Ref: Tafsir Ibn Abbas, 57:27] This goes on to establish that the name and the practice of monasticism was innovated by the followers of Prophet Isa (alayhis salaam) but Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) still rewarded those who engaged in monasticism and still believed in teaching of Prophet Isa (alayhis salaam). Here we have approval of a practice which was not taught by Prophet Isa (alayhis salaam) with name or by method and yet those who adhered to it were rewarded. So based on this precedent we can judge that teaching of a practice by name is not fundamental to establish legitimacy. The verse establishes that if a practice (i.e. monasticism) is not taught [by name or methodology] neither prohibited [by name or methodology] and it is invented to please Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and observed correctly the reward will be granted by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Q17: Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has stated the religion of Islam has been completed: “This day I have perfected for you your religion and completed My favor upon you and have approved for you Islam as religion. But whoever is forced by severe hunger with no inclination to sin - then indeed, Allah is Forgiving and Merciful.” [Ref: 5:3] Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has stated: "Whoever innovates something in this matter (i.e. religion) of ours (i.e. Allah and RasoolAllah) that is not part of it, will have it rejected." [Ref: Muslim, B18, H4266] The religion of Islam has been perfected and this means nothing else is required for guidance other than what is revealed by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has informed that innovation would be rejected. Considering this evidence, how can it be correct to believe that one can introduce a practice into Islam which would be rewarded? Answer: Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has stated: “He who introduced some good Sunnah (i.e. practice) in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] Therefore one cannot negate the permissibility of reward worthy innovations into Islam and to negate it is heretical and an innovation. Indeed the religion of Islam has been perfected and completed. One must understand that religion of Islam was perfected and completed with the Hadith which states an individual who introduces into Islam a good Sunnah will earn equal reward to those who follow his innovation. The perfection of Islam is not harmed by introduction of good Sunnahs into Islam and if it was affected in any way then the Messenger of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) would not have stated contrary to it. Innovations are recognized as later additions and it known that they were/are not part fundamental Islam which Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) taught in his life time. It is also understood that these are not compulsory nor Sunnahs of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). Q18: Now question is, why are they said to be part of Islam when it is given that they are not part of [fundamental teaching of] Islam which Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) taught? Answer: Answer to this question has got to do with [logical] semantics therefore it is important one understands the forthcoming point properly. In Arabic language if something (i.e. y) attaches to a part then y would be referred as the part with which it is attached. As an example, Arabs say, his head turned grey, and by this the implied meaning is, his hair turned grey. Even Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) used this method. A sign of judgment day is that thigh/leg would speak to a person. Note: the mobile phone is placed in trouser pockets hence it refers to it. Wahhabi sect’s true followers known as ISIS have called their Khariji state as an Islamic state. Question is why have they named it Islamic state? Did Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) label it ISIS in His book? Or did Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) permit the bloodshed, rape, pillage and destruction of lands of Muslims in His book? Or did Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) appoint Abu Bakr Al Baghdadi as Khalifah in His book? So why is it labelled Islamic State of Iraq and Syria? What is Islamic about it? A supporter of these people would argue it is called Islamic because it is based on precepts of Islam. [4] Demonstration of this principle is also obvious in regards to Qadiyanism also known as Ahmadiyyah. Qadiyaniyyah believe in Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (lanatulillah) as Prophet and therefore are out of fold of Islam. Technically Qadiyanism is an independent religion. Yet they are counted amongst the deviants sects of Islam and example of this is at IslamQA Wahhabi website. From these examples we have a principle, y which is connected to or based on z is considered part of z. Using the principle we come to understanding that, innovations are said to be part of Islam because they are based on teaching of Islam and connected to teaching of Islam due to practices which make up an innovation. Hence it is clear that praiseworthy innovations are not part of fundamental Islam which Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) taught but are said to be part of Islam because the foundation of activities is from Islam. Hence these innovated practices do not go against the belief that Islam is perfected and completed. Q19: And what need is there for [praiseworthy] innovations when all that we need to enter paradise is what Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) taught? Answer: It must be said that the book of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and the Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is enough for guidance and success in this earthly life and in hereafter. Q20: So then there is no need for [praiseworthy] innovations, is it? Answer: Note, all praiseworthy innovations are composed of Sunnahs of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). Sunnahs of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) are an example of good deed which he has set to follow, and evidence of this is: "Indeed, in the Messenger of Allah, a good example [of deeds] has been set for the one who seeks Allah, and the Last Day, and [for one who] thinks constantly about Allah." [Ref: 33:21] Emulating Sunnahs of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) itself is a good deed and Sunnahs of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) are good deeds with which Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is pleased with. Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has stated that Muslims should do good deeds properly, sincerely and moderately, evidence of it is this: “Narrated Aisha: The Prophet said, "Do good deeds properly, sincerely and moderately, and receive good news, because one's good deeds will not make him enter Paradise." [Ref: Bukhari, B76, H474] Also in another Hadith he instructed to do good deeds within ones capacity because Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) rewards without tiring, and following Hadith is evidence: “Do [good] deeds within your capacity because Allah never gets tired of giving rewards till you get tired of doing good deeds." [Ref: Bukhari, B21, H251] Sunnahs of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) are part of praiseworthy innovations and his Sunnahs are examples of good deeds, and we are instructed to do good deeds. There is no fundamental need for praiseworthy innovations but these innovations serve an important purpose and that is of accumulating good deeds. Q21: Is there a Shar’ri obligation to act on these [praiseworthy] innovations? Answer: There is absolutely no Shar’ri obligation upon any Muslim to take part in praiseworthy innovations. These praiseworthy innovations are optional practices if practiced then praiseworthy innovations bring reward if avoided bring no blame. Q22: So when there is no need for praiseworthy innovations, nor there is any Shar’ri obligation to act on them, and we can go to paradise without engaging in these [praiseworthy] innovations then why should we create them and why would Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) create room for[praiseworthy] innovations? Answer: I will begin by answering your last question first. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and his beloved Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) were aware that no religion remains pure and eventually the teachings of Prophets are distorted as time progresses. As such principles were introduced into Islam and part of these principles is principle of good innovation in Islam being rewarded, and bad innovations being sinful. Based on which his followers can take part in reward worthy practices that emerge after him and discard the sinful innovations. Coming to your first question, even though Muslims do recognize the concept of introducing praiseworthy innovations into Islam yet we do not introduce praiseworthy innovations into Islam at will. If we acted on the principle as given by Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) then there would have been countless praiseworthy innovations composed of Sunnahs of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). So even we the Muslims recognize the need to holding to Islam which Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) taught in his life time and understand there is no need for praiseworthy innovations. Incase a praiseworthy innovation is introduced we judge based on the principle which Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) taught and as a matter of principle we do not reject praiseworthy innovations because Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has told of reward for engaging in them. In short, we should not introduce praiseworthy innovations and our focus should be the fundamental Islam which Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) taught. If a praiseworthy innovations is introduced then as Muslims we should not oppose it because as told by Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam), it is reward worthy. Q23: Coming to those [praiseworthy] innovations which have been passed on by our ancestors such as celebrating the birthday of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). Why is so much emphasis put on these [praiseworthy] innovations? Answer: The Khawarij oppose the Muslims because they deem the praiseworthy innovations to be reprehensible innovations and tell Muslims that if they engage in the praiseworthy innovations they will burn in hell. Yet Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has told of equal reward for the one who introduces and those who follow his footsteps. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) states: “You are the best nation produced [as an example] for mankind. You enjoin what is right and forbid what is wrong and believe in Allah.” [Ref: 3:110] One can forbid wrong in three ways, use physical force, speak out against it, or declare it in heart to be wrong. Note, the Khawarij prohibit praiseworthy innovations and declare them as sinful and this is wrong because they oppose what Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) taught.[5] We are obliged by the verse of Quran to forbid the Khawarij from declaring something good to be sinful. So we the Muslims speak out against the heretical methodology of Khawarij and their heretical understandings. Sign of best nation from mankind is that they enjoin what is good and we also partake in the right/good innovations because taking part in such innovations also a form of opposition to the Khawarij. Q24: How can the dispute about [praiseworthy] innovations be resolved in your understanding? Answer: Idealistic absolute reconciliation is not possible between the Muslims and Khawarij due to fundamental differences in methodology. If Khawarij accept that the words of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) have jawami al kalim (i.e. short phrase bearing widest meanings) nature and if their understanding of Ahadith on subject of innovation is corrected then the dispute with Khawarij can be resolved in favor of Muslims. Q25: You don’t believe the definitions of innovation have something to do with the differences? Answer: The Muslims divide innovation into two major categories: praiseworthy and blameworthy. Praiseworthy is which is based on teaching of Quran and Sunnah, and blameworthy is which contradicts the teaching of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and RasoolAllah (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). Muslim scholars also purposed the definition of innovation which now is bench mark of Khawarij. In this methodology of innovation anything which is not supported from teaching of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) with explicit or implied evidence was an innovation. Note in their terminology when a practice is declared as an innovation, it means reprehensible innovation, and praiseworthy innovations were declared as Sunnahs in this methodology.[6] The Khawarij removed condition of implicit evidence (i.e. Ijthadi evidence) and made explicit evidence as the criteria for judging permissibility especially against Muslims. Therefore with minor adjustments this definition can be reconciled with Islamic methodology but in Khariji belief system there is no room for introducing good Sunnah into Islam hence the definition will not be altered to conform to definition of early Islamic scholarship. The difference in definitions of innovations by itself is really significant. The understanding of Ahadith relating to subject of innovation is cause of these definitions and depending on how Ahadith are understood the definition and principles surrounding are derived. So for correct definition the proper understanding of Ahadith relating to subject of innovation is fundamental requirement. Wama alayna ilal balaghul mubeen. Muhammed Ali Razavi Footnotes: - [1] “Jabir b. Abdullah said: When Allah's Messenger (may peace he upon him) delivered the sermon, his eyes became red, his voice rose, and his anger increased so that he was like one giving a warning against the enemy and saying: "The enemy has made a morning attack on you and in the evening too." He would also say: "The Last Hour and I have been sent like these two." And he would join his forefinger and middle finger; and would further say: "The best of the speech is embodied in the Book of Allah, and the best of the guidance is the guidance given by Muhammad. And the most evil affairs are their innovations; and every innovation is misguidance." He would further say: I am more dear to a Muslim even than his self; and he who left behind property that is for his family; and he who dies under debt or leaves children (in helplessness), the responsibility (of paying his debt and bringing up his children) lies on me." [Ref: Muslim, B4, H1885] - [2] "And whoever introduces an ضَلاَلَةٍ بِدْعَةَ (i.e. reprehensible innovation) with which Allah is not pleased nor His Messenger then he shall receive sins similar to whoever acts upon it without that diminishing anything from the sins of the people.” [Ref: Tirmadhi, B29, H2677] - [3] Please note, permissibility is stated to be only established if name and content both are stated if one of the two is missing then according to Salafi methodology the innovated practice is [reprehensible] innovation. - [4] Note, these people have nothing do with religion of Islam. Wahhabi’s are all upon the methodology of Khawarij and about Khawarij Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) said they are people of Kufr. - [5] “That is because they opposed Allah and His Messenger. And whoever opposes Allah - then indeed, Allah is severe in penalty.” [Ref: 59:4] “Do they not know that whoever opposes Allah and His Messenger - that for him is the fire of Hell, wherein he will abide eternally? That is the great disgrace.” [Ref: 9:63] - [6] Not Sunnah in meaning of Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) but Sunnah in meaning of good reward worthy Sunnah: “He who introduced some good Sunnah (i.e. practice) in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466]
  14. Introduction: Subject of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) being appointed on the station of Shahid (i.e. Hadhir & Nazir) is a controversial one. Muslims believe Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is witness to actions of Jinn and mankind due to his appointment but the antagonists disbelieve in what Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) revealed about his station of Shahid. As such they argue against Muslims with their own evidences to refute Islamic belief. Potent Argument Against Hadhir Nazir: One of the antagonists during a with a Muslim presented the following verse of Quran: “Have you not considered that Allah knows what is in the heavens and what is on the earth? There is no private conversation between three but that He is the fourth of them, nor are there five but that He is the sixth of them, and no less than that and no more than that except He is with them wherever they are. Then He will inform them of what they did, on the Day of Resurrection. Indeed Allah is, of all things, Knowing.” [Ref: 58:7] On basis of this he argued; if there is a private conversation between three then fourth is Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and if the meeting is between five participants then sixth is Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Now if Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) was also witness to actions of Jinn-kind and mankind then the verse should have amounted to mean: If the meeting is between three fourth is Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and fifth is Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Or it should have amounted to: When the secret meeting is between five participants then sixth is Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and seventh is Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). He also argued that the verse of Quran states: “… and no less than that and no more than that ...” therefore there can be no less present listeners nor greater than the mentioned in the verse. Hence Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is not Hadhir Nazir because if he was Hadhir Nazir then he would be fourth and Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) would be fifth yet the verse states, no less than that and no more. The Methodology To Be Employed: The argument, there cannot be more or less listeners to a private meeting except those who are present and Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) will be dealt first. Then subject of other listeners listening to secret meeting will be discussed and if Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) permitted position of Muslims will established in light of Quran and Hadith. Interpreting No Less Than That And No More Than That Part Of Verse: Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) stated: “There is in no private conversation between three but that He is the fourth of them, nor are there five but that He is the sixth of them …” Note the verse uses three and five as an example to illustrate the point. Then Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) states: “… and no less than that and no more than except that He is with them wherever they are.” The meaning of this part of verse can be best explained as following: If there are two people engaged in secret meeting third would be Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Note, two is less than three and less than five hence the following verse applies to it: “… and no less than that (i.e. three and five) and no more than that except He is with them wherever they are.” If there are six people engaged in a secret meeting than seventh would be Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Note, six is more than three and more than five hence the following part applies to it: “… and no less than that and no more than that (i.e. three and five) except He is with them wherever they are.” Or suppose, four people are in a secret meeting than fifth is Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). In this example four is greater than three and less than five hence following applies to it: “… and no less than that (i.e. five) and no more than that (i.e. three) except He is with them wherever they are.” Meaning Of Verse In Simple Words And Its Implications: Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) states: “There is no private conversation between three [people] but that He is the fourth of them, nor are there five [engaged in secret counsel] but that He is the sixth of them, and no less than that [i.e. three and five people] and no more than that [three and five people] except He is with them wherever they are.” [Ref: 58:7] After interpretation of this verse it should be evident to Muslims; the opponent of Muslims misconstrued the verse to mean that there cannot be more or less participant listeners to secret meeting. The verse merely means if there are more or less than three or five people engaged in secret meeting Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is also part of it. The fundamental point of the verse is that Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is fully aware of the secret meetings of people, as stated here: “Know they not that Allah knows their secret ideas, and their secret counsels, and that Allah is the All-Knower of the unseen.” [Ref: 9:78] Angels Also Are Part Of Secret Meetings: Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) stated: “Have you not considered that Allah knows what is in the heavens and what is on the earth? There is in no private conversation between three but that He is the fourth of them, nor are there five but that He is the sixth of them, and no less than that and no more, except that He is with them wherever they are. Then He will inform them of what they did, on the Day of Resurrection. Indeed Allah is, of all things, Knowing.” [Ref: 58:7] Now read the following verse in which Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) stated: “And indeed [appointed] over you are keepers. Noble and recording they know whatever you do.” [Ref: 82: 10/12] In another verse of Quran Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) states: “[Remember] that the two receivers (recording angels) receive (each human being), one sitting on the right and one on the left (to note his or her actions).” [Ref: 50:17] In light of these two verses it is evident that the people present in the secret counsel, and Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala), and the recording angels are witness to the events of secret counsels. This deduction is clearly stated in another verse of Quran: “Or do they think that We hear not their secrets and their private counsels and Our messengers are by them to record.” [Ref: 43:80] Potent Response To Potent Argument: It is clear that in a secret counsel apart from the, human participants, angels and Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) are aware of the proceedings. Yet Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has stated: “There is in no private conversation between three but that He is the fourth of them, nor are there five but that He is the sixth of them, and no less than that and no more, except that He is with them wherever they are.” This verse excludes the mention of angels being first hand witness to events of secret meeting. Hence question begs to be asked is the verse comprehensively stating who the witnesses to events of meeting or not? Of course not, the verse merely is stating that Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is witness to the events of secret meetings without excluding others. Hence this verse of Quran cannot be used to refute Islamic belief of Hadhir Nazir because Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has stated: "O Prophet! Truly We have sent you as a Witness, a Bearer of Glad Tidings, and Warner." [Ref: 33:45] In another verse Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has stated: "We have sent to you an apostle to be a witness concerning you, even as We sent an apostle to Pharaoh." [Ref: 73:15] Hadith of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) states that he has been sent as a Prophet to entire mankind: “… concise but comprehensive in meaning; I have been helped by terror (in the hearts of enemies): spoils have been made lawful to me: the earth has been made for me clean and a place of worship; I have been sent to all mankind and the line of prophets is closed with me.” [Ref: Muslim B4, H1062] Hence he is witness upon entire mankind and he will be called as a witness to bear witness against the nations of previous Prophets because he is a witness: “One day We shall raise from all Peoples a witness against them, from amongst themselves: and We shall bring you as a witness against these (people): and We have sent down to thee the Book explaining all things, a Guide, a Mercy, and Glad Tidings to Muslims.” [Ref: 16:89] The verse in discussion does not state Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is witness nor does it exclude witnessing of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). Just like it does not include/exclude the angels witnessing the deeds and recording in the book of deeds. We as Muslims affirm both because these are established with other verses of Quran. Conclusion: Opponent of Islam had misconstrued the meaning of verse and arrived at the understanding; none apart from the participants of secret meeting and Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) witness the events but contrary to this distorted understanding of verse it is established from explicit teaching of Quran that angels and Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was'sallam) are witness upon deeds of mankind. Due to witnessing angels write the deeds of mankind and Jinn-kind into book of deed, and Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was'sallam) observes the deeds, and will be called as a witness on day of judgment. Wama Alayna Ilal Balaghul Mubeen. Muhammed Ali Razavi
  15. Introduction: Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has reportedly stated, one who introduces into Islam a good Sunnah he/she will be rewarded and those who act on this good Sunnah will also receive equal reward, Hadith: “He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] From the literal reading of the words of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) it is clear that it is permissible to introduce into Islam good Sunnahs/Biddahs and to follow them. If it was impermissible to introduce good Sunnahs/Biddahs into Islam then Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) would not have told of reward. The Muslims believe the literal implications of this Hadith and accept all interpretations that can be derived according to historical context. Prophetic teaching is that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has been granted ‘Jawami Al Kalim’ meaning the ability to express vast meanings in few sentences. Hence the multiple interpretations of this Hadith are in agreement with this nature of prophetic words hence all are valid. Now, the opponents of religion of Islam argue against the literal implications and interpret the Hadith in historical context in order to negate the understanding of Muslims. Their understanding is; in a gathering where people are reluctant to give charity, one who gives charity and those who follow his example all will receive equal reward. Readers should note, this is article is continuation of response given to brother Sa’id Imtiaz, here and here. Evidence For Validity Of Holding To Literal Meaning Of Prophetic Words: Hadith records Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) gave following instruction to a group of Sahabah after returning from the battle of Al Ahzab: “None of you Muslims should offer the Asr prayer but at Banu Quraiza's place.” While they were travelling toward the tribe of Quraiza the Hadith records: “The Asr prayer became due for some of them on the way.” This divided the companions into two groups, one group said: “We will not offer it till we reach it, the place of Banu Quraiza.” While the other group said: “No, we will pray at this spot, for the Prophet did not mean that for us.” The Hadith goes on to record that the difference of opinion was brought to attention of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) who did not rebuke either group: “Later on it was mentioned to the Prophet and he did not berate any of the two groups.” [Ref: Bukhari, B59, H445] Position Of Both Group Of Companions On This Matter: The first group acted on the literal instructions of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and did not perform Asr prayer. They second group of companions via Ijtihad came to conclusion that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) was not preventing them from performing Asr prayer on the way but he was instructing them to travel quickly and reach the destination before Asr prayer and then perform the Asr prayer. So they realized they will not reach destination before the Asr prayer time expires and worship of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is more important then reaching a destination quickly hence they decided to perform the prayers on the way: “… (Some) people being afraid that the time for prayer would expire, said their prayers before reaching the street of Banu Quraiza.” [Ref: Muslim, B19, H4374] The other group they said: “We will not offer it till we reach it, the place of Banu Quraiza.” [Ref: Bukhari, B59, H445] “We will not say our prayer except where the Messenger of Allah has ordered us to say it even if the time expires.” [Ref: Muslim, B19, H4374] This establishes one group of companions held to literal instructions and made no Ijtihad hence did not perform prayers on the way to destination and also establishes one group of companions did engage in Ijtihad and performed prayers on the way to said destination. Reaction Of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) To This Difference: Hadith of Bukhari and Muslim record the following words regarding this difference of opinion between the companions: ”When he learned of the difference in the view of the two groups of the people, the Messenger of Allah did not blame anyone from the two groups.” [Ref: Muslim, B19, H4374] “Later on it was mentioned to the Prophet and he did not berate any of the two groups.” [Ref: Bukhari, B59, H445] Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) not correcting any group indicates both groups of companions were correct in their approach because Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is reported to have said: “Whoever among you sees an evil action, and he is able to change it with his hand, then change it with his hand (by taking action); if he cannot, (do so) with his tongue then with his tongue (by speaking out); and if he cannot then with his heart (by hating it and feeling that it is wrong), and that is the weakest of faith.” [Ref: Ibn Majah, B5, H1275] Disobedience to command of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is form of Munkir (i.e. evil/wrong) hence Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) would have clearly pointed out the error of Ijtihad if there was any. Therefore the conclusion both groups were correct in their understanding is established. The Principle Derived From Incident Of Banu Quraiza: From this historical event it is established; literal implications of prophetic words and interpreted implications derived using tool of Ijtihad are both be correct. If any of the two interpretations of prophetic words was in contradiction with Prophet’s (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) teaching he would have corrected the wrong party. An important point, both groups were correct hence Prophet’s (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) methodology is of literal and reinterpretation. Hadith Of Good Sunnah In Light Of Approved Methodologies: Understanding the prophetic words literally and acting upon them as Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) instructed is established. Also reinterpreting the words of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) in light of other evidence is also established. The following prophetic words now can be understood according Prophet’s (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) approved methodologies: “He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] The literal reading of Hadith establishes reward for introducing good Sunnahs/Biddahs into Islam and which is akin to establishing permissibility of introducing good Sunnahs/Biddah into Islam. The reinterpreting methodology establishes reward for engaging in prophetic Sunnahs which people are reluctant to practice and this is akin to granting permission for engaging in prophetic Sunnahs which people are reluctant to engage. Conclusion: Prophetic words are according to ‘Jawami Al Kalim’ nature hence they can be interpreted differently depending on the evidence. From the Hadith of Bani Quraiza it was deduced that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) approved the actions of two groups of companions who differed over the meaning of prophetic words. One group held to the literal meaning of words while the other reinterpreted the words and came to different understanding. As a result one group did not perform their prayers until they reached their destination while the other performed it on the way to destination. In context of objective of this article it is important to point out; the Muslims in regards to the Hadith of good Sunnah hold to the literal meaning and consider it permissible to create good Sunnah/Biddahs and introduce them into Islam with hope of gaining reward from Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala), while accepting the interpretation presented by opponents of Islam. It is important to point out, we the Muslims accept the interpretation of Hadith in discussion but not their understanding of; it is not permitted to introduce good innovations into Islam.
  16. Introduction: In exchanges with brother Sa’id Imtiaz it was argued; Islam permits good Biddahs/Sunnahs into Islam and there is reward one who innovates a good Sunnah and those who follow them, a understanding based on the following: “He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] In response to my line of argument, Wahhabi brother quoted two Wahhabi scholars and one from these two was Muhammad Salih Al-Munajjid, he is prominent scholar of the sect. Their methodology of interpretation was; the ‘good Sunnah’ is to be interpreted according to the context. The interpretation which they presented according to the methodology was; reviving a prophetic Sunnah is good Sunnah and all those who follow the newly revived Sunnah will earn equal reward. Comprehensively this would be as; reviving a prophetic Sunnah which has been neglected, or forgotten, or people are reluctant to practice it, is the good Sunnah and all those who follow the newly revived Sunnah will earn equal reward. Comprehensive response to this line of argument against Islam has been posted here. Methodologies And Interpretations On Trial: There is absolutely no need to dedicate time and critically examine the argument presented and therefore no effort will be made. The already written is sufficient to straighten the crooked path of heretics, if they lend it an ear. In here the methodologies employed to interpret the Ahadith in question by the Muslims and their opponents will be on trial. In an effort to determine which methodology is valid and which interpretation is valid. To properly analyze the methodologies and establish consistency in its application another set of Ahadith will be introduced into discussion which are essential part of the discourse, namely Ahadith of ‘newly invented matters’. The Methodology Of Interpretation To Be Employed: If the Ahadith of ‘newly invented matters’ are to be interpreted in the historical context which surround them and these Ahadith are not be interpreted according to generality wording then there is no need to interpret the Hadith of ‘good Sunnah’ according to generality of wording then they also should be interpreted according to their historical context. If the Ahadith of ‘newly invented matters’ are interpreted according to generality of words and these Ahadith are not restricted to their context but their generality is used then same methodology of interpretation is to be employed for Ahadith of ‘good Sunnah’ and this is to be fair and impartial. The Hadith Of Divine Decree And Adhering To Prophectic Sunnah And Predecessors: “Sufyan said (according to one chain), and Abu al-Salit said (according to another chain): A man wrote to 'Umar b. 'Abd al-Aziz asking him about Divine decree. He wrote to him: To begin with, I enjoin upon you to fear Allah, to be moderate in (obeying) His Command, to follow the Sunnah of His Prophet and to abandon the novelties which the innovators introduced after his Sunnah has been established and they were saved from its trouble; so stick to Sunnah, for it is for you, if Allah chooses a protection; then you should know that any innovation which the people introduced was refuted long before it. […] So accept for yourself what the people (in the past) had accepted for themselves for they had complete knowledge of whatever they were informed and by penetrating insight they forbade; they had more strength (than us) to disclose the matters and they were far better (than us) by virtue of their merits. If right guidance is what you are following, then you out-stripped them to it. And if you say whatever the novelty occurred after them was introduced by those who followed the way other then theirs and disliked them. It is they who actually outstripped, and talked about it sufficiently, and gave a satisfactory explanation for it. Below them there is no place for exhaustiveness, and above them there is no place for elaborating things. Some people shortened the matter more than they had done, and thus they turned away, and some people raised the matter more than they had done, and thus they exaggerated. They were on right guidance between that. You have written (to me) asking about confession of Divine decree, you have indeed approached a person who is well informed of it, with the will of Allah. I know what whatever novelty people have brought in, and whatever innovation people have introduced are not more manifest and more established than confession of Divine decree. The ignorant people in pre-Islamic times have mentioned it; they talked about it in their speeches and in their poetry. They would console themselves for what they lost, and Islam then strengthened it. The Messenger of Allah did not mention it in one or two traditions, but the Muslims heard it from him, and they talked of it from him, and they talked of it during his lifetime and after his death. They did so out of belief and submission to their Lord and thinking themselves weak. There is nothing which is not surrounded by His knowledge, and not counted by His register and not destined by His decree. Despite that, it has been strongly mentioned in His Book: from it they have derived it, and from it they have and so they also read in it what you read, and they knew its interpretation of which you are ignorant. After that they said: All this is by writing and decreeing. Distress has been written down, and what has been destined will occur; what Allah wills surely will happen and which He will not, will not occur. We have no power to harm or benefit ourselves. Then after that they showed interest (in good works) and were afraid (of bad deeds).” [Ref: Abu Dawood, B41, H4595] The Hadith Of Newly Invented Matters And Sticking To Sunnah: “It was narrated from 'Abdur-Rahman bin 'Amr As-Sulami that: He heard Al-'Irbad bin Sariyah say: "The Messenger of Allah delivered a moving speech to us which made our eyes flow with tears and made our hearts melt. We said: 'O Messenger of Allah. This is a speech of farewell. What did you enjoin upon us?' He said: 'I am leaving you upon a (path of) brightness whose night is like its day. No one will deviate from it after I am gone but one who is doomed. Whoever among you lives will see great conflict. I urge you to adhere to what you know of my Sunnah and the path of the Rightly-Guided Caliphs, and cling stubbornly to it. And you must obey, even if (your leader is) an Abyssinian leader. For the true believer is like a camel with a ring in its nose; wherever it is driven, it complies." [Ref: Ibn Majah, B1, H43] “Narrated Al-'Irbad bin Sariyah: "One day after the morning Salat, the Messenger of Allah exhorted us to the extent that the eyes wept and the hearts shuddered with fear. A man said: 'Indeed this is a farewell exhortation. So what do you order us O Messenger of Allah?' He said: 'I order you to have Taqwa of Allah, and to listen and obey [to your leader] even in the case of an Ethiopian slave. Indeed, who ever among you lives, he will see much difference. Beware of the newly invented matters, for indeed they are astray. Whoever among you sees that, then he must stick to my Sunnah and the Sunnah of the rightly guided Khulafa', cling to it with the molars.'" [Ref: Tirmadhi, B9, H2676] The Ahadith Of Introducing Good Sunnah And Reward: “It was narrated from Mundhir bin Jarir that his father said: "The Messenger of Allah said: 'Whoever introduces a good Sunnah that is followed, he will receive its reward and a reward equivalent to that of those who follow it, without that detracting from their reward in their slightest. And whoever introduces a bad Sunnah that is followed, he will receive its sin and a burden of sin equivalent to that of those who follow it, without that detracting from their burden in the slightest.'" [Ref: Ibn Majah, B1, H203] “Jarir b. Abdullah reported that some desert Arabs clad in woolen clothes came to Allah's Messenger. He saw them in sad plight as they had been hard pressed by need. He (the Holy Prophet) exhorted people to give charity, but they showed some reluctance until (signs) of anger could be seen on his face. Then a person from the Ansar came with a purse containing silver. Then came another person and then other persons followed them in succession until signs of happiness could be seen on his (sacred) face. Thereupon Allah's Messenger said: He who introduced some good Sunnah in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect. And he who introduced some evil Sunnah in Islam which had been followed subsequently (by others), he would be required to bear the burden like that of one who followed this (evil practice) without their being diminished in any respect.” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] Hadith Of ‘Divine Decree’ Contextualized: “A man wrote to 'Umar b. 'Abd al-Aziz asking him about Divine decree. He wrote to him: To begin with, I enjoin upon you to fear Allah, to be moderate in (obeying) His Command, to follow the Sunnah of His Prophet [about divine decree] and to abandon the novelties [of negating divine decree] which the innovators introduced after his Sunnah [of divine decree] has been established and they [the Sahabah] were saved from its trouble; so stick to Sunnah [in this matter of belief], for it is for you, if Allah chooses a protection; then you should know that any innovation [regarding divine decree] which the people introduced was refuted long before it. […] So accept for yourself what the people (in the past) had accepted for themselves [regarding the belief of pre-ordained destiny] for they had complete knowledge of whatever they were informed [about divine decree] and by penetrating insight they forbade [discussion regarding divine decree]; they had more strength (than us) to disclose the matters [of divine decree] and they were far better (than us) by virtue of their merits. If right guidance is [Allah has not pre-ordained all things, which is] what you are following, then you out-stripped them to it. And if you say whatever the novelty occurred [in this matter of divine decree] after them was introduced by those who followed the way other then theirs and disliked them. It is they [the predecessors] who actually outstripped and talked about it sufficiently and gave a satisfactory explanation for it. Below them there is no place for exhaustiveness [on this matter of divine decree] and above them there is no place for elaborating things [with regards to divine decree]. Some people shortened the matter [of divine decree] more than they had done, and thus they turned away [from the path predecessors], and some people raised the matter more than they had done, and thus they exaggerated [the path predecessors in this regard]. They [the predecessors] were on right guidance between that. You have written (to me) asking about confession of Divine decree, you have indeed approached a person who is well informed of it, with the will of Allah. I know what whatever novelty people have brought in [regards to the divine decree] and whatever innovation people have introduced [in connection with divine decree] are not more manifest and more established than confession of Divine decree. The ignorant people in pre-Islamic times have mentioned it; they talked about it in their speeches and in their poetry. They would console themselves for what they lost, and Islam then strengthened it [the belief in pre-ordained divine decree]. The Messenger of Allah did not mention it in one or two traditions, but the Muslims heard it from him, and they talked of it from him, and they talked of it during his lifetime and after his death. They did so out of belief and submission to their Lord and thinking themselves weak. There is nothing which is not surrounded by His knowledge, and not counted by His register and not destined by His decree. Despite that, it has been strongly mentioned in His Book: from it they have derived it, and from it they have and so they also read in it what you read, and they knew its interpretation of which you are ignorant. After that they said: All this is by writing and decreeing. Distress has been written down, and what has been destined will occur; what Allah wills surely will happen and which He will not, will not occur. We have no power to harm or benefit ourselves. Then after that they showed interest (in good works) and were afraid (of bad deeds).” [Ref: Abu Dawood, B41, H4595] Hadith Of ‘Beware Of Newly Invented Matters’ Contextualized: "One day after the morning Salat, the Messenger of Allah exhorted us to the extent that the eyes wept and the hearts shuddered with fear. A man said: 'Indeed this is a farewell exhortation. So what do you order us O Messenger of Allah?' He said: 'I order you to have Taqwa of Allah, and to listen and obey [to your leader and do not rebel against his authority] even in the case of an Ethiopian slave. Indeed, who ever among you lives, he will see much difference [leading to rebellion]. Beware of the newly invented matters [which lead to rebellion against a Khalifah because] for indeed they are misguidance. Whoever among you sees that [time of differences and rebellion], then he must stick to my Sunnah [which prohibits rebellion against Khalifah] and the Sunnah of the rightly guided Khulafah, cling to it [i.e. Sunnah] with the molars." [Ref: Tirmadhi, B9, H2676] Ahadith Of ‘Good Sunnah’ Contextualized: “’Whoever introduces a good Sunnah [i.e. giving of charity by Ansari companion and] that is followed, he [the Ansari companion] will receive its reward and a reward equivalent to that of those who follow it, without that detracting from their reward in their slightest. And whoever introduces a bad Sunnah [such as being stingy and not spending in the way of Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala and if] that is followed, he will receive its sin and a burden of sin equivalent to that of those who follow it, without that detracting from their burden in the slightest.'" [Ref: Ibn Majah, B1, H203] Important Note Regarding The Forth Coming Discussion: Hadith of divine decree will not be discussed because it is too long. It is solely being presented so people understand the limitation contextualization and how such contextualization limits the understanding of Hadith and its application. Readers are more then welcome to follow the methodology used and demonstrate how the divine decree Hadith is affected and how such contextualization negates comprehensiveness of guidance contained in Ahadith. Due to Ahadith of ‘beware of the newly invented matters’ and Hadith of ‘good Sunnah’ being shorter, they will be discussed in detailed. Interpreting Hadith Of ‘Beware Of The Newly Invented Matters’ According To Context: Contextually Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) warned against innovation of rebellion/disobedience to Khalifah: “I order you to have Taqwa of Allah [i.e. fulfill your obligations, enjoin good and forbid evil] and to listen and obey [to your leader and do not rebel against his authority] even in the case of an Ethiopian slave. Indeed, who ever among you lives, he will see much difference [leading to rebellion]. Beware of the newly invented matters [which lead to rebellion against a Khalifah because] for indeed they are misguidance. Whoever among you sees that [time of differences and rebellion], then he must stick to my Sunnah [which prohibits rebellion against Khalifah] and the Sunnah of the rightly guided Khulafah, cling to it [i.e. Sunnah] with the molars." [Ref: Tirmadhi, B9, H2676] Contextualizing this Hadith limits the application of this Hadith to innovations in general and it contradicts Prophet’s (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) words where he stated he has been granted ‘Jawami Al Kalim’. Hadith Of ‘Beware Of The Newly Invented Matters’ According To Generality Of Words: Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) warned against innovation with following words: “I order you to have Taqwa of Allah, and to listen and obey [to your leader] even in the case of an Ethiopian slave. Indeed, who ever among you lives, he will see much difference. Beware of the newly invented matters, for indeed they are astray. Whoever among you sees that, then he must stick to my Sunnah and the Sunnah of the rightly guided Khulafa', cling to it with the molars.'" [Ref: Tirmadhi, B9, H2676] The generality of the Hadith quoted permits it to be applied to all types of innovations and the generality is in accordance with ‘Jawami Al Kalim’ nature of prophetic words. Interpreting Hadith Of ‘Who So Ever Introduces A Good Sunnah’ According To Context: Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has said: “’Whoever introduces a good Sunnah [i.e. giving of charity by Ansari companion and] that is followed, he [the Ansari companion] will receive its reward and a reward equivalent to that of those who follow it, without that detracting from their reward in their slightest. And whoever introduces a bad Sunnah [such as being stingy and not spending in the way of Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala and if] that is followed, he will receive its sin and a burden of sin equivalent to that of those who follow it, without that detracting from their burden in the slightest.'" [Ref: Ibn Majah, B1, H203] Contextually this Hadith is about a companion and the group of companions who followed his example and acted on the Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). Based on the context the Hadith means when people are reluctant to give charity and the first one to start and those who follow, all will get equal reward. It also means for the modern Muslim; one who is acting on the prophetic Sunnah of giving charity then you are following the example of the Ansari companion and you will get equal reward. Hadith Of ‘Who So Ever Introduces A Good Sunnah’ According To Generality Of Words: Understanding the words of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) in general meaning and without restricting it to historical context yields following understanding: “Whoever introduces a good [non-prophetic] Sunnah [which accords with teaching of the religion and if] that is followed [by others beside him, then] he will receive its reward and a reward equivalent to that of those who follow it, without that detracting from their reward in their slightest.” [Ref: Ibn Majah, B1, H203] Maintaining and holding to generality of words of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) establishes permissibility of introducing praiseworthy Sunnahs and reward for them. Putting it into perspective of history, Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) had the idea to collect the Quran in one book format. He introduced this Sunnah and Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radiallah ta’ala anhu) implemented his idea and the result of this was Quran which we possess as a single book. There is reward for him for purposing the compilation of Quran and those who follow and publish Quran. Generalizing on the historical context, one can derive the following principle: “Whoever introduces a good Sunnah [such as initiating action on prophetic Sunnah and if] that is followed [by others] he [the initiator of action on prophetic Sunnah] will receive its reward and a reward equivalent to that of those who follow it, without that detracting from their reward in their slightest. And whoever introduces a bad Sunnah that is followed, he will receive its sin and a burden of sin equivalent to that of those who follow it, without that detracting from their burden in the slightest.'" [Ref: Ibn Majah, B1, H203] This generalized principle in historical context can also be interpreted to mean, when people are reluctant to engage in a particular religious activity, one who starts it and those who follow his example all will get equal reward. The contextualization and the derived principle from historical context negate the ‘Jawami Al Kalim’ nature of prophetic words which have been established in this part. In short the generality of Hadith accords with prophetic teaching of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) being given ‘Jawami Al Kalim’. All Ahadith On The Subject Of Innovation Have A Historical Context: There are many Ahadith about the topic of innovation but all of them have a particular event associated with it. Even if the historical context has not been narrated it is entirely logical to assume there was a historical context. Hence all those Ahadith are also in context of historical events and cannot be taken as general principle. Even the Ahadith narrated without the historical context give instruction of rejection teachings/practices which go against the clear injunctions and the spirit/essence of Islam. Therefore even these Ahadith are restricted to the context of innovations which contradict the teaching of Islam. The Effect Of Restricting Ahadith Of Innovation To Historical Context: By interpreting the Ahadith of innovation in context of historical events we solely restrict its application to a particular event. And if all Ahadith of innovation are restricted to a context and interpreted in context of an event then we have no prophetic guidance on matters of innovations. Pay attention, if all Ahadith are restricted to a context and the generality of the meaning of sentences is negated then is there anything which prohibits innovations? If you say yes, then to be consistent in methodology Ahadith are to be interpreted in context like the Hadith of good Sunnah is interpreted in context of historical event. If this method is applied to all the Hadith then there is no Hadith which prohibits innovations. If Hadith are restricted and interpreted according to context and generality is negated then end result is; both Quran and Ahadith are silent about subject of innovations other then addressed in the Ahadith. And about issues on which Quran and Ahadith are silent Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has stated: “The lawful is what Allah made lawful in His Book, the unlawful is what Allah made unlawful in his Book, and what He was silent about; then it is among that for which He has pardoned." [Ref: Tirmadhi, B22, H1726] Excused by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is allowed as favor by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala): “What Allah has made lawful in His Book is halal and what He has forbidden is haram, and that concerning which He is silent is allowed as His favor. So accept from Allah His favor, for Allah is not forgetful of anything. He then recited, "And thy Lord is not forgetful." [Ref: Musnad Al Bazzar] Therefore interpreting Ahadith in a particular context to negate generality of Ahadith of good Sunnah and generally of all Ahadith in connected with subject of innovation will not harm the position of Muslims. Rather our position that all innovations composed of Islamicly sanctioned acts of piety are permissible is also established from Ahadith quoted above. The Effect Of Maintaining Generality Of Ahadith Of Innovation: Holding to the generality of prophetic words about subject of innovation including the Ahadith of ‘introducing good Sunnah’ is in accordance with ‘Jawami Al Kalim’ nature of prophetic words. Result of this is that all Ahadith of innovation can be applied to every single innovation which does not accord with the teaching of Islam. This generality of words in connection with Hadith of ‘introducing good Sunnah’ establishes that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has permitted introduction of good Sunnahs into Islam and told of reward for those who engage in the newly introduced good Sunnah. In addition, the Ahadith quoted above indirectly establish the legitimacy of good Sunnahs into Islam. Conclusion: If the Ahadith of innovations and good/bad Sunnahs is interpreted in historical context of a particular event and their generality is negated even then the permissibility of engaging in actions which Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) did not forbid but remained silent on would be established. The generality and the literal reading of the prophetic words of good Sunnah Hadith undeniably establish the position of Muslims and refute the opponents of Islam. What ever the methodology of interpretation is adopted by the opponents of Islam if that methodology is applied consistently and without practicing selectivism then the conclusion would be as explained.
  17. Introduction: After reading latest article a heretic supporter of Ibn Uthaymeen (lanatu lillah) wrote a response to 5.0 defend the Wahhabi Sheikh. The supporter of heresy attempted to argue; Ibn Uthaymeen’s methodology does not demonize those who use modern weapons in battle field. Rather his position his being misrepresented to erect a boogie man for purpose of refuting Salafi/Wahhabi Minhaj. Despite his claim Salih Ibn Uthaymeen position is being used unjustly to victimize Salafi Minhaj he presented no proof how my presentation of Salih Ibn Uthaymeen’s position does not truly represent his actual position. Instead he attempted to justify how modern weapons are legal in light of Quran/Hadith. 1.0 – Wahhabi Arguments - Weapons Used Were Not Part Of Islam: Firstly, Jihad is part of teaching of Islam but the weapons to be used in Jihad are not part of Islam. Secondly, Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) stated: “And make ready against them all you can of power, including steeds of war to threaten the enemy of Allah and your enemy, and others besides whom, you may not know but whom Allah does know.“ [Ref: 8:60] Allah’s Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) employed against the disbelievers all that was available to Muslims in his time. In our times the Mujahideen acquired modern weaponry and by employing them they are obeying the command of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) because Quranic verse states; “And make ready against them all you can of power, including …” Therefore they are not guilty of any innovation but rather obeying the command of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). 2.0 – Response To The Heretical Argument – Weapons Are Part Of Islam: Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) states: “There has certainly been for you in the Messenger of Allah an excellent pattern for anyone whose hope is in Allah and the Last Day and [who] remembers Allah often.” [Ref: 33:21] Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) declared that the example/practice of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is excellent for one who wishes to succeed on the day of judgment. The mother of believers, Hadhrat Aysha (radiallah ta’ala anha) explains why the example/practice of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is best of example for those who wish to succeed on the day of judgment. She said Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) was walking, talking, living example of Quran in action and he was indeed embodiment of Quran. Hence the weapons he used in Jihad and the weapons which he saw being used by his followers are part of Islam. How could the living example of Quran use sword, spear, bow and arrow, horse, camel, shield and these weapons not be part of written Quran/Islam? Salah is part of Islam and how it is performed demonstrated is by the living Quran. Jihad is part of Islam and the means weapons to be used were demonstrated by the living Quran. Secondly, if Jihad is part of Islam and the weapons used in it are not part of Islam then why would you make an attempt to justify the validity of using modern weapons in Jihad according to Quranic verse? Surely you consider the weapons as part of Islam as well and therefore you had to establish the legality of modern weapons in light of Quran/Hadith. If the type of weapons that can be used was not part of Islam then why would you attempt to establish the modern weapons can be used according to broad meanings of Quran? 2.1 – Allah’s Instructions To Prepare Horses Of War: Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) instructs the believers to have the war horses in ready state: “And make ready against them all you can of power, including steeds of war to threaten the enemy of Allah and your enemy, and others besides whom, you may not know but whom Allah does know.“ [Ref: 8:60] Hence the use of war horses in battle is part of Islam. 2.2 – The Conclusion Of The Discussion So Far: The Wahhabis who use modern weaponry and do not employ the war horses in their terrorist activities [which they label JIHAD unjustly] and who support use of modern weapons including battle Tanks are innovators according to their own methodology. They according to Ibn Uthaymeen’s understanding are denier of perfection/completion of Islam and they indirectly insinuate they have perfected/completed the teaching of Islam which Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and his beloved Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) did not. 2.3 – The Muslim Position On The Weapons Of Jihad: Everything Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) did was according to either Wahi Zahiri or Wahi Khaf’fi. Wahi Zahiri means apparent revelation and this is Quran. Wahi Khaf’fi means hidden revelation and this became source of Sunnah Qawli and Sunnah Fehli. Sunnah Qawli means words of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and Sunnah Fehli means actions of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and both these reached us in form of Hadith. The following verses of Quran are evidence for both types; “Your companion has neither gone astray nor has erred. Nor does he speak of (his own) desire. It is only a Revelation revealed.” [Ref: 53:62] “There has certainly been for you in the Messenger of Allah an excellent pattern for anyone whose hope is in Allah and the Last Day and [who] remembers Allah often.” [Ref: 33:21] Hence weapons used by Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and his companions are part of teaching of Islam and are part of perfection/completion of the religion of Islam and the teaching of Quran and one who teaches/believes against this has brought into religion of Islam a reprehensible innovation. 3.0 – Wahhabi Argument – Make Ready All Of Power: The heretic argued: “Allah’s Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) employed against the disbelievers all that was available to Muslims in his time. In our times the Mujahideen acquired modern weaponry and by employing them they are obeying the command of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) …” The explanation and the refutation of this would be in line with the principle of Wahhabi methodology. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has stated in the Quran: “And make ready against them all you can of power, including steeds of war to threaten the enemy of Allah and your enemy, and others besides whom, you may not know but whom Allah does know.“ [Ref: 8:60] Based on the principle that the verse states, make ready all means of power against enemies of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and no specific weapon has been mentioned. 4.0 – Incompatibility Of Wahhabi’s Argument With Wahhabi Methodology: Wahhabi methodology of interpreting the Quran/Hadith consists of interpreting Quran/Hadith according to the understanding of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and Salaf As Saliheen – the companions and two succeeding generations. According to Wahhabism your understanding is a novelty. Only, when you don’t find a precedent from Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) then one is permitted to take route of Ijtihad according to Wahhabi methodology, isn't it? Yes, indeed Ijtihad only when there is no precedent to be followed from the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) then the route of Ijtihad is to be taken on a matter. The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has interpreted the verse with his actions and has demonstrated all the means of power to threaten the enemies of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and there is a precedent to be followed regarding the type of weapons to be used in Jihad. Therefore your own interpretation contradicts the methodology you adhere to. According to your methodology the means to be prepared to threaten and to strike fear in the hearts of enemy of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) are: sword, spear, bow and arrow, shield, camel, horse, and what ever else that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and his companions used. 4.1 – Concluding This Aspect Of Discussion: According to Wahhabi methodology Quran is to be understood and acted upon as Allah’s Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) understood and acted on. And any interpretation of Quran which is not from the the practical/oral teaching of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and of Salaf As Saliheen (i.e. pious predecessors) it is to be rejected. Hence the interpretation of 'and prepare against them all means of power' presented by the Wahhabi contradicts the Prophetic interpretation. In addition to this it also goes against Ibn Uthaymeen’s philosophy of Islam being perfected/completed and Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) explaining every aspect of Islam – including weapons of Jihad. According to frame work of Ibn Uthaymeen's methodology, Quran/Islam was explained in detail and anyone introducing even good Sunnah – such as modern weaponry is insinuating Islam/Quran was not completed/perfected by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and His Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). 4.2 – Wahhabi’s Methodology And The Interpretation: The methodology employed by the Wahhabi and the interpretation of the following verse are correct according to Muslims: “And make ready against them all you can of power …” We the Muslims believe; Quran is written short but expresses widest possible meanings. Therefore it has capacity to validate and address all aspects of human life. In the time of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) horse was the fastest and best mean of charging enemy ranks. Hence we deduce prepare the best of means of threatening the enemies of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). At present the horse is obsolete as a mean weapon of war. Yet the believer is still instructed to prepare horse to strike fear in the enemy of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). At the present instruction is, prepare for Jihad even with the very least battle option – horse. When least is instructed then anything greater then it, is automatically instructed – battle tanks, APC’s etc. Hence the short expression vast meaning of speech of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) yields that as Muslims we should have whatever means possible for war - the very best means of war and the very least. 4.3 – Islamic Methodology Employed By Wahhabi: Heretic ignored the traditional Wahhabi methodology in interpreting the Quran and adopted the Islamic methodology to interpret and justify the weapons used by Wahhabi terrorists in their terrorist activities. On the basis of following verse: “And make ready against them all you can of power …” he argued the legality of modern weapons. He used the generality of meaning of verse of Quran to legalize the use of modern weapons. Based on this principle we can understand the following Hadith: “It was narrated that Abu Juhaifah said: "The Messenger of Allah said: 'Whoever introduces a good practice that is followed after him, will have a reward for that and the equivalent of their reward, without that detracting from their reward in the slightest. Whoever introduces an evil practice that is followed after him, will bear the burden of sin for …" [Ref: Ibn Majah, B1, H207] The generality of Hadith establishes any good practice or custom or festivity [which incorporates Islamic acts of worship, charity, etc.] is permissible and is reward worthy. 4.4 - Triumph Of Islamic Methodology: Wahhabi employed Islamic methodology to legalize the use of modern weaponry and to defend his terrorist brothers who use these weapons in their terrorist activities. If he held to traditional Wahhabi understanding and methodology then chance of arguing against Ibn Uthaymeen’s position was zero.[1] Note to argue the case that modern weapons are permissible – he by default rejected Ibn Uthaymeen’s position that all innovations are misguidance even if the intention is good. He shifted his methodology to establish permissibility of modern weaponry.[2] This only validates Ahle Sunnat’s methodology and refutes Wahhabi and Ibn Uthaymeen’s heretical reasoning – no room for [praiseworthy] innovations. Only complete methodology which is equipped to meet the challenges of the modern world and still hold to Islam is methodology of Ahle Sunnat. Conclusions: According to Wahhabi methodology the precedent of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is to be followed because his precedent is Islam and leaving his precedent and following a new Sunnah/Biddah is misguidance. Therefore one cannot legitimately use any modern means for which there is precedent of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). If someone introduces a Sunnah/Biddah then Ibn Uthaymeen’s words are enough to establish that y has become heretic according to Wahhabi methodology. Salih Ibn Uthaymeen’s and his Wahhabi ilk’s position, Islam is perfected/completed and there is no room for Sunnah/Biddah within boundaries of Sharia does not leave any room for flexible maneuvering to incorporate Ijtihad. Rather this rigid and extreme position is destructive enough to close the gates of Ijtihad.[3] Wama alayna ilal balaghul mubeen. Muhammed Ali Razavi Footnote: - [1] Wahhabi Traditional Understanding: Interpretation of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and the pious predecessors is Islam and all innovations are misguidance, - [2] Please note, commonly Wahhabi arguing against a Muslim and in attempt to demonize the celebration of Prophet’s birthday as [reprehensible] Biddah/Sunnah will strictly utilize Salih Al Ibn Uthaymeen’s methodology of – Islam is perfected/completed hence no room for [praiseworthy] Biddahs/Sunnah in Islam and one is distorting the perfection of Islam by introducing [praiseworthy] Sunnahs/Biddahs into Islam. Soon as one starts criticizing their practice of – reading Quranic in Taraweeh prayers then he will change to Islamic methodology to justify its permissibility but rejects Islamic methodology and what is derived with it when it does not suite his sectarian bias. - [3] All things legalized via implicit/indirect evidence (i.e. Ijtihad) are fundamentally praiseworthy Sunnah/Biddah for which the Mujtahid reaps reward and those who follow his Ijtihad. Bottom line is without praiseworthy Sunnah/Biddah being part of Islam and implicit/indirect evidence being valid methodology of conducting Ijtihad there can be no Ijtihad and no room for dressing modern trends into Islamic garb.
  18. Introduction: Already an article has been written to refute Ibn Uthaymeen’s (lanatu lillah) mutilation of religion of Islam. With mercy of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) it was established the true innovator and defacer of perfection/completion of Islam was Ibn Uthaymeen (lanatu lillah). He is the undeclared prophet and undeclared god of those who follow his reprehensible innovative methodology. For us Muslims, there is no law giving God but Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and there is no law giving prophet after Prophet and the Messenger Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). 1.0 - Quote From Ibn Uthaymeen’s Book: “My brothers, now that this matter has been settled, did the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) die while something from the religion which draws one closer to Allah the Exalted remained which he did not explain? Never! Since the Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) explained the whole of the religion either by his speech, his action or his (silent) approval, whether that was initiated of his own accord or whether it was due to a response to a question. Sometimes Allah would send a Bedouin from the furthest region of the desert in order to ask the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) a thing from among the matters of the religion which the Companions, who stuck by the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) did not ask him. This is why they used to rejoice when a Bedouin would come and ask the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) about certain affairs. That the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) did not leave anything which the people are in need of in their worship, their dealings with one another and their livelihood without having explained it is proven to you by His speech, the Exalted: “This day have I perfected for you your religion and have completed My favor upon you and have chosen for you Islam as a religion.” When this matter has been explained [that Islam is perfected/completed then] - O Muslim - know that every one who innovates something in the religion of Allah (azza wa jal) even if it is with a good intention, then his innovation, along with it being misguidance, will be considered a defamation of the religion of Allah (azza wa jal) and will be considered a denial and rejection of Allah (azza wa jal) the Exalted in His speech: “This day have I perfected for you your religion …” Since this innovator who innovated a matter into the religion of Allah (azza wa jal) which is not from the religion of Allah (azza wa jal) is saying silently that the religion has not been completed because this matter which was left out, and which he innovated, can be used to draw closer to Allah (azza wa jal).” [Ref: Innovations In The Light Of Perfection Of Shari’ah, Pages 3/4, by Muhammad bin Salih Al Uthaymeen] 1.1 - Salih Al Uthaymeen’s Position In My Own Words: Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) taught all aspects of the religion of Islam. Even the minute details were taught and religion of Islam was completed, perfected, with all these fine details. Comprehensiveness of Islamic teaching is detailed in Quran and Hadith therefore there is no room for praiseworthy innovations in religion of Islam. And one who innovates into religion of Islam anything which was not taught by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) or the Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) insinuates indirectly; Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) did not perfect/complete the religion of Islam because x, y, z matters were not made part of Islamic teaching which should have been part of Islam. As such, this innovator is a heretic and his deeds will be rejected and will end in hell fire. 1.2 - The Heretical Argument Summed By Wahhabi Side Of Me: There is no need for innovations in Islam even if they are introduced for the purpose; 1) of improving Islam, 2) propagating Islam, 3) assisting Islam, 4) sending reward of good deeds to the deceased.[1] The religion of Islam was comprehensively explained by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) in minute detail. All improvements were made until Islam reached perfection/completion in the life time of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). All that was required to spread Islam, assist Islam was taught by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). Hence every newly introduced matter in the religion of Islam is [reprehensible] innovation, a misguidance and takes to hell fire even if the people see goodness in it. 2.0 - The Straight Path And Straight To Hell Path: Islam being perfected and completed and every aspect of Islam being taught by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has absolutely no consequence to introduction of praiseworthy Biddahs/Sunnahs into religion of Islam. Rather the comprehensiveness of Islam is being misused by Khariji fringe elements to support predetermined heretical belief. If one does not accept the Shar’ri legality of introducing praiseworthy Sunnahs/Biddahs into religion of Islam then such a person should in principle not accept praiseworthy innovations which became backbone of Islam. 3.0 - Jihad Example Of Exhaustive Prophetic Teaching: Jihad is important part of Islamic teaching. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) gave direct instruction to Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) to engage in Jihad: “O Prophet, fight against the disbelievers and the hypocrites and be harsh upon them. And their refuge is Hell, and wretched is the destination.” [Ref: 9:73] He engaged in Jihad against the hypocrites and disbelievers as instructed by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). The Sunnah weaponry employed by Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) was sword, spear, shield, bow and arrow. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) instructs the believers: “And make ready against them all you can of power, including steeds of war (tanks, planes, missiles, artillery) to threaten the enemy of Allah and your enemy, and others besides whom, you may not know but whom Allah does know.“ [Ref: 8:60] Note, Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) instructs the Muslims to prepare all the means of war in power and then instructs the Muslims to prepare the war horses to threaten the enemy of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). The means of war are explained by the Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) – sword, spear, bow and arrow, etc. 3.1 - Miswak Demonstration Of Comprehensiveness Of Islam: Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) explained the following verse: “The nature made by Allah in which He has created men there is no altering of Allah's creation; that is the right religion", with words: “There is none born but is created to his true nature (i.e. Islam). It is his parents who make him a Jew or a Christian or a Magian. Quite like beasts produce their young with their limbs perfect.”[2] In other words every child born is born on the religion of Islam but the parents alter this natural inclination according to their own world view. Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has reported to have said: “Narrated 'Aishah, that the Prophet said: "Ten are from the Fitrah: Paring the mustache, leaving the beard to grow, Siwak, cleaning the nose with water, paring the fingernails, washing the knuckles, plucking the underarm hair, shaving the pubic hairs, and Intiqas with water." [Ref: Tirmadhi, B41, H2757] Note, Islam is religion of Fitrah or accurately the pure human Fitrah is fundamentally Islam and therefore use of Miswak/Siwak is part of Fitrah/Islam. Hence Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) routinely used Siwak before performing Tahajjud prayers: “Narrated Hudhaifa: Whenever the Prophet got up for Tahajjud prayer he used to clean his mouth (and teeth) with Siwak.” [Ref: Bukhari, B21, H237] He is reported to have said: “Abu Hurairah narrated; Allah's Messenger said: "If it were not that it would be difficult on my nation, then I would have ordered them to use the Siwak for each prayer." [Ref: Tirmadhi, B1, H22] 4.0 – Biddah Weapons And Sunnah Weapons And Heretical Methodology: Religion of Islam was completed/perfected and detailed guidance on every aspect of religion of Islam was provided by Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). As evidence establishes Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) engaged in Jihad against the disbelievers and demonstrated the type of weapons to be employed. These weapons are part of Islam and are part of perfected/completed and detailed guidance on Jihad. To employ any other weapon not established from the Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is adding to already perfected/completed religion of Islam.[3] It is akin to saying; Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala), Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) did not know about the AK47, RPG, MG’s, HG’s but we know better what weapons are better for Jihad in the way of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and we have to improve Islam and their short comings by introducing Biddah weapons into battle field.[4] Also it is akin to saying; religion of Islam was not completed/perfected and the micro-guidance of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and his beloved Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) was not enough hence these Biddah weapons are better substitute in modern battlefield then the Sunnah weapons. 4.1 - Biddah Tooth Brush/Paste And Sunnah Miswak And Heretical Methodology: Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is to use Miswak to clean his teeth and use of Miswak is part of completion/perfection of religion of Islam and part of micro-guidance from Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). This Sunnah Miswak has been replaced by Biddah brushes/pastes and heretics especially use Colgate brushes/pastes.[5] Use of these Biddah brushes/pastes is equal to believing that Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) did not know better then the disbelievers about oral hygiene and what the disbelievers invented is better replacement to Miswak.[6] One who leaves the guidance of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) for the tooth brushes/pastes of what the disbelievers invented believes Islam was incomplete and imperfect and the guidance of beloved Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) regarding oral hygiene was insufficient. If Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala), the knower of unseen and apparent, willed for the Muslims to use tooth pastes/brushes he would have revealed a verse in Quran saying when it is invented then use it. Or Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) to whom the news of unseen arrived would have told us about tooth pastes/brushes. 4.2 – Biddah Bukhari/Muslim And Heretical Methodology: Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) revealed and explained the Quran to Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and he explained it to his followers. Deen of Islam was completed/perfected and we find absolutely no instruction from Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) or Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) about Hadith collections called Bukhari/Muslim. If Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) completed and perfected the religion of Islam and provided micro-guidance without employing Bukhari/Muslim then what need is there for Bukhari/Muslim? Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) did not employ Bukhari/Muslim in his sermons and there is no record of his saying; in Bukhari/Muslim it is written, yet he was means of completion/perfection of Islam. Then question worth asking is, what need is there for Bukhari/Muslim? If Islam was perfected/completed without Bukhari/Muslim then question is; can Islam be perfection/completed without Bukhari/Muslim? Is Bukhari/Muslim essential part of Islam and part perfection/completion of Islam? Can Biddahs be part of perfection/completion of Islam? Are not the Biddahs misguidance even if the people see goodness in them? Do you see goodness in Bukhari/Muslim? You distort the perfection/completion of Islam by introducing Biddahs of Bukhari/Muslim into Islam. Your adherence to these Biddahs is proof that you believe Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) did not provide comprehensive guidance in religion of Islam and Quran is not enough for guidance. Neither Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) nor his beloved Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) left any instruction compile Bukhari/Muslim or any Hadith book for that matter nor they gave instructions regarding employing these two Biddahs. 5.0 – Putting Everything In Perspective Of Heretical Methodology: In parts 3.0, it was established that Jihad is essential part of Islam. Also the weapons used by Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and his companions were declared. Using this as a base, in part 4.0 a heretical argument against the heretics was advanced, using their own methodology to establish for them the fault of their own methodology. In part 3.1 and part 4.1 exact methodology was employed for the same purpose. In part 4.2, purpose was to demonstrate how a member of anti-Hadith sect can use the very same argument of Ibn Uthaymeen against books of Ahadith. Heretical methodology was employed for sole purpose of showing these heretics the mirror so they see the ugliness of Wahhabism. In the hope they would realize the heretical nature of their understandings which stem from their heretical methodology of – every innovation of evil/sinful even if people see goodness in it. 5.1 – Exposing The Heretical Methodology Of Wahhabism From Sunnah: Heretics have not believed in Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) when he said: “It was narrated that Abu Juhaifah said: "The Messenger of Allah said: 'Whoever introduces a good practice that is followed after him, will have a reward for that and the equivalent of their reward, without that detracting from their reward in the slightest. Whoever introduces an evil practice that is followed after him, will bear the burden of sin for …" [Ref: Ibn Majah, B1, H207] We Muslims are instructed by Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) in Hadith Qawli; “I enjoin you to fear Allah, and to hear and obey even if it be an Abyssinian slave, for those of you who live after me will see great disagreement. You must then follow my sunnah and that of the rightly-guided caliphs.” [Ref: Abu Dawood, B41, H4590] We follow his Sunnah because Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has explained: “Narrated `Abdullah: The best speech is Allah's book, and the best guidance is the guidance of Muhammad, and the worst are newly-invented matters, and whatever you have been promised will surely come to pass, and you cannot escape (it).” [Ref: Bukhari, B73, H120] This also attested by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) in the Quran: “There is indeed the best example for you to follow, in the Messenger of Allah, for every such person looks forward to Allah and the Last Day, and remembers Allah much.” [Ref: 33:21] Hence the best of guidance on Sunnahs/Biddahs which are good is of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). We the Muslims reject and disbelieve the minions of Satan from Najd and reject their heretical methodology which contradicts teaching of Islam. We believe in the Prophet of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) who has informed us of reward for praiseworthy Sunnahs/Biddahs. 6.0 - Muslim Perspective On Comprehensiveness Of Islam: Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) revealed the Quran to his beloved Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and explained all aspects of religion of Islam to him. He taught worship, types of worship, time of worship, actions in worship, what to say in worship, number of time one should worship, and times on which one should worship. Wudhu is ritual washing of hands, mouth, cleaning nose, washing face, elbows, and feet. Prophetic tradition provides absolute guidance on how to perform Wudhu, when to perform Wudhu and how Wudhu is invalidated. Quran/Hadith detail almost every aspect of Islam and human life and give verdict on it and this is part of comprehensiveness of Islamic teaching. Another part to comprehensiveness of Islamic teaching is, Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and his beloved Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) provided principles to judge matters/practices which would arise after completion of Islam. Part of these principles is the teaching; if one introduces a praiseworthy Sunnah into Islam and it is followed by the people the reward will be equal to one who acts on the innovated Sunnah.[7] The second principle in context of innovated practice states; one who innovates a reprehensible Sunnah into religion of Islam, he will be sinful for it, and those who will follow the reprehensible Sunnah they will receive equal amount of sin.[8] Without these principles and without teachings of Ijtihad - the comprehensiveness of Islamic teaching would be limited to a particular era and Islam would have been unable evolve to withstand the ideological and social challenges faced in past and faces at present. These principles and the teaching about Ijtihad ensure that core of Islam remains static yet the Muslims are empowered to judge worldly and religious innovations in the light of Quran/Hadith.[9] 6.1 - Later Innovations Into Islam According To Methodology Of Muslims: Starting with modern weapons, even though there is no explicit evidence which establishes that these weapons are established from the Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) but their use allows the believers to fulfill a command of religion. Therefore there use is permissible and there use in Jihad comes into category of good Sunnah/Biddah and it is reward worthy. Tooth brushes/pastes are not Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and Miswak is Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). Despite this the use of tooth brush/paste is permissible in Islam because it helps to achieve a objective of deen – oral hygiene. The first Muslim to employ it for purpose of oral hygiene will be rewarded because those who followed him achieved a religious objective via tooth paste/brush. These modern inventions are not replacement for the Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) but the permissibility is established. Coming to Bukhari/Muslim, indeed they are later innovations and they are essential part of religion of Islam and without these the perfection/completion of Islam would not be appreciated. Even though names of these books are not mentioned in Quran/Ahadith these books contain essential knowledge of Islam and are fundamental to understanding Quran. They are indeed later Biddahs/Sunnahs but they are good and reward worthy because they contain Sunnahs of beloved Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) which explain Quran. Conclusion: Ibn Uthaymeen’s position; Islam was completed and perfected and Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) provided micro-guidance on affairs of religion hence one who introduces Biddah/Sunnah into Islam has defaced the perfection/completion of Islam, is a poor excuse to justify his this heretical belief. If is accepted and employed fairly without bias it could even eradicate the basis for Quran because neither Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) nor the Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) left instruction to compile the Quran into one book format. Based on this fact it can be argued, if Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) perfected religion of Islam and provided complete guidance on everything but did not consider it important to leave instructions for compiling Quran in single book format nor did his Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was aalihi was’sallam) then what need is of it? O senseless Ibn Uthaymeen, isn’t this akin to insinuating Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) did not perfect/complete Quran good enough and their guidance wasn’t complete enough? Quran is complete/perfect and the guidance of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is perfect guidance. Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has told of reward for introducing into Islam good Sunnah/Biddah and for those who follow the good Biddah/Sunnah. Those who support the evil/sin of Ibn Uthaymeen they will bear the burden of it and he will be their leader in hell-fire. Wama alayna ilal balaghul mubeen. Muhammed Ali Razavi Footnotes: - [1] Heretics understand the following Hadith literally, it states; every newly introduced matter is innovation, and matter of fact is that his [praiseworthy] innovations fall into these four categories. Hence the detail was incorporated into summing up of Wahhabi position because when they state EVERY innovation is MISGUIDANCE then they declare all FOUR types of [praiseworthy] innovations as MISGUIDANCE. No sane heretic would ever dare to actually negate all FOUR types of [praiseworthy] innovations. - [2] “There is none born but is created to his true nature (i.e. Islam). It is his parents who make him a Jew or a Christian or a Magian quite as beasts produce their young with their limbs perfect. Do you see anything deficient in them? Then he quoted the Qur'an., The nature made by Allah in which He has created men there is no altering of Allah's creation; that is the right religion" [Ref: Muslim, B33, H6423] - [3] Sunnahs of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) are of four types; 1) Qawli (i.e. speech), Fehli (i.e. actions), Taqreeri (i.e. tacitly approved), and Wasfi (i.e. quality). - [4] No it is not akin to saying anything; it is me being [stupid] Wahhabi and being Ibn Uthaymeen (lanatu lillah). Belief is in Islam is what you affirm with tongue and confirm within your heart. - [5] Use of Colgate is for dramatic effect, trying to be like all knowing Wahhabi, who knows everything about the intentions and reasons and nothing is concealed from him when he writes something to refute his opponent. I do not have any idea what the Wahhabi’s actually use but rest assured they have replaced the Miswak with some modern tooth paste/brush and the Miswak is used before Friday prayers. So point is, they use tooth pastes/brushes and the brand, you can ask your closest Wahhabi. - [6] Read footnote #4, it explains the intention behind it. - [7]“He who introduced some good Sunnah in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] - [8] “And whoever introduces a bad practice that is followed, he will receive its sin and a burden of sin equivalent to that of those who follow it, without that detracting from their burden in the slightest." [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6470] - [9] Core of Islam – here means fundamental teaching of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). Core of Islam is, Islam without additions made after the death of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). Core without Biddahs/Sunnahs of companions, generations succeeding companions and the generation succeeding the second generation and core without all types Sunnahs/Biddahs that Muslims introduced thereafter.
  19. 0.1 - Email Received From Brother Sa’id Imtiaz: Salam alayqum, I have found your material extremely helpful in understanding the Barelwi point of view on various issues. Yet there are some contradictions which I have not been able to resolve between what you deem to be Barelwi position and what the Barelwi scholars have stated. A certain Barelwi scholar said the method employed by Barelwi’s for celebration of Prophet’s (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) Sunnah. Yet you stated in the email dated 17th December 2013 and in your article which was response to me that method used to celebrate is a innovation and not Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam).(1) Maybe I have missed something out or misunderstood something so please shed some light on the issue. I have heard Barelwi Pir Saqib Shami saying celebrating the birthday of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is a Sunnah. Yet your position is that it is a innovation composed of Sunnahs but not a Sunnah.(2) It seems that Barelwi position is contradictory so my question is; is celebration of birthday of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) a Sunnah or a Biddah? What are the proofs which prove it is Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam), if any? It would be appropriate to ask; if a practice is innovated but composed of Sunnahs, will it be Sunnah according in your methodology or a Biddah?(3) I also sent you an email regarding the practice of Geeyarweenh but did not get response nor aknowledgment of receiving the email. I understand you are busy but please whenever you have time available shed some light on that issue as well.(4) 0.2 - Info Regarding The Email Before Responding To It: Part two, beginning with; “I have heard Barelwi Pir …” and ending with; “…which prove it is Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam), if any?” in the actual email was first point. Part one, beginning with; “A certain Barelwi scholar said the method …” and ending with; “… misunderstood something so pleae shed some light on the issue.”, in the emal was second point. The third point and the last point of Giyarweenh has remained in it’s original position. Order of the two points was changed because proper explanation and correct understanding of point two was dependant upon a aspect which was mainly connected with part one – namely the explanation of word Sunnah. Also note, this email was received in Urdu and above is not a exact translation of the email but rather a respresentation of his statements. 1.1 - Praiseworthy And Blameworthy Sunnahs/Biddahs In Islam: The word Sunnah means; practice, act, way, tradition, norm and Sunnah can be oral or composed of actions. Commonly the word Sunnah is used as Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) but the word Sunnah has also been used by Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa alaihi was’sallam) while legislating the innovations of Khulafah ar’Rashideen. Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is reported to have said: “Indeed, whomever among you lives, he will see much difference. Beware of the newly invented matters, for indeed they are astray. Whoever among you sees that, then he must stick to my Sunnah and the Sunnah of the rightly guided Khulafa'[1], cling to it with the molars." [Ref:Tirmadhi, B39, H2676] Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has instructed the Muslims to adhere to his Sunnah and innovated Sunnahs (i.e. ways, acts, practices, traditions, norms) of rightly guided Khulafah.[2] Hence the word Sunnah has been used to denote the meaning of a innovation. This is established and strenthened from the following words of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam): “Whoever introduces a good Sunnah that is followed, he will receive its reward and a reward equivalent to that of those who follow it, without that detracting from their reward in their slightest.”[3] [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] In this Hadith it is also stated, one who introduces in Islam a evil/bad Sunnah he will bear the burden of its sin just like if one introduces in Islam a good/reward-worthy Sunnah he will be rewarded. This goes on to strenthen the position that the word Sunnah in the Hadith is used to mean innovation – and depending on type of innovation reward/sin is warranted. 1.2 - Method Of Determining Praiseworthy And Blameworthy Sunnah/Biddah: We already have established in section 1.1 that in deen of Islam there is room for praiseworthy Sunnah/Biddah. Here objective is to explain briefly as possible how a innovation can be determined if it is praiseworthy or blameworthy. If a innovated practice/custom is means of worshiping Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala),[4] charity, encouraging good and forbidding wrong and source of religious education, then it is good Sunnah. As a thumb rule remember, any custom or practice which is composed of Sunnahs of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) it is praiseworthy and good Sunnah/Biddah hence permissible regardless of what it is named. Reward worthiness or sinfulness of a innovative a practice/custom is determined based on what it is composed of and not by the name. 2.1 - Method Of Celebrating Prophet’s Birthday Sunnah Or Biddah: You stated, that a Barelwi Aalim has stated that method employed by Ahle Sunnat for celebration of Prophet’s (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is a praiseworthy Sunnah. In the email dated 17th December 2014 the following Hadith was quoted but the word Sunnah was translated to mean practice/way: “Whoever introduces a good Sunnah that is followed, he will receive its reward and a reward equivalent to that of those who follow it, without that detracting from their reward in their slightest.” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] It now should be obvious; Sunni Aalim was not claiming method employed by Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) was a Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) but rather he stated it is a praiseworthy Sunnah/Biddah. Hence there is no contradiction between both positions – only misunderstanding on your part which arised due to your fixation with word Sunnah only being used for Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam).[5] 3.1 – Celebration Of Prophet’s Birthday A Sunnah Or Innovation: There are three aspects to birthday, first, the concept of celebration of birthday, second, the day on which it is celebrated, and third, method of celebration of birthday of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi wa’sallam). Maulana Saqib Shami, stated that celebration of birthday of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is a Sunnah and you correctly understood that he meant Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam), note the following Hadith: “Abu Qatada Ansari reported that Allah's Massenger was asked about fasting on Monday, whereupon he said: It is (the day) when I was born and revelation was sent down to me.”[6] [Ref: Muslim, B6, H2606] So basicly, he stated the concept of celebration of birthday is a Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi wa’sallam) and this is established from the quoted Hadith and this is indeed my position also. Celebrating birthday on Monday is Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi wa’sallam) but Ahle Sunnat Wal Jammat celebrate it on 12th Rabbi Ul Awal every year. This establishes the celebration of Prophet’s (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) birthday yearly basis is indeed a Ijtihadi praiseworthy Sunnah/Biddah.The method employed by Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) to celebrate was that he fasted which is an act of worship. Ahle Sunnat’s method of yearly celebration is not Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) but a Ijtihadi praiseworthy innovation. There is no contradiction between my position and position of Maulana Saqib Shami we both agree that conceptually the celebration of birthday is a Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). It is evidentially established that popular Mawlad celebrations - neither the day nor the method is Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) but only on conceptual level celebration of birthday is Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). It was stated in the email dated 17th December that method of celebration is a praiseworthy innovation because it was composed of Sunnahs. I had not written anything about conceptual aspect of Mawlad of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). 4.1 – Innovation Composed Of Sunnahs A Sunnah Or Biddah: You asked, if a innovated practice composed of Sunnahs of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is a Sunnah – the answer is that it is not Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). It can be termed Sunnah in meaning of Biddah according to following evidence: “Whoever introduces a good Sunnah that is followed, he will receive its reward and a reward equivalent to that of those who follow it, without that detracting from their reward in their slightest.” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] Note, a innovative practice composed of Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) will be good but ones composed of practices against the soul of Islam are reprehensible Sunnahs and for which there is punishment. 5.1 - History Behind Geeyarweenh: In Urdu the number elevan is Giyara and in various Punjabi dialects Yaranh. The word Giyarweenh or Yarweenh or Yarmi are derivative of these two words. Commonly the word Yarweenh is used to denote 11th of a month; is maheenay ni yarweenh tareekh wich (i.e.in this month’s 11th date). Yarweenh is associated with 11th of month. There’re two traditions connected with 11th , first one is that Shaykh Abdul Qadir Al Jilani (rahimullah alayhi ta’ala) on every 11th of Islamic month would arrange a modern equilvent of a conference to educate the residents of Baghdad with knowledge of Islam and at the end of this conference food was served. This practice continued from there after uptil the present and became known in subcontinent as Yarweenh due to the date associated with it. Second tradition which I cannot remember clearly, but roughly is; a wedding party returning home via boat capsized and all those in it drowned. The grooms mother gathered people of village and fed the poor and gifted the reward of her good deed to Shaykh Abdul Qadir Al Jilani (rahimullah alayhi ta’ala) and made Tawassul to Allah through him for return of wedding party. The drowned and long dead members of boat refloated and the wedding party came home after some 20+ years. The day she held this gathering was on 11th due to the miraclous return of wedding party people continued this practice thereafter. Another tradition is that after Shaykh Abdul Qadir Al Jilani (rahimullah alayhi ta’ala) passed away one of his Khalifah for the purpose of Isaal Al Sawab on 11th of every month held a meeting in which religious teaching plus food was distributed and modern Giyarweenh is continuation of that. There is really no clear evidence to establish which of the two accounts is true or if any of the two is true. Note, the history of Yarweenh is not really important to determining if it is permissible and if it is good Sunnah. 5.2 - Geeyarweenh At Present And As Practiced: From my personal experience, Giyarweenh has no particular method rather it differs from place to place and region to region. Residents of Azad Kashmir Mirpur, Islamgarh, village [Uchi Aziz] Mura Rathiyan, in past twenty years ago or so began the event with recitation of Quran. After which poetical verses of various poets written in praise of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) were recited. After about an hour the traditional sweets called Mithahi were bought into Masjid. Note, this Mithahi was bought from communal chartible donations for Isaal Al Sawab (i.e.sending of reward) for Shaykh Abdul Qadir Al Jilani (rahimullah alayhi ta’ala). Everyone would recite Surah Fatiha, Surah Ikhlas and then invocation would be made gifting the reward of good deeds performed in the event to Prophets, Sahabah, deceased Muslims, Awliyah and with this special mention of Shaykh Abdul Qadir Al Jilani (rahimullah alayhi ta’ala). Invovation would be made for the protection of Ummah from various tribulations and forgivness of sins of Muslims and asking Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) to grant mercy and permit the sinful Muslims to enter paradise. After invocation completed the Mithahi would be distributed among the attendees and it would conclude with recitationn of Salam of Sayyidi Ala Hadhrat Imam Muhammad Ahmad Raza Khan (rahimullah alayhi ta’ala). It is a poetical praise of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) unmatched in Urdu language. It is Arabic equlivent of Qasidah Burdah in Urdu language. Sunni community living in Derby commemorate the Giyarween by gathering last Sunday of every month at Dairyhouse Road. The members of gathering recite Salawat (i.e. Allahuma salli ala sayyidina wa maulana Muhammadiv wa ala aali sayyidina wa maulna muhammadiv wa barak was’sallam) for a specified time and then make invovation. Again invocation is along the same lines as mentioned previously and it ends with distribution of food (i.e. Salan/Roti, fruits, salad). On a youtube video the mehfil of Giyarweenh is being comemorated by speech of a Aalim and invocation and food part is same. All this substantiates that there is no precise or particular method involved in Giyarweenh rather it depends upon the people holding the gathering how to engage in it. In short the heart and soul of Giyarweenh is worship, charity, education and praising Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). 5.3 - Best Advice Regarding Practice Of Geeyarweenh: Once a Deobandi brother bumped into me in a takeaway thinking of me as a Deobandi he greeted me with Salam and I responded with Wa Alayqum Salam. He initiated discussion about Mr Ashraf Ali Thanvi praising him. Upon realizing that he is Deobandi I informed him: ‘I am Sunni and not Deobandi.’ Changing tact he enquired about my opinion regarding innovation and my response was; one who innovates reprehensible innovation and those who follow it are sinful their good deeds will be rejected if they die upon innovation – they will enter hell as a result. He saw it as a perfect opportunity to snip the Geeyarweenh saying: - it is innovation, no evidence from Quran or Hadith and those who engage in this will go to hellfire due to their innovation. Upon hearing this, request was made that he come with me to my house so we can discuss and he can further educate me. The invitation was accepted gladly and he accompanied me to my home. We discussed various aspects of Giyarweenh it being good but he was admanant that it takes to hell fire. Then Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) opened my heart to; do you know what Giyarweenh is composed of? He seemed bit unsure how to answer this question so told him let me tell you what Giyarweenh is. So I recited Darood Sharif, Surah Fatiha, Surah Ikhlas, Sura Jinn, Surah Kawthar, Darood Sharif then made short invocation in which the reward of the worship was gifted to Ambiyah, Sahabah, Muslims, Awliyah, especially Shaykh Abdul Qadir Al Jilani (rahimullah alayhi ta’ala) and sought forgiveness for Muslims etc. Then said to him this is the Geeyarweenh. Do you think I will go to hell for this? He suddenly realized what he was arguing against. He was taken aback a bit and said this is not Giyarweenh this is invocation. I explained to him Geeyarweenh is people gathering on the 11th of Islamic month there is Quran recitation, poetry in praise of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam), Nawafil, and accompanied by a speech and invocation and food distribution. He said all these practices are part of Deen of Islam there is nothing wrong with them. Why do you call it Geeyarweenh then? The answer to this question was that it is traditionally done on 11th of a Islamic month hence name Giyarweenh.[7] Coming to the point of narratingt his incident, best way to know what Giyarweenh is to actually be part of a mehfil. You don’t take part just be silent spectator and hear with your own ears what they read and do in this practice of Giyarweenh. Once you have experienced it in person, then ask your self; how does this earn one hell fire? 5.4 - Verdict On The Legality Of Geeyarweenh: Practice of Giyarweenh is essentially composed of various acts of worship, Sunnahs of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam), serves as platform for religious education and encouraging good and warning against wrong. Supplication aspect of Giyarweenh is covered by the following verse of Quran: “And your Lord says, ‘Call upon Me; I will respond to you’. Indeed, those who disdain My worship will enter Hell [rendered] contemptible.” [Ref: 40:60] Can supplicating to Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) be the reason of a Muslim going to hellfire? Part of supplication in Giyarweenh is seeking forgiveness for the sins of Muslims who have passed away and Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) lists this has a quality of Saliheen: “And [there is a share for] those who came after them, saying; "Our Lord, forgive us and our brothers who preceded us in faith and put not in our hearts [any] resentment toward those who have believed. Our Lord, indeed You are Kind and Merciful." [Ref: 59:10] Will a Muslim go to hell for emulating the Sunnah of companions of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) – i.e. seeking forgiveness for our predecesors? Recitation of Darood Sharif, which is basicly a supplication in which Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is invoked, requesting Him to send Salawat/blessings upon Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam), and this is sanctioned by following verse: “Allah sends His blessings on the Prophet and also His angels. O you who believe! send your blessings on him and (you should) greet him with the Islamic way of greeting.” [Ref: 33:56] Or will a Muslim go to hell for invoking Salawat (i.e. blessings- Darood Sharif) upon Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam)? Recitation of Quran is said to be worship according to Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). Imam Bayhaqi in his Musnad narrates on the authority of Nuʿmān b. Bashīr that the Messenger of God (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) said: “The most superior form of worship for my community is the recitation of the Qur’an.” Imam Daylami narrates on the authority of Hadhrat Abu Huraira (radiallah ta’ala anhu), that the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) said: “The most worshipful servant is the one who recites the Qur’an.”[8] Feeding of the people is one of the best qualities: “Narrated 'Abdullah bin 'Amr: A man asked the Prophet, "What Islamic traits are the best?" The Prophet said, "Feed the people, and greet those whom you know and those whom you do not know." [Ref: Bukhari, B74, H253] Will a Muslim who feeds another Muslim by contributes toward cost of food will he go to hell for this? 5.5 - Finale Argument Against Giyarweenh And Its Refutation: If you was just in your judgment and Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) had not sealed your heart with misguidance you would have answered; not, by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala), rather reward in paradise. If you said ‘not’ to the questions but still sent the Muslims to hell fire for Giyarweenh then sole justification is the label (i.e. Giyarweenh) is not sanctioned in Islam. Remember in Islam permissibility is judged based upon the content of a practice and not label of a practice. If labels determined permissibility then Bukhari/Muslim fail to satisfy your criteria and you are without essential source of Islamic knowledge. Without going to refutation, Giyarweenh based on what it is composed of is a praiseworthy Sunnah/Biddah for which there is reward. Those who followed it after its invention earned reward due Sunnahs of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and sanctioned aspects of deen which consist of it. Conclusion: Like most common people you was unaware of the word Sunnah being used to mean innovation. You understood the word Sunnah to mean practice/way of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). Evidence established the word Sunnah has also been used to mean innovative way/practice of a rightly guided successors of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) namely Hadhrat; Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, Ali, Hassan (may Allah be pleased with them all). Also clearly words of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) establish reward for one who introduces into Islam a praiseworthy innovation and reward for those who follow this praiseworthy innovation and told of sinfulness of introducing bad Sunnah into Islam and its sins being equal for one who follows it. This also goes on to establish that Sunnah in the discussed Hadith does not mean Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) but it means innovative practice/way. Coming to celebrating the birthday of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam), the idea/concept of birthday celebration is Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) but the method of employed Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and method employed at present Mawlad celebrations is not Sunnah.[9] Instead the method is composed of various Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) hence rewarworthy. Giyarweenh, is neither Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) but it is a Biddah/Sunnah but it is composed of various reward worthy acts from Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam).[10] Wama alayna ilal balaghul mubeen. Muhammed Ali Razavi Footnotes: - [1] “He said: 'I urge you to fear Allah, and to listen and obey, even if (your leader) is an Abyssinian slave. After I am gone, you will see great conflict. I urge you to adhere to my Sunnah and the path of the Rightly-Guided Caliphs, and cling stubbornly to it. And beware of newly-invented matters, for every innovation is a going astray.'" [Ref: Ibn Majah, B1, H44] “No one will deviate from it after I am gone but one who is doomed. Whoever among you lives will see great conflict. I urge you to adhere to what you know of my Sunnah and the path of the Rightly-Guided Caliphs, and cling stubbornly to it. And you must obey, even if (your leader is) an Abyssinian leader. For the true believer is like a camel with a ring in its nose; wherever it is driven, it complies." [Ref: Ibn Majah, B1,H45] “He then said: I enjoin you to fear Allah, and to hear and obey even if it be an Abyssinian slave, for those of you who live after me will see great disagreement. You must then follow my Sunnah and that of the rightly-guided Caliphs. Hold to it and stick fast to it. Avoid novelties, for every novelty is an innovation, and every innovation is an error.” [Ref: Abu Dawood, B41, H4590] - [2] The heretics may argue; Khulafah ar-Rashideen followed the Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) instructed us to follow them because they are beacons of Prophetic Sunnah not because they innovate a Sunnah. Say to them; indeed Khulafah ar-Rashideen were the embodiment of Prophetic Sunnah and they are beacons of Prophetic Sunnah for those who came after them. Their knowledge and practice of Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) guides Muslims toward the Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). Yet this cannot be the reason for which Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) said follow their Sunnah. Note, all the companions were embodiment and beacons of Prophetic Sunnah and this is why Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) states: “You are the best of peoples ever raised up for mankind.” [Ref: 3:110] Now if the embodying and being beacons of Prophetic Sunnah was the reason for which Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) instructed to follow their Sunnahs then would it not be better to say; follow my Sunnah and the Sunnah of all my companions? It would be better to say follow my Sunnah and the Sunnah of all of my companions especially considering the fact that companions as whole represent all aspects of Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) which the four/five cannot. Also if by saying; “Whoever among you sees that, then he must stick to my Sunnah and the Sunnah of the rightly guided Khulafa …” intention was that Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is followed then it would have been suffient to say, follow my Sunnah, or he would have said, follow my Sunnah and Khulafah who follow my Sunnah. Hence it is reasonable to conclude, Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) did not say, follow my Sunnah and rightly guided Khalufah, due to their adherence to Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). In reality he was instructing the Muslims to follow the praiseworthy Sunnahs/Biddahs that will eminate from rightly guided Khulafah. Footnote #3 quotes evidence from Ahadith which further strenths the position of Ahle Sunnah, read below. - [3] “He who introduced some good Sunnah in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect. And he who introduced some evil Sunnah in Islam which had been followed subsequently (by others), he would be required to bear the burden like that of one who followed this (evil practice) without their's being diminished in any respect.” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] “Whoever initiates a good Sunnah that is followed, he will receive a perfect reward for that, and a reward equivalent to that of those who follow it, without that detracting from their reward in the slightest. And whoever introduces a bad Sunnah that is followed, he will receive the complete burden of sin for that, and a burden of sin equivalent to that of those who follow it without that detracting from their burden in the slightest." [Ref: Ibn Majah, B1, H204] - [4] Note, worshiping Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) in ways which Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) taught, such as engaging in invocation, recitation of Quran, performing optional prayers (i.e. Nawafil), circumambulating of Kabah (i.e. Tawaf), sacrificing a animal in the name of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala), and optional fasting. These are all acts of worship recognized by Shari’a of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). If anyone employs a act of worship which is not sanctioned and not deemed as an act of worship by Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and not in accordance with teaching of Islam then one has invented a reprehensible innovation and it is rejected. - [5] You are not to blame for this because in subcontinent words such as Nabi, Ummah, Sunnah are always used in technical/Shar’ri meaning and not in linguistic meaning. A non-Arabic speaking individual from Pakistan, uses these words as Nabi meaning teller of news [of Ghayb/Wahi], Ummah meaning nation [of Muslims], Sunnah in meaning of way/speech of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). Yet the Arabs use the words in lingusitic sense as well as technical/Shar’ri sense as well. Once a Somalian Salafi brother was talking in Arabic with another Somalian brother in a book shop. While browsing books I over heard him saying: “Nabi brought the parcel and I had to open the door …” Hearing that was enough, politely approached the brother and said; you know there is no Nabi after Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). You have committed Kufr, please repent. He translated that he said: “Postman brought the parcel …”, and I requested him to say what he again, he did. Again I pointed out see, see, you said Nabi. He did his best to explain, brother we use nabi to mean one who delivers the message and in modern context it is used to mean postman. I repeatedly requested him to make repent from Kufr getting frustrated he left saying; death be upon you. Eventually, I realized the fault is with my understanding and not in his use of word. These things happen due to lack of knowledge and when we are corrected and when we realize our faults we should correct them. - [6] “The tradition mentioned above has also been transmitted by Abu Qatadah through a different chain of narrators. This version add: He said: Messenger of Allah, tell me about keeping fast on Monday and Thursday. He said: On it I was born, and on it the Qur'an was first revealed to me.” [Ref: Abu Dawood, B13, H2420] - [7] Commonly it is argued by Deobandi’s/Wahhabi’s that fixing of a date for a practice is one of reasons which determine a practice to be innovation. As a Muslim our response should be; we dispute with your claim therefore establish from Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) or to Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) that fixing of time or date decides a practice to be innovation. They will never be able to substantiate their claim with evidence of Quran and Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam). - [8] I have been unable to trace a precise refference for these two Ahadith but can be found via Shaykh Google (rahimullah alayhi ta’ala). I do appologise for relying on Shaykh Google for this once – had no other alternative available. - [9] Part One: A jubilant heretic will be gloating thinking/saying; he killed his side by saying that – how can you not follow the Sunnah and innovate your own way? There is really no need for celebration, my un-friend. Part Two: This was Tandeeqi response, critical response, following would be Tehqeeqi response. Jihad is essential part of teaching of Islam and Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) tought/demonstrated Jihad. He used sword, spear and other weapons available in his time, agree? Great, so Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is to fight with sword, spear, so is it only permissible to fight Jihad with the weapons he used and Sahabah used? See, even Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab Al-Khariji used Biddah [weapons] to kill Muslims. You cannot use Biddah to kill the infidels in war, you have use Sunnah [weapons] otherwise you are distorting the religion of Islam – bringing innovation into Islam. See, now what your stupidity has done, you have made me apply your principle to your terrorist activities which you label -Jihad. Your end isn’t pretty, is it? Part Three: (1) If one adheres to Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) – there is reward but if one leaves a Sunnah for another Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) there is still reward. (2) If one leaves a non-fundamental Sunnah method of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and adopts a innovated method composed of Sunnahs of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) to act on a prophetic Sunnah there is still reward.(3) If one leaves a Sunnah method of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) for something which is not Sunnah but the destination is another Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) then there is still reward. (4) If one invents a Sunnah/Biddah and it is conceptually not a Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) but it is composed of various Sunnahs, there is reward for this. Part Four: Note, all the following are ‘suppose if’ type to explain the mentioned principles in part three. (a) Suppose, Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) drank milk every morning but once or twice drank water. A certain y drinks milk and one day decides to drink water. He has left a Sunnah for another Sunnah – he gets reward for following Sunnah. ( Suppose, y knows Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) drank milk regularly and ocasionaly water but he also knows Prophet ate honey in the evening. So he pours water in the milk and adds honey to it, and drinks that in the morning with intention of emulating all three Sunnahs of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). He will get reward for all three Sunnahs of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) despite that he didn’t enact on one specific Sunnah but combined three. © Lastly, suppose y makes ghair-muqallid type of mini-Ijtihad. He reasons, purpose of using Siwak is to clean your teeth, improve oral hygiene.Tooth brush and toothpaste do the same, therefore it is permissible and it is reward worthy. If he had used Siwak and cleaned his teeth, he would have got reward for using Siwak [a Sunnah] and cleaning teeth [another Sunnah], so his reward would be two fold but by using tooth brush he gets reward for cleaning teeth but not for using the Sunnah tool. (d) Suppose, y preaches pure Tawheed on PalTalk and quotes Surah Ikhlas, no added sugar or anything else, just Surah Tawheed (i.e. Ikhlas). There is reward for him even though the concept of Dawah via internet did not exist in the time of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). So even though the tool being used is not Sunnah the end goal is, hence the reward. What has this all got to do with Mawlad celebrations, you ask! Part Five: I just explained you the principles which will help you to understand the answer. Hadith records Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) commemorated his birthday [every Monday] by fasting. In other words, principle (1) in part three and part four’s section (a) do not apply to modern methods of comemmorating Mawlad Un Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). Principle (2) and principle (3) in part three and section ( and section © in part four, fully apply to modern methods of commemorating birthday of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). Part Six: Since argument against use of modern weapons in Jihad was erected to point to fault of heretical methodology. It would be only appropriate to explain the correct position with regards to Jihad with modern weapons. Part three’s and part four’s principle three and section © refers to Jihad with modern weapons. Even though the weapons are not Sunnah the destination is, so there is one degree of reward. - [10] Footnote 9’s, part three’s, principle (4) and part four’s section (d) applies to this.
  20. Introduction: Recently during discussions with a Salafi about the nature of innovations in Islam. The Salafi ‘student of knowledge’ presented me translation of Ibn Uthaymeen’s small pamphlet size MSWord format copy of a Arabic work. He requested me to read and think about the contents and note the strenth of Ibn Uthaymeen’s reasoning against the legitimacy of praiseworthy innovations. He was convinced, once his this booklet was understood by me, it would be impossible for me to hold to the position of Ahle Sunnat Wal Jammat. Instead it will force me to back-track into Salafism. In this word format he highlighted a certain [portion which will be quoted below] and requested that special attention needs to be paid to it. After reading the entire treaty and much mulling over its line of reasoning and understanding the in-between the line material it was decided best response would be in a written format. Below is the written response which al hamdu lillah demolished the castle of Wahhabiyyah. 1.0 - Salih Al Uthaymeen’s Position In His Own Words: “That the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) did not leave anything which the people are in need of in their worship, their dealings with one another and their livelihood without having explained it is proven to you by His speech, the Exalted: “This day have I perfected for you your religion and have completed My favour upon you and have chosen for you Islaam as a religion.” When this matter has been explained [that Islam is perfected/completed then] - O muslim - know that every one who innovates something in the religion of Allah (azza wa jal) even if it is with a good intention, then his innovation, along with it being misguidance, will be considered a defamation of the religion of Allah (azza wa jal) and will be considered a denial and rejection of Allah (azza wa jal) the Exalted in His speech: “This day have I perfected for you your religion …” Since this innovator who innovated a matter into the religion of Allah (azza wa jal) which is not from the religion of Allah (azza wa jal) is saying silently that the religion has not been completed because this matter which was left out, and which he innovated, can be used to draw closer to Allah (azza wa jal).” [Ref: Innovations In The Light Of Perfection Of Shari’ah, by Muhammad bin Salih Al Uthaymeen] 1.1 - Salih Al Uthaymeen’s Position In My Own Words: Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is the source of perfection/completion which is beyond improvement. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) perfected/completed the religion of Islam and any additions or alterations to perfection/compeletion of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) cannot be praiseworthy. This is the reason Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi wa’sallam) told any/every innovation made part of Islam [after completion/perfection of Islam] is misguidance which takes to hellfire. Hence, there can be no and there is no, valid basis for praiseworthy innovations in Islam. By introducing ‘praiseworthy’ innovations into Islam one is negating the completion/perfection of Islam and improving upon what Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and his Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) left us with and is implying that Islam was not perfected/completed.[1] 2.1 - Islam Is The Perfection/Completion Of Islams: Religion of Prophet Musa (alayhis salam) and his followers, Prophet Isa (alayhis salam) and his followers was Islam: “And Moses said: ‘O my people! If you have believed in Allah, then put your trust in Him if you are Muslims.’” [Ref: 10:84] “And when I Allah inspired the disciples [of Jesus] to believe in Me and My Messenger, they said: ‘We believe. And bear witness that we are Muslims.” [Ref: 5:111] It is recorded in the Hadith that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) stated that the religion of all Prophets was Islam: "I am most akin to Jesus Christ among the whole of mankind, and all the Prophets are of different mothers but belong to one religion and no Prophet was raised between me and Jesus." [Ref: Muslim, B30, H5835] Their versions of Islam were suitable for their immediate evoriments but the Islam given to our Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) is a continuation of previous versions of Islam and perfection/completion of all those religions of Islam and is a universal message. Hence to argue on basis; our Islam is perfection/compeletion of previous versions of Islams therefore one cannot introduce praiseworthy innovations into our Islam, is utterly useless reasoning, because perfection/compeletion of older versions does not rule out praiseworthy innovations via Ijtihad. 2.2 - Islam Is Perfection/Compeletion In Itself: Improvements are made by Prophets/Messengers and there is no Prophet/Messenger with revelation after Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam): “Muhammad is not the father of [any] one of your men, but [he is] the Messenger of Allah and last of the prophets. And ever is Allah, of all things, Knowing.” [Ref: 33:40] Hence the version of Islam given to our Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is perfect/complete and beyond any need of improvements - Islam is perfection/compeletion in itself but this does not mean praiseworthy innovations cannot be made part of Islam via Ijtihad. 2.3 - Allowing Innovated Practices Is Part Of Perfection/Compeletion Of Islam: Part of compeletion/perfection of Islam that it incorporates teachings which enable the Muslims to incorporate new practices into Islam via Ijtihad. Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is reported to have said in numerous Ahadith: “He who introduced some good Sunnah in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] As long as the newly introduced Sunnahs/Biddahs agree with fundamental principles of Islamic worship, charity, enjoining good, prohibiting wrong and we do not invent a new act of worship but we assemble the Sunnah of Prophet (sallallalu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) under various names, we inroduce good Sunnah. For which there will be reward one who invents it and those who adhere to it and those who call to it: “He who called (people) to righteousness/guidance, there would be reward (assured) for him like the rewards of those who adhered to it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6470] 2.4 – Perserving The Compeletion/Perfection Of Islam: Shara’i evidence firmly established new praiseworthy Biddah/Sunnah can be introduced into Islam and it would be permissible to act on them and acting on these praiseworthy Sunnahs/Biddahs will earn reward from Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Islam was perfected/completed but in this perfected/completed Islam room was created for incorporation of praiseworthy Sunnahs/Biddahs. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has stated: “We have, without doubt, sent down the Reminder (i.e. the Quran); and We will assuredly guard it (i.e. from corruption).” [Ref: 15:9] Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has promised to protect the completion/perfection of Islam from corruption and if introducing praiseworthy innovations into Islam was corruption of Islam then Allah’s Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) would not have created the room for them. Therefore the perfection/completion of Islam will not be effect by newly introduced praiseworthy Sunnahs/Biddahs into religion of Islam. 3.1 - Distorting The Perfection/Compeletion Of Islam: As Muslims we cannot nor we can believe that a Prophet can come after our Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and abrogate or subsitute or add or ommit or alter any thing that has been taught by Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). We must adhere to the Islam taught by Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) without engaging in mentioned to maintain perfection/compeletion of Islam. If one engages in abrogation of matters in Ayaat/Ahadith without valid proof, or alters a method taught in Quran/Hadith, or subsitutes a action/belief by another not established with Quranic/Hadith evidence, or adds to a ritual practice or Quranic text which was not part of it, then such person engages in mutilation of Islam. He/She defaces the perfection of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and his beloved Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and it is akin to indirectly claiming God-hood or Prophet-hood.[2] As Muslims we have ensured the teaching of Islam are protected from corruption and we have not made anything part of Islam which defaced Islam. 3.2 - Those Who Defaced Their Versions Of Islam: The Yahood/Nasara defaced the Islams given to them by their respective Prophets and took their innovative religions as the Islams of Prophets Musa/Isa (alayhis salam). In short they alterted the Islams and made them into monsteracities which they are recognized by at present. The message and teaching of Quran are still preserved and easily accessible. There has been no alteration, addition, ommition and abrogation of Quranic message of Islam in the Ummah of RasoolAllah (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) like it happened to the religions of previous Prophets. Therefore the completion, the perfection of Islam is preserved and nothing of Islam has been defaced, or removed, or omitted, or abrogated, or altered. 3.3 – True Act Of Defacing Of Islam: True defamation of Islam would be, if one engages in altering the order of actions performed in prayers. One starts his prayers with prostration and ends it with standing or recites Surah Fatihah in prostration three times and recites twenty hail Mary’s (i.e. Ave Maria). Another example would be to believe that some parts of Quran have been omitted/deleted by Muslims. Or to add another verse to the end of Surah Fatiha, such as; lana tulillahi alal kazibeen, and believe it is part of Quran. Or altering the confession of Tawheedi creed to; there is no god except three in the One god and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah. These are examples of improvements/innovations which in reality deface Islam not praiseworthy innovations. A praiseworthy innovation introduced into Islam via Ijtihad and which was not and is not believed to be Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and it accords with teaching of Islam, does not effect the compeletion/perfection of Islam, rather it compliments it. 4.1 – Innovated Sunnah In Line With Perfection/Completion Of Islam: During the Khilafat of Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radiallah ta’ala anhu) Musailamah claimed Prophet-hood. Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radiallah ta’ala anhu) sent armies to eliminate this Dajjal. At the end of wars some seventy Hufadh had fallen in the way of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) realized if the Hufadh continue to receive matyrdom at this rate sooner or later Quran will be lost, so he visited Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radiallah ta’ala anhu). He said to Hadhrat Abu Bakr (subhanahu wa ta’ala): "Casualties were heavy among the Qurra' of the! Qur'an (i.e. those who knew the Qur'an by heart) on the day of the Battle of Yalmama, and I am afraid that more heavy casualties may take place among the Qurra' on other battlefields, whereby a large part of the Qur'an may be lost. Therefore I suggest, you (Abu Bakr) order that the Qur'an be collected." At this point one can say, Hadhrat Abu Bakr (subhanahu wa ta’ala) was opinion that collection of Quran as a single book format is a innovation which will deface the perfection/completion of Islam, so he said: "How can you do something which Allah's Apostle did not do?" Hadhrat Umar (subhanahu wa ta’ala) trys to convince him that it is a good Sunnah which does not effect the perfection/completion of Islam by saying: "By Allah, that is a good project.” Hadhrat Abu Bakr (subhanahu wa ta’ala) continues saying: "Umar kept on urging me to accept his proposal till Allah opened my chest for it and I began to realize the good in the idea which `Umar had realized." [Ref: Bukhari, B61, H509] Hadhrat Abu Bakr (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is now convinced that compiling Quran in a book is a praiseworthy innovation which even Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) did not engage in nor instructed. He also understood that religion of Islam was complete and all that was part of fundamental teaching Islam has been made part of Islam by Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). He also realized that the perfection/completion of Islam is not effected by a innovative praiseworthy Sunnah and nor do the praiseworthy innovations deface the perfection/completion of Islam. He also understood, by compiling Quran in a single book it does not amount to him ordering completion/perfection of Islam after Islam was perfected/completed.[3] 4.2 – Khalifah Gives Instructions To Engage In Praiseworthy Innovation: Hadhrat Abu Bakr (subhanahu wa ta’ala) says to a Sahabi: “You are a wise young man and we do not have any suspicion about you, and you used to write the Divine Inspiration for Allah's Messenger. So you should search for (the fragmentary scripts of) the Qur'an and collect it in one book)." The Sahabi narrator added: “By Allah If they had ordered me to shift one of the mountains, it would not have been heavier for me than this ordering me to collect the Qur'an.” Then he said to Hadhrat Abu Bakr (subhanahu wa ta’ala) what Hadhrat Abu Bakr (subhanahu wa ta’ala) said to Hadhrat Umar (subhanahu wa ta’ala) when he had suggested compiling Quran in single book format: "How will you do something which Allah's Messenger did not do?" The Hadith continues: "By Allah, it is a good project." Abu Bakr kept on urging me to accept his idea until Allah opened my chest for what He had opened the chests of Abu Bakr and `Umar.” [Ref: Bukhari, B61, H509] Once the companion realized the goodness in this praiseworthy Biddah/Sunnah and just like Hadhrat Abu Bakr realized it does not amount to blameworthy innovation [which disfigures the perfection/completion of Islam] he began gathering and compiling Quran into single book format and the result was Quran in our possesion today. 5.1 - The Destroyer of Perfection/Completion Of Islam: The Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) explained all essentials of religion of Islam. He explained the concept of worship, types of worship, the method of worship and when to worship. He explained Zakat, Sadqa, Khayrat, and all issues connected with charity. He taught how to perform Ghusul and when to perform Ghusul. He taught the method of Wudhu and when to perform Wudhu. In short he taught all aspects of daily life and this is completion/perfection of Quran and Islam, stated: “This day have I perfected for you your religion and have completed My favour upon you and have chosen for you Islaam as a religion.” [Ref: 5:3] Islam is religion of micro-guidance, it aims to guides/manage all affairs. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) made Islam for mankind and for those who will come till the judgment day. Our Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) explained the affairs which were happening in his time but left principles via aid of which we will be able to judge matters to arise after, and part of these principles the teaching is: “He who introduced some good Sunnah in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] Therefore Muslims know that praiseworthy Sunnahs/Biddahs are part of perfection/compeletion of Islam. One who argues against and believes; praiseworthy Sunnahs/Biddahs are against the teaching of Islam is guilty of innovation. He refutes/rejects a teaching of Islam, which daringly can be said to be established by Tawatir. Even though one has good intentions his innovation is misguidance and is a distortion of perfection/completion of Islam – the religion approved by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). The innovator of reprehensible innovation is indirectly claiming the right of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) for himself – claims to have the right to legislate religion. Or he is claiming to be spokes person of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) after it has been clearly stated there is no Nabi/Messenger with Shari’a after our beloved Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). Allah’s Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has reported to have said: “Aishah reported the Messenger of Allah as saying: if any one introduces into this affair of ours anything which does not belong to it, it is rejected. Ibn Isa said: the prophet said: if anyone practices any action in away other than our practice, it is rejected.” [Ref: Dawood, B41, H4589] O Muslims, therefore believe in Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) as your God and believe in His beloved Messenger Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) as the last/final Prophet. O Muslims, reject those who exercise the right of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and exercise the right of a Prophet to disfigure the perfection/completion of Islam and reject their reprehensible innovations. They oppose Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and His beloved Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). O Muslims, you oppose such a individual and his party and believe what is taught by Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). If you do not then know in sight of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) the only acceptable religion is of Islam and you will be amongst the loosers in day of judgment: “And whoever seeks a religion other than Islam, it will never be accepted of him, and in the Hereafter he will be one of the losers.” [Ref: 3:85] This is Islam is composed of teaching of Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and if you leave him and obey the rival and enemy of Allah’s Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi wa’sallam) then you have preffered for your self religion other then perfected/compeleted religion of Islam. You have chosen for your self; the religion of Shaytan, the religion of Ibn Uthaymeen but not the religion of Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). O heretics, you be to your religion and know that we believed in Islam and we believed in our Nabi Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) when he said: “Whoever introduces a good practice that is followed, he will receive its reward and a reward equivalent to that of those who follow it, without that detracting from their reward in their slightest. And whoever introduces a bad practice that is followed, he will receive its sin and a burden of sin equivalent to that of those who follow it, without that detracting from their burden in the slightest." [Ref: Ibn Majah, B1, H203] This the best of guidance of Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and what opposes his teaching is innovation and every teaching which opposes and disfigures the perfection/completion of Islam takes to hellfire. 5.2– Blameworthy Innovations Harm Perfection/Completion Of Islam: Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is reported to have said: “The best of the speech is embodied in the Book of Allah, and the best of the guidance is the guidance given by Muhammad. And the most evil affairs are their innovations; and every innovation is error." [Ref: Bukhari, B4, H1885] and in another Hadith Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is reported to have said: “The worst of things are those that are newly invented; every newly-invented thing is an innovation and every innovation is going astray, and every going astray is in the Fire.” [Ref: Sunan Nisa’I, B19, H1579] It is established Ibn Uthaymeen the chief of group of Satan, the leader of the Khawarij, opposed Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) in regards to introducing praiseworthy Sunnahs/Biddahs into Islam, hence he introduced a blameworthy innovation into Islam. Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) stated: “He who enacted any act for which there is no sanction from our behalf, that is to be rejected.” [Ref: Muslim, B18, H4267] "If somebody innovates something which is not in harmony with the principles of our affair religion, that thing is rejected." [Ref: Bukhari, B49, H861] In obedience to Allah’s Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) we reject Ibn Uthaymeen’s innovation which defaced the perfected/completed Islam. Conclusion: Religion of Islam is has been completed and perfected by Allah’s (subhanahu wa ta’ala) last and finale Prophet – Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). The beloved Prophet and the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) informed one who introduces praiseworthy Biddah/Sunnah into Islam which is followed after him it will be rewarded by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and those who call toward such praisworthy Sunnahs/Biddahs they will also be rewarded like the ones who act upon it. The teaching which permit introduction of praiseworthy Sunnahs/Biddahs into Islam is part of perfection/compeletion of Islam and as long as the innovated practice is in accordance with the teaching of Islam and does not contradict the teaching of worship, charity, encouraging good, forbidding evil, and it aids Islam, then it is a good Sunnah/Biddah. The real true enemy of Islam, the destroyer and negater of perfection/completion of Islam is Ibn Uthaymeen the enemy of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). He has censored praiseworthy Biddah/Sunnah which Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) permitted and about which Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) told of reward – for one who innovates and one who practices it. Ibn Uthaymeen and the Khariji minions of Iblees from Najd have found fault in the perfection/completion of Islam. Hence they have rejected the conceptual validity of introducing praiseworthy Sunnahs/Biddahs into Islam. The Khariji’s reject this teaching of Islam and the fruits of this teaching. Therefore the innovation and the distortion of perfection/completion of Islam is from Khawarij and their scholars, and in this context Ibn Uthaymeen the cursed. Wama alayna ilal balaghul mubeen. Muhammed Ali Razavi Footnotes: - [1] If anyone is unhappy about my presentation of Ibn Uthaymeen’s reasoning then please be my guest and present his position from his own work better then my representation. Rest assured I have greatly improved the strenth of his reasoning. In other words his reasoning is presented more precisely, more elequently, more forcefully then Mr Ibn Uthaymeen did. - [2] If he affirms Prophet-hood or God-hood with his tongue and it is not impliedfrom his actions then such a person is Kafir, otherwise such a person is heretic of worst kind. - [3] Ibn Uthaymeen wrote:” Since this innovator who innovated a matter into the religion of Allah (azza wa jal) which is not from the religion of Allah (azza wa jal) is saying silently that the religion has not been completed because this matter which was left out, and which he innovated, can be used to draw closer to Allah (azza wa jal).” Based on this statement of Ibn Uthaymeen, one is forced to conclude that Mr Ibn Uthaymeen’s regarding Hadhrat Umar and Hadhrat Abu Bakr position would be they were completing/perfecting Quran which was left uncomplete/imperfect by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and by His Messenger Muhammad (sallallahu alayh wa aalihi was’sallam).
  21. Video Speech of maloon Najdi Wahabi http://www.dailymotion.com/video/x1vsefz_wahabi-wants-to-destroy-grave-of-mohammad-pbuh_news
  22. Introduction: The Wahhabi brand of Kharijite apostasy emerged from Najd. By employing sword, spear, gun, canon and at the cost of death of hundreds of thousands of Muslims gained controlled of great swaths of Arabian Peninsula, thus created the Saudi Kingdom. Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) had foretold that Khawarij will emerge from Najd. Wahhabi-ism was the only sect which emerged from Najd and as foretold by Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’salam) killed hundreds of thousands of Muslims. For this reason the adherents of Wahhabi brand of Khariji-ism contest the actual location of historical Najd in attempt to justify their movements beliefs and their actions. Their position is that Najd is Iraq because the Khawarij have emerged from Iraq during the Khilafat of Hadhrat Ali (radiallah ta’ala anhu).[1] Contrary to this the Muslims believe Najd is due East of Madinah and it comprimises of vast regions surrounding Saudi Wahhabi Kindom’s capital Riyadh. Satan’s Group Will Emerge From Najd: Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) was inovking Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) to bless Yemen and Syria. Someone from the gathering repeatedly requested that he also make dua for Najd.[2] Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) ignored these repeated requests for dua and then said: “They said again, "Our Najd as well." On that the Prophet said, "There will appear earthquakes and afflictions, and from there will come out the group of Satan." [Bukhari, Book 17, Number 147] Other Ahadith indicate particular direction of East from which the group of Satan will emerge: “Narrated Ibn 'Umar: I heard Allah's Apostle while he was facing the East, saying, "Verily! Afflictions are there, from the direction [of east] will come the group of Satan"[3] [Ref: Bukhari, B88, H213] One Hadith mentions direction of sunrise from where the Satans group is to emerge: “Narrated Salim's father: The Prophet stood up beside the pulpit and said, "Afflictions are there! Afflictions are there, from the side where head of Satan will come out," or said, "...the side of the sun [rise]..." [Bukhari, Book 88, Number 212] One Hadith states Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) pointed toward the direction of Hadhrat Aysha’s house while indicating the direction from which the group of Satan will emerge: “Narrated 'Abdullah: The Prophet stood up and delivered a sermon, and pointing to 'Aisha's house, he said thrice, "Affliction (will appear from) here," and, "from the side, where Satan's head will come out." [Ref: Bukhari, B53, H336] Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) was standing beside the pulpit of Masjid of Nabvi hence if he pointed toward Hadhrat Aysha’s (radiallah ta’ala anha) house[4] then he would be pointing toward due East toward the direction of sunrise and toward the historical region of Najd [toward the Saudi capital Riyadh].[5] Methodology Employed To Rectify The Innovation: If it is established that Islam had not spread to Iraq in the life time of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) and Islam had spread in Najd during the life time of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam). And if it is established that the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) or the companions made distinction between Iraq and Najd then logicall conclusion would be both of these are two different regions, and not one and the same, nor Najd could be located in Iraq [as some argue that Najd is location in Iraq]. Importantly this would prove that the Najdi companion who requested Prophet (sallallahu alayi was’sallam) to make dua for Najd was not from any part of Iraq [because Islam had not spread that far in life time of Prophet sallallahu alayhi was’sallam]. Loud Najdi With Unkempt Hair Enquires About Islam: A Najdi man with rough hair visited Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) and enquired about bare essentials of Islam about which Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) informed him. This Najdi man left saying to Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) that he will only perform the compulsory duties and will not perform optional acts of worship. Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) said if he holds true to his word then he will successfuly enter paradise.[6] Najdi Thumama Bin Uthal From Banu Hanifah: Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) sent cavalary to Najd to arrest Thumama bin Uthal (radiallah ta’ala anhu) from who was from tribe of Bani Hanifa [residing in Wadi Hanifa] and when they arrested him they tied him to pillars of Masjid Nabvi. This is attested by following Hadith: “The Prophet sent some horsemen to Najd and they brought a man called Thumama bin Uthal from Bani Hanifa. They fastened him to one of the pillars of the mosque.” [Ref: Bukhari, B41, H605] Another Hadith reveals that Thumama bin Uthal (radiallah ta’ala anhu) was a tribal leader [of Banu Hanifa] from Yamama: “It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira who said: The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) sent some horsemen to Najd. They captured a man. He was from the tribe of Banu Hanifa and was called Thumama b. Uthal. He was the chief of the people of Yamama.” [Ref: Muslim, B19, H4361] Thumam bin Uthal (radiallah ta’ala anhu) had killed a Muslim prior to his conversion to Islam which became the reason for his arrest, attested by: "What have you got, O Thumama?" He replied,"I have got a good thought, O Muhammad! If you should kill me, you would kill a person who has already killed somebody, and if you should set me free, you would do a favor to one who is grateful, and if you want property, then ask me whatever wealth you want." Next day Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) asked the same question and received the same response upon which Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) instructed the companions to release him. Thumama bin Uthal (radiallah ta’ala anhu) took a bath and entered the Masjid and recited: "I testify that None has the right to be worshipped except Allah, and also testify that Muhammad is His Apostle! By Allah, O Muhammad!” [Ref: Bukhari, B59, H658] Note, Al Yamama is in historical Najd which is attested by above quoted Hadith. Incident Of Distribution Of Wat Booty: Ahadith record Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) was distributing a piece of gold sent by Hadhrat Ali (radiallah ta’ala anhu) amongst: “Al-Aqra' bin Habis Al-Hanzali from the tribe of Mujashi, 'Uyaina bin Badr Al-Fazari, Zaid At-Ta'i who belonged to (the tribe of) Bani Nahban, and 'Alqama bin Ulatha Al-'Amir who belonged to (the tribe of) Bani Kilab.” The Hadith continues: "He (i.e. the Prophet, ) gives the [tribal] chiefs of Najd and does not give us." Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) explained: "I give them so as to attract their hearts (to Islam)." [Ref: Bukhari, B55, H558] "I just wanted to attract and unite their hearts (make them firm in Islam)." [Ref: Bukhari, B93, H527] This establishes that some tribal chiefs of Najd had accepted Islam in the life time of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam). Iraqi’s Had Not Accepted Islam: Many Ahadith record the fixing of Miqat for Hajj and Umrah.Companion Zahid bin Jabair narrated in a Hadith: “I went to visit 'Abdullah bin 'Umar at his house which contained many tents made of cotton cloth and these were encircled with Suradik (part of the tent). I asked him from where, should one assume Ihram for Umra. He said, "Allah's Apostle had fixed as Miqat Qarn for the people of Najd, Dhul-Hulaifa for the people of Medina, and Al-Juhfa for the people of Sham." [Ref: Bukhari, B26, H597] Hadith records that people of Iraq had not accepted Islam when Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) fixed the places of wearing Ihram for pilgrims of Hajj: "The Prophet fixed Qarn as the Miqat (for assuming the Ihram) for the people of Najd, and Al-Juhfa for the people of Sham, and Dhul-Hulaifa for the people of Medina." Ibn `Umar added, "I heard this from the Prophet, and I have been informed that the Prophet said, 'The Miqat for the Yemenites is Yalamlam.' "When Iraq was mentioned, he said, "At that time it was not a Muslim country." [Ref: Bukhari, B92, H443] When the Iraqi cities of Basrah and Kufa were conquered then Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) informed the people that Dhat Al Irq was Miqat for Iraqi’s: “When these two towns (Basra and Kufa) were captured, the people went to 'Umar and said, "O the Chief of the faithful believers! The Prophet fixed Qarn as the Miqat for the people of Najd, it is beyond our way and it is difficult for us to pass through it." He said, "Take as your Miqat a place situated opposite to Qarn on your usual way. So, he fixed Dhatu-Irq (as their Miqat)." [Ref: Bukhari, B26, H606] Note Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) fixed the Dhat Al Irq as Miqat for Iraq. This establishes that Iraq and Najd are two different regions, not one and the same, nor one being part of another. Importantly it establishes that people of Najd had accepted Islam hence the need for designating place of Miqat for Najd arose in the life time of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) but Iraq nor any part of it was not under Islamic control hence Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) did not fix any Miqat for Iraq.[7] When cities of Iraq came under Islamic rule the then Dhat Al Irq was fixed as Miqat for Iraqi’s.[8] Raid On Banu Ghatafan In Najd: Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) lead a raiding party targetting tribe of Ghatafan in Najd at a place called Dhat Al Irq.[9] On this expedition the popular incident of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) being threatened by polytheist took place.[10] No fighting took place[11] because Bani Ghatafan were compeletly taken by surprise hence they fled leaving their women and children. From this compaign the participants benefitted greatly each receiving eleven camels each and a extra camel as bonus, including sheeps: “… the Messenger of Allah sent an expedition to Najd, and I (also) went with the troops. We got camels and goats as spoils of war, and our share amounted to twelve camels per head, and the Messenger of Allah gave an extra camel to each of us.” [Ref: Muslim, B19, H4332] Musailma the Claimed Prophet-hood From Najd: Musailma the Liar came to Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) with members of his tribe and said that he will follow Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) if he is made the Khalif after departure of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) from this world. Upon this Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) said to him that he would not give him even if he asked for leaf of date-palm tree. Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) warned him that he cannot escape the fate which Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has destined for him. After which Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) revealed that he believes Musailma maybe the person whom he saw in the dream. Indicating that Musailma may claim Prophet-hood after the departure of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) from this world.[12] Musailma the Liar claimed Prophethood during the Khilafat of Hadhrat Abu Bakr as-Sadeeq (radiallah ta’ala anhu).[13] In the dream Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) saw a dream in which he saw he is wearing two bracelets and the dream was interpreted to mean: “[…] I interpreted the two bracelets as symbols of two liars who would appear after me. And so one of them was Al-Ansi and the other was Musailama Al-Kadhdhab from Al Yamama." [Ref: Bukhari, B56, H817] Al Yamama is [East of Madinah] in Najd which is established from the following Hadith: “Allah's Messenger sent horsemen to Najd and they arrested and brought a man called Thumama bin Uthal, the chief of Yamama, and they fastened him to one of the pillars of the Mosque. When Allah's Apostle came up to him; he asked, "What have you to say, O Thumama?" He replied, …” [Ref: Bukhari, B41, H604] The Summary Of Established Points: Ahadith establish that Najd was known to Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) and to companions. They identified Najd and Iraq as two different regions, each having its own Miqat (i.e. place of wearing Ihram). Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) and companions had contact with people of Najd and engaged the people of Najd in combat. Evidence also establishes that people from Najd had accepted Islam in the life time of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam), including the leader of Banu Hanifa, Thumama bin Uthal (radiallah ta’ala anhu) as well as leaders of other tribes. On contrary there is no evidence which suggests that inhabitants of Iraq had come under Islamic rule during life time of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) nor there is any proof of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) fighting any battles in any region of Iraq which could be interpreted with aid of LOGIC[14] that Najd is in Iraq or entire Iraq is Najd. The Historical Region Of Najd: Here are some maps found via google which point to general location of Najd in Arabian Peninsula. Najd is East of Madinah and to be precise East of region of Hijaz.[15] Note, the above map indicates the region of Hijaz, spelt alternatively as Hejaz. The Sect Of Disbelief Emerges From East: This sect was the foretold group/sect of Satan about whom Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) said: “Narrated Abu Huraira: Allah's Apostle said, "The main source of disbelief is in the East. Pride and arrogance are characteristics of the owners of horses and camels, and those bedouins who are busy with their camels and pay no attention to Religion; …" [Ref: Bukhari, B54, H520] In another Hadith same is stated: “Ibn Umar reported that Allah's Messenger came out from the house of 'A'isha and said: It would be from this side that there would appear the summit of unbelief, viz. where appear the horns of Satan, meaning East.” [Ref: Muslim, B41, H6941] Note that in another Hadith Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) is stated to have pointed from the pulpit to the house of Hadhrat Aysha (radiallah ta’ala anha) to indicate the direction from where this group would emerge, hadith follows: “Narrated 'Abdullah: The Prophet stood up and delivered a sermon, and pointing to 'Aisha's house, he said thrice, "Affliction (will appear from) here," and, "from the side, where Satan's group will come out." [Ref: Bukhari, B53, H336] If one points from the pulpit of Masjid Nabvi then he is almost directly pointing toward Uyanah the birth place of Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab and Uyaynah then the mission control of Wahhabi sect. Conclusion: Najd for which Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) refused to make dua is not Iraq nor located in Iraq but it is a region in Arabian Peninsula. Iraq was known by it’s modern name Iraq in the time of RasoolAllah (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) and Najd was known by its name Najd. Hence it is quite clear from this fact that they were both two different regions. Najd is East of Madinah and it’s inhabitants were Muslims. Iraq is North East of Madinah and Iraq was not under the rule of Islam nor its inhabitants accepted Islam. This is established by the fact that the Miqat for Iraq was fixed as Dhat Al Irq when Islamic state had controlled the regions of Basrah/Kufa. As a result Islam was introduced to the people of Iraq and its inhabitants began to accept Islam then need for fixing Miqat for Iraq arose. Inhabitants of Sham [Greater Syria], Yemen, Najd accepted Islam hence the Miqat for them was fixed even though the inhabitants of Sham did not live under rule of Islamic state until Hadhrat Abu Bakr’s (radiallah ta’ala anhu) Khilafat. This strenths the position that inhabitants of Iraq had not accepted Islam in the life time of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) hence Miqat was not fixed for Iraqi’s. Combined with historical evidence and maps which point out region of Najd we the Muslims truthfully can believe all this evidence establishes the position of Ahle Sunnat Wal Jammat that Najd is East of Madinah region surrounding Saudi Wahhabi capital city of Riyadh. Exactly from direction of East group of Satan emerged in the form of Wahhabism and committed great excess. Declared Muslims as Mushrikeen [i.e. polytheistic disbelievers] worst then the polytheistic disbelievers of Prophet’s (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) time. Then as foretold by Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) this group of Satan [under the guidance and leadership of Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab] unsheathed their swords and slaughtered hundreds of thousands of Muslims. This was carried out under the pretext that these people are worst Kafirs then Kafirs who lived during the life time of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) hence killing them is permissible. The only sect to emerge from Najd and who accused Muslims of committing major Shirk and then killed Muslims was Wahhabism. Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) said: “It was narrated from Ibn 'Umar that: The Prophet said: "Do not revert to disbelievers after I am gone, striking the necks of one another (killing one another)." [Ref: Nisa’i, B37, H4130] This clarifies the position of Muslims regarding the Wahhabi sect and his followers. This who succeeded the first generation they are from Ahlul Kufr because Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) declared this group to be Ahlul Kufr without condition. Wama alayna ilal balaghul mubeen. Muhammed Ali Razavi Footnotes: - [1] Khawarij did indeed emerge from Iraq during the Khilafat of Hadhrat Ali (radiallah ta’ala anhu) but this is no excuse to declare Iraq is Najd. - [2] “Narrated Ibn 'Umar: The Prophet said, "O Allah! Bestow Your blessings on our Sham! O Allah! Bestow Your blessings on our Yemen." The People said, "And also on our Najd." He said, "O Allah! Bestow Your blessings on our Sham! O Allah! Bestow Your blessings on our Yemen." The people said, "O Allah's Apostle! And also on our Najd." I think the third time the Prophet said, "There (in East) is the place of earthquakes and afflictions and from there comes out the head of Satan." [Bukhari, Book 88, Number 214] - [3] “Narrated 'Abdullah bin 'Umar: I heard Allah's Apostle on the pulpit saying, "Verily, afflictions (will start) from here," pointing towards the east, " from the direction of where the head of Satan will come out." [Ref: Bukhari, B56, H714] “Ibn Umar reported: I heard Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying while pointing his hands towards the east: The turmoil would appear from this side; verily, the turmoil would appear from this side (he repeated it thrice) from where the the horns of Satan will apear.” [Ref: Muslim, B41, H6942] - [4] Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) is burried in the house of Hadhrat Aysha (radiallah ta’ala anha) hence from modern perspective he was pointing toward where his blessed body was laid to rest after he departed from earthly life. - [5] Please refer to the following article for the maps of Najd to have clear perspective: The Region Of Najd Depicted On Old And New Maps. - [6] “A man from Najd with unkempt hair came to Allah's Apostle and we heard his loud voice but could not understand what he was saying, till he came near and then we came to know that he was asking about Islam. Allah's Apostle said, "You have to offer prayers perfectly five times in a day and night (24 hours)." The man asked, "Is there any more (praying)?" Allah's Apostle replied, "No, but if you want to offer the Nawafil prayers (you can)." Allah's Apostle further said to him: "You have to observe fasts during the month of Ramad, an." The man asked, "Is there any more fasting?" Allah's Apostle replied, "No, but if you want to observe the Nawafil fasts (you can.)" Then Allah's Apostle further said to him, "You have to pay the Zakat (obligatory charity)." The man asked, "Is there any thing other than the Zakat for me to pay?" Allah's Apostle replied, "No, unless you want to give alms of your own." And then that man retreated saying, "By Allah! I will neither do less nor more than this." Allah's Apostle said, "If what he said is true, then he will be successful (i.e. he will be granted Paradise)." [Ref: Bukhari, B2, H44] - [7] Some maps reveal that during the end of Prophet’s (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) life the North Eastern border of Islamic rule was connecting to the Western border of Iraq but others indicate that at the death of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) the Islamic rule had in South far had spread into Yemen, in North as far as Egyptian border and in East Islamic state controlled some areas of Najd but not entire. On other hand the maps reveal that at the death of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) the Islamic rule had spread all over the Arabian Peninsula. Ruling over Yemen, Oman, Najd, Hijaz and its border connected with Iraq. What ever the reason for this difference but both maps indicate that Islamic rule had not spread far as Iraq in life of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam). - [8] Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) instructed the Muslims to follow his Sunnah and Sunnah of rightly guided Khulafah (i.e. Successors - Leaders). Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) was a Momin and the Amir of Momineen, the Khalifah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) hence we Muslims have to follow his Sunnah. - [9] “We went out with the Messenger of Allah to Najd. When we reached Dhat ar-Riqa at Nakhl he met a group of the tribe of Ghatafan. The narrator then reported the tradition to the same effect, but his version is other than that of Haywah. He added to the words "when he bowed along with those who were with him and prostrated" the words "when they stood up, they retraced their footsteps to the rows of their companions". He did not mention the words "their back was towards the qiblah." [Ref: Abu Dawood, B4, H1237] - [10] While Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) was sleeping under a tree a polytheist sneaked upon Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam), drew the sword of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) which was hanging on the tree and threatened to kill Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam). The account is narrated in the following Hadith: “… we came to a shady tree which -we left for him [to rest]one of the polytheists came there and, seeing the sword of the Messenger hanging by a free. took it up. Drew it from the scabbard and said to the Messenger of Allah: Are you afraid of Me? He (the Holy Prophet) said: No. He again said: Who would protect you from me? He said: Allah will protect me from you. The Companions of the Messenger of Allah threatened him. He sheathed the sword and hung it up.” [Ref: Muslim, B4, H1830] Another Hadith from Riyadh as-Saliheen narrates another account of the event: “… the polytheist asked: "Who will protect you from me?'' Messenger of Allah replied, "Allah.'' As soon as he said this, the sword fell down from his hand and Messenger of Allah catching the sword, asked him, "Who will protect you from me.'' He said, "Please forgive me.'' Messenger of Allah said, "On condition you testify that there is none worthy of worship but Allah and that I am His Messenger.'' He said, "No, but I promise you that I shall not fight against you, nor shall I be with those who fight with you". The Prophet let him go. He then went back to his companions and said: "I have come to you from one of the best of mankind." [Ref: Riyad as-Saliheen, B1, H78] - [11] “Jabir added: "The Prophet set out for the battle of Dhat-ur-Riqa' at a place called Nakhl and he met a group of people from Ghatafan, but there was no clash (between them); the people were afraid of each other and the Prophet offered the two raka'at of the Fear prayer." Narrated Salama: "I fought in the company of the Prophet on the day of al-Qarad." [Ref: Bukhari, B59, H449] - [12] “Narrated Ibn Abbas: Musailama-al-Kadhdhab (i.e. the liar) came in the life-time of Allah's Apostle with many of his people (to Medina) and said, "If Muhammad makes me his successor, I will follow him." Allah's Apostle went up to him with Thabit bin Qais bin Shams; and Allah's Apostle was carrying a piece of a date-palm leaf in his hand. He stood before Musailama (and his companions) and said, "If you asked me even this piece (of a leaf), I would not give it to you. You cannot avoid the fate you are destined to, by Allah. If you reject Islam, Allah will destroy you. I think that you are most probably the same person whom I have seen in the dream." Abu Huraira told me that Allah's Apostle; said, "While I was sleeping, I saw (in a dream) two gold bracelets round my arm, and that worried me too much. Then I was instructed divinely in my dream, to blow them off and so I blew them off, and they flew away. I interpreted the two bracelets as symbols of two liars who would appear after me. And so one of them was Al-Ansi and the other was Musailama Al-Kadhdhab from Al-yamama." [Ref: Bukhari, B56, H817] - [13] “Narrated Qatada: We do not know of any tribe amongst the 'Arab tribes who lost more martyrs than Al-Ansar, and they will have superiority on the Day of Resurrection. Anas bin Malik told us that seventy from the Ansar were martyred on the day of Uhud, and seventy on the day (of the battle of) Bir Ma'una, and seventy on the day of Al-yamama. Anas added, "The battle of Bir Ma'una took place during the lifetime of Allah's Apostle and the battle of Al-yamama, during the caliphate of Abu Bakr, and it was the day when Musailamah Al-Kadhdhab was killed." [Ref: Bukhari, B59, H405] - [14] People of innovation employ LOGIC to make Najd into Iraq. Logic is simple, Satan’s group will emerge from Iraq and Najd according to Ahadith. Satan’s group emerged from Iraq during the Khilfat of Hadhrat Ali (radiallah ta’ala anhu) hence Iraq is Najd. If Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) had fought in Iraq and the Ahadith had recorded Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) fought in Iraq like the Ahadith about Najd exist. Then with similiar logic employed om previous example they could convert Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) fighting in Najd to meaning Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) fighting in Iraq. - [15] Generally accepted view is Hijaz consists of regions surrounding cities of Makkah and Madinah. The exact region of historical Hijaz have been lost. Through out ages the identity of Hijaz has changed but my gut instinct is that Saudi Kingdoms Hijaz maybe actual Hijaz of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam).
  23. Introduction: Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab’s Qawa’id Al Arba is the Takfir manual for heretics. This little book introduces all heretics to the art of making everyone Mushrik. The focus of this article would be to explain the evidences which Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab utilized to establish the rules in his second principle. This will serve two main objectives; 1) this will allow the readers to know the subject matter of the issue in detail, 2) and once the correct understanding these verses realized by the readers then it will be easier to see the trick being played. The Second Principle Of Qawaid Al Arba: That they say: We do not call upon and turn towards them except to seek nearness and intercession. So the proof against seeking this nearness (through others like Awliyah) is the saying of the Most High: “And those who you take Awliyah besides Him (they say): ‘We worship them only that they may bring us near to Allah.” Verily, Allah will judge between them concerning that wherein they differ. Truly, Allah guides not him who is a liar, and a disbeliever.” [Ref: 39:3] And the proof of intercession (through Awliyah) is the saying of the Most High: “And they worship besides Allah things that hurt them not, nor profit them, and they say: These are our intercessors with Allah.” [Ref: 10:18] And intercession is of two types; a) the prohibited intercession, and the affirmed intercession. The prohibited intercession is that which is sought from other than Allah concerning that which only Allah is able to do. And the proof is the saying of the Most High: “O you who believe! Spend from that which We have provided for you, before a Day comes when there will be no bargaining, nor friendship, nor intercession. And it is the disbelievers who are the wrong-doers.” [Ref: 2:254] And the affirmed intercession is that which is sought from Allah, and the intercessor is honored with the intercession and the one interceded for, is one whom Allah is pleased with; his speech and actions, after he gives permission, as He, Ta’aala, said: “Who is he that can intercede with Him except with His permission?” [Ref: 2:255] Part One – A: The Awliyah Of Polytheists: The polytheists of Makkah attempted to scare Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) by saying: "We say nothing but that (perhaps) some of our gods may have seized thee with imbecility.” [Ref: 11:54] Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) responds to their this saying: “Is not Allah enough for his Servant? But they try to frighten thee with other besides Him! For such as Allah leaves to stray, there can be no guide.” [Ref: 39:36] In another verse Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) refers to the idol-gods of polytheists as Satan’s Awliyah: “That is only Satan who frightens [you] of his Awliyah. So fear them not but fear Me, if you are [indeed] believers.” [Ref: 3:175] This establishes that Awliyah of polytheists according to Quran are idol-gods of polytheists. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) states: “Then do those who disbelieve think that they can take My servants instead of Me as Awliyah?” [Ref: 18:102] “Or have they taken Awliyah besides him? But Allah - He is the Protector ...” [Ref: 42:9] Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) states on the day of judgment the Awliyah of polytheists will be gathered and questioned: “And [mention] the Day He will gather them and that which they worship besides Allah and will say, "Did you mislead these, My servants, or did they [themselves] stray from the way?" [Ref: 25:7] These Awliyah will reply to Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala): "Exalted are You! It was not for us to take besides You any Awliyah. But You provided comforts for them and their fathers until they forgot the message and became a people ruined." [Ref: 25:8] Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) explicitly narrates the questioning of Awliyah of polytheists: “And [beware the Day] when Allah will say: O Jesus, Son of Mary did you say to the people: Take me and my mother as gods besides Allah? He will say: "Exalted are You! It was not for me to say that to which I have no right. If I had said it; You would have known it. You know what is within myself, and I do not know what is within Yourself. Indeed, it is You who is Knower of the unseen.” [Ref: 5:116] Once again this establishes the Awliyah of polytheists were people who had been elevated to status of gods or idols who were believed to be gods. Regarding the Awliyah of polytheists Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) states: “Say: Who is Lord of the heavens and earth? Say: Allah! Say: Have you then taken besides Him Awliyah not possessing [even] for themselves any benefit or any harm?” [Ref: 13:16] These harmless and profitless Awliyah were worshiped by polytheists: “But they worship rather than Allah that which does not benefit them or harm them, and the disbeliever is ever, against his Lord, an assistant [to Satan].” [Ref: 25:55] The polytheists worshipped idols besides Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and this is attested in the following verse: “You only worship, besides Allah idols and you produce a falsehood. Indeed, those you worship besides Allah do not possess for you [the power of] provision." [Ref: 29:17] “They said: "We worship idols, and to them we are ever devoted." [Ref: 26:71] This establishes that the Awliyah of polytheists stated in the following verse are idols: “And those who you take Awliyah besides Him (they say): ‘We worship them only that they may bring us near to Allah.” [Ref: 39:3] And these idols were believed to be gods as declared in the following verse: "These our people have taken for worship gods other than Him.” [Ref: 18:15] Part One – B: Polytheists Worshiped Gods Besides Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala): The Awliyah of polytheists are their gods whom they worshiped besides Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) declared, the Awliyah of polytheists will deny worship of polytheists: “And they have taken besides Allah [false] gods that they would be for them [a source of] honor. No! Those [gods] will deny their worship of them and will be against them opponents [on the Day of Judgment].” [Ref: 19:81/82] These gods were idols as indicated by the following words of Quran: And said, "You have only taken, other than Allah, idols as [a bond of] affection among you in worldly life. Then on the Day of Resurrection you will deny one another and curse one another, and your refuge will be the Fire, and you will not have any helpers." [Ref: 29:25] These worshipped will include the idols of Prophet Isa (alayhis salam) and of the pious belonging to nation of Prophet Nuh (alayhis salam). The origin of the idols worshipped by Arab polytheists is stated by Ibn Abbas (radiallah ta’ala anhu): “All the idols which were worshipped by the people of Noah were worshipped by the Arabs later on. As for the idol Wadd, it was worshipped by the tribe of Kalb at Daumat-al-Jandal; Suwa' was the idol of (the tribe of) Murad and then by Ban, Ghutaif at Al-Jurf near Saba; Yauq was the idol of Hamdan, and Nasr was the idol of Himyr, the branch of Dhi-al-Kala.'” [Ref: Bukhari, B60, H442] Then Ibn Abbas (radiallah ta’ala anhu) goes on to state about the identity of the idols: “The names (of the idols) formerly belonged to some pious men of the people of Noah, and when they died Satan inspired their people to (prepare and place idols at the places where they used to sit, and to call those idols by their names. The people did so, but the idols were not worshipped till those people (who initiated them) had died and the origin of the idols had become obscure, whereupon people began worshipping them.” [Ref: Bukhari, B60, H442] These pious people as well as Prophet Isa (alayhis salaam), Maryam (alayhis salaam), Uzair (alayhis salam) all will disown those who have elevated them to status of gods and deny the worship. And the idols which were made to represent them will enter fire as stated by the verse. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) tells Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) to enquire from the Messengers before Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) if Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) permitted taking of gods with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and their worship: “And ask those We sent before you of Our messengers; have We made besides the Most Merciful gods to be worshipped?” [Ref: 43:45] Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) in another verse answers the question Himself: “Or have they taken gods besides Him? Say, [O Muhammad], "Produce your proof. This [Qur'an] is the message for those with me and the message of those before me." But most of them do not know the truth, so they are turning away. And We sent not before you any messenger except that We revealed to him that: "There is no god except Me so worship Me." [Ref: 21:24/25] This establishes that polytheists worshiped gods besides Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and in Islam the worship is to be only of God. Part One – C: Verse 39:3 In Context Of Beliefs Of Polytheists: The verse quoted by Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab in light of above established evidence means; those who you take idol-god Awliyah besides Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) say; we worship idol-god Awliyah that they may bring us near to Allah. It would be better if the mentioned interpretation is put in the context of verse, contextual interpretation: “And those who you take as [idol-god] Awliyah besides Him (they say): ‘We worship them [the idol-gods] only that they may bring us near to Allah.” Verily, Allah will judge between them concerning that wherein they differ. Truly, Allah guides not him who is a liar, and a disbeliever.” [Ref: 39:3] Note in response to claim of polytheists Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) states: Verily, Allah will judge between them concerning that wherein they differ. Truly, Allah guides not him who is a liar and a disbeliever.” [Ref: 39:3] Indicating that those who make this claim are lying about why they take their idol-gods as Awliyah with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). In a nutshell, the verse 39:3 was revealed regarding the polytheists and their gods and not about Muslims. Please bare these two important points in mind because these points are essential to fault of Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab’s methodology. Part Two – A: Polytheists Worship Which Cannot Profit Or Harm: Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) states: “And they worship besides Allah things that hurt them not, nor profit them, and they say: These are our intercessors with Allah.” [Ref: 10:18] In the following Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) tells; a Kafir [takes intercessor with Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala and] worships which do not benefit or harm: “But they worship rather than Allah that which does not benefit them or harm them, and the disbeliever is ever against his Lord, an assistant [to Satan].” [Ref: 25:55] While refuting the belief of disbelievers, Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) gives hint about the identity of intercessors: “Or have they taken other than Allah as intercessors? Say, "Even though they do not possess [power over] anything, nor do they reason?" [Ref: 39:43]Arguing against the disbelievers that you take them as intercessors with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) even though they possess no ability [of life hearing, seeing, walking, talking] nor they can reason [because they cannot speak]. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) prohibits the disbelievers from taking intercessors with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala): “And do not invoke besides Allah that which neither benefits you nor harms you, for if you did, then indeed you would be of the wrongdoers.'" [Ref: 10:106] From all this we established; disbelievers took intercessors, their intercessors have no ability to harm or benefit, and disbelievers are prohibited from taking intercessors to Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). To know why the intercessors of polytheists are unable to harm/benefit and why the disbelievers were prohibited from taking intercessors with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) we have to identify the type of intercessor they took. Part Two – B: Worshiping Intercessor Idol-Gods: Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) quotes: "These our people have taken for worship gods other than Him.” [Ref: 18:15] “And they have taken besides Allah [false] gods that they would be for them [a source of] honor. No! Those [gods] will deny their worship of them and will be against them opponents [on the Day of Judgment].” [Ref: 19:81/82] These gods were worshipped in form of idols which the polytheists themselves created: “You only worship, besides Allah idols and you produce a falsehood. Indeed, those you worship besides Allah do not possess for you [the power of] provision." [Ref: 29:17] These verses of established that those whom the polytheists worshiped besides Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) were idol-gods. The following verse further establishes that these idol-gods whom the polytheists had taken as intercessors do not have power to benefit or harm: “And they worship besides Allah things that hurt them not nor profit them and they say: These are our intercessors with Allah.” [Ref: 10:18] In another verse Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) is made to say about the idol-gods of polytheists: “Should I take other than Him gods! If the Most Merciful intends for me some adversity, their intercession will not avail me at all, nor can they save me.” [Ref: 36:23] This establishes that the polytheists believed their idol-gods are their intercessors with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Part Two – C: Harmless, Profitless Idol-Gods: Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) narrates the intention of Prophet Ibrahim (alayhis salaam): “And by Allah I will surely plan against your idols after you have turned and gone away." So he made them into fragments, except a large one among them so they might return to it [and question].” [Ref: 21:57/58] When the polytheists of his nation came back they questioned to each other: "Who has done this to our gods? Indeed, he is of the wrongdoers." They said, "We heard a young man mention them who is called Abraham." They said, "Then bring him before the eyes of the people that they may testify." [Ref: 21:59/61] They questioned Prophet Ibrahim (alayhis salaam) and received a very thought poking response: “They said, "Have you done this to our gods, O Abraham?" He said, "Rather, this - the largest of them - did it, so ask them, if they should [be able to] speak." [Ref: 21:62/63] Upon this they realize the error of their belief but remained upon their disbelief and replied to Prophet Ibrahim (alayhis salaam): “So they returned to [blaming] themselves and said [to each other], "Indeed, you are the wrongdoers." Then they reversed themselves, [saying], "You have already known that these do not speak!" [Ref: 21:64/65] To which Prophet Ibrahim (alayhis salaam) replied: "Then do you worship instead of Allah that which does not benefit you at all or harm you? Uff to you and to what you worship instead of Allah. Then will you not use reason?" [Ref: 21:66/67] To which the polytheists had no response other then easiest way out; they intended to kill him. Implication Note that Prophet Ibrahim (alayhi salaam) regarding the idol-gods of polytheists said: "You have already known that these do not speak!" He said, "Then do you worship instead of Allah that which does not benefit you at all or harm you?” [Ref: 21:66] And regarding the polytheists of Arabia Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) said: “And they worship besides Allah things that hurt them not nor profit them and they say: These are our intercessors with Allah.” [Ref: 10:18] This establishes verse about polytheists of Arabia was about their idol-gods and in the verse Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is stating; polytheists worship idol-gods besides Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) which do not hurt nor profit them and yet the polytheists take these idol-gods as intercessors: Part Two – D: Verse 10:18 In Context Of Beliefs Of Polytheists: The true interpretation of the verse quoted by Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab is as follows. They the polytheist worship besides Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) idol-gods that hurt them not nor profit them and the polytheists say regarding their idol-gods; these idol-gods are our intercessors with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Putting this understanding in the context of the verse; “And they [the polytheists] worship besides Allah [idol-gods] things that hurt them not nor profit them and they [the polytheists] say: These [idol-gods] are our intercessors with Allah.” [Ref: 10:18] The verse continues with to mention association of polytheists with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala): “Say, "Do you inform Allah of something He does not know in the heavens or on the earth?" Exalted is He and high above what they associate with Him.” [Ref: 10:18] Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) states in another verse: “Follow what has been revealed to you from your Lord - there is no god except Him - and turn away from those who associate others with Allah.” [Ref: 6:106] This establishes Polytheists of Arabian Peninsula took their idol-gods as intercessors with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and worshipped them as such. Part Three – A: No Friendship Nor Intercession For Disbelievers: Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab introduced into Islam a heretical type of intercession which he defined as; “The prohibited intercession is that which is sought from other than Allah concerning that which only Allah is able to do.” And to establish this principle he quoted the following verse of Quran: “O you who believe! Spend from that which We have provided for you, before a Day comes when there will be no bargaining, nor friendship, nor intercession. And it is the disbelievers who are the wrong-doers.” [Ref: 2:254] The day mentioned in the verse is judgment day and for the disbelievers there will be no bargaining nor friendship nor intercession. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) will say to the polytheists: “[it will be said to them], "And you have certainly come to Us alone as We created you the first time, and you have left whatever We bestowed upon you behind you. And We do not see with you your 'intercessors' which you claimed that they were among you associates [of Allah]. It has [all] been severed between you, and lost from you is what you used to claim." [Ref: 6:94] Realizing that they have no one to intercede for them the polytheists will say: “Do they wait except its result? The Day its result comes those who had ignored it before will say, "The messengers of our Lord had come with the truth, so are there [now] any intercessors to intercede for us or could we be sent back to do other than we used to do?" They will have lost themselves, and lost from them is what they used to invent.” [Ref: 7:53] Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) stated regarding the polytheists: “And the Day the Hour appears the criminals will be in despair. And there will not be for them among their [alleged] partners any intercessors, and they will [then] be disbelievers in their partners.” [Ref: 30:12/13] Quran records the words how polytheists will disassociate themselves from the partners they ascribed to Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala): “To him [alone] is attributed knowledge of the Hour. And fruits emerge not from their coverings nor does a female conceive or give birth except with His knowledge. And the Day He will call to them: "Where are My 'partners'?" they will say, "We announce to You that there is [no longer] among us any witness [to that]." [Ref: 41:47] The polytheists will say this because those whom they worshipped will deny being worshipped: “And [mention, O Muhammad], the Day We will gather them all together - then We will say to those who associated others with Allah, "[Remain in] your place you and your 'partners.' "Then We will separate them, and their "partners" will say: "You did not used to worship us.” [Re: 10:28] Part Three – B: The Permitted Intercessors Will Intercede For Muslims: Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab stated: “And the affirmed intercession is that which is sought from Allah, and the intercessor is honored with the intercession and the one interceded for, is one whom Allah is pleased with; his speech and actions…” And to establish this innovative principle he quoted the following verse: “To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth. Who is it that can intercede with Him except by His permission? He knows what is [presently] before them and ...” [Ref: 2:255] There are many verses of Quran which establish the intercession of those whom Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) will permit, Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) states: “Indeed, your Lord is Allah, who created the heavens and the earth in six days and then established Himself above the Throne, arranging the matter [of His creation]. There is no intercessor except after His permission. That is Allah, your Lord, so worship Him. Then will you not remember?” [Ref: 10:3] The people of hell will request the angels: ”And those in the fire will say to the keepers of hell, "Supplicate your Lord to lighten for us a day from the punishment." [Ref: 40:49] Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) states that their intercession will not avail them: “And how many angels there are in the heavens whose intercession will not avail at all except [only] after Allah has permitted [it] to whom He wills and approves.” [Ref: 53:26] Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) states about idol-gods of polytheists not having the right to intercede and some being granted the right of intercession: “And those they invoke besides Him do not possess [power of] intercession; but only those who testify to the truth [can benefit], and they know.” [Ref: 43:86] “None will have [power of] intercession except he who had taken from the Most Merciful a covenant.” [Ref: 19:87] “That Day, no intercession will benefit except [that of] one to whom the Most Merciful has given permission and has accepted his word.” [Ref: 20:109] Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) states those intercessors who will be permitted to intercede will only intercede for whom Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) will permit: “And intercession does not benefit with Him except for one whom He permits. [And those wait] until, when terror is removed from their hearts ...” [Ref: 34:23] “He knows what is [presently] before them and what will be after them, and they cannot intercede except on behalf of one whom He approves. And they, from fear of Him, are apprehensive.” [Ref: 21:28] Many Ahadith record the details regarding the intercessors and about whom they would intercede. Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) said: “The people will come to me, and I will prostrate myself underneath Allah's Throne. Then I will be addressed: 'O Muhammad! Raise your head; intercede, for your intercession will be accepted, and ask (for anything) for you will be given." [Ref: Bukhari, B55, H556] In another hadith it is recorded that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) said: "On the Day of Resurrection I will intercede and say, "O my Lord! Admit into Paradise (even) those who have faith equal to a mustard seed in their hearts." Such people will enter Paradise, and then I will say, 'O (Allah) admit into Paradise (even) those who have the least amount of faith in their hearts.” [Ref: Bukhari, B93, H600] The intercession of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) will be for those who committed major sins: "My intercession is for the people who committed the major sins in my Ummah." [Ref: Tirmadhi, B11, H2435] Ahadith also record Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) has told of others from amongst the Ummah interceding behalf of sinful Muslims: "Indeed in my Ummah are those who intercede for large groups of people, and among them (there are) who intercede for a tribe, and among them (there are) who intercede for a group, and among them (there are) who intercede for a man, until they are admitted to Paradise." [Ref: Tirmadhi, B11, H2440] Another hadith states Messengers and angles will be instructed to intercede: ”Then the angels will come and intercede and the Messengers will intercede.' And he mentioned the Sirat, and said: "The Messenger of Allah said: 'I will be the first one to cross it, and when Allah has finished passing judgment among His creation, and has brought forth from the Fire those whom He wants to bring forth, Allah will command the angels and the Messengers to intercede and they will be recognized by their signs, for the Fire will consume all of the son of Adam apart from the place of prostration. Then the water of life will be poured on them, and they will grow like seeds on the banks of a rainwater stream." [Ref: Nisa’I, B12, H1141] Another version of the hadith also includes believers in the list of permitted intercessors: "Then the prophets and angels and the believers will intercede, and (last of all) the Almighty (Allah) will say …” [Ref: Bukhari, B93, H532] Part Three – C: Why No Intercessor And Intercession For Disbelievers: Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) states: “O you who believe! Spend from that which We have provided for you, before a Day comes when there will be no bargaining, nor friendship, nor intercession. And it is the disbelievers who are the wrong-doers.” [Ref: 2:254] It has already been established that believers will have intercessors and Muslims having Wali’s is established by the following verse; “Your Wali is none but Allah and His Messenger and those who have believed - those who establish prayer and give zakah, and they bow [in worship].” [Ref: 5:55] And Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) and believers being Wali’s of each other will not change even on the judgment day: “Close friends, that Day, will be enemies to each other, except for the righteous.” [Ref: 43:67] Hence the verse does not mean believers will not have anyone to intercede for them. On the judgment day when the mankind realizes the reality they will then seek friendship and seek to bargain. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) informs them that on that day there will be no such a thing. Hence implying that time for bargaining your wealth, time, for securing and making friendship and assuring intercession your life time on earth. If you fail to secure it in your earthly life then Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) states regarding such wrong-doers (i.e. polytheists), clearly: “And warn them, [O Muhammad], of the Approaching Day, when hearts are at the throats, filled [with distress]. For the wrongdoers there will be no devoted friend and no intercessor [who is] obeyed.” [Ref: 40:18] In another verse Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) states: “So today no ransom will be taken from you or from those who disbelieved. Your refuge is the Fire. It is most worthy of you, and wretched is the destination.” [Ref: 57:15] There are two reasons why polytheists will not have intercessors on judgment day, a) polytheists took idol-gods as their intercessors they did not become Muslims. Taking idol-gods as intercessors with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and worshipping them is prohibited. Polytheists took prohibited intercessors with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Regarding prohibited intercessor idol-gods Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) stated: “And they [the polytheists] worship besides Allah [idol-gods] things that hurt them not nor profit them and they [the polytheists] say: These [idol-gods] are our intercessors with Allah.” [Ref: 10:18] “And do not invoke besides Allah [idol-god intercessors] that which neither benefits you nor harms you, for if you did, then indeed you would be of the wrongdoers.'" [Ref: 10:106] Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) tells the polytheists they will disbelieve in whom they associate with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) as His god-partners: “And there will not be for them among their partners any intercessors, and they will [then] be disbelievers in their partners.” [Ref: 30:13] Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) is made to say to the polytheists regarding their idol-god intercessors: “Should I take other than Him gods! If the Most Merciful intends for me some adversity, their intercession will not avail me at all, nor can they save me.” [Ref: 36:23] Coming to the second reason, if the polytheists had accepted Islam then they would have had Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) and believers as their intercessors because they would have believed in these intercessors while affirming Oneness of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Part Three – D: Verse 2:254 In The Context Of Quran: Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) stated: “O you who believe! Spend from that which We have provided for you, before a Day comes when there will be no bargaining, nor friendship, nor intercession. And it is the disbelievers who are the wrong-doers.” [Ref: 2:254] Even though in the beginning of the verse the believers are addressed but later in the verse Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) states about the disbelievers that they will not be able to bargain for paradise, nor their friendships will Muslims will avail them nor they will have intercession of their intercessors -no intercession of their idol gods. Hence according to all the established evidence the correct understanding of the verse is; “O you who believe! Spend from that which We have provided for you, before a Day comes when there will be no bargaining, nor friendship, nor intercession [for the disbelievers]. And it is the disbelievers who are the wrong-doers.” [Ref: 2:254] Or it could mean; “O you who believe! Spend from that which We have provided for you, before a Day comes when there will be no bargaining, nor friendship, nor intercession [without the permission of Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala]. And it is the disbelievers who are the wrong-doers.” [Ref: 2:254] In the context of the verse and general Quranic theology the implication would be; Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) tell the believers to do good deeds (i.e. give Charity) because on judgment day there will not be anyone permitted to intercede for them without His permission hence the good deeds will save you from punishment of fire. Note the those sinners whose bad deeds out weigh the good deeds will have to taste the punishment and Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) will only be able to intercede for them after he receives permission. Hence they should not solely rely on the intercession of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) but perform good deeds to remain out of fire even before the permission is granted. Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab Methodology Is Methodology Of Khawarij: We have established that the verse 39:3 is referring to the Awliyah of polytheists and Quran establishes the Awliyah of polytheists were idol-gods. The verse 10:18 was revealed about the polytheists who contended with Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) about Tawheed and instead of believing in One-ness of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) the polytheists believed in many gods and worshipped these many gods and believed these gods will be their intercessors to Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). In a nutshell, it can be said this verse too was revealed regarding the polytheists and their gods. The verse 2:254 can be interpreted differently and both interpretations are valid. One interpretation is, that the verse refers to polytheists and disbelievers in general not having any intercessor in court of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). The second interpretation is; Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) will not be able to intercede for the disbelievers if they are sent to hellfire due to their bad deeds out weighing the good ones, until Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is granted the permission to intercede. Now, Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab quoted verses which were revealed regarding the disbelievers and their idol-gods and applied these verses to Muslims of his time. With exception to 2:254 which can be interpreted differently all other verses definitely and certainly referred to non-Muslims. The only verse which can be interpreted in context of Muslims was quoted to establish that for Muslims there are no intercessors with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) establishes that for Muslims there are intercessors. Hazrat Abdullah Ibn Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) stated about the people who employ the methodology like of Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab: “... and the Mulhidun (heretical) after the establishment of firm proof against them: "And the statement of Allah: 'Allah will not mislead a people after He has guided them, until He makes clear to them what to avoid.' [9:115] And Ibn Umar used to consider them (the Khawarij and the Mulhidun) the worst of Allah's creatures and said: …” Why he considered them as the worst in the creation of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is also explained: "These people took some verses that had been revealed concerning the disbelievers and interpreted them as describing the believers.” [Ref: Bukhari, Volume 9, Page 49, Chapter 6: Qatal Al Khawarij] This is the nature of Khawarij to describe the believers as disbelievers and interpret the verses which revealed regarding disbelievers in such a fashion that they describe believers. This methodology is a heretical innovation and anyone who employs it and applies understanding of such verses upon Muslims saying; these verses describe your belief, is from the heretics/innovators and from the people who will enter the fire. Conclusion: From the Tafsir of the verses it is established that polytheists do not have and will not have any intercessors with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). The primary reason for this is; they have taken idols as gods and attributed them to be partners of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and it was these attributed god-partners which the Mushrikeen believed will be their intercessors. In contrast to polytheists we the Muslims believe Prophets and pious Muslims are our intercessors as servants of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and not because of being god-partners with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). We also believe Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has granted them the permission to intercede on behalf of believers. Hence in light of this, the prohibited intercession is one which is sought from a idol-god instead of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and the permitted intercession is, which is sought from a creation of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) while affirming creed of Tawheed. Also the methodology which Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab employed is innovation of Khawarij. As a result of his methodology he is from these people, the worst people in creation of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and those who follow him in creed and in methodology are also from his sect of Khawarij. Wama Alayna Ilal Balaghul Mubeen. Muhammed Ali Razavi