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mzeeshanimtiaz

Biddat E Hassana Aor Amam Malik

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(bis)

kia mein ne oper jo post ki ha wo haqeeqat mein Amam Malik (رحمتہ اللہ علیہ) ka qol ha ?

iss qol k sache ye jhoote hone k mutalik kuch bayan kr dei

agar ye qol sacha ha tw Amam Malik (رحمتہ اللہ علیہ) ne phir aesa kyu kaha ha?

Edited by mzeeshanimtiaz

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(bis)


 


اس اعتراض کے دو جوابات ہیں۔ اول الزامی، دوم تحقیقی۔ الزامی جواب محترم توحیدی بھائی دے چکے ہیں۔ تحقیقی جواب نیچے دیا جاتا ہے۔


 


آپ نے جس قول کا حوالہ دیا ہے وہ کتاب الاعتصام کا ہے۔ عربی عبارت ملاحظہ ہو۔


 


قال ابن الماجشون: سمعت مالكا يقول: من ابتدع في الإسلام بدعة يراها حسنة، زعم أن محمدا صلى الله عليه وسلم خان الرسالة، لأن الله يقول: (اليوم أكملت لكم دينكم) فما لم يكن يومئذ دينا، فلا يكون اليوم دينا


 


یہاں اس قول کی کوئی سند موجود نہیں ہے۔ یہی امام مالک رحمۃ اللہ علیہ کا قول کچھ الفاظ کے فرق سے ابن حزم نے اپنی کتاب الاحکام في اصول الاحکام میں بمع سند نقل کیا ہے۔ عربی عبارت ملاحظہ ہو۔


 


حدثنا أحمد بن عمر بن أنس ثنا الحسين بن يعقوب ثنا سعيد بن فحلون ثنا يونس بن يحيى المفامي ثنا عبد الملك بن حبيب أخبرني بن الماجشون أنه قال قال مالك بن أنس من أحدث في هذه الأمة اليوم شيئا لم يكن عليه سلفها فقد زعم أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم خان الرسالة لأن الله تعالى يقول: (اليوم أكملت لكم دينكم وأتممت عليكم نعمتي ورضيت لكم لأسلام دينا) فما لم يكن يومئذ دينا لا يكون اليوم دينا


 

اب اس قول کی سند کو دیکھتے ہیں۔ اس قول میں عبد الملك بن حبیب القرطبی ضعیف ہیں۔ ابن حزم کے نزدیک وہ قابلِ اعتماد نہیں۔ حافظ ابو بکر نے انھیں ضعیف کہا ہے اور بعض نے ان پر جهوٹا ہونے کا الزام عائد کیا ہے۔ دیکھیئے لسان المیزان

 

مختصر یہ کہ یہ قول ضعیف ہے اور اس سے استدلال درست نہیں۔

 

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بدعت                                  

    بدعت کے لغوی معنی ہیں نئی چیزاصطلاح شریعت میں بدعت کہتے ہیں دین میں نیا کام جو ثواب کیلئے ایجاد کیا جائے اگر یہ کام خلاف دین ہو تو حرام ہے اور اگر اس کے خلاف نہ ہو تودرست یہ دونوں معنی قرآن شریف میں استعمال ہوئے ہیں۔
رب تعالیٰ فرماتا ہے۔

(1) بَدِیۡعُ السَّمٰوٰتِ وَالۡاَرْضِ ؕ

وہ اللہ آسمانوں اور زمین کا ایجاد فرمانے والا ہے ۔(پ1،البقرۃ:117)

(2)قُلْ مَا کُنۡتُ بِدْعًا مِّنَ الرُّسُلِ

فرمادو کہ میں انوکھا رسول نہیں ہوں۔ (پ26،الاحقاف:9)
    ان دونوں آیتو ں میں بدعت لغوی معنی میں استعمال ہوا ہے یعنی انوکھا نیا رب تعالیٰ فرماتا ہے :

 

وَ جَعَلْنَا فِیۡ قُلُوۡبِ الَّذِیۡنَ اتَّبَعُوۡہُ رَاۡفَۃً وَّ رَحْمَۃً ؕ وَ رَہۡبَانِیَّۃَۨ ابْتَدَعُوۡہَا مَا کَتَبْنٰہَا عَلَیۡہِمْ اِلَّا ابْتِغَآءَ رِضْوَانِ اللہِ فَمَا رَعَوْہَا حَقَّ رِعَایَتِہَا ۚ فَاٰتَیۡنَا الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا مِنْہُمْ اَجْرَہُمْ ۚ وَکَثِیۡرٌ مِّنْہُمْ فٰسِقُوۡنَ ﴿۲۷﴾

اور عیسیٰ علیہ السلام کے پیروؤں کے دل میں ہم نے نرمی اور رحمت رکھی اور ترک دنیا یہ بات جو انہوں نے دین میں اپنی طر ف سے نکالی ۔ ہم نے ان پر مقرر نہ کی تھی ہاں یہ بدعت انہوں نے اللہ کی رضا چاہنے کو پیدا کی پھر اسے نہ نباہا جیسا اس کے نباہنے کا حق تھا تو ان کے مومنوں کو ہم نے ان کا ثواب عطا کیا اور ان میں سے بہت سے فاسق ہیں۔(پ27،الحدید:27)
    اس آیت سے معلوم ہوا کہ عیسائیوں نے رہبانیت اور تارک الدنیا ہونا اپنی طر ف سے ایجاد کیا ۔ رب تعالیٰ نے ان کو اس کا حکم نہ دیا ۔ بد عت حسنہ کے طور پر انہوں نے یہ عبادت ایجاد کی اللہ تعالیٰ نے انہیں اس بدعت کا ثواب دیا مگر جو اسے نباہ نہ سکے یا جو ایمان سے پھر گئے وہ عذاب کے مستحق ہوگئے معلوم ہوا کہ دین میں نئی بدعتیں ایجاد کرنا جو دین کے خلاف نہ ہوں ثواب کا با عث ہیں مگر انہیں ہمیشہ کرنا چاہیے جیسے چھ کلمے ، نماز میں زبان سے نیت ،قرآن کے رکوع وغیرہ ،علم حدیث، محفل میلا د شریف ،اور ختم بزرگان، کہ یہ دینی چیزیں اگر چہ حضور صلی ا للہ تعالیٰ علیہ وآلہ وسلم کے زمانہ کے بعد ایجاد ہوئیں مگر چونکہ دین کے خلاف نہیں اور ان سے دینی فائدہ ہے لہٰذا باعث ثواب ہیں جیسا کہ احادیث سے ثابت ہے کہ جو اسلام میں اچھا طریقہ ایجاد کرے اسے بہت ثواب ہوگا ۔

 

بدعت آئمہ و محدثین کرام کی نظر میں                

 

امام محمد بن اِدریس بن عباس الشافعی رحمۃ اللہ علیہ (المتوفی 204ھ) امام بیہقی (المتوفی 458 ھ) نے اپنی سند کے ساتھ ’’مناقبِ شافعی‘‘ میں روایت کیا ہے کہ امام شافعی رحمۃ اللہ علیہ بدعت کی تقسیم ان الفاظ میں بیان کرتے ہیں :

1. المحدثات من الأمور ضربان : أحدهما ما أحدث مما يخالف کتاباً أوسنة أو اثرًا أو إجماعاً فهذه البدعة ضلالة، و الثانية ما أحدث من الخير لا خلاف فيه لواحد من هذا فهذه محدثة غير مذمومة، قد قال عمر رضي الله عنه في قيام رمضان نعمت البدعة هذه(1) يعني إِنَّها محدثة لم تکن و إِذا کانت ليس فيها ردُّ لما مضي. (2)

’’محدثات میں دو قسم کے امور شامل ہیں : پہلی قسم میں تو وہ نئے امور ہیں جو قرآن و سنت یا اثر صحابہ یا اجماع امت کے خلاف ہوں وہ بدعت ضلالہ ہے، اور دوسری قسم میں وہ نئے امور ہیں جن کو بھلائی کے لیے انجام دیا جائے اور کوئی ان میں سے کسی (امرِ شریعت) کی مخالفت نہ کرتا ہو پس یہ امور یعنی نئے کام محدثہ غیر مذمومۃ ہیں۔ اسی لیے حضرت عمر فاروق رضی اللہ عنہ نے رمضان میں تراویح کے قیام کے موقع پر فرمایا تھا کہ ’’یہ کتنی اچھی بدعت ہے یعنی یہ ایک ایسا محدثہ ہے جو پہلے نہ تھا اور اگر یہ پہلے ہوتا تو پھر مردود نہ ہوتا۔‘‘

1. مالک، المؤطا، باب ما جاء في قيام رمضان، 1 / 114، رقم : 250
2. بيهقي، شعب الايمان، 3 / 177، رقم : 3269
3. سيوطي، تنوير الحوالک شرح مؤطا مالک، 1 / 105، رقم : 250
4. ابن رجب حنبلي، جامع العلوم والحکم، 1 / 266
5. زرقاني، شرح الزرقاني علي موطا الامام مالک، 1 / 340


1. بيهقي، المدخل الي السنن الکبريٰ، 1 : 206
2. ذهبي، سير أعلام النبلاء، 8 : 408
3. نووي، تهذيب الاسماء واللغات، 3 : 21

علامہ ابن رجب حنبلی (795ھ) اپنی کتاب ’’جامع العلوم والحکم‘‘ میں تقسیمِ بدعت کے تناظر میں اِمام شافعی کے حوالے سے مزید لکھتے ہیں :

2. وقد روي الحافظ أبو نعيم بإسناد عن إبراهيم ابن الجنيد قال : سمعت الشافعي يقول : البدعة بدعتان : بدعة محمودة و بدعة مذمومة، فما وافق السنة فهو محمود، وما خالف السنة فهو مذموم. واحتجّ بقول عمر رضي الله عنه : نعمت البدعة هي. (1) و مراد الشافعي رضي الله عنه ما ذکرناه من قبل أن أصل البدعة المذمومة ما ليس لها أصل في الشريعة ترجع إليه و هي البدعة في إطلاق الشرع. وأما البدعة المحمودة فما وافق السنة : يعني ما کان لها أصل من السنة ترجع إليه، و إنما هي بدعة لغة لا شرعا لموافقتها السنة. وقد روي عن الشافعي کلام آخر يفسر هذا و أنه قال : المحدثات ضربان : ما أحدث مما يخالف کتابا أو سنة أو أثرا أو إجماعا فهذه البدعة الضلالة، وما أحدث فيه من الخير لا خلاف فيه لواحد من هذا و هذه محدثة غير مذمومة، و کثير من الأمور التي أحدثت ولم يکن قد اختلف العلماء في أنها بدعة حسنة حتي ترجع إلي السنة أم لا. فمنها کتابة الحديث نهي عنه عمر وطائفة من الصحابة و رخص فيها الأکثرون واستدلوا له بأحاديث من السنة. ومنها کتابة تفسير الحديث والقرآن کرهه قوم من العلماء و رخص فيه کثير منهم. وکذلک اختلافهم في کتابة الرأي في الحلال والحرام و نحوه. و في توسعة الکلام في المعاملات و أعمال القلوب التي لم تنقل عن الصحابة والتابعين. (2)

1. مالک، المؤطا، باب ما جاء في قيام رمضان، 1 / 114، رقم : 250
2. بيهقي، شعب الايمان، 3 / 177، رقم : 3269
3. سيوطي، تنوير الحوالک شرح موطا مالک، 1 / 105، رقم : 250
4. ابن رجب حنبلي، جامع العلوم والحکم، 1 / 266
5. زرقاني، شرح الزرقاني علي موطا الامام مالک، 1 / 340


ابن رجب حنبلي، جامع العلوم والحکم : 4 - 253

’’حافظ ابو نعیم نے ابراہیم بن جنید کی سند سے روایت کرتے ہوئے کہا ہے کہ میں نے امام شافعی رحمۃ اللہ علیہ کو یہ کہتے ہوئے سنا کہ بدعت کی دو قسمیں ہیں۔

1۔ بدعت محمودہ
2۔ بدعت مذمومۃ

جو بدعت سنت کے مطابق و موافق ہو وہ محمودہ ہے اور جو سنت کے مخالف و متناقض ہو وہ مذموم ہے اور انہوں نے حضرت عمر فاروق رضی اللہ عنہ کے قول (نعمت البدعۃ ھذہ) کو دلیل بنایا ہے اور امام شافعی رحمۃ اللہ علیہ کی مراد بھی یہی ہے جو ہم نے اس سے پہلے بیان کی ہے بے شک بدعت مذمومہ وہ ہے جس کی کوئی اصل اور دلیل شریعت میں نہ ہو جس کی طرف یہ لوٹتی ہے اور اسی پر بدعت شرعی کا اطلاق ہوتا ہے اور بدعت محمودہ وہ بدعت ہے جو سنت کے موافق ہے یعنی اس کی شریعت میں اصل ہو جس کی طرف یہ لوٹتی ہو اور یہی بدعت لغوی ہے شرعی نہیں ہے اور امام شافعی رحمۃ اللہ علیہ سے دوسری دلیل اس کی وضاحت پر یہ ہے کہ امام شافعی رحمۃ اللہ علیہ نے فرمایا کہ محدثات کی دو اقسام ہیں پہلی وہ بدعت جو کتاب و سنت، اثر صحابہ اور اجماع اُمت کے خلاف ہو یہ بدعت ضلالہ ہے اور ایسی ایجاد جس میں خیر ہو اور وہ ان چیزوں (یعنی قرآن و سنت، اثر اور اجماع) میں سے کسی کے خلاف نہ ہو تو یہ بدعتِ غیر مذمومہ ہے اور بہت سارے امور ایسے ہیں جو ایجاد ہوئے جو کہ پہلے نہ تھے جن میں علماء نے اختلاف کیا کہ کیا یہ بدعت حسنہ ہے۔ یہاں تک کہ وہ سنت کی طرف لوٹے یا نہ لوٹے اور ان میں سے کتابت حدیث ہے جس سے حضرت عمر فاروق رضی اللہ عنہ اور صحابہ کے ایک گروہ نے منع کیا ہے اور اکثر نے اس کی اجازت دی اور استدلال کے لیے انہوں نے کچھ احادیث سنت سے پیش کی ہیں اور اسی میں سے قرآن اور حدیث کی تفسیر کرنا جس کو قوم کے کچھ علماء نے ناپسند کیا ہے اور ان میں سے کثیر علماء نے اس کی اجازت دی ہے۔ اور اسی طرح حلال و حرام اور اس جیسے معاملات میں اپنی رائے سے لکھنے میں علماء کا اختلاف ہے اور اسی طرح معاملات اور دل کی باتیں جو کہ صحابہ اور تابعین سے صادر نہ ہوئی ہوں ان کے بارے میں گفتگو کرنے میں بھی علماء کا اختلاف ہے۔‘‘

(2) اِمام ابو عبداﷲ محمد بن احمد القرطبی رحمۃ اللہ علیہ (المتوفی 380ھ) معروف مفسرِ قرآن اِمام ابو عبداﷲ محمدبن احمد قرطبی بدعت کی مختلف اقسام بیان کرتے ہوئے اپنی معروف تفسیر ’’الجامع لاحکام القرآن‘‘ میں فرماتے ہیں :

3. کل بِدعة صدرت من مخلوق فلا يخلو أن يکون لها أصل في الشرع أولا؛ فإن کان لها أصل کانت واقعة تحت عموم ما ندب اﷲ إليه و حضّ رسوله عليه؛ فهي في حيز المدح. وإن لم يکن مثاله موجودا کنوع من الجود والسخاء و فعل المعروف؛ فهذا فعله من الأفعال المحمودة، وإن لم يکن الفاعل قد سبق إليه. و يعْضُدْ هذا قول عمر رضی الله عنه : نعمت البدعة هذه؛ لما کانت من أفعال الخير و داخلة في حيز المدح، وهي وإن کان النبي صلي الله عليه وآله وسلم قد صلاها إلا أنه ترکها ولم يحافظ عليها، ولا جمع الناس عليها؛ فمحافظة عمر رضی الله عنه، عليها وجمع الناس لها، وندبهم إليها، بدعة لکنها بدعة محمودة ممدوحة. وإن کانت في خلاف ما أمرﷲ به ورسوله فهي في حيّز الذم والإنکار؛ قال معناه الخطابي و غيره

قلت : وهو معني قوله صلي الله عليه وآله وسلم في خطبته : ’’وشَرُّ الأمور محدثاتها وکل بدعة ضلالة‘‘(1) يريد مالم يوافق کتابا أو سنة، أو عمل الصحابة رضي اﷲ عنهم، وقد بين هذا بقوله : ’’مَنْ سَنّ فِي الإسلام سُنَّة حسنة کان له أجرها و أجر من عمل بها من بعده من غير أن ينقص من أجورهم شيء ومَن سنّ في الإسلام سُنَّة سيئة کان عليه وزرُها ووزر من عمل بها من بعده من غير أن ينقص من أوزارهم شيئ‘‘. (2) وهذا إشارة إلي ما ابتدع من قبيح و حسن.(3)

’’ہر بدعت جو مخلوق سے صادر ہوتی ہے دوحالتوں سے خالی نہیں ہوتی وہ یہ کہ اس کی اصل شریعت میں ہوتی ہے یا نہیں اگر اس کی اصل شریعت میں ہو تو پھر وہ لازمی طور پر عموم کے تحت واقع ہوگی جس کو اﷲ تعاليٰ نے مستحب قرار دیا ہے اور رسول اﷲ صلی اللہ علیہ وآلہ وسلم نے اس حکم پر برانگیختہ کیا ہو پس یہ بدعت مقامِ مدح میں ہوگی اور اگر ان کی مثال پہلے سے موجود نہ ہو جیسے جود و سخاء وغیرہ کی اقسام اور معروف کام تو ایسے امور کا سر انجام دینا افعال محمودہ میں سے ہے چاہے کسی نے یہ کام پہلے نہ کئے ہوں اور یہ عمل حضرت عمر فاروق رضی اللہ عنہ کے قول، ’’ نعمت البدعۃ ہذہ‘‘ کو تقویت دیتا ہے جو کہ اچھے کاموں میں سے تھی اور وہ محمود کاموں میں داخل ہیں اور وہ یہ ہے کہ بے شک نبی اکرم صلی اللہ علیہ وآلہ وسلم نے نماز تراویح کو پڑھا تھا مگر آپ نے اسے (باجماعت) ترک کر دیا اور اس کی محافظت نہیں فرمائی اور نہ ہی لوگوں کو اس کے لئے جمع کیا پس (بعد میں مصلحت وقت کے تحت) حضرت عمر رضی اللہ عنہ نے اس (نمازِ تراویح) کی محافظت کی اور لوگوں کو اس کے لئے جمع کیا اور انہوں نے لوگوں کو اس کی ترغیب دی تو وہ بدعت ہوئی لیکن بدعت محمودہ اور ممدوحہ ہے اور اگر وہ بدعت اﷲ اور اس کے رسول صلی اللہ علیہ وآلہ وسلم کے احکام کے خلاف ہو تو وہ مقام ذم میں ہوگی اور یہ معنی خطابی اور دیگر نے بھی کیا ہے تو امام قرطبی کہتے ہیں کہ میں نے کہا کہ وہی معنی آقا علیہ السلام کے خطبہ سے بھی ثابت ہے جیسا کہ آپ صلی اللہ علیہ وآلہ وسلم نے ارشاد فرمایا ’’وشرالامور محدثاتہا و کل بدعۃ ضلالۃ‘‘ اور اس سے مراد وہ کام ہے جو کتاب و سنت اور عمل صحابہ کے موافق نہ ہو اور یہ بات آپ صلی اللہ علیہ وآلہ وسلم کے اس قول سے بھی واضح ہوتی ہے کہ ’’جس نے اسلام میں کسی اچھی چیز کی ابتداء کی اس کو اپنا اجر بھی ملے گا اور اس کے بعد جو لوگ اس کام کو کریں گے ان کے عمل کا اجر بھی اسے ملے گا اور ان کے اجر میں ذرّہ برابر بھی کمی نہیں ہوگی اور جس کسی نے اسلام میں کسی بری چیز کی ابتداء کی تو اس پر اپنی برائی کا وبال بھی ہوگا اور اس کے بعد اس پر عمل کرنے والوں کی برائی کا وبال بھی اس پر ہوگا اور ان کے وبال میں سے کوئی کمی نہ کی جائے گی‘‘ اور یہ اشارہ اس کی طرف ہے جس نے کسی اچھے یا برے کام کی ابتداء کی۔

1. ابن ماجه، السنن، باب اجتناب البدع الجدل، 1 / 18، رقم : 46
2. ابن حبان، الصحيح، 1 / 186، رقم : 10
3. طبراني، المعجم الکبير، 9 / 96، رقم : 8518
4. ابويعلي، المسند، 4 / 85، رقم : 2111
5. ديلمي، المسند الفردوس، 1 / 380، رقم : 1529


1. مسلم، الصحيح، 2 : 705، کتاب الزکوٰة، باب الحث علي الصدقه، رقم : 1017
2. نسائي، السنن، 5 : 55، 56، کتاب الزکاة، باب التحريض علي الصدقه، رقم : 2554
3. ابن ماجه، السنن، 1 : 74، مقدمة، باب سن سنة حسنة أو سيئة، رقم : 203
4. احمد بن حنبل، المسند، 4 : 357 - 359
5. ابن حبان، الصحيح، 8 : 101، 102، رقم : 3308


قرطبي، الجامع لأحکام القرآن، 2 : 87

(3) اِمام علی بن اَحمد ابن حزم الاندلسی رحمۃ اللہ علیہ (456 ھ) اِمام ابن حزم اندلسی اپنی کتاب ’’الاحکام فی اُصول الاحکام‘‘ میں بدعت کی تعریف اور تقسیم بیان کرتے ہوئے رقمطراز ہیں :

4. والبدعة کل ما قيل أو فعل مما ليس له أصل فيما نسب إليه صلي الله عليه وآله وسلم و هو في الدين کل مالم يأت في القرآن ولا عن رسول اﷲ صلي الله عليه وآله وسلم إلا أن منها ما يؤجر عليه صاحبه و يعذر بما قصد إليه من الخير و منها ما يؤجر عليه صاحبه و يکون حسنا و هو ماکان أصله الإباحة کما روي عن عمر رضي الله عنه نعمت البدعة هذه(1) و هو ما کان فعل خير جاء النص بعموم استحبابه و إن لم يقرر عمله في النص و منها ما يکون مذموما ولا يعذر صاحبه و هو ما قامت به الحجة علي فساده فتمادي عليه القائل به. (2)

’’بدعت ہر اس قول اور فعل کو کہتے ہیں جس کی دین میں کوئی اصل یا دلیل نہ ہو اور اس کی نسبت حضور نبی اکرم صلی اللہ علیہ وآلہ وسلم کی طرف کی جائے لہٰذا دین میں ہر وہ بات بدعت ہے جس کی بنیاد کتاب و سنت پر نہ ہو مگر جس نئے کام کی بنیاد خیر پر ہو تو اس کے کرنے والے کو اس کے اِرادئہ خیر کی وجہ سے اَجر دیا جاتا ہے اور یہ بدعتِ حسنہ ہوتی ہے اور یہ ایسی بدعت ہے جس کی اصل اباحت ہے۔ جس طرح کہ حضرت عمر فاروق رضی اللہ عنہ کا نعمت البدعۃ ہذہ قول ہے۔ اور یہ وہی اچھا عمل تھا جس کے مستحب ہونے پر نص وارد ہوئی اگرچہ پہلے اس فعل پر صراحتاً نص نہیں تھی اور ان (بدعات) میں سے بعض افعال مذموم ہوتے ہیں لہٰذا اس کے عامل کو معذور نہیں سمجھا جاتا اور یہ ایسا فعل ہوتا ہے جس کے ناجائز ہونے پر دلیل قائم ہوتی ہے اور اس کا قائل اس پر سختی سے عامل ہوتا ہے۔‘‘

1. مالک، المؤطا، باب ما جاء في قيام رمضان، 1 / 114، رقم : 250
2. بيهقي، شعب الايمان، 3 / 177، رقم : 3269
3. سيوطي، تنوير الحوالک شرح مؤطا مالک، 1 / 105، رقم : 250
4. ابن رجب حنبلي، جامع العلوم والحکم، 1 / 266


ابن حزم الاندلسي، الاحکام في اُصول الاحکام، 1 : 47

(4) اِمام ابوبکر احمد بن حسین البیہقی رحمۃ اللہ علیہ (458 ھ) امام ابوبکر احمد بن حسین البیہقی اپنی کتاب ’’المدخل الی السنن الکبريٰ‘‘ میں ربیع بن سلیمان سے روایت کرتے ہیں کہ :

5. قال الشافعي رضي الله عنه المحدثات من الأمور ضربان : أحدهما ما أحدث مما يخالف کتاباً أوسنة أو اثرًا أو إجماعاً فهذه البدعة ضلالة، و الثانية ما أحدث من الخير لا خلاف فيه لواحد من هذا فهذه محدثة غير مذمومة، قد قال عمر رضي الله عنه في قيام رمضان نعمت البدعة هذه(1) يعني إِنَّها محدثة لم تکن و إِذا کانت ليس فيها ردُّ لما مضي. (2)

’’محدثات میں دو قسم کے امور شامل ہیں : پہلی قسم میں تو وہ نئے امور ہیں جو قرآن و سنت یا اثر صحابہ یا اجماع امت کے خلاف ہوں وہ بدعت ضلالہ ہے، اور دوسری قسم میں وہ نئے امور ہیں جن کو بھلائی کے لیے انجام دیا جائے اور کوئی ان میں سے کسی (امرِ شریعت) کی مخالفت نہ کرتا ہو پس یہ امور محدثہ غیر مذمومۃ ہیں۔ اسی لیے حضرت عمر فاروق رضی اللہ عنہ نے رمضان میں تراویح کے قیام کے موقع پر فرمایا تھا کہ ’’یہ کتنی اچھی بدعت ہے۔ یعنی یہ ایک ایسا محدثہ یعنی نیا عمل ہے جو پہلے نہ تھا اور اگر یہ پہلے ہوتا تو پھر مردود نہ ہوتا۔‘‘

1. مالک، المؤطا، باب ما جاء في قيام رمضان، 1 / 114، رقم : 250
2. بيهقي، شعب الايمان، 3 / 177، رقم : 3269
3. سيوطي، تنوير الحوالک شرح مؤطا مالک، 1 / 105، رقم : 250
4. ابن رجب حنبلي، جامع العلوم والحکم، 1 / 266
5. زرقاني، شرح الزرقاني علي مؤطا الامام مالک، 1 / 340


1. بيهقي، المدخل الي السنن الکبري، 1 : 206
2. ذهبي، سير أعلام النبلاء، 8 : 408
3. نووي، تهذيب الاسماء واللغات، 3 : 21

(5) اِمام ابو حامد محمد بن محمد الغزالی رحمۃ اللہ علیہ (المتوفی 505ھ) امام ابوحامد محمد بن محمد غزالی رحمۃ اللہ علیہ اپنی کتاب’’احیاء علوم الدین‘‘ میں بدعت کے حوالے سے رقمطراز ہیں :

6. فليس کل ما أبدع منهيا بل المنهي بدعة تضاد سُنة ثابتة و ترفع أمرا من الشرع مع بقاء علته بل الابداع قد يجب في بعض الاحوال إذا تغيرت الأسباب وليس في المائدة إلا رفع الطعام عن الأرض لتيسير الأکل و أمثال ذلک مما لا کراهة فيه. والأربع التي جمعت في أنها مبدعة ليست متساوية بل الأشنان حسن لما فيه من النظافة فإن الغسل مستحب للنظافة والأشنان أتم في التنظيف، وکانوا لا يستعملونه لأنه ربما کان لا يعتاد عندهم أو لا يتيسر، أو کانوا مشغولين بأمور أهم من المبالغة في النظافة فقد کانوا لا يغسلون اليد أيضا، وکانت مناديلهم أخمص أقدامهم وذلک لا يمنع کون الغسل مستحبا. و أما المنخل فالمقصود منه تطييب الطعام وذلک مباح مالم ينته إلي التنعم المفرط. و أما المائدة فتيسير للأکل و هو أيضا مباح مالم ينته إلي الکبر والتعاظم. و أما الشبع فهو أشد هذه الأربعة فإنه يدعو إلي تهييج الشهوات و تحريک الأدواء في البدن فلتدرک التفرقة بين هذه البدعات.

’’ہر بدعت ممنوع نہیں ہوتی بلکہ ممنوع صرف بدعت وہ ہوتی ہے جو سنتِ ثابتہ سے متضاد ہو اور اس سنت کی علت کے ہوتے ہوئے اَمرِ شریعت کو اٹھادے (مزید برآں) بعض احوال میں جب اسباب متغیر ہوجائیں تو بدعت واجب ہوجاتی ہے اور بلند دسترخوان میں یہی بات تو ہے کہ کھانے کی آسانی کے لیے کھانے کو زمین سے بلند کیا جاتا ہے اور اس قسم کے کاموں میں کراہت نہیں ہوتی۔ جن چار باتوں کو جمع کیا گیا کہ یہ بدعت ہیں تو یہ سب برابر بھی نہیں ہیں بلکہ اُشنان (ایک بوٹی جو صفائی کے کام آتی ہے) اچھی چیز ہے کیونکہ اس میں نظافت ہے کیونکہ پاکیزگی حاصل کرنے کے لیے غسل مستحب ہے اور اُشنان اس نظافت کو مکمل کرتی ہے اور وہ لوگ اس لیے استعمال نہیں کرتے تھے کہ ان کی عادت نہیں تھی یا انہیں حاصل نہیں ہوتی تھی۔ یا وہ نظافت سے زیادہ اہمیت کے کاموں میں مشغول ہوتے تھے بعض اوقات وہ ہاتھ بھی نہیں دھوتے تھے اور ان کے رومال پاؤں کے تلوے ہوتے تھے (یعنی پاؤں کے تلوؤں سے ہاتھ صاف کرلیتے تھے) اور یہ عمل، دھونے کے استحباب کے خلاف نہیں، چھلنی سے مقصود کھانے کو صاف کرنا ہوتا ہے اور یہ جائز ہے جب تک حد سے متجاوز عیاشی کی طرف نہ لے جائے۔ اونچے دسترخوان سے چونکہ کھانا کھانے میں آسانی ہوتی ہے لہٰذا یہ بھی جائز ہے جب تک تکبر اور بڑائی پیدا نہ کرے شکم سیری ان چاروں میں سے زیادہ سخت ہے کیونکہ اس سے خواہشات ابھرتی ہیں اور بدن میں بیماریاں پیدا ہوتی ہیں تو ان چاروں بدعات میں فرق معلوم ہونا چاہے۔‘‘

غزالي، إحياء علوم الدين، 2 : 3

(6) اِمام مبارک بن محمد ابن اثیر الجزری رحمۃ اللہ علیہ (المتوفی 606ھ) علامہ ابن اثیر جزری حدیثِ عمر ’’نعمت البدعۃ ھذہ‘‘ (بخاری، رقم : 1906) کے تحت بدعت کی اقسام اور ان کا شرعی مفہوم بیان کرتے ہوئے لکھتے ہیں :

7. البدعة بدعتان : بدعة هدًي، و بدعة ضلال، فما کان في خلاف ما أمر اﷲ به و رسوله صلي الله عليه وآله وسلم فهو في حيز الذّم والإنکار، وما کان واقعا تحت عموم ما ندب اﷲ إليه و حضَّ عليه اﷲ أو رسوله فهو في حيز المدح، وما لم يکن له مثال موجود کنوع من الجود والسخاء و فعل المعروف فهو من الأفعال المحمودة، ولا يجوز أن يکون ذلک في خلاف ما ورد الشرع به؛ لأن النبي صلي الله عليه وآله وسلم قد جعل له في ذلک ثوابا فقال من سنّ سُنة حسنة کان له أجرها و أجر من عمل بها وقال في ضِدّه ومن سنّ سنة سيّئة کان عليه وزرُها ووِزرُ من عمل بها(1) وذلک إذا کان في خلاف ما أمر اﷲ به ورسوله صلي الله عليه وآله وسلم ومن هذا النوع قول عمر رضی الله عنه : نِعمت البدعة هذه(2). لمَّا کانت من أفعال الخير وداخلة في حيز المدح سماها بدعة ومدحها؛ لأن النبي صلي الله عليه وآله وسلم لم يسُنَّها لهم، و إنما صلّاها ليالي ثم ترکها ولم يحافظ عليها، ولا جمع الناس لها، ولا کانت في زمن أبي بکر، وإنما عمر رضی الله عنه جمع الناس عليها و ندبهم إليها، فبهذا سمّاها بدعة، وهي علي الحقيقة سُنَّة، لقوله صلي الله عليه وآله وسلم (عليکم بِسُنَّتي و سنَّة الخلفاء الراشدين من بعدي)(3) وقوله (اقتدوا باللذين من بعدي أبي بکر و عمر)(4) و علي هذا التأويل يحمل الحديث الآخر (کل مُحْدَثة بدعة) إنما يريد ما خالف أصول الشريعة ولم يوافق السُّنَّة(5).

’’بدعت کی دو قسمیں ہیں، بدعت حسنہ اور بدعت سیئہ. جو کام اللہ اور اس کے رسول صلی اللہ علیہ وآلہ وسلم کے احکام کے خلاف ہو وہ مذموم اور ممنوع ہے، اور جو کام کسی ایسے عام حکم کا فرد ہو جس کو اللہ تعاليٰ نے مستحب قرار دیا ہو یا اللہ تعاليٰ اور رسول اللہ صلی اللہ علیہ وآلہ وسلم نے اس حکم پر برانگیختہ کیا ہو اس کام کا کرنا محمود ہے اور جن کاموں کی مثال پہلے موجود نہ ہو جیسے سخاوت کی اقسام اور دوسرے نیک کام، وہ اچھے کام ہیں بشرطیکہ وہ خلاف شرع نہ ہوں کیونکہ رسول اللہ صلی اللہ علیہ وآلہ وسلم نے ایسے کاموں پر ثواب کی بشارت دی ہے۔ آپ صلی اللہ علیہ وآلہ وسلم نے فرمایا : ’’جس شخص نے اچھے کام کی ابتداء کی اس کو اپنا اجر بھی ملے گا اور جو لوگ اس کام کو کریں گے ان کے عمل کا اجر بھی ملے گا اور اس کے برعکس جو برے کام کی ابتداء کرے گا اس کے بارے میں آپ صلی اللہ علیہ وآلہ وسلم نے فرمایا : جس شخص نے برے کام کی ابتداء کی اس پر اپنی برائی کا وبال بھی ہو گا اور جو اس برائی کو کریں گے ان کا وبال بھی اس پر ہو گا اور یہ اس صورت میں ہے جب وہ کام اللہ تعاليٰ اور اس کے رسول صلی اللہ علیہ وآلہ وسلم کے احکام کے خلاف ہو اور اِسی قسم یعنی بدعتِ حسنہ کے بارے میں سیدنا عمر فاروق رضی اللہ عنہ کا یہ قول ’’نعمت البدعۃ ھذہ‘‘ ہے پس جب کوئی کام افعالِ خیر میں سے ہو اور مقام مدح میں داخل ہو تو اسے لغوی اعتبار سے بدعت کہا جائے گا مگر اس کی تحسین کی جائے گی کیونکہ حضور نبی اکرم صلی اللہ علیہ وآلہ وسلم نے باجماعت نماز تراویح کو ان کے لئے مسنون قرار نہیں دیا۔ آپ صلی اللہ علیہ وآلہ وسلم نے چند راتیں اس کو پڑھا پھر باجماعت پڑھنا ترک کر دیا اور اس پر آپ صلی اللہ علیہ وآلہ وسلم نے نہ محافظت فرمائی اور نہ ہی لوگوں کو اس کے لئے جمع کیا، بعد میں نہ ہی یہ صدیق اکبر رضی اللہ عنہ کے دور میں باجماعت پڑھی گئی پھر سیدنا عمر فاروق رضی اللہ عنہ نے لوگوں کو اس پر جمع کیا اور ان کو اس کی طرف متوجہ کیا پس اس وجہ سے اس کو بدعت کہا گیا درآں حالیکہ یہ حضور صلی اللہ علیہ وآلہ وسلم کے اس قول ’’علیکم بسنّتی و سنۃ الخلفاء الراشدین من بعدی‘‘ اور اس قول’’اقتدوا باللذین من بعدی ابی بکر و عمر‘‘ کی وجہ سے حقیقت میں سنت ہے پس اس تاویل کی وجہ سے حدیث ’’کل محدثۃ بدعۃ‘‘ کو اصول شریعت کی مخالفت اور سنت کی عدم موافقت پر محمول کیا جائے گا۔

1. مسلم، الصحيح، 2 : 705، کتاب الزکوٰة، باب الحث علي الصدقه، رقم : 1017
2. نسائي، السنن، 5 : 55، 56، کتاب الزکاة، باب التحريض علي الصدقه، رقم : 2554
3. ابن ماجه، السنن، 1 : 74، مقدمة، باب سن سنة حسنة أو سيئة، رقم : 203
4. احمد بن حنبل، المسند، 4 : 357. 359
5. دارمي، السنن، 1 : 141، رقم : 514


1. مالک، المؤطا، باب ما جاء في قيام رمضان، 1 / 114، رقم : 250
2. بيهقي، شعب الايمان، 3 / 177، رقم : 3269
3. سيوطي، تنوير الحوالک شرح مؤطا مالک، 1 / 105، رقم : 250


1. ابوداؤد، السنن، 4 : 200، کتاب السنة، باب في لزوم السنة، رقم : 4607
2. ترمذي، الجامع الصحيح، 5 : 44، کتاب العلم، باب ما جاء في الأخذ بالسنة، رقم : 2676
3. ابن ماجه، السنن، مقدمه، باب اتباع السنة الخلفاء الراشدين، 1 : 15، رقم : 42
4. احمد بن حنبل، المسند، 4 : 126


1. ترمذي، الجامع الصحيح، کتاب المناقب عن الرسول صلي الله عليه وآله وسلم ، باب مناقب ابي بکر و عمر، 5 / 609، رقم : 3662
2. ابن ماجه، السنن، باب في فضل اصحاب رسول اﷲ صلي الله عليه وآله وسلم ، 1 / 37، رقم : 97
3. حاکم، المستدرک، 3 / 79، رقم : 4451


ابن أثير جزري، النهاية في غريب الحديث والأثر1 : 106

(7) اِمام عز الدین عبدالعزیز بن عبد السلام رحمۃ اللہ علیہ (660ھ)

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      Introduction:

      This article has been written in form of question and answer. These questions are product of my Wahhabi mind. Questions are fairly basic and get complex as the article progresses. After question nine Wahhabi side in me kicked in and asked really tough questions and Sunni side replied with best of my knowledge and ability. Objective was that someone with basic knowledge of subject of innovation can read this and use it as a spring board for further study into subject.
       
      Question And Answer Session:

      Q1: What is innovation?

      Answer: Linguistically anything newly invented is innovation. Technically anything not explicitly stated by name/label in neither Quran nor it was by taught by Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is innovation.

      Q2: Is there a Shar’ri definition of innovation as opposed to linguistic definition of innovation?

      Answer: Yes, there are Shar’ri definitions of innovations but these definitions depend on type of innovation.

      Q3: How many types of innovations are there?

      Answer: Islam divides innovations into two major categories; i) praiseworthy ii) and blameworthy. Praiseworthy innovation is permissible and blameworthy is prohibited.

      Q4: What are the definitions of these two types of innovations?

      Answer: The definition of praiseworthy innovation is as follows: Any innovated practice/custom which has implicit evidence from Quran/Hadith. Other side of praiseworthy innovation is: Any innovated practice/custom which is composed of acts of worship, charity, preaching, and other Sunnahs of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is praiseworthy innovation. Definition of blameworthy innovation is as follows: Anything innovated which does not have implicit evidence from Quran/Hadith. Other side of reprehensible innovation is: Any innovated practice/custom which is composed of Shirk, or Kufr, or engaging in Haram, or eating Haram, or any sinful activity is blameworthy innovation.

      Q5: What is implicit/indirect evidence in context of subject of innovation?

      Answer: Implicit/Indirect evidence fundamentally is corroborating activities in a custom/practice from Quran and Hadith. A properly corroborated practice/custom will be amalgamation of various Islamicly sanctioned practices.

      Q6: What type innovation is permissible?

      Answer: If an innovated practice is composed of, acts of worship, charity and other Islamicly sanctioned activities then it is permissible

      Q7: What type of innovation is prohibited?

      Answer: If an innovated practice is composed of acts which lead to Shirk/Kufr, engaging in or eating Haram and other sinful activities then the innovation is reprehensible.

      Q8: Will there be reward for engaging in praiseworthy innovations and punishment for blameworthy?

      Answer: Yes, there will be reward from Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) for engaging in praiseworthy innovations and punishment for acting upon blameworthy innovations.

      Q9: If an innovation is composed of islamicly sanctioned activities and Islamicly condemned activities then what would be the judgment regarding the innovation?

      Answer: The polytheists of Makkah performed Tawaf of Kabah naked and chanted a polytheistic Talbiyah. Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) instructed the companions to perform Tawaf with Ihram and corrected the Talbiyah to conform to Tawheed. Hence it would be appropriate to remove the aspects which contradict teaching of Islam and practice it with aspects which conform to teaching of Islam.

      Q10: Hadith indicates; every innovation is misguidance, [1] therefore Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) will not reward innovations/misguidance. Question is how can there be reward for [praiseworthy] innovation?

      Answer: Hadith of every innovation is misguidance is in context of misguiding innovation.[2] Misguiding innovations are those which contradicts teaching of Islam and every innovation which is composed of polytheistic, sinful, activities is [evil, reprehensible, blameworthy, erroneous, and] misguiding innovation. Reward is not based on the name of innovation but based on what it is composed of. Praiseworthy innovations are composed of Islamicly sanctioned activities such as Dua (i.e. supplication), Nawafil (i.e. optional prayers), Tilawah (i.e. recitation of Quran), Sadqah (i.e. optional charity), Bayanaat (i.e. speeches), and distribution of food to poor, family and friends. These are practices which are Sunnahs of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) hence reward is guaranteed. Engaging in these Sunnahs under a new name (i.e. Urs, Milad, and Khatam) does not make the practice of them a sinful activity.

      Q11: You have restricted the application of every invention is innovation [and] every innovation is misguidance, in context of blameworthy innovation. Is there any evidence for this interpretation of Hadith?

      Answer: The evidence for this Takhsees/interpretation is found in another Hadith where Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is reported to have said: “And whoever introduces a سُنَّةً سَيِّئَةً (i.e. reprehensible practice) that is followed, he will receive its sin and a burden of sin equivalent to that of those who follow it, without that detracting from their burden in the slightest.'" [Ref: Ibn Majah, B1, H203] In another Hadith the word innovation (i.e. bidda) is used: "And whoever introduces an ضَلاَلَةٍ بِدْعَةَ (i.e. reprehensible innovation) with which Allah is not pleased nor His Messenger then he shall receive sins similar to whoever acts upon it without that diminishing anything from the sins of the people.” [Ref: Tirmadhi, B29, H2677] Based on these Ahadith it is clear that Islam recognises blameworthy innovations/practices. Hence in the Hadith of every invention is innovation, every innovation is misguidance, Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) was stating about innovations which are Dhalalah/Say’yah. Only reprehensible innovations which are composed of Shirki/Kufri or sinful activities can earn displeasure of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and take the practitioner to hellfire.

      Q12: Is there evidence for the concept of ‘good innovation’ in religion of Islam?

      Answer: It has been narrated that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) said:  "Whoever introduces a good Sunnah (i.e. practice) that is followed, he will receive its reward and a reward equivalent to that of those who follow it, without that detracting from their reward in their slightest.” [Ref: Ibn Majah, B1, H203/209] In the Hadith recorded in Sahih Muslim Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is reported to have explicitly stated that one who introduces good Sunnah into religion of Islam, hadith: “He who introduced some good Sunnah (i.e. practice) in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] Note that in the above two Ahadith word Sunnah has been used but the meaning in context is obvious of innovation. To put it simply the Hadith means; he who introduced some good innovation into religion of Islam then the innovator and the followers would earn equal reward without their rewards being diminished in any way. There is Hadith in which Hazrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) gathered the companions under leadership of one Qari and remarked this was an excellent innovation: "I went out in the company of 'Umar bin Al-Khattab one night in Ramadan to the mosque and found the people praying in different groups. A man praying individually, or a man (i.e. Imam) praying with a small group behind him. So Umar said, in my opinion I would better collect these [people] under the leadership of one Qari. So, he made up his mind to congregate them behind Ubai bin Ka'b. Then on another night I went again in his company and the people were praying behind their reciter. On that, 'Umar remarked: هَذِهِ الْبِدْعَةُ نِعْمَ عُمَرُ قَالَ (i.e. What an excellent innovation this is) but the prayer which they do not perform, but sleep at its time is better than the one they are offering.' He meant the prayer in the last part of the night. [in those days] people used to pray in the early part of the night." [Ref: Bukhari, B32, H227] This statement of Hazrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) goes to establish that religion of Islam has place for praiseworthy innovations on basis of which he declared his innovation as excellent.

      Q13: Hadith records Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) stated regarding newly invented innovations: « من أحدث في أمرنا هذا ما ليس منه فهو ردٌّ» Translation: "Whoever innovates something in this matter of ours (i.e. Allah and RasoolAllah) that is not part of it, will have it rejected." [Ref: Muslim, B18, H4266] In another Hadith it is stated: « وَمَنْ عَمِلَ عَمَلًا لَيْسَ عَلَيْهِ أَمْرُنَا فَهُوَ رَدٌّ » Translation: “He who does an act which we (i.e. Allah and RasoolAllah) have not commanded, will have it rejected (by Allah).” [Ref: Muslim, B18, H4267] It is apparent from both these Ahadith that all ‘praiseworthy’ innovated practices will be rejected by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) yet you say they will be rewarded. Could you explain this contradiction?

      Answer: You have misunderstood the Ahadith of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). Suppose Yoga is made part of Islam as means of worshipping Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Would this be valid form of worship in religion of Islam? Will Yoga be accepted by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and rewarded? Yoga is not Islamicly accepted mode of worship nor it was sanctioned by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and whosoever worships Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) employing it, will have his worship rejected. Rejected on the basis that Yoga is not from the Sunnahs of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) nor it is from commandments of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Regarding which is not from commandments of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) nor from not his Sunnahs, Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has said: “He who does an act which we (i.e. Allah and RasoolAllah) have not commanded, will have it rejected (by Allah).” [Ref: Muslim, B18, H4267] "Whoever innovates something in this matter of ours (i.e. Allah and RasoolAllah) that is not part of it, will have it rejected." [Ref: Muslim, B18, H4266] Now coming to the praiseworthy innovated practices, as stated earlier are composed of acts of worship such as performing of optional prayers, recitation of Quran, supplication, and fasting. In addition, they consist of acts of charity, distribution of food, and are educational. All this is established from the Quran and Hadith, and many are Sunnahs of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) hence they will not be rejected and will be rewarded because these are good deeds. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) says: “Indeed, this Qur'an guides to that which is most suitable and gives good tidings to the believers who do righteous deeds that they will have a great reward.” [Ref: 17:9] “They believe in Allah and the Last Day, and they enjoin what is right and forbid what is wrong and hasten to good deeds. And those are among the righteous.” [Ref: 3:114] The Saliheen (i.e. righteous) are told of good return from Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala): “Those who have believed and done righteous deeds - a good state is theirs and a good return.” [Ref: 13:29] Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) states those who do good Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) will not darken their faces nor they will be humiliated and they are people of paradise: “For them who have done good is the best [reward] and extra. No darkness will cover their faces, nor humiliation. Those are companions of paradise; they will abide therein eternally.” [Ref: 10:26] The reward on good deeds is promised by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and he has promised entry into paradise for those who do good. The innovations which are composed of acts of worship, charity, Islamic education are good deeds and will be rewarded and will be accepted in light of Quranic teaching.

      Q14: If one abstains from praiseworthy innovated practices is one sinful?

      Answer: The innovated practices such as celebration of birthday of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam), wide range of Esal Al Sawab (i.e. sending of reward) practices, under various names/labels, all are optional. If one does not take part in them there is no blame of sin upon an individual.

      Q15: If one believes the indicated innovated practices are reprehensible is this sinful?

      Answer: Islam judges based on content and not on the label. These practices are made up of worship, charity and various other Sunnahs. Therefore to consider these practices sinful/blameworthy is to consider the Islamic acts of worship, charity and Sunnahs of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) as sinful/blameworthy. If one consider these innovated practices reprehensible/sinful due to his ignorance and lack of knowledge, without understanding what the implications of his belief are then one is heretic. If one fully understands the implications of his belief and deems the entire praiseworthy innovation as blameworthy/sinful. Including name and the components which make praiseworthy innovation as whole, such as acts of worship, charity and Sunnahs of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) then the person is guilty of disbelief, which invalidates belief in Islam.

      Q16: Salafism judges on label and based on the contents of practice. Both the name and components of practice have to be explicitly stated for it to be permissible. Hence if the name of practice is not found in the Quran and Hadith then according to Salafi methodology the practice is [reprehensible] innovation. How do you respond to this line of argument?

      Answer: Technically permissibility is not judged on explicit mention of name and methodology of an innovated practice. Explicit name and methodology of a practice is requested when one has to establish if a practice is Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) or not. Anyone asking for explicit evidence of name as well as methodology of an innovated practice to establish permissibility is foolish and unqualified to issue a judgment on aspects related to Islam. If permissibility is established based on name and the content then note that name of Sahih of Imam Bukhari (rahimullah alayhi ta’ala) has not been mentioned in Quran or in any Hadith and nor there is any explicit named reference for any other Hadith book. Should we prohibit the reading of Ahadith books because these collections are [reprehensible] innovations and warn people against reading these Ahadith books just on the basis that names of these Ahadith collections have not been stated in Ahadith of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam)? [3] The label in Islam is not essential for establishing permissibility but the components which make a practice are essential for permissibility. Moving on, Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) states in Quran regarding the Christian monks that they invented monasticism: “Then We sent following their footsteps Our messengers and followed [them] with Jesus, the son of Mary, and gave him the Gospel. And We placed in the hearts of those who followed him compassion and mercy, and monasticism which they innovated We did not prescribe it for them except [that they did so] seeking the approval of Allah. But they did not observe it with due observance. So We gave the ones who believed among them their reward, but many of them are defiantly disobedient.” [Ref: 57:27] Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) goes on to state, the monks invented it to please Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) but they did not act upon their innovation as they should have. From among those who practiced monasticism and believed in the message of Prophet Isa (alayhis salaam) were rewarded by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). This interpretation is supported by Hadhrat Ibn Abbas (radiallah ta’ala anhu): “(Then We caused Our messengers) one after the other (to follow in their footsteps) to follow Noah and Abraham from their respective offspring; (and We caused Jesus, son of Mary, to follow) these Messengers, (and gave him the Gospel, and placed compassion and mercy) towards each other (in the hearts of those who followed him). (But monasticism they invented) they built monasteries and cloisters to escape the sedition of Paul, the Jew. (We ordained it not for them) We did not enjoin monasticism upon them. (Only seeking Allah's pleasure) they did not invent it except to seek Allah's good pleasure, (and) had We enjoined it upon them (they observed it not with right observance) they would not have given it its right due. (So We give those of them who believe) among the monks (their reward) double for their faith and worship; these are the ones who did not contravene against the religion of Jesus. 24 among these were in the Yemen and when they heard of the Prophet (pbuh) they believed in him and joined his religion, (but many of them) of the monks (are evil-livers) disbelievers, these are the ones who went against the religion of Jesus.” [Ref: Tafsir Ibn Abbas, 57:27] This goes on to establish that the name and the practice of monasticism was innovated by the followers of Prophet Isa (alayhis salaam) but Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) still rewarded those who engaged in monasticism and still believed in teaching of Prophet Isa (alayhis salaam). Here we have approval of a practice which was not taught by Prophet Isa (alayhis salaam) with name or by method and yet those who adhered to it were rewarded. So based on this precedent we can judge that teaching of a practice by name is not fundamental to establish legitimacy. The verse establishes that if a practice (i.e. monasticism) is not taught [by name or methodology] neither prohibited [by name or methodology] and it is invented to please Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and observed correctly the reward will be granted by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala).

      Q17: Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has stated the religion of Islam has been completed: “This day I have perfected for you your religion and completed My favor upon you and have approved for you Islam as religion. But whoever is forced by severe hunger with no inclination to sin - then indeed, Allah is Forgiving and Merciful.” [Ref: 5:3] Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has stated: "Whoever innovates something in this matter (i.e. religion) of ours (i.e. Allah and RasoolAllah) that is not part of it, will have it rejected." [Ref: Muslim, B18, H4266] The religion of Islam has been perfected and this means nothing else is required for guidance other than what is revealed by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has informed that innovation would be rejected. Considering this evidence, how can it be correct to believe that one can introduce a practice into Islam which would be rewarded?

      Answer: Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has stated: “He who introduced some good Sunnah (i.e. practice) in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] Therefore one cannot negate the permissibility of reward worthy innovations into Islam and to negate it is heretical and an innovation. Indeed the religion of Islam has been perfected and completed. One must understand that religion of Islam was perfected and completed with the Hadith which states an individual who introduces into Islam a good Sunnah will earn equal reward to those who follow his innovation. The perfection of Islam is not harmed by introduction of good Sunnahs into Islam and if it was affected in any way then the Messenger of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) would not have stated contrary to it. Innovations are recognized as later additions and it known that they were/are not part fundamental Islam which Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) taught in his life time. It is also understood that these are not compulsory nor Sunnahs of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam).

      Q18: Now question is, why are they said to be part of Islam when it is given that they are not part of [fundamental teaching of] Islam which Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) taught?

      Answer: Answer to this question has got to do with [logical] semantics therefore it is important one understands the forthcoming point properly. In Arabic language if something (i.e. y) attaches to a part then y would be referred as the part with which it is attached. As an example, Arabs say, his head turned grey, and by this the implied meaning is, his hair turned grey. Even Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) used this method. A sign of judgment day is that thigh/leg would speak to a person. Note: the mobile phone is placed in trouser pockets hence it refers to it. Wahhabi sect’s true followers known as ISIS have called their Khariji state as an Islamic state. Question is why have they named it Islamic state? Did Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) label it ISIS in His book? Or did Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) permit the bloodshed, rape, pillage and destruction of lands of Muslims in His book? Or did Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) appoint Abu Bakr Al Baghdadi as Khalifah in His book? So why is it labelled Islamic State of Iraq and Syria? What is Islamic about it? A supporter of these people would argue it is called Islamic because it is based on precepts of Islam. [4] Demonstration of this principle is also obvious in regards to Qadiyanism also known as Ahmadiyyah. Qadiyaniyyah believe in Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (lanatulillah) as Prophet and therefore are out of fold of Islam. Technically Qadiyanism is an independent religion. Yet they are counted amongst the deviants sects of Islam and example of this is at IslamQA Wahhabi website. From these examples we have a principle, y which is connected to or based on z is considered part of z. Using the principle we come to understanding that, innovations are said to be part of Islam because they are based on teaching of Islam and connected to teaching of Islam due to practices which make up an innovation. Hence it is clear that praiseworthy innovations are not part of fundamental Islam which Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) taught but are said to be part of Islam because the foundation of activities is from Islam. Hence these innovated practices do not go against the belief that Islam is perfected and completed.

      Q19: And what need is there for [praiseworthy] innovations when all that we need to enter paradise is what Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) taught?

      Answer: It must be said that the book of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and the Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is enough for guidance and success in this earthly life and in hereafter.

      Q20: So then there is no need for [praiseworthy] innovations, is it?

      Answer: Note, all praiseworthy innovations are composed of Sunnahs of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). Sunnahs of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) are an example of good deed which he has set to follow, and evidence of this is: "Indeed, in the Messenger of Allah, a good example [of deeds] has been set for the one who seeks Allah, and the Last Day, and [for one who] thinks constantly about Allah." [Ref: 33:21] Emulating Sunnahs of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) itself is a good deed and Sunnahs of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) are good deeds with which Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is pleased with. Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has stated that Muslims should do good deeds properly, sincerely and moderately, evidence of it is this: “Narrated Aisha: The Prophet said, "Do good deeds properly, sincerely and moderately, and receive good news, because one's good deeds will not make him enter Paradise." [Ref: Bukhari, B76, H474] Also in another Hadith he instructed to do good deeds within ones capacity because Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) rewards without tiring, and following Hadith is evidence: “Do [good] deeds within your capacity because Allah never gets tired of giving rewards till you get tired of doing good deeds." [Ref: Bukhari, B21, H251] Sunnahs of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) are part of praiseworthy innovations and his Sunnahs are examples of good deeds, and we are instructed to do good deeds. There is no fundamental need for praiseworthy innovations but these innovations serve an important purpose and that is of accumulating good deeds.

      Q21: Is there a Shar’ri obligation to act on these [praiseworthy] innovations?

      Answer: There is absolutely no Shar’ri obligation upon any Muslim to take part in praiseworthy innovations. These praiseworthy innovations are optional practices if practiced then praiseworthy innovations bring reward if avoided bring no blame.

      Q22: So when there is no need for praiseworthy innovations, nor there is any Shar’ri obligation to act on them, and we can go to paradise without engaging in these [praiseworthy] innovations then why should we create them and why would Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) create room for[praiseworthy] innovations?

      Answer: I will begin by answering your last question first. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and his beloved Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) were aware that no religion remains pure and eventually the teachings of Prophets are distorted as time progresses. As such principles were introduced into Islam and part of these principles is principle of good innovation in Islam being rewarded, and bad innovations being sinful. Based on which his followers can take part in reward worthy practices that emerge after him and discard the sinful innovations. Coming to your first question, even though Muslims do recognize the concept of introducing praiseworthy innovations into Islam yet we do not introduce praiseworthy innovations into Islam at will. If we acted on the principle as given by Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) then there would have been countless praiseworthy innovations composed of Sunnahs of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). So even we the Muslims recognize the need to holding to Islam which Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) taught in his life time and understand there is no need for praiseworthy innovations. Incase a praiseworthy innovation is introduced we judge based on the principle which Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) taught and as a matter of principle we do not reject praiseworthy innovations because Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has told of reward for engaging in them. In short, we should not introduce praiseworthy innovations and our focus should be the fundamental Islam which Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) taught. If a praiseworthy innovations is introduced then as Muslims we should not oppose it because as told by Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam), it is reward worthy.

      Q23: Coming to those [praiseworthy] innovations which have been passed on by our ancestors such as celebrating the birthday of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). Why is so much emphasis put on these [praiseworthy] innovations?

      Answer: The Khawarij oppose the Muslims because they deem the praiseworthy innovations to be reprehensible innovations and tell Muslims that if they engage in the praiseworthy innovations they will burn in hell. Yet Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has told of equal reward for the one who introduces and those who follow his footsteps. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) states: “You are the best nation produced [as an example] for mankind. You enjoin what is right and forbid what is wrong and believe in Allah.” [Ref: 3:110] One can forbid wrong in three ways, use physical force, speak out against it, or declare it in heart to be wrong. Note, the Khawarij prohibit praiseworthy innovations and declare them as sinful and this is wrong because they oppose what Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) taught.[5] We are obliged by the verse of Quran to forbid the Khawarij from declaring something good to be sinful. So we the Muslims speak out against the heretical methodology of Khawarij and their heretical understandings. Sign of best nation from mankind is that they enjoin what is good and we also partake in the right/good innovations because taking part in such innovations also a form of opposition to the Khawarij.

      Q24: How can the dispute about [praiseworthy] innovations be resolved in your understanding?

      Answer: Idealistic absolute reconciliation is not possible between the Muslims and Khawarij due to fundamental differences in methodology. If Khawarij accept that the words of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) have jawami al kalim (i.e. short phrase bearing widest meanings) nature and if their understanding of Ahadith on subject of innovation is corrected then the dispute with Khawarij can be resolved in favor of Muslims.

      Q25: You don’t believe the definitions of innovation have something to do with the differences?

      Answer: The Muslims divide innovation into two major categories: praiseworthy and blameworthy. Praiseworthy is which is based on teaching of Quran and Sunnah, and blameworthy is which contradicts the teaching of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and RasoolAllah (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). Muslim scholars also purposed the definition of innovation which now is bench mark of Khawarij. In this methodology of innovation anything which is not supported from teaching of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) with explicit or implied evidence was an innovation. Note in their terminology when a practice is declared as an innovation, it means reprehensible innovation, and praiseworthy innovations were declared as Sunnahs in this methodology.[6] The Khawarij removed condition of implicit evidence (i.e. Ijthadi evidence) and made explicit evidence as the criteria for judging permissibility especially against Muslims. Therefore with minor adjustments this definition can be reconciled with Islamic methodology but in Khariji belief system there is no room for introducing good Sunnah into Islam hence the definition will not be altered to conform to definition of early Islamic scholarship. The difference in definitions of innovations by itself is really significant. The understanding of Ahadith relating to subject of innovation is cause of these definitions and depending on how Ahadith are understood the definition and principles surrounding are derived. So for correct definition the proper understanding of Ahadith relating to subject of innovation is fundamental requirement.

      Wama alayna ilal balaghul mubeen.
      Muhammed Ali Razavi

      Footnotes:

      - [1] “Jabir b. Abdullah said: When Allah's Messenger (may peace he upon him) delivered the sermon, his eyes became red, his voice rose, and his anger increased so that he was like one giving a warning against the enemy and saying: "The enemy has made a morning attack on you and in the evening too." He would also say: "The Last Hour and I have been sent like these two." And he would join his forefinger and middle finger; and would further say: "The best of the speech is embodied in the Book of Allah, and the best of the guidance is the guidance given by Muhammad. And the most evil affairs are their innovations; and every innovation is misguidance." He would further say: I am more dear to a Muslim even than his self; and he who left behind property that is for his family; and he who dies under debt or leaves children (in helplessness), the responsibility (of paying his debt and bringing up his children) lies on me." [Ref: Muslim, B4, H1885]

      - [2] "And whoever introduces an ضَلاَلَةٍ بِدْعَةَ (i.e. reprehensible innovation) with which Allah is not pleased nor His Messenger then he shall receive sins similar to whoever acts upon it without that diminishing anything from the sins of the people.” [Ref: Tirmadhi, B29, H2677]

      - [3] Please note, permissibility is stated to be only established if name and content both are stated if one of the two is missing then according to Salafi methodology the innovated practice is [reprehensible] innovation.

      - [4] Note, these people have nothing do with religion of Islam. Wahhabi’s are all upon the methodology of Khawarij and about Khawarij Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) said they are people of Kufr.

      - [5] “That is because they opposed Allah and His Messenger. And whoever opposes Allah - then indeed, Allah is severe in penalty.” [Ref: 59:4] “Do they not know that whoever opposes Allah and His Messenger - that for him is the fire of Hell, wherein he will abide eternally? That is the great disgrace.” [Ref: 9:63]

      - [6] Not Sunnah in meaning of Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) but Sunnah in meaning of good reward worthy Sunnah: “He who introduced some good Sunnah (i.e. practice) in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466]
    • By MuhammedAli
      Introduction:

      Recently during discussions with a Salafi about the nature of innovations in Islam. The Salafi ‘student of knowledge’ presented me translation of Ibn Uthaymeen’s small pamphlet size MSWord format copy of a Arabic work. He requested me to read and think about the contents and note the strenth of Ibn Uthaymeen’s reasoning against the legitimacy of praiseworthy innovations. He was convinced, once his this booklet was understood by me, it would be impossible for me to hold to the position of Ahle Sunnat Wal Jammat. Instead it will force me to back-track into Salafism. In this word format he highlighted a certain [portion which will be quoted below] and requested that special attention needs to be paid to it. After reading the entire treaty and much mulling over its line of reasoning and understanding the in-between the line material it was decided best response would be in a written format. Below is the written response which al hamdu lillah demolished the castle of Wahhabiyyah.

      1.0 - Salih Al Uthaymeen’s Position In His Own Words:

      “That the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) did not leave anything which the people are in need of in their worship, their dealings with one another and their livelihood without having explained it is proven to you by His speech, the Exalted: “This day have I perfected for you your religion and have completed My favour upon you and have chosen for you Islaam as a religion.” When this matter has been explained [that Islam is perfected/completed then] - O muslim - know that every one who innovates something in the religion of Allah  (azza wa jal) even if it is with a good intention, then his innovation, along with it being misguidance, will be considered a defamation of the religion of Allah (azza wa jal) and will be considered a denial and rejection of Allah (azza wa jal) the Exalted in His speech: “This day have I perfected for you your religion …”  Since this innovator who innovated a matter into the religion of Allah  (azza wa jal) which is not from the religion of Allah  (azza wa jal) is saying silently that the religion has not been completed because this matter which was left out, and which he innovated, can be used to draw closer to Allah  (azza wa jal).” [Ref: Innovations In The Light Of Perfection Of Shari’ah, by Muhammad bin Salih Al Uthaymeen]

      1.1 - Salih Al Uthaymeen’s Position In My Own Words:

      Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is the source of perfection/completion which is beyond improvement. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) perfected/completed the religion of Islam and any additions or alterations to perfection/compeletion of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) cannot be praiseworthy. This is the reason Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi wa’sallam) told any/every innovation made part of Islam [after completion/perfection of Islam] is misguidance which takes to hellfire. Hence, there can be no and there is no, valid basis for praiseworthy innovations in Islam. By introducing ‘praiseworthy’ innovations into Islam one is negating the completion/perfection of Islam and improving upon what Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and his Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) left us with and is implying that Islam was not perfected/completed.[1]

      2.1 - Islam Is The Perfection/Completion Of Islams:

      Religion of Prophet Musa (alayhis salam) and his followers, Prophet Isa (alayhis salam) and his followers was Islam: “And Moses said: ‘O my people! If you have believed in Allah, then put your trust in Him if you are Muslims.’” [Ref: 10:84] “And when I Allah inspired the disciples [of Jesus] to believe in Me and My Messenger, they said: ‘We believe. And bear witness that we are Muslims.” [Ref: 5:111] It is recorded in the Hadith that Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) stated that the religion of all Prophets was Islam: "I am most akin to Jesus Christ among the whole of mankind, and all the Prophets are of different mothers but belong to one religion and no Prophet was raised between me and Jesus." [Ref: Muslim, B30, H5835] Their versions of Islam were suitable for their immediate evoriments but the Islam given to our Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) is a continuation of previous versions of Islam and perfection/completion of all those religions of Islam and is a universal message. Hence to argue on basis; our Islam is perfection/compeletion of previous versions of Islams therefore one cannot introduce praiseworthy innovations into our Islam, is utterly useless reasoning, because perfection/compeletion of older versions does not rule out praiseworthy innovations via Ijtihad.

      2.2 - Islam Is Perfection/Compeletion In Itself:

      Improvements are made by Prophets/Messengers and there is no Prophet/Messenger with revelation after Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam): “Muhammad is not the father of [any] one of your men, but [he is] the Messenger of Allah and last of the prophets. And ever is Allah, of all things, Knowing.” [Ref: 33:40] Hence the version of Islam given to our Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is perfect/complete and beyond any need of improvements - Islam is perfection/compeletion in itself but this does not mean praiseworthy innovations cannot be made part of Islam via Ijtihad.

      2.3 - Allowing Innovated Practices Is Part Of Perfection/Compeletion Of Islam:

      Part of compeletion/perfection of Islam that it incorporates teachings which enable the Muslims to incorporate new practices into Islam via Ijtihad. Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is reported to have said in numerous Ahadith: “He who introduced some good Sunnah in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] As long as the newly introduced Sunnahs/Biddahs agree with fundamental principles of Islamic worship, charity, enjoining good, prohibiting wrong and we do not invent a new act of worship but we assemble the Sunnah of Prophet (sallallalu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) under various names, we inroduce good Sunnah. For which there will be reward one who invents it and those who adhere to it and those who call to it: “He who called (people) to righteousness/guidance, there would be reward (assured) for him like the rewards of those who adhered to it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6470]

      2.4 – Perserving The Compeletion/Perfection Of Islam:

      Shara’i evidence firmly established new praiseworthy Biddah/Sunnah can be introduced into Islam and it would be permissible to act on them and acting on these praiseworthy Sunnahs/Biddahs will earn reward from Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Islam was perfected/completed but in this perfected/completed Islam room was created for incorporation of praiseworthy Sunnahs/Biddahs. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has stated: “We have, without doubt, sent down the Reminder (i.e. the Quran); and We will assuredly guard it (i.e. from corruption).” [Ref: 15:9] Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has promised to protect the completion/perfection of Islam from corruption and if introducing praiseworthy innovations into Islam was corruption of Islam then Allah’s Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) would not have created the room for them. Therefore the perfection/completion of Islam will not be effect by newly introduced praiseworthy Sunnahs/Biddahs into religion of Islam.

      3.1 - Distorting The Perfection/Compeletion Of Islam:

      As Muslims we cannot nor we can believe that a Prophet can come after our Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and abrogate or subsitute or add or ommit or alter any thing that has been taught by Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). We must adhere to the Islam taught by Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) without engaging in mentioned to maintain perfection/compeletion of Islam. If one engages in abrogation of matters in Ayaat/Ahadith without valid proof, or alters a method taught in Quran/Hadith, or subsitutes a action/belief by another not established with Quranic/Hadith evidence, or adds to a ritual practice or Quranic text which was not part of it, then such person engages in mutilation of Islam. He/She defaces the perfection of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and his beloved Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and it is akin to indirectly claiming God-hood or Prophet-hood.[2] As Muslims we have ensured the teaching of Islam are protected from corruption and we have not made anything part of Islam which defaced Islam.

      3.2 - Those Who Defaced Their Versions Of Islam:

      The Yahood/Nasara defaced the Islams given to them by their respective Prophets and took their innovative religions as the Islams of Prophets Musa/Isa (alayhis salam). In short they alterted the Islams and made them into monsteracities which they are recognized by at present. The message and teaching of Quran are still preserved and easily accessible. There has been no alteration, addition, ommition and abrogation of Quranic message of Islam in the Ummah of RasoolAllah (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) like it happened to the religions of previous Prophets. Therefore the completion, the perfection of Islam is preserved and nothing of Islam has been defaced, or removed, or omitted, or abrogated, or altered.

      3.3 – True Act Of Defacing Of Islam:

      True defamation of Islam would be, if one engages in altering the order of actions performed in prayers. One starts his prayers with prostration and ends it with standing or recites Surah Fatihah in prostration three times and recites twenty hail Mary’s (i.e. Ave Maria). Another example would be to believe that some parts of Quran have been omitted/deleted by Muslims. Or to add another verse to the end of Surah Fatiha, such as; lana tulillahi alal kazibeen, and believe it is part of Quran. Or altering the confession of Tawheedi creed to; there is no god except three in the One god and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah. These are examples of improvements/innovations which in reality deface Islam not praiseworthy innovations. A praiseworthy innovation introduced into Islam via Ijtihad and which was not and is not believed to be Sunnah of Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and it accords with teaching of Islam, does not effect the compeletion/perfection of Islam, rather it compliments it.

      4.1 – Innovated Sunnah In Line With Perfection/Completion Of Islam:

      During the Khilafat of Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radiallah ta’ala anhu) Musailamah claimed Prophet-hood. Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radiallah ta’ala anhu) sent armies to eliminate this Dajjal. At the end of wars some seventy Hufadh had fallen in the way of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Hadhrat Umar (radiallah ta’ala anhu) realized if the Hufadh continue to receive matyrdom at this rate sooner or later Quran will be lost, so he visited Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radiallah ta’ala anhu). He said to Hadhrat Abu Bakr (subhanahu wa ta’ala): "Casualties were heavy among the Qurra' of the! Qur'an (i.e. those who knew the Qur'an by heart) on the day of the Battle of Yalmama, and I am afraid that more heavy casualties may take place among the Qurra' on other battlefields, whereby a large part of the Qur'an may be lost. Therefore I suggest, you (Abu Bakr) order that the Qur'an be collected." At this point one can say, Hadhrat Abu Bakr (subhanahu wa ta’ala) was opinion that collection of Quran as a single book format is a innovation which will deface the perfection/completion of Islam, so he said: "How can you do something which Allah's Apostle did not do?" Hadhrat Umar (subhanahu wa ta’ala) trys to convince him that it is a good Sunnah which does not effect the perfection/completion of Islam by saying: "By Allah, that is a good project.” Hadhrat Abu Bakr (subhanahu wa ta’ala) continues saying: "Umar kept on urging me to accept his proposal till Allah opened my chest for it and I began to realize the good in the idea which `Umar had realized." [Ref: Bukhari, B61, H509] Hadhrat Abu Bakr (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is now convinced that compiling Quran in a book is a praiseworthy innovation which even Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) did not engage in nor instructed. He also understood that religion of Islam was complete and all that was part of fundamental teaching Islam has been made part of Islam by Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). He also realized that the perfection/completion of Islam is not effected by a innovative praiseworthy Sunnah and nor do the praiseworthy innovations deface the perfection/completion of Islam. He also understood, by compiling Quran in a single book it does not amount to him ordering completion/perfection of Islam after Islam was perfected/completed.[3]

      4.2 – Khalifah Gives Instructions To Engage In Praiseworthy Innovation:

      Hadhrat Abu Bakr (subhanahu wa ta’ala) says to a Sahabi: “You are a wise young man and we do not have any suspicion about you, and you used to write the Divine Inspiration for Allah's Messenger. So you should search for (the fragmentary scripts of) the Qur'an and collect it in one book)." The Sahabi narrator added: “By Allah If they had ordered me to shift one of the mountains, it would not have been heavier for me than this ordering me to collect the Qur'an.” Then he said to Hadhrat Abu Bakr (subhanahu wa ta’ala) what Hadhrat Abu Bakr (subhanahu wa ta’ala) said to Hadhrat Umar (subhanahu wa ta’ala) when he had suggested compiling Quran in single book format: "How will you do something which Allah's Messenger did not do?" The Hadith continues: "By Allah, it is a good project." Abu Bakr kept on urging me to accept his idea until Allah opened my chest for what He had opened the chests of Abu Bakr and `Umar.” [Ref: Bukhari, B61, H509] Once the companion realized the goodness in this praiseworthy Biddah/Sunnah and just like Hadhrat Abu Bakr realized it does not amount to blameworthy innovation [which disfigures the perfection/completion of Islam] he began gathering and compiling Quran into single book format and the result was Quran in our possesion today.

      5.1 - The Destroyer of Perfection/Completion Of Islam:

      The Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) explained all essentials of religion of Islam. He explained the concept of worship, types of worship, the method of worship and when to worship. He explained Zakat, Sadqa, Khayrat, and all issues connected with charity. He taught how to perform Ghusul and when to perform Ghusul. He taught the method of Wudhu and when to perform Wudhu. In short he taught all aspects of daily life and this is completion/perfection of Quran and Islam, stated: “This day have I perfected for you your religion and have completed My favour upon you and have chosen for you Islaam as a religion.” [Ref: 5:3] Islam is religion of micro-guidance, it aims to guides/manage all affairs. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) made Islam for mankind and for those who will come till the judgment day. Our Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) explained the affairs which were happening in his time but left principles via aid of which we will be able to judge matters to arise after, and part of these principles the teaching is: “He who introduced some good Sunnah in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.” [Ref: Muslim, B34, H6466] Therefore Muslims know that praiseworthy Sunnahs/Biddahs are part of perfection/compeletion of Islam. One who argues against and believes; praiseworthy Sunnahs/Biddahs are against the teaching of Islam is guilty of innovation. He refutes/rejects a teaching of Islam, which daringly can be said to be established by Tawatir. Even though one has good intentions his innovation is misguidance and is a distortion of perfection/completion of Islam – the religion approved by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). The  innovator of reprehensible innovation is indirectly claiming the right of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) for himself – claims to have the right to legislate religion. Or he is claiming to be spokes person of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) after it has been clearly stated there is no Nabi/Messenger with Shari’a after our beloved Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). Allah’s Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) has reported to have said: “Aishah reported the Messenger of Allah as saying: if any one introduces into this affair of ours anything which does not belong to it, it is rejected. Ibn Isa said: the prophet said: if anyone practices any action in away other than our practice, it is rejected.” [Ref: Dawood,  B41, H4589] O Muslims, therefore believe in Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) as your God and believe in His beloved Messenger Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) as the last/final Prophet. O Muslims, reject those who exercise the right of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and exercise the right of a Prophet to disfigure the perfection/completion of Islam and reject their reprehensible innovations. They oppose Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and His beloved Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). O Muslims, you oppose such a individual and his party and believe what is taught by Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). If you do not then know in sight of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) the only acceptable religion is of Islam and you will be amongst the loosers in day of judgment: “And whoever seeks a religion other than Islam, it will never be accepted of him, and in the Hereafter he will be one of the losers.” [Ref: 3:85] This is Islam is composed of teaching of Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and if you leave him and obey the rival and enemy of Allah’s Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi wa’sallam) then you have preffered for your self religion other then perfected/compeleted religion of Islam. You have chosen for your self; the religion of Shaytan, the religion of Ibn Uthaymeen but not the religion of Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). O heretics, you be to your religion and know that we believed in Islam and we believed in our Nabi Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) when he said: “Whoever introduces a good practice that is followed, he will receive its reward and a reward equivalent to that of those who follow it, without that detracting from their reward in their slightest. And whoever introduces a bad practice that is followed, he will receive its sin and a burden of sin equivalent to that of those who follow it, without that detracting from their burden in the slightest." [Ref: Ibn Majah, B1, H203] This the best of guidance of Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) and what opposes his teaching is innovation and every teaching which opposes and disfigures the perfection/completion of Islam takes to hellfire.

      5.2– Blameworthy Innovations Harm Perfection/Completion Of Islam:

      Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is reported to have said: “The best of the speech is embodied in the Book of Allah, and the best of the guidance is the guidance given by Muhammad. And the most evil affairs are their innovations; and every innovation is error." [Ref: Bukhari, B4, H1885] and in another Hadith Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) is reported to have said: “The worst of things are those that are newly invented; every newly-invented thing is an innovation and every innovation is going astray, and every going astray is in the Fire.” [Ref: Sunan Nisa’I, B19, H1579] It is established Ibn Uthaymeen the chief of group of Satan, the leader of the Khawarij, opposed Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) in regards to introducing praiseworthy Sunnahs/Biddahs into Islam, hence he introduced a blameworthy innovation into Islam. Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) stated: “He who enacted any act for which there is no sanction from our behalf, that is to be rejected.” [Ref: Muslim, B18, H4267] "If somebody innovates something which is not in harmony with the principles of our  affair religion, that thing is rejected." [Ref: Bukhari, B49, H861] In obedience to Allah’s Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) we reject Ibn Uthaymeen’s innovation which defaced the perfected/completed Islam.

      Conclusion:

      Religion of Islam is has been completed and perfected by Allah’s (subhanahu wa ta’ala) last and finale Prophet – Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam). The beloved Prophet and the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alayhi wa aalihi was’sallam) informed one who introduces praiseworthy Biddah/Sunnah into Islam which is followed after him it will be rewarded by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and those who call toward such praisworthy Sunnahs/Biddahs they will also be rewarded like the ones who act upon it. The teaching which permit introduction of praiseworthy Sunnahs/Biddahs into Islam is part of perfection/compeletion of Islam and as  long as the innovated practice is in accordance with the teaching of Islam and does not contradict the teaching of worship, charity, encouraging good, forbidding evil, and it aids Islam, then it is a good Sunnah/Biddah. The real true enemy of Islam, the destroyer and negater of perfection/completion of Islam is Ibn Uthaymeen the enemy of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). He has censored praiseworthy Biddah/Sunnah which Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) permitted and about which Prophet (sallallahu alayhi was’sallam) told of reward – for one who innovates and one who practices it. Ibn Uthaymeen and the Khariji minions of Iblees from Najd have found fault in the perfection/completion of Islam. Hence they have rejected the conceptual validity of introducing praiseworthy Sunnahs/Biddahs into Islam. The Khariji’s reject this teaching of Islam and the fruits of this teaching. Therefore the innovation and the distortion of perfection/completion of Islam is from Khawarij and their scholars, and in this context Ibn Uthaymeen the cursed.

      Wama alayna ilal balaghul mubeen.
      Muhammed Ali Razavi

      Footnotes:

      - [1] If anyone is unhappy about my presentation of Ibn Uthaymeen’s reasoning then please be my guest and present his position from his own work better then my representation. Rest assured I have greatly improved the strenth of his reasoning. In other words his reasoning is presented more precisely, more elequently, more forcefully then Mr Ibn Uthaymeen did.

      - [2] If he affirms Prophet-hood or God-hood with his tongue and it is not impliedfrom his actions then such a person is Kafir, otherwise such a person is heretic of worst kind.

      - [3] Ibn Uthaymeen wrote:” Since this innovator who innovated a matter into the religion of Allah  (azza wa jal) which is not from the religion of Allah  (azza wa jal) is saying silently that the religion has not been completed because this matter which was left out, and which he innovated, can be used to draw closer to Allah  (azza wa jal).” Based on this statement of Ibn Uthaymeen, one is forced to conclude that Mr Ibn Uthaymeen’s regarding Hadhrat Umar and Hadhrat Abu Bakr position would be they were completing/perfecting Quran which was left uncomplete/imperfect by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and by His Messenger Muhammad (sallallahu alayh wa aalihi was’sallam).